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A description and explanation of the transformation of English into the author's binary code and its use to create rectangles of colored squares as art representing English words or texts.

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copyright 2009 James R. Batek Lesson One English transformation art is the application, to a work of art, of a binary signal code for numbers which the writer invented and to which he has given the name Batek Binary. This lesson, lesson one, explains basically what Batek Binary is in general. Lesson two explains how Batek Binary can encode English. Lesson three explains how English transformation art is constructed out of the code. Batek Binary is a signal system for numbers. How it encodes letters will become apparent later. The code uses a binary, or base two, sequence of zeros and ones to represent numbers in any number base, although the code itself is not a number base. A number base is the way a set of numerals can represent a number by place values for each place in a series of places, each place occupied by a numeral and adding to the total value of the number the result of multiplying the numeral times its place value. The place values are all powers of the size of the set of numerals which can occupy places, and this size is called the base of the system. A power and a base go together to get another number. That number is, for positive integer powers, the base multiplied by itself the power number of times. This is written, for example, 23. 2 is the base and 3 is the power, also called the exponent. This expression is evaluated as two multiplied by itself three times, or, 2x2x2 = 8 A number expressed in a number base system is evaluated as the sum of all the values gotten from multiplying place holding numerals by their respective place values. For whole numbers, these place values all have the same base--the base of the number system being used, which is the same as the number of numerals which can be used in the places--and have exponents which start at zero and increase by one every place beyond that. By convention the starting place is always at the right and the increasing place values are placed to its left. The exponents start at zero and are incremented by one each place to the left and decremented by one to the right. This gives negative exponents to the right of the zero exponent and these are evaluated as fractions. Batek Binary does not represent fractions, only whole numbers, so these places will be ignored here. The starting place, whose exponent is zero, is set off by a point to its right and at the 1

bottom of the spaces to anchor all the place values. If a place is not needed to contribute to the number it is filled by a zero. Zeros left of the greatest place that does contribute are not necessary but can be given if the situation gains clarity from it. Any non-zero number to the zero power is defined as one, so every number starts its place values with the place value of one just to the left of the point. This writer sometimes uses a convention to give the base of a number. 1111[100] represents a number in base four. The bracketed right subscript gives the base and is always in base two. The value of the number, in this example, is found by multiplying 1 by each of four different, ascending place values and adding. The values of the exponents are zero, one, two and three, right to left. This is evaluated as ( 1 x 43 ) + ( 1 x 42 ) + ( 1 x 41 ) + ( 1 x 40 ) = 64[1010] + 16[1010] + 4[1010] + 1[1010] = 85[1010]. A number which is a single digit does not need its base specified. Here is an example in base ten: 9246[1010] = ( 9 x 10[1010]

3

) + ( 2 x 10[1010]

2

) + ( 4 x 10[1010]

1

) + ( 6 x 10[1010]

0

)=

( 9 x 1000[1010] ) + ( 2 x 100[1010] ) + ( 4 x 10[1010] ) + ( 6 x 1[1010] ) = 9000[1010] + 200[1010] + 40[1010] + 6[1010] = 9246[1010], which is somewhat trivial as base ten is the customary final form for all results. Now comes Batek Binary. Given any number base, having the base of n, Batek Binary associates with any numeral in its set of numerals an uninterrupted sequence of ones the quantity of which is the value of the numeral, all except the zero, which is associated with a sequence of ones the quantity of which is the value of the base of the number 2

system, or n. By separating these sequences, or strings, with a single zero, a number made up of any number of places can be formed. The longer a sample is the more statistically probable it becomes that there is a largest string size, and that is what an intelligent receiver will take to be representative of the zero. Thus, in base four, the number 320[100] can be represented as 11101101111 in Batek Binary. Basically, that is the guts of the Batek Binary system. Lesson Two This lesson, lesson two, explains how Batek Binary can encode English. Knowing that any number base can be represented in a transmissible way, let's do it for base three. The three numerals of base three are: 0, 1, 2. Translated into Batek Binary, these numerals are 11101011. Returning to the number base system of representing numbers in base three, the starting place of place values in base three has the exponent zero and the base of three, or 30. The value of this place is one. The amount added to the number for this place is equal to the numeral in it times one, or just the same as the numeral. In base three this place can be held by zero, one, or two with the contribution to the number being also zero, one, or two. The next place, to the left of the starting place, has the exponent of one and the base of three, or 31. The value of this number is three. The numerals which can occupy this place, again, are zero, one or two. Thus the contribution of this place to the value of the 3

number can be 0 x 3 = 0, or 1 x 3 = 3, or 2 x 3 = 6. The next place has the exponent two and the base three, or 32. The value of this number is 9. The numerals which can occupy this place are again zero, one, or two. The contribution of this place to the value of the number can be 0 x 9 = 0, or 1 x 9 = 9, or 2 x 9 = 18[1010]. If we have a three digit number in base three, it can have any value from 000[11] = 0 to 222[11] = (2x9)+(2x3)+(2x1)= 18[1010] + 6 + 2 = 26[1010]. Thus these three places in base three are equivalent to a set of values from zero to twenty-six. These are equivalent to the numerals of base twenty-seven. Now consider written English. A large portion of all English consists of strings of letters plus a blank space which appears between words. If we think of the space as a numeral, the numeral zero that is, and the 26 letters as numerals, then we can think of most of written English as sequences of numerals in base 27. Every such numeral can therefore be written as three numerals of base three, and any series of letters and spaces can be written as a concatenation of such triple digits. Here are the base three equivalents of the space plus the 26 letters of English: space000[11] A 001[11] B 002 C 010 D 011 I J 102 110 111 100 101 T U V 4 R S 202 210 211 200 201

K L M

E F G H

012 020 021 022

N O P Q

112 120 121 122

W X Y Z

212 220 221 222

Now we transform these base three values into Batek Binary of base three: space11101110111 A 111011101 B 1110111011 C 111010111 D 1110101 E 11101011 F 1110110111 G 11101101 H 111011011 J L M N P Q I 101110111 1011101 S K 10111011 1010111 U 10101 101011 W O 10110111 101101 Y 1011011 Z R 1101110111 11011101 T 110111011 11010111 V 110101 1101011 X 110110111 1101101 11011011

This concludes lesson two. Lesson Three This lesson, lesson three, explains how English transformation art is constructed out of the Batek Binary code. The final step in creating English transformation art is to find a text both desirable for its own sake and which fits as code into a pleasing rectangle made up of colored squares, one color representing a zero and another representing a one. The larger the body of bits in the desired code the smaller each bit will be in the final work, for a given size of work. Not all texts will make a nice rectangle, so before making the colored squares any prospective text must be tested first, by calculation. Let us choose the text "goodness" as an example. Its Batek Binary code is: GOODNESS = 11101101010110111010110111011101010101011011101011011011101011011 101 The total number of bits in the message is 68. The prime factors of 68 are 2, 2, and 17. These factors allow us two shapes of rectangle to fit the code into: 4 x 17, and 2 x 34. These are both quite oblong and so most folks would find such a work very unaesthetic. We don't want to leave some locations in the rectangular grid unused because that too is quite unappealing. 5

Now let's try a different text. Let us try "yoga". Its Batek Binary code is: YOGA = 11011010101101110111011010111011101 This message has 35 bits. The prime factors of 35 are 5 and 7. A rectangle 5 bits by 7 bits will contain this message perfectly and placed as a portrait view it will make a nice piece of art. Note that at both ends of the string of zeros and ones for yoga the end bit is a one. Although this is the most basic end condition, it is acceptable as art to put another zero on each end, increasing the size of the code in bits by two. This does not change the message encoded and it gives one additional bit count that could possibly make a nice rectangle. This tactic should be done on both ends of the whole string, not just one, for art's sake. With either way of terminating ends accepted, it is generally one text out of every two that will make a nice rectangle. The artist and inventor of the code uses an aspect ratio (the ratio of height to width in the rectangle of bits) of 1.6 as a somewhat arbitrary rule for accepting a text as art. All that remains is to select one color for the ones and another color for the zeros, make them a nice combination, pick a color for the border between squares (since when the string of ones in one part of the message numbers two or three it is desirable to show the string as composed of squares rather than a continuous bar, it is desirable for all the squares to be set off by a border of a third color contrasting with the colors of both zeros and ones), and basically that is how to compose English transformation art. This concludes the third and final lesson in Batek Binary and English transformation art. Any questions or comments may be addressed to James Batek at batekstart@yahoo.com.

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