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Henry Clay THE



New York & London




AND MRS. . KNOX x:L4 . AND MRS. 9 I 41 At the age of thirty . . .Illuftrations HENRY CLAY FRICK Wood engraving by Timothy Cole Frontispiece PACING PAGE DANIEL miCK Grandfather 4 6 8 .6 A LETTER OF CONDOLENCE byMr. FRICK On a holiday in Venice MR. PRICK MRS. . A PRICK DOLLAR BILL MRS. OVERHOLT: Father Brother-in-law 30 3 JOHN W. THE OVERHOLT RESIDENCE ABRAHAM OVERHOLT BIRTHPLACE Grandfather THE LITTLE SPRING HOUSE Uncle IO 12 - CHRISTIAN OVERHOLT ACCOUNT RENDERED Written and initialed hy Mr. . R.Frick Written and initialed z8 JOHN S. X JOHN W. - 5 8 ABRAHAM TINSTMAN Cousin HENRY CLAY FRICK At the age of fourteen At the age of sixteen fe 4 o 00 At the age of nineteen At the age of twenty-one At the age of twenty-five . Frick . 2. ABRAHAM OVERHOLT O. PRICK Mother 4" 5^ Grandmother . - l6 I PICTURE GALLERY 91 MR.

" " Frick at Eagle Rock Pridi s Crossing. NEW YORK .72.316 .FACING PAGE HENRY CLAY ^IC& "CLAYTON" "DRIVING OFF" At the age offorty-five . .o 2. Mr. . "AT THE l6TH HOLE" IN LATER YEARS country flace at MYOPIA HUNT CLUB Ms . Massachusetts . NUMBER ONE EAST SEVENTIETH STREET. . 370 . Z<.8 .FRICK WITH HIS SECOND 348 358 GRANDDAUGHTER . . . PRICK WITH HIS ELDEST GRANDDAUGHTER MR.6o PITTSBURGH . MR.



where he found descend- . it sprang into prominence and gave name to a village in the Sisseln-Thal nearly four hundred years before Columbus discovered America and it holds authenticated records of unbroken lineage from 1113 to the present day. THE sailed OVERHOLT who followed William Penn from from Rotterdam and landed in Philadelphia but they were only nominally contemporaneous. the rallying point of colonists from Switzerland and the Palatinate.HENRY CLAY FRICK THE ^fAN Ancestry American progenitors of Henry Clay Frick were JOHANN NICHOLAS FRICK and MARTINthe continent of Europe in search of religious freedom and personal opportunity. The Swiss family Frick. Johann Both came in 1767 Henry Clay was of the fourth gener ation succeeding his two great-great-grandfathers. that is to say. of Celtic-Burgundian is origin. Among the adventurous members of the family 9 who immigrated to America following Conrad who led the van in 1731. who proceeded forth with to Getmantown. Martin arrived about 1731 and died in 1744. till and lived 1786. was JOHANN NICHOLAS. Frick came from Swit zerland and Overholt from the Palatinate on the Rhine. very old.

had pushed on as far as the prolific Susquehanna valley and established a branch of the family in Lancaster. They had been fighting Indians and Virginians all their lives and 'every cabin contained a Bible. One of the first orders issued by the Continental gress Con was addressed to the Scotch and Irish settlers of Western Pennsylvania to prepare immediately to protect the region from attacks anticipated by way of Lake Erie from the British and the Iroquois. was the first organized. the eldest son of Conrad. Others were gazing longingly toward the Alleghenies and avid for information concerning the vast country beyond when the patriots of Philadelphia and all the country round were thrilled by the sound of the big bell proclaiming the Declaration of Independence. The British were chasing General Washington across New and to proceed . and of nine others of the arrived between the years 1732. compris ing seven companies from Old Westmoreland and one from Bedford County. under orders from Headquarters. and was encamped at Kittanning arranging.Frick the Man name who had . and 175 5 The pioneering spirit naturally dominated newcomers from the old world bent upon acquisition of fertile lands in fresh territory and the trend necessarily was to the West. ants of Conrad. with Colonel Aeneas Mackay in command. a rifle and a whiskey jug/' ' The famous Eighth Pennsylvania regiment. The frontiersmen of the Youghiogheny and Monongahela valleys were not only willing but ready. up the Allegheny and build forts at Leboeuf Erie. when a cry for help came from the East. Already John.

the American cause seemed to be doomed and urgent calls for aid were issued to all the colonies. Of the commands summoned the Eighth Pennsylvania was the most distant and con fronted by the greatest obstacles. Leaving their families vir tually unprotected from impending attacks by savages and facing three hundred miles of mountain roads and trails. set forth At the end of nearly two months of toil and sufferings. in the seven years of warfare. Neither officers nor men had tents or uniforms or heavy clothing of any kind. of whom in a fifty died few days. Atnong the first to seek the promising land was JOHANN NICHOLAS FRICK who crossed the mountains with 3 his . of which more than one-third were hidden by deep snows. only to learn that the battles of Trenton and Princeton had been fought and won and that they must hasten forward to join General Wayne's division in New Jersey . But there was no hesitation on the part of the men of Westmoreland and Bedford. except possibly by that of Benedict Arnold through the Maine woods. worn to their very bones. and cooking utensils comprised only pots and pans from farmhouses. Philadelphia was imperilled. footsore and starving.Ancestry Jersey. and it was from strange visitors that the sympathetic colonists Switzerland and the Palatinate heard glowing descrip tions of the fertile Youghiogheny valley. were so ill that they were left behind in from these Philadelphia and Germa&town. the survivors limped into a wretched camp near Philadelphia. One-third of the entire command. they upon a march unequalled in severity. flour alone was available for food.

moving finally in 1849 to Van Buren. in 1818 and. where he died in 1855 and was buried first in Van Buren. FRICK. when he took a boatload of flour and whiskey down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to New Orleans where he died of malarial fever. acquired a fartn appar4 safely be assumed. born in Adams- married ELIZABETH. daughter of Abraham Overholt of West Overton. The exact date of his arrival is not known but it must have occurred soon his majority. where he died in He was succeeded by his son GEORGE who remained on the farm until 1804. Martin. a smart. Ohio. redhaired Irish girl. warfare to forsake their native land in the early part of the 1 8th century. was one of the thousands who were compelled by religious persecutions and the virulence of Franco-German to Wooster. MARTIN OVERHOLT. Westmoreland County. following her death in 1838. each of sented him with nine children. Of the nine children whom he left behind DANIEL was born in 1796. after he attained That he accompanied his fellow refugees to the recognized meeting place at Gcrmantown may he passed on to Bucks County on the Delaware. lived successively on farms near Port Royal. 1786. but presently . burg in i Six.Frick the Man family in a covered wagon as soon as peace was assured by the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown and settled at Port Royal. nearby. Westmoreland county. whom pre JOHN W. born in the Rhenish Palad&afce i& 1709. in 1730. Adams burg and Irwin. then in Wooster. 1880. when he moved vicinity where he died eight years later. He married Catherine Miller. Daniel's eldest son. Matilda J. in resided in that till 1847.

DANIEL FRICK: (Grandfather) .


HENRY. Henry brought to the fine 'Overholt Homestead' as his bride ANNA BEITLER. as also my Sd wife's saddle she is to possess and enjoy. 1760. twelfth and last occupant. was born." in 1765. when Susanna." as her second husband designated her in his will. and both increased so greatly in numbers that only two years later **Augnis. as also cows. bequeathing to her "the stone end of my dwelling house for her to live in. a pioneer. Subsequently Martin's widow was induced to become the third and last wife of William Nash. ' Meanwhile. died in 1744 ^ his thirty-sixth year and was buried in the Mennonite graveyard. in consideration of "357. married in 1736. * i. and a young horse. who made a will on November i8th. 17 shillings and x pense. who the kept the cradle rocking till 1789. religion but patriots like the Quakers.. was able to acquire the entire farm of 175 acres and 4 perches adjoining the graveyard for conveyance to her son. and sufficiency of hay yearly to fodder said sheep. were pacifists by by nature. The Mennonites. with four sheep 2. Immediately upon the outbreak of the Revolution and Henry they organized the Bucks County militia 5 . with a sufficiency of hay yearly to fodder said creatures. born in 1739.e. and were untroubled by conscientious scruples when it became necessary to fight for the freedom which they had crossed the ocean to win. before she died in 1786.AnceStry cntly by lease in Bedminster township." The pioneer died the very next month and the cows gave so much milk and the sheep furnished so much wool. leaving a son.

thirty-three in all. Only one. the oxen slow and the dis6 . 14. sold the famous "homestead" for the handsome sum it Then of "1500. was missing. Christian. aged zi Abraham. in the light of his subsequent adventure. That he was no less keen than Johann Nicholas Frick to seek the wide spaces beyond the mountains upon the cessation of hostilities may well be believed. comprising his wife. of whom six were already mated and four were single. the mountains high and steep. five sons. 1 6 buildings. gold and sons-in-law. silver money" and. along with a great five quantity of goods and chattels. upon a string of covered wagons. . Sarah. listened eagerly to the tales of the gallant soldiers from the West as they paused for rest and refreshment in Bedminster on their way to and from New Jersey. set forth upon his long journey. in lands and in and in sheep and most joyously in sons and daughters. 11. He served through out the war and. the fords deep from swollen streams. six daughters. aged respectively sixty-one and fiftyfive. The roads were uniformly bad. who died in infancy. were rich in spirit and in health. including Henry. loading his en tire family. two daughters-in-law and thirteen grandchildren. but in 1783 his mother was too old and his eight children were too young to justify so hazardous an enterprise. was that Henry Overholt. in cattle . yielding to the in creasing urge of the time and his long repressed inclina tion. like his friends in Germantown. and little Susanna.Frick the Overholt was one of the first to Man join. When the new century dawned Henry Overholt and his good wife Anna.



a rolling country surpassing their . Elizabeth. Stauffer. He then married cating cloth for the clan and grand MARIA. daughter of the Rev. He had learned the weavers' craft in Bedminster and. so sparsely populated that desirable tracts of land could be acquired for small sums. Abraham Stauffer daughter of the Rev. but the days were so sunny and the nights so cool that the hardy party reached its destination. best of all. he worked at the loom fabri until 1809. . both of whom had served in the Revolutionary War as and purchased in brother Christian. was one of the three sons who remained at home. "all safe and sound/' in the Summer of 1800. They found most watered suitably hopeful expectations well wooded and and green pastures apportioned between rich meadows and. The father of the flock bought several hundred acres in East Hunting and built upon a hill in what afterwards don township became the village of West Overton a second "Overholt Homestead/' even larger and more imposing than that which he had 4 ' 'colonized' The married sons and daughters roundaboutly on farms of their own. then in his seventeenth year. John caster militia. ABRAHAM. 7 in the big house until . left. while his brothers were clearing the land. who had married his wife's farm. members of the Lan with his partnership sister When the pioneer Henry Overholt died in 1813 Abra ham came into possession of the entire farm and his mother continued her residence her death in 1835. an interest in the homestead .AnceStry tance quite three hundred miles.

which tune in that section of the country. one hundred and fifty acres included. one three feet and six stories in height.Frick the Man The portion of the farm which Abraham bought from at fifty dollars an Christian. leaving a fortune of half a million dollars. reached two hundred fa bushels and the daily output of flour exceeded fifty barrels. the new proprietor developed a small properties in the region. em He interest in affairs never held public office but he took a deep and rendered signal service in helping to establish a common school system of the best type. liberality. The "Overholt" brand of whiskey became and purity and it is mous for its strength said that for years before he died. order. the daily grain hundred by sixtycapacity of a big new factory. in common then considered a high acre. Originally a strong supporter of Jackson in national . became the basis of the largest for and expanded the business until. fairness. price. in 1859. the chief business pride of its originator. traits in business were absolute in tegrity. lay in the fact that the supply never equalled the demand. of the greatest fortunes of America. He discovered the coal whose subse quent mining and baking by his grandson produced di rectly one. with nearly all similar log distillery. and indirectly through application to steel fabrication His distinguishing many. But Abraham Overholt did not submerge himself in manufacturing. second only to the quality of his product. straightforwardness. Promptly increasing the capacity of the still from three bushels to fifty bushels of grain a day. punctuality and consideration for the welfare of his ployes.

ABRAHAM OVEEHOLT (Grandfather) .


and it recorded that he risked the penalty of excommunica tion by flatly refusing to observe the feet-washing regu is lation of the sect. although he was prevented by diffidence and reticence from performing his allotted task as lay preacher. a helpful neighbor. kindly but firm domestic relations. he attended church regularly on horseback with his devout wife and fre quently permitted divine services to be held in his house. he must have looked a somewhat austere figure. well educated. courtly and benign. and yet his true nature was so well understood that. clad invariably except when at work in broadcloth and a black tie relieved with a glossy wide-brimmed silk by a pearl stud. he balked at Van Buren and acted with the Whigs until the Republican party was organized. All contemporaries agree that MARIA STAOTFBR OVBRHOLT was an admirable rep resentative of the fine womanhood of her time. A staunch Mennonite in religion. he strove incessantly to encourage enlistments and frequently vis ited the soldiers from Westmoreland County in the field. he was addressed by men. Abraham was well mated. Tall. hat on his head and a gold-headed cane in his hand.Ancestry politics. women and children alike as "Grandpap Overholt/' truly an authentic type of the democratic lords to the manner born of his day and generation in the United States. natur in her ally intelligent. greatly to his own satisfaction. His personal appearance was impressive. straight. when he became an ardent supporter of Lincoln. a faithful friend 9 . Although nearly eighty years old during the Civil War.

crates of cheese. solidly built of stone. The bearing respectful of each to the other if and ever a was invariably most disagreement marked the entire no indication of the sixty years of their married life. FRICK. when she accepted a proposal of marriage from JOHN W. 1847. conformed strictly to the fashions ' of the time. and warmed a by huge fire place containing serviceable ovens . and furnished 10 with bright red . It was a common surmise in the community at the time that Elizabeth's parents would have preferred a more sedate and better established suitor than the im petuous. apples and plums. ELIZABETH. and presently the little Spring House at the foot of the lawn. compris ing three snug rooms. protected from gales in Winter by walls eighteen inches thick. caps of exquisite bobbinet lace tied with white linen strings. for temporary occupancy. jars of but ter and preserves. and for church a black debage bonnet and a silk cape trimmed with velvet. red-headed scion of the Celts and Burgundians. was born in 1819 and re mained at home until she was twenty-eight years old. was assigned to the couple It was a unique abode. the fifth child. but as there was no withstanding her calm inflexibility. cooled in Summer by pipes of running water. black or "ashes of the rose' cashmere with white lace at the neck.Frick the Man and "the best housekeeper in the world/' Her costumes befitted her position and. the wedding took place at the homestead on October 9th. denuded of its pans of milk. like her husband's. circumstance reached the attention of any one of their eight children.

THE SPRING HOUSE (Birthplace) .


AnceSiry the floors. a son was born on December ijth. a grandfather's clock. . a small book case for the living room. for the leader of the Whig Party to which all the Pricks and all the Overholt s then adhered. Here. an^ ^ am ^. and other paraphernalia of the period. 1849. from Connecticut. following a girl baby born in the big house and called Maria for her Grandmother Overholt. blue china and steel knives and carpets for forks for the table. with works of wood. HENRY CLAY FRICK.

they realized that his first few years would require most tender care. clearly revealed . From ' the organic ailment. on his first long journey to see his Grandfather Frick in Van Buren. at the age of six. and the neighbors. pelled his mother to cover his stomach with foolscap paper. they felt no real apprehension until his father took him. where he succumbed to the hardships of travel and developed a fever which compelled his retention for more than two months. although occasional manifestations of suffering im~. as he was called by his schoolmate!. was an attractive lad.II Boyhood PRICK. They regarded him as 'delicate" rather than 'sickly* and. and he was seldom out of the sight of his watchful mother or grandmother while toddling back and forth between the tiny Spring House and the mansion tower ing above it across the lawn. Ohio. While during this period there seems to have been no doubt in the minds of his parents and grand parents that he would attain manhood. then ' first and subsequently diagnosed as 'chronic indigestion" or as 'inflammatory rheumatism. CLAY ' 4 ' ." he was never thereafter 12. his physical growth in childhood was slow and intermit tently painful. Slight and frail from his birth.

Boyhood -. During the period of his most strenuous V activities it was not unusual for him. hold life. he began to do chores on his father's farm and ^> CT 7 to attend the Independent School near West Overton dur- ""lng the winter months. upon returning hand home from his office. he awaited impatiently the doorway the arrival of his cousin Isaac Overholt to escort him to school. in ing fast to his toother's hand. No more than ac quaintance with the custom of the time is required to owned by his grandfather visualize accurately the pretty picture. scrubbed and brushed. Clay passed perceptibly from childhood into boyhood at the age of eight when. to seek an education. in a brand of store clothes and brass knobbed shoes. involving deadly ^pressure upon U ceded his fatal a weakened heart. It was a memorable day in the records of the Frick set forth family when the eager-eyed lad . always at 'to be administered promptly.wholly free. following a final pat upon his head. that immediately preillness. It was . could bring relief. from the Bixler and then occupied by his parents. typical of Ameriti pastoral new suit when. And no less clearly can the mind's the fair counte eye dwell with smiling sympathy upon nance of the proud daughter of Abraham Overholt as with hands folded. she watched her man-child march primly forward to take Ms place in the busy worfd Scfaooiffiastcr Voight greeted the little chap with a 13 .such an attack of exceptional virulence. having regained his normal strength. to drop upon a sofa and suffer grievuntil the prescribed restoratives. when only he could be spared.

led him upon the to the boys and girls stage and announced impressively 1 present to you Mr. that he could account for his own unpremeditated and intuitive recognition unprecedented act only as purely of one who was to become his most illustrious pupil. Mitchell's geog raphy and Ray's arithmetic. manfully overcoming an inclination to burst into his quick tears finally con . Mr Voight . The school room was from a woodburning typical of the period. the 4 * Western Pennsylvania Classical and Scientific Institute/' West moreland College for short. The curriculum comprised the three R's. Clay attended the Independent School two terms. surmounted in the rear by a blackboard whose glossy surface was relieved by an ominous orna ment in the shape of a hickory stick showing signs of familiar frequent usage. the West Overton School "on the hill" two terms in 1860 and 1861. Henry Clay Frick/ 4 The abashed recipient of this unusual honor. the books allotted being McGuffey's reader. said Recalling the episode years afterward. School one term in 1859. trived to make a bow so like the schoolmaster's own that movement to a bench was made to the music of loud cheers and gales of friendly laughter. slightly amplified. in 1857 and 1858. originally a Mcnnonite. and usually overheated sat at desks The pupils benches without backs and the teacher watched upon them from a platform. the Alverton. bare and cheerless but fairly well lighted stove. Pinneo's grammar. Pleasant. in Mt. two tetm$ in the Winter of 1864 and the Spring of 1865 and Otter. 14 .Frick the Man : ' low bow and. taking him by the hand.

Ohio. whose sub own endeavors marked Chief among these was a veritable passion for concen tration in the attainment of a specific purpose. ten weeks in the Autumn of 1866. found early expression. and he 1 is remembered as was correspondingly cas no more than "an average scholar." and time for diversion from could not be spared. The with which his schoolmates. in mathe matics. but his interest seems to have been only sufficient to avoid black marks for enforced exhi bition at home. now well past the period of human existence allotted by the Scrip tures. 'except in one respect : He was ' 'splendid in arith metic/' he 'excelled us 4 all.Boyhood bein College in Westerville. recall circumstances and trivial episodes of sixty years ago clearly evidences in the youth's that there was nothing commonplace composition. months of tu and impa and ending. Distinctive individual sequent development through his his career. That this rigid exclusion was attributable to the rea- . his attention ual. com prising altogether approximately thirty ition." he was determined to get "a good business that definite aim training. traits. thus acquiring less his entire stock of edu cational training from five terms in primary schools and than three terms in those of higher grades. in 1866. happily vividness for his ambitious tient spirit at the age of seventeen. and generally maintained as a basis of calculation until recently extended by Science. ' Apparently he was not averse to acquirement of the schools were 'general education' which those primitive ' designed to provide. older or younger.

'They made a very pretty and very dignified. It is not surprising that the impressions still retained by the hair-braided pupils who. he could of emulation. but environment undoubtedly played the controlling part. there was "no reason* why. Born and reared in the long shadow of his distinguished see but one glowing example grandfather. with little Clay always driving the team of one bay and one gray. conformably to custom. pair when they came to the one so fresh and young. 'and I propose to be worth not only bespoke his own full faith in his ability to realize his ambition but was so convinc ing to the minds of his boy companions that half a cen that before I die. as he was a familiar the figure in the village streets while still about his head or glistened in the breezes incited by the rapid movement of his grandcurls nestled fa ther's brown light-stepping span and glossy buggy. one of a million should not be gained by that Overholt's grandson. If a fortune of ' half a million could be acquired by an Overholt of the with preceding generation. are equally distinct. the other old and gray town. wider opportunities. have exerted some influence. and while very young he confided worthy to his mates a determination to achieve success even greater than that blood coursed won by the notable progenitor whose through his own veins. except just after he had typhoid fever 16 when of course he wasn't strong encmgh to guide them." ." ' tury later they separately recalled his very words.Frick the Man is soning of a lad not yet in his teens inherited instinct may hardly imaginable. sat on the other side of the aisle.

The teacher was provoked that if she didn't do better he dose of 'hickory oil/ as he was angry clear through. Here was the scion of Quality and Family. too. and he warned her ies. twinkle. and later broke down completely when he made a desperate effort to recite "Twinkle. But it is not recorded that the girls laughed derisively even when the little star abruptly rejected the beseeching appeal. following his teacher's overpowering introduction. by gentlewomen. the boy first faced a battery of girlish glances. days. born to himself "the most perfect little held unkindly by surely one not to be ignored or ish fancies. and gentleman I ever met/ 1 girl Nor was the lad's attractiveness merely superficial. And Susan didn't get whipped/' not surprising that so thrilling an episode should have stamped an indelible impression upon the sensitive It is 17 .Boyhood One can readily believe that when. ' and notably pro tective of his own. even at the rela tively advanced age of eight. little star/' the hot blood flew to his face. the teacher that if he whipped his cousin Susan he would whip the teacher. ' Upon acquaintance he was found to be 'pure in thought as well as in speech. prospective heir to wealth and the manner. never uttering a coarse word. never as polite to little girls guilty of a rude act and always as to older people/' chivalrous. 'I remember that one time his distant cousin Susan was not getting along very well in her stud at her. bred position. When Clay heard this would have to give her a a whipping was called in those but he served notice on He was hardly more than a boy. the pride of their own recognized magnate.

were very strict and would stand no was feasible monkey business. so it is a fair assumption that Susan's danger was more apparent to the pupils than real to the mind of the teacher. Young Clay was less fortunate. Solomon's famous ad monition was held to apply to boys in school even more rigorously than at home. Man Nor is there occasion to question the accuracy of her recollection. Nevertheless. One's imagination can of the readily portray the impetuous young descendant with eyes flashing fiery Pricks and the stern Overholts. 18 he was "full of antics but never . where maternal intervention and not uncommon. Clay recall the reasons. without minimizing in the slightest degree the fearlessness and gallantry of the young knight. it is highly improbable that the teacher was really deterred by his threatened reprisal. Hints at terrifying possibili ties may have been permissible. but even in those days of salutary physical penalties there is no tradition of a custom justifying the actual whipping of girls by school masters. 'The teachers. and. though I never knew a fellow so eager to get on. hurling defiance and menace at the most burly of pedagogues in a crisis such as that depicted. * ' I thiak was Finally. who were always men. we are told. had his though I cannot probably just mischief or maybe be cause he wouldn't study what he didn't like.Frick the mind of the narrator. and fists clenched. and when he set out to do a thing he always did it. which the secret of his success all through life. Most of us got lickings occasionally share. who alone in this instance seems to have been humiliated. as I remember.

but he smiled contentedly and "every morning new and at the end of six months the yellow stitching was as bright and spotless as when new. Pleas ant and recommended him so highly to his Uncle Martin that the latter hired * ' ' him with money to clerk in his 'general emporium* it Tradition has dollars a that Ms wage was no less than three week but the evidence on this point is not con19 ." and would be satisfied with nothing less. he declared at the age of fifteen that thereafter self. he would clothe him and he kept his word despite the difficulty of earning enough money to buy "the best/' Appearing one morn ing 'in a pair of black boots. Years afterwards he confided with a twinkle that by going barefooted during the summers" he "made them last three winters in the pink of condition. with yellow stitching. though his quick temper got him into many a fight and he would tackle anybody wasn't playing fair with him. who he thought cc Very early in life he began to demand for himself the best there is. that ' had cost sixteen they shone like ' f dollars/* his extravagance was duly noted. his Uncle Christian took him to Mt. Thus for two years he obtained his keep at the expiration of and seems to have earned it since. Frankly disdaining the part-shoddy and ill-fitting gar ments commonly allotted to farmers' sons. that period.Boyhood a rowdy." Clay remained on his father's farm during the long in tervals between school terms until 1863 when he secured a place in his Uncle Christian's store in West Overton and worked for his board and the privilege of sleeping 44 on the counter.

His chief tasks consisted . in the attainment of his first partnership. of which he became Business fol Manager immediately official lowing his 20 initiation. Primarily. His chief interest. whether . was one may reasonably surmise. no doubt. his step financial ladder inspired upon the lowest rung of the the confidence which then evoked the avowal of his determination to "make a million/' 1 ' He was an. than the older clerks. was the Philo Union. but hardly limitless. greatly to his advantage. he was welcomed to membership in the various college associations and quickly assumed. ardent salesinan. the most to his nature in this painstaking appeal enticing endeavor was his inherent love of artistry. was the de velopment of rare workmanship which would open the way from the counter to the counting-room but. this did prove to be the effect. less impelling. graph albums. responsibilities befitting his vocation as a potential man of business and trustworthy financier. foreseen or not. and winner of the only severe competitive test recalled extending through an entire year. Pleasant at the age of six Making friends readily the hundred or more students at the Classical and among Scientific Institute. In Man any case. by common assent. teen under favorable conditions. Cky 's social life began in Mt. however.Frick the elusive. though strikingly legible. was in book keeping and his assiduity in perfecting the somewhat chirography then in vogue for "accounts rendered" no less than for auto ornate. comprising barely twenty members. "more aggressive meaning probably more ingratiating according to their own testimony. The most distinguished and exclusive Literary Society.

whose invitation Clay became a charter J. He was "a 1 ' great reader himself and. Thomas and Morals of Jesus Christ. 1 866. The Independent Oder of Good Templars of Mt ant Pleas Methodist meeting-house on May ist. safeguarding the treasury. His was John S. see ing to it that the cost of entertainments should never " exceed the proceeds. of which in Jefferson's Life later years he presented many copies to friends. counting the money and paying the band/' not recorded that he participated in the Literary Exercises presented for parental and public approbation.Boyhood of keeping the accounts. he was appointed was organized in the Committee on Admissions promptly on the important aad soon thereafter on the Committee on Care of the Skk. Worthy Scribe. . the Rev. which invariably he bore in his own arms to add to the common hoard. under the guidance of the pastor. C. prime favorite as of his generation and years. although only seventeen. most particularly the Lay of the Last Min with soul so dead/ which strel. with never a word in explanation of his enigmatical choice. one of the editors of the Lodge pub- . C. catholic. were notably naturally and irresistibly. It is he inaugurated a move ment to expand the meager library and trudged faithfully but it is recalled distinctly that from house to house in search of segregated books. Abbott's enthusiastical Life of Napoleon that were Walter Scott's tales Bonaparte. "Breathes there a man 1 he stood ready always to declaim. and third. by member and. though his his tastes selective privileges were necessarily limited. High. second only to and poems.

a0d the 22 accommo dating performer records sympathetic recollection of the . on the Committee on Finance and. according to the recollec tions of his associates. The minutes contain no record of attendance but his steady official advancement leaves no room for doubt of the youth's diligence and exactness in performance of allot ted tasks or of the subsequent value to himself of his first perception of the effectiveness of organized endeavor. was the most important of outdoor sports in those days. treasurer of the association. his manifest pride was of achieve ment rather than of distinction may well be believed. The game most constantly employed for relaxation was that crude successor of the ancient exercise of throwing the discus called quoits but played with horse shoes and re quiring skill and accuracy rather than physical strength." participated merely as umpire or scorer. a simple precursor of the intricate base ball of the present. Round ball. to the music of a single fiddle. "cards" being so universally condemned as an enticement of the Devil that "nobody ever The decorous and educational saw a deck in town.Frick the ' Man lication called the 'Eastern Star" and. at the expiration of a year. lacking strength and endurance to "bat and run. In this pastime the keen-eyed and painstaking young clerk excelled and "could make more ringers than any other boy in town/' game of Authors afforded the chief evening diversion. That even at that early age. but a contest required so much time that play was restricted to Saturday afternoons and holi days and Clay. seemingly as a matter of course." But there was an occasional dance.



At Mt. Pleasant he boarded with his Uncle Christian and months for Aunt Katherine and.Boyhood occasions when he "used to carry notes back and forth between the boys and ranged for a walk. he inquired somewhat caustically "What do you mean by walking three miles on a day : * ' like this? What's the matter?' la "Barney [Schallenberger] discharged me. to the new corner store of the "Mt. which he always remembered as one of the happiest in his life. while sedulously mopping his brow and water ing his horse at the trough opposite Peter Sherrick's house. On a very hot day in August. Lloyd (Barney) Schallenberger. he continued his clerkship in the Mt. reached an abrupt ending in 1868. With the exception of three months' leave. was transferred. after working a few his Uncle Martin. Pleasant. John Frick was amazed to perceive his son trudg ing up the road from Mt. . Pleasant store for three full years. greatly to his satisfaction. sleeping on a counter girls when dates were being ar The pleasurable and mildly adventurous came to an end experience of for Clay at West Overton. Waiting patiently until the young man had laved his perspiring face and head under the spout. Pleasant Partnership/* comprising his favorite Uncle Christian and Mr. which he obtained for the purpose of finishing his education at Otterbein College. whose records reveal that he scored eight out of nine attainable points in both Essays and Orations." was the conic response. when he was eighteen years old. This period.

" you had better go and tell her right away. standing in way. his wings were beginning to spread. Even though a reconciliation might be effected. watched a very solemn grandfather escort a very sober grandson on horseback to the Overholt distillery at Broadford for engagement in manual labor.Frick the ' Man know about it?' ' 'Does Grandmother Overholt "No. Aside from an amusing illustration of the taciturnity common in those days between father and son. no What occasioned the rupture at the store that morning further than 'a difference of opinion* or what happened ' ' in the big house that evening tradition. Clay had no wish to return to Mt. after all. this 4 'Well. and to lend him the fifty dollars required for the purchase of a "best*' suit of clothes. Pleasant. The situation procured for him by his uncle in Eaton's store yielded six dollars a week and seems to have been 24 . But it expected quickly proved to be. trifling episode affords convincing corroboration of con "was brought up mostly" temporary testimony that Clay in con by his maternal grandparents a circumstance. which he readily obtained. fifty miles away. so after a few weeks he persuaded his devoted Uncle Christian to take him to Pittsburgh. of slight significance. a mere avoca tion. All that is is known is not recorded even by that on the following the door day a very serious grandmother. sideration of their exceptional characteristics. to recommend him for a position. as doubtless it had been by his grandparents to become.

Boyhood agreeable and satisfying in all respects but one. Twenty clerks were employed and the firm strongly encouraged competition. less especially with the ladies. con sequently. with no recommendation statement and his pleasing appear ance. "All young Frick asked/' notes the only salesman who dared uphold him. without making any fuss about it. he calmly ignored all protestations and made himself so popular. but that he would have and. it did not afford the wider opportunities which he desired. boldly applied. Although not designated as Chief Clerk. This prerogative was con ceded by all of the other clerks. dollars a week. "Clay was so considerate of . was fair play. but the latest recruit promptly challenged fair rivalry it as a violation of the principle of openly espoused by the proprietors and de structive of its intent. after prudently studying the mercantile con ditions for a few weeks. he struck out for himself for the first time. William G." Naturally the management perceived no cause for com "it was plaint or reason for interference and. although gall and wormwood to Blair" and "general unpleasant ness" ensued for a time. fora position in the big store of Macrum and Car other than his lisle. presently increased to twelve. that it wasn't long before his name began to appear at the head of the Sales List almost as often as Blair's. "in the interest of the firm no than of himself. Blair had for long been recog nized as the leading salesman and claimed the privilege of serving the best customers. own and was engaged forthwith at a salary of eight.

less than a year later. except when at home. supplemented by his indefatigability and buoyancy. Frick. he saw to it that his name should appear in the Pittsburgh Di Henry C. then finally sleep. Rising and dressing for breakfast at seven o'clock on every week-day there were no halfholidays then store. Clay. him up' ' in the store. Anderson St. an offer clearly evidenced by his receipt of from the their firm of twenty dollars a week if he would return to employ. when his feet had found at Broadford another round of the ladder to that avowed goal of no less than * ' ' 'a million dollars . Convinced by quick observation that "H.. ' simply "H. returned to his boarding-house for supper. That his previous experience. clerk." he signed his name rectory as "FRICK. arriving he crossed the river and walked to the promptly at eight and remaining till six. "home" to his hall bed room and * His acquaintances were few and his only associate seems to have been the clerk 'backed who had pastor. Alle and ever thereafter.Frick the Blair's feelings Man and so tactful and goodnatured that after a while he won them all over and made them like him ' ' in spite of themselves . C. where gheny' he could not lose the "H. stood is him in good stead. and detrimental to his progress. where he applied his mind to sedulously study of accountancy and methods of bank ing till nine-thirty. with whom every Sunday morning he went 26 to hear the eloquent young . recrossed the river to a business college." He wasted no time. Clay" savored of boyish affectation and seemed likely to be regarded as unbusinesslike.

FACSIMILE OF ACCOUNT RENDERED Mr. Frick) (Written and initialed by .


supplemented doubtless by imperfect sanitation and dubious drinking water. Occasional attendance with his congenial com rade at a lecture. and it was a greatly emaciated and very ill boy that was brought back to the big red house on the hill in West Overton. again. Tinstman. the 'Co comprising the founder's eldest son. one of his daughter Anna's nine children. Overholt. Henry S. when September brought the cool. Thus at last brought all a while to see that everything was going into close business relationship. Tinstman. with his venerated grandfather. Five months of this arduous routine. old Abraham Overholt. and his grandson. took his favorite grandson to the enlarged distillery at Broadford and proudly installed him in the place he had fairly earned as chief bookkeeper at one thousand dollars a year. upon a satisfactory basis. ' turers of Flour and Youghiogheny Whiskey. Pearson. preach in the Fourth Avenue Baptist Church. a concert or a play constituted his sole diversion. But the nursing of his devoted grandmother and sister Maria finally triumphed and.Boyhood Rev.. his uncle and his cousin. Abraham O. fresh breezes. this time in a buggy behind the span. an alert and ex ceptionally capable man of thirty-six. incited a severe attack of typhoid fever. The firm's name was "A. 27 . ' ' Manufac * ' . Clay found his association not only most congenial but highly favorable to furtherance of his own ambition. Overholt & Co. "drove over once in ' right/ but the active manager was Mr. then in his eighty-sixth year. Henry exercised a general supervision of the business and the sturdy patriarch Abra ham. Dr.

. within a month.Frick the Man needed no spur. "as ing lumber. January i5th. Often. 1870. but that was later when he was pros whose hidden wealth was pecting for coal in lands undiscovered. kind man whom for so many years they had tacitly recog nized as Squire of Westmoreland County. Despite the continuing effects of his enfeebling illness. to pay final tribute to the strong. he was measur He and selling flour. weighing grain in the morning. "he would get out the mules and hitch them up and drive all over the country. somewhat early as two or three o'clock ' ' to the annoyance of others ' ' who wished to sleep. in addition to out the bills with abso keeping the books and making lute precision and Spencerian flourish. Grandfathef Abraham died suddenly from a stroke of apoplexy at the age of eighty- On the presence of a great gather ing of the clans and neighbors and friends assembled from six rest in all and was laid to the country round.

Of A LETTER OB (Written CONDOLENCE and initialed by Mr.* OVERHOI/T 41 CO .Frick) .


loaded barges had been River in a vain attempt to find a market for the despised "cinders". in partnership with So early as 1859. was the potentiality of coke manufacture from. The elder spoke from experience. and in 1868 had joined Colonel A. Demand for the product. THE following the death of their grandfather. 29 .. "mining and coking" seemed not merely doomed but already to have perished. however. would run far into the night. was slight and the prospect was far from alluring to a sense of mere realities. had bought six hundred acres of coal lands Joseph Rist. but in 1870 only four more floated down the Ohio had been added. coal obtainable in the vicinity of Broadford. r Tinstman. begun at the ending of the evening game of chess. S. Back in 1842.Ill Beginning Business in Coke chief topic of conversation between the cousins. Often a discus sion of some phase of the subject.M. As an industry. in 1860 the total num ber of coking plants in the country had increased to twenty-one from four in 1850.Morgan in open ing the so-called Morgan mines for the manufacture ex - ^ clusively of coke. Their views never clashed for the simple reason that they approached the general proposition from quite different angles. two Abraham Tinstman and Clay Frick. the younger possessed the vision.

fuel for furnaces. could hardly have exceeded his at high cost of living. Just financed his 599. and his saving from on borrowed money. 3 . The outcome of the deliberations of the cousins was a decision to take the plunge if two or three satisfactory partners could be obtained. if not indeed an essential. Rist tak ing two-fifths and the others one each. Both accepted and the interests were divided into fifths. of his imagination which had been fired by contemplation of the huge requirements of the steel factories quick and tremendous expansion in foreseen while not wholly engrossed in selling ribbons whose Pittsburgh he had and trimmings. involving $io. carefully selected. is not first how Clay business undertaking. who was ried his sister. purchase was of one hundred and twentythree acres of land at Broadford.Frick the Man But Mr. John S. Joseph Rist. Mr. the other. Overholt.~ in Pittsburgh. Tinstman proposed Mr. His salary compensation Broadford at $i . his associate in previous purchases. averaging known. Tinstman had so much money invested that he could not afford to abandon hope and young Prick's odd compound of prudence and daring succumbed to two considerations: one. Mr.000 a year for only a year and five months could have been no more than a few hundreds at most. of his judgment convinced by thorough investigation that coke was the cheapest. Clearly. R. and young Frick suggested his distant cousin. then courting and a year later mar Miss Maria Overholt Frick. John Rist for the sum of $52^995. Mr. his initial venture was made seven dollars a week. from first The Mr.

R. OVEUHOLT (Brother-in-law) .JOHN $.


in his capacity to succeed.Beginning Business in Coke but that circumstance makes for no surprise because to his dying day Mr. were recorded one conveying a three-fifths interest in the property to Abraham O. .797 and the other a two-fifths interest to John S. R. for their respective shares. cash S. amounting to $58. of which ultimately he was to inherit one-sixth. Overholt and Henry C. did accept promissory notes were recited. amounting to $z. advanced what their joint obligation. if any. the making of this relatively heavy com mitment of ten thousand dollars less than three months In he attained his majority on December i^th. the probability is that either he obtained a loan from the trustees of his mother's residuary share. No purchase money mortgage was recorded and no Rist. Overholt and faithful Christian 3* S.000.ooo. clearly evidences not only the young man's eagerness to after strike out for himself but the implicit faith of his family. in full or in part. dated March 3. from his sister Maria as soon as she received it. Frick in consideration of $11.198. Martin S. no than of himself. but as the distribution was not made by the executors until December ist. John from the four purchasers personal notes in payment. Tinstman and Joseph Rist in consideration of $3 1. From time to time thereafter the trustees of his mother's less estate. or his partner. R. Overholt. but in fact the vendor. Two deeds. 1870. Mr. Frick always stood ready to back his judgment to the extreme limit of both his cash and his credit. was required on any case. John ever. It is known that Clay borrowed a legacy from her grandfather. 1871.

Frick was only a struggling farmer.Frick the Overholt. loaned trust funds to the promissory notes and when. Before his note fell due.000. in the executors $37. his cousin. his Man young man upon his 1874. and Jacob O. its sole trustee. as it subsequently developed. payable three years after date. moreover. Clay did not overlook parental po tentialities. While exhausting the available resources of the mater nal side. they loaned him the entire amount. the trustees became involved in the panic and. but with the aid of his capable and thrifty Overholt wife he "managed/* in the proud phrase uttered frequently in after years six children by his highly successful son. Tinstman. One may readily believe that sociation. * 4< to bring up without running into debt* a circumstance of utmost importance. however. the only debtor of the estate. to the young man himself in his time of need. the Court discharged them and paid eloquent testimony to Clay Prick's reputation for in tegrity by appointing him. Although father and son. their relationship was always friendly and their spirits were akin in dash and daring. owing partly to their natural reticence and partly to the overshadowing Overholt as were never on terms of close intimacy. at their own instigation. John W. they received from two uncles. the relatively unlettered farmer contemplated with ad miration approaching awe the recognized proficiency of the youthful accountant while in his teens and the yet readiness with men of experience not only took him into full partnership but constituted him head of the firm when he was barely twenty-one. That the which older .

FRICK (Father) .JOHN W.


though small as units. pven in part. and renewals. were considerable in the aggregate at a tittle when fright was inducing the hoard ing at home of moneys which ordinarily would have reached the banks. else he would hardly have consented to the placing of his wife's entire inherit ance at the boy's disposal. the amounts involved were far from negligible. wore far from cer One instance indicating the peril of the time and the hazard of the undertaking is distinctly recalled. the young man could not fail to realize 33 . On a critical evening in 1873 Clay returned from his quest throughout the country with unexpectedly meager pick ings.Beginning Business in Coke explicit confidence of the entire Overholt clan in the promise of the young man was shared by his father. risking Clay what he had steadfastly refrained himself. he pledged his credit bankruptcy and the loss of his eight-thousand-dollar farm by endorsing notes. tain. But John Frick went further. On the following day a note for $10. "often hitching up at dawn and driving all over the country and coming back at night with pockets full of greenbacks/' The sums thus gathered. Occasionally. a portion of the anticipated proceeds being needed in his business and the total constituting his entire savings facts of which the debtor was only too painfully aware. and wearied to the verge of exhaustion. which the budding financier peddled to all the farmers around. Disappointed beyond measure.000 was pay able to Joseph Myers. He did unhesitatingly for from doing for without stint. is certain. no less than by his mother. too. a framer by trade.

only nine months after he bought o&e-fifth iiiterest in 34 . O. it's My note 1 due tomorrow and I can't endorsed/ is "I know. he must have it out. (Benjamin Overholt) busted I and A. T. in the course of his family financing." to pay enough to relieve his creditor of embarrassment in carrying on his business and Presently Clay was able when. On December ist. 1871. I won't close you out. his bedroom. (Abraham O. Tinstman) don't want you to close me out. day had utilized his father's advantage in canying credit to even greater subsequent through his ambitious projects. whom he knew but Mr. "Well. Myers." Not only on this occasion but much earlier. O. but B. two years later. Silence is busted and and then : "John Frick Slam! is still on the back of that note and he ain't busted. sleep would not come. he said simply: "That was the best investment added quietly "It : last instalment to I ever made'* and he may prove to be the same for you. pounding the his imagination slightly and who had been magnified by to the figure of an ogre.Frick the that for the first Man time even his extraordinary fertility of resource had failed utterly." there? What do you want?' is 1 "Clay Frick. he took the Mr. One o'clock in the morning found him door of his creditor. Myers raised the window of "Who's pay it. F. he'll pay some time.

comprising 189 acres and 34 in East perches. The executors were willing to accept joint notes of father and son for two-thirds of the purchase price of $37. Huntingdon township. or order. Overholt. the farm in part by the trustees of Elizabeth Overholt Prick's share in that estate. 1871. CLAY FRICK That tors was acquired from the execu of Abraham Overholt's estate with money provided is to say. and thus not only escaped the bankruptcy 35 . the foremost bankets of Pittsburgh. and fourteen dollars and sixteen cents. 5 14. payable respectively one and two years there after. value received with interest from December ist. Penna. Overholt and J. his estimate of the value of the land for mining purposes having then been to obtain his first verified. Nevertheless the requirement was met on the date fixed from the pro Frick pre nor Frick fils ceeds of the following note $11514 16100 : Mt. FBJCK H. Pleasant. Tinstman. Three years Jater Clay completed the operation on his own account by purchasing his father's undivided interest at an advance of several thousand dollars and.841. Overholt's deed estate. John Frick joined him in the from the executors of Abraham Overholt's estate purchase ' the Alexander Miller farm.. Twelve thousand five hundred One day after date we promise to pay M. S. O. but they demanded $12. C. he was enabled mortgage loan from T. Trustees of Elizabeth Prick's portion of A. S. upon the farm as sole security. and neither had any money.50. without defalcation. JOHN W.Beginning Business in Coke ' ' the firm 'on a shoestring. Mellon & Sons. i 6 in cash. This transaction called for skilful manoeuvering.

Tinstman and Mr. for the twenty dollars a week which he needed for his liv ing expenses and was loath. and Co/' as miners of coal and The designation was both fitting and shrewd. The selection of a name for the firm confronted the partners at the outset and called for seri ous deliberation. he himself should be free to continue his bodkkeeping for A. of course. namely his Cousin John. Rist were men of affairs and standing in the community but their identi fication with other enterprises of like nature seemed likely to prove confusing if heralded in connection with a new concern whose complete independence. Young Frick neither sought nor shirked the responsibility. The process of elim ination clearly pointed to the the appearance of "Frick manufacturers of coke was thus signalized to the indus trial world. as the head of the firm. Overholt was. R. of an Overholt. to forego. in any case. for a time at least. did not wish to assume the responsibility. Natu- 36 . however. conditioning only that he should have full authority under the nominal direction. afford ing the recognition which the elders considered the just due of the initiator of the enterprise and also assuring unremitting application of the zeal and resourcefulness which he had already displayed. & most youthful partner. Mr. a name to conjure with. Overholt & Co. but John S.Frick the which engulfed Man paved the his partners but way for the purchase of many other properties at panic prices. and that in lieu of drawing a salary as manager. would constitute an asset. was not his first financial transaction with the bankers. This. it was thought.

Overholt accepted his assignment for one year. The young manager adopted set. Why not finance the firm. Rist found this arrangement wholly to their liking and Mr. Indeed it is quite conceivable that they would have od as altogether prudent. his partners raised been willing to increase their own contributions. credit? True. on instance.Beginning Business in Coke rally Mr. this very purpose The difficulty lay in inducing local investors to make straight loans without participation in ownership or future profits. as he had financed his own fifth. This left the original basis and. the firm. a bold policy at the out profit to the full Determined that the firm should its extent of means in whatever enhancement of values from its might result operations. at the expiration of which he withdrew from the business entirely. though not regarding the meth no objec tions. he invested its entire no money whatever for development but the purchases had been so shrewdly made that additional funds were readily obtainable upon capital in low-priced land. chiefly as a conse quence of apprehensiveness caused by an excavation which nearly resulted in the burial alive of thirty miners. Tinstman and Mr. his first step was to establish the credit of the firm by demonstrating its ability to bor- 37 . but it had a considerable acreage of promis ing coal lands which he had insisted upon keeping free and clear of purchase-mortgages with in view. Clearly. But there was nothing further from the manager's con templation than an enlargement of partnership which would reduce automatically his own percentage of inter est in the business. unlike himself in the first had no family resources to draw upon.

from the most cautious and conservative of lenders. where ultimately he died. to fly high. Overholt. he easily acquired a substantial fortune. prudent and thrifty. while about it. indefatiga traits. who followed his father from the county Tyrone in 1818 and brought with him his son Thomas. chiefly from sagacious speculations in real estate. fully cognizant of the worth and high standing of Mr. aged five. that this interesting bit of local history loomed large in the mind's eye of Elizabeth Overholt's To doubt son while he was groping for financial succor would be to question the activities of resourceful intelligence. who was of the same age. He acquired a farm in Frank Township and remained there until 1833. with his father. thirty-four. He decided to make the attempt and. Among the Scotch-Irish settlers in Westmoreland county was Andrew Mellon. philosophical. The two became excellent friends and young Thomas was a frequent caller. Endowed with a remarkable blend of Scotch and Irish thoughtful. at the age of twenty. while simultaneously gaining such pre-eflai&e&ce at the Pittsbtirgh bar that the leaders of the Republican party 38 . and of tastes.Frick the row money Man elsewhere and. if possible. lin One of the first to make his acquaintance was Abraham Overholt. Dur ing the thirty-eight years that had elapsed Thomas Mel lon had never missed a step on the high road to success. studious. when he moved to Allegheny County. ble. at the big brick house in which Elizabeth Overholt was born six years later than himself and be like disposition and came a big intrinsic girl of fourteen before he went away with his father.

Dick and George/' aged respectively teen. of a per sonal outlay of $150 for campaign expenditures. The venture proved successful from the start. H. Within a year the interest to borrowers with the sav operating in conjunction was recognized as one ings institution at East Liberty. "having now too many of pecuniary and other interests my own to * make it profitable to attend to the affairs of other people/ a new vocation" Judge Mellon "began to cast about for and finally "concluded to open a banking house. Not caring to resume the practice of law. speculation were high and satisfactory deposits were obtained without solicitation. of the most important in Western Pennsylvania. he was duly elected and served with marked distinction for ten in order that he years when he declined a renomination might "engage in plans and projects for Thomas and James while watching over the development of my younger four boys. 1870. one morning. Professional pride having triumphed over the satis faction of making money and the requirement. rates of ing. in This was the situation when. General business was flourish was rife. aged twenty-one. the father estab lished an institution of his own for the prospective use the doors of a building on and of the "boys" opened Smithfield Street on January ist. Andrew. 4 ' ' 'Mellon bank. late without announc1871. 39 .Beginning Business in Coke virtually demanded that he become a candidate for as sistant Judge of the Common Pleas. eleven and nine. money was abundant. Clay Frick." His two elder sons having already founded a prosperous joint stock savings bank at East Liberty.

A more courtly old gentleman never re ceived a politer young one One can almost see him. What actually happened at this momentous meeting.Frick the Man ing his purpose to anybody. in . with which to build fifty coke ovens. to a ever met the latter can fail to picture with assured accuracy the wholly deferential. and motioning his boyishlooking. Overholt. the eventual fruits of which garnered by each comprised many millions. he announced that he had come from to the new Broadford "to see Judge Mellon on a matter of business and was admitted promptly. though anything but obsequious. based upoa re sults of personal investigation which he outlined in 40 . Tinstman and Joseph Rist and set forth in precise terms the purpose of his mission.000 for six months : at 10 per cent. quietly boarded a train at the village station for Pittsburgh to negotiate a loan de signed to serve for the time being as working capital for the budding firm of Frick & Co. equally handsome as of a his long frock coat. the son of John W. And nobody who immaculately attired. later generation and no less chair. R. manner in which he introduced himself as the grandson of Abraham Overholt. wished to borrow $10. to wit Frick & Co. Proceeding straightway building then in process of construction for the use of the bank. upon security consisting of undeveloped but unmortgaged coal lajDtds and of his strong conviction. Frick and Elizabeth Overholt and the partner of John S. gleaming shirt front and black bow. brown-haired visitor. rising with judicial dignity. has never been revealed but can readily be imagined. Abraham O.

sential factor in the fabrication of steel. but Judge Mellon. "He train just got it on his nerve. 41 . to acquaint himself of the soil and to select with care the seed failed." was the common inter first pretation when he returned to Broadford on the with the money in his pocket. the young man's statements from his partners. the most cautious and con servative of them all. peculiarities best adapted to its tillage. manners of his confident young customer may well be believed. That he was favorably impressed by direct methods and engaging the terse representations. But the interesting boyhood he not be ignored that. without re authorization or corroboration of quiring endorsements. But did he? Judge Mellon was not impulsive. One might almost suspect to plough the before Clay had not attempting with the hardest ground in sight. he was notably cautious. there lay deep though wholly devoid of sentimentality. but his trust reposed in Overholt integrity and. had invested all of his 'loose means" in coal lands which if some zealous might be enhanced in value immensely ex and intelligent young man should devise at his own that should prove indispensable pense "a coking process" that to the steel industry.Beginning Business in Coke that the coking process was an painstaking detail. while arranging to go on the bench. It is es more than doubtful that any other banker in for a Pittsburgh would have entertained the proposal moment. made the loan at once. in his nature a grain of fine sentiment that might have his been touched by recollection of his father's friend of circumstance can own days.

and quite out of place in his "halfoffice and half-living room in a clapboard shack/' The all application should be denied. but he for a big was giving part of his time to keeping books store and another portion to "prints and sketches.Frick the But Frick fore the Man & Co. More interested than he sent his mining partner. keeps books evenings. struction force was This time Judge Mellon 's prudence asserted itself and a representative of the bank was sent to Broadford to in vestigate and report . nothing could have appealed more strongly to his own thrifty soul than the information that the young man was saving the side to earn his firm's money by working overtime out own frugal living. to make an independent examination. manager on job all day. first fifty were both active and impatient. Not only was the It sole responsible director hardly more than a boy. Corey. advise making the loan/ ' 42 . but the attendant features were far from satisfactory. ovens well built. the manager sought an additional loan of $10.000 for the building of fifty more. James B. was. a very small enterprise and evi dences of prosperity were not visible. The report of that ever. But the wise Judge was unconvinced. to begin with. while the con still intact. In point of fact. Mr. knows his business down to the ground . "some made by himself. may be a little too enthusi astic about pictures but not enough to hurt. experienced observer was terse and decisive * : 'Lands good. The representations respecting both the property and the construction were found correct in every detail. Be ovens were finished.

Then out of a clear sky came the financial collapse and industrial crash of a nation which brought to Henry Clay Frick.Beginning Business in Coke Judge Mellon accepted Mr. Corey's recommendation.. 43 . & Co. with one exception. was formed. the additional fifty ovens were built and put into opera tion. in his twenty-fourth year. business was good from the start. Morgan Co. & who were supposed to be making large profits. S. the supreme ordeal. within two . of his remarkable career. the Mellon loans were paid from earnings steadily increasing profits were invested in more lands and more ovens and. M. Frick years after the partnership were close upon the heels of A.

Prices to est trash that could profits increased accordingly. Although specie payments had not been resumed. responded inevitably. During the preceding three years less than six thousand miles of additional track had been laid but in the four years following new construc tion leaped to twenty-four thousand. gained tre mendous momentum. pledgiag pay ment in coin of all obligations not specifically redeemable 44 . pansion of mills ex was limited only by possibilities of construction. employment at high wages awaited every laborer. 1869. the opening up of the Middle West. Beginning with the completion of the Union Pacific rail way in 1869. settlers rushed by lake and land to the fresh fields. immigration increased rapidly and prosperity was universal. Demand for rails so far exceeded the domestic supply that recourse was had England to make up the deficiency and "the vil be dignified by the name of iron 11 was greedily accepted by the eager promoters.IV A Triumph of Faith and Courage panic of 1873 was ]tlot foreseen. long delayed by the Civil War. pub endangered by the greenback movement was restored and the confidence of the world was regained lic credit immediately following the second inauguration of Presi dent Grant by the Act of March 18.

So great a bull movement in foreign securities had never been known on the Euro all pean exchanges and speculation in kinds of schemes was correspondingly rife at home. scoffed at the obvious warning as a false alarm and proved their 45 . a perience were forgotten. when the demand began to slacken and glaring. happened until a panic on the Vienna bourse down the spines of 1873. sent shivers of apprehension Continental investors and virtually closed the doors upon new offerings from the States . though hardly plentiful. Railway bonds in Money. that there the New York bankers found themselves obliged to strain their own credit to carry their latest undertakings. the thought with the wish. which should have been patent. but nothing beyond a general tightening of money really in May. sciously perhaps screening and yet with sincerity unquestioned by history.A Triumph of Faith and Courage otherwise and promising redemption of the legal tenders in coin as soon as practicable. American bankers and brokers. uncon But. became easy forth with and the bourses of Europe vied with one another in bidding for American securities. All lessons from ex were ignored. if not must be a bottom even of Europe's well of opulence was manifested clearly enough in the autumn of iSyz. all precedents new era initiated by a new country seemed to have t been ushered into the old world . particular sold abroad like hot cakes and the New York and Philadelphia bankers were not backward in supply ing the markets and raking off big commissions from enterprises of doubtful merit. even so. The certainty.

Stocks on the Exchange. and many lesser banking .. fell to inconceivable levels in a few hours. within the next few days a score of firms were avowedly unable to keep their contracts. on September i8th. "it was received with almost deri on the part of the mercantile public. announcement was made that Cooke and Co. bids were not forthcom ing for shares at any prices and the Exchange was closed. had failed. throughout todians of the funds of millions of the most pious folk in the land. the of the Government itself. deposits were withdrawn from national banks runs began on savings banks money . finan not only of the Northern Pacific railway but also. houses put up their shutters. Henry Clews & Co. give And yet it is not surprising that the far-reaching aad de moralising effects bouqd to ensue from such a shock to the financial center of tt^ country found slight eomptchcmioa 46 .. was unobtainable. Clearing-House certificates were is sued for the first time. following Central and Western Union. & and Macy. A few failures early in September caused "an unsettled feeling' but were not considered seriously significant ' and the great and goodly House of Jay ciers when. Howes . the old Union Trust Company suspended. President Grant and the Secretary of the Treasury went to New York and pledged all aid the Government could under the laws. The panic that followed confirmation of the report was instantaneous and unprecedented in manifestations of sive incredulity ' ' New York frenzy and terror.Frick the faith Man by continuing and increasing their commitments. and cus war. the National Bank of the Commonwealth failed Fisk Hatch. the two least vulnerable.

JOHN W.MES. FRICK (Mother) .


" he wrote long afterward. 47 . "While I was seated at my desk on the afternoon of September i8th. On with the work take the rascals? Full steam ahead ! ! Even Judge Mellon. What mattered it if ruin should over Good enough for them! The upset might teach them a lesson. I replied no. The United States had struck its gait at last and was too big to be stopped or retarded.A Triumph of Faith and Courage beyond the Alleghenies. as it had done after sim jects. imposing a most desperate struggle for very existence upon his oWn parents. who cisely recalled distinctly the pre analogous panic of 1819. "our notary in and asked if I had heard public. perceived no serious significance for Pittsburgh in the failure of Jay Cooke & Co. The news did of it. looked had caused a good deal of excitement in New York and Philadelphia. indeed as it scarce attracted my attention. own They had no interest in the cut-throat games of kid-gloved and silk-stockinged parasites who.. following the war of 1812. Mr. He said it not disturb me. It would be all over in a month any way. ' ' ilar failures of others . was no concern of those actively engaged in legitimate industry and wholly engrossed in their affairs. produc ing nothing themselves. and the widespread adversity that ensued for ten years. A mere "Wall Street panic/* presumably involving only gamblers in money. stocks and bonds. we had no and I relations with Cooke or his railroad pro it would blow supposed the flurry caused by over without any serious effect. Whitney. fought over the fruits of the toilsome enterprises of honest men and were regarded as natural enemies.

renewals left . however. Mellon & Sons had substantial balances in New York and Philadelphia 1 ' but "unfortunately our depositories in both these cities failed before we could secure our funds and the Judge awoke to the disagreeable fact that they had in their two banks barely sixty thousand dollars with which to meet deposits of ten times that amount. as usual his cousin s share. he now held a two-fifths interest. and never defaulted. Tinstman and Mr. Rist required lied all of their resources to safeguard their other investments and could not be re upon to render any assistance whatever to their latest speculation. were not aware of our predicament and no one entertained the slightest apprehension of our solvency as I was always looked on as impregnable. He owed money right and 48 full but having always paid interest promptly.Frick the Man This pleasurable anticipation naturally was not realized. Not only did the strain become more severe daily in the large money centers it spread rapidly over the country . the entire burden devolved upon the manager. and was giving his undivided attention to the conduct of the business for the same modest remuneration that hd had received for keeping the books of Overholt still & Co. T. "Our customers. ' ' But the consternation caused throughout the entire region by several bank failures can readily be imagined. and reached Pittsburgh within a week. More definitely and comprehensively than ever. and nowhere within the Pittsburgh orbit was ford and by the members of the firm of Frick it felt more deeply than in the humming little village of Broad- & Co. Having taken over unhesitatingly on credit. Mr.

in common with all experienced observers and learned economists. grit ting his teeth. uplifted re which thus far by the buoyancy of youth. the Wall Street panic had run its course. foresaw either the severity or the duration of his undertaking. either a tremendous success or an overwhelming collapse even of hope. but it is incredible that Clay Frick. had overcome all obstacles. he would not let go of anything he had and would continue unwaveringly to assume any kind or form of obligation required to obtain whatever in ad dition might seem worth having. at twenty-four. but only began. What he. This grim determination was not unnatural to a doubtable spirit. in Wall Street and that the money panic was but a industrial crisis the prelude and a bagatelle to that was }x>und to follow. failed to perceive was that the real disaster did not end. the stock exchange had reopened and the machinery of had begun to function as smoothly as ever. the prospect. Revelation of the bitter truth came quickly md no49 . was less dismal than it had appeared at first and Manager finance Pittsburgh fairly well convinced that he had only to postpone his more ambitious projects for a time in order to keep his head Frick returned from a hurried visit to above water and weather the storm. In any case. It was more than double or quits. Meanwhile.A Triumph of Faith and Courage were obtained easily and profitable expansion upon a large scale seemed to be well within the range of finan cial possibilities in the near future. though far from reassuring. Upon the whole. it was a hundred fold or less than nothing.

iron mills 4 were shut down and 1 ' 'reduced to the value of a scrap heap . new construc tion practically ceased and even ordinary maintenance contracts were cancelled. 5 . Theretofore marketing of the superior prod ucts of the Connellsville mines had been a matter . A few orders continued to trickle through but at prices which did not equal the bare cost of production and diminished so greatly in volume that many no longer afford to maintain their offices and abandoned business entirely. Disposal of their dealers could coke upon any terms soon became a problem for the manufacturers even more serious than producing it at a loss and. the paper of a construction company bearing the endorsements of Vice-President Thomas A. the manu facturers had only to load the cars and await remit tances at fixed rates. Scott and his associates went to protest. coal mines were abandoned.Frick the Man where more poignantly than to western Pennsylvania. one after another. strikes and lockouts presaged the great railway riots to come. Inevitably the demand for coke began to dwindle and as early as the Spring of 1874 seemed likely to disappear simple commission merchants in Pittsburgh had eagerly accepted altogether. soon thereafter the Pennsylvania Railroad paid dividend in scrip. laborers began to walk the streets in vain search of employment. gradually. As early as November ist several railway companies of high repute defaulted in payment of interest on their its bonds. possessed Pittsburgh. the mines wore shut down. "a veritable paralysis/' in the words of Rhodes. and readily disposed of all that was offered.

hired an office. and unremitting attention was essential to the disposal of his product. and although it was said that he always held his customers. and at tended to the details of mining till bedtime. he 1 go took the train for Pittsburgh at seven. legged it' from factory to factory soliciting 'got up at six. Calculating with his usual precision that deteriora Frick & Co. with which to make up the deficit from operation.. stubbornly persisted. going to Pittsburgh. on his promise to pay.000 which he borrowed from the trustees of his mother's portion constituted an excel lent backlog but was waning rapidly in partial payments . through the Spring and torrid Summer.A Triumph of Faith and Courage "It was/' said Mr. Occasionally he was obliged to remain at home to scurry around among the farmers for savings. The $37." But his training behind the counter stood him in good stead and whatever market there was for Connellsville coke he soon obtained for Frick & Co. the basis its would competi manager decided to become his own sales agent and. looked over the ovens and set things ing. Thereafter. at even as low as ninety cents a ton. "an awful time/' practically alone. tion from disuse of a difference new plant would far exceed the between cost and revenue. changes were frequent as mills opened or closed. which then had become most meager. reached home at about six. and that readiness to meet demands promptly upon resumption of a profitable give the firm an enormous advantage over tors.. Frick nearly half a century later. orders till three. reached his office at ten.

return ing late at night worn and weary but hopefully happy. Pleasant to connect with the Baltimore and Ohio and facilitate the marketing of coke. year or two before. then very early in the morning.Frick the for additional lands Man mind evolved a when his fertile truly dashing stroke. he hit upon an outside chance and decided to take it while there was yet time for successful negotiation During the evening he obtained a list of the stock . but to save their mort gaged homes. moreover. and prepared op tions for the signatures. were widely scattered. to avert this peril. holders. Conditions were approaching a crisis and stoppage of the little railway's operation. he borrowed Captain Markle's fast gray single-footer. were in desperate straits and eager to sell their shares. the community had furnished money for the building of a ten-mile railroad from Broadford to A Mt. ing discarded every conceivable solution. The stockholders. What to do. what could be done. who which subsequently he purchased. seemed imminent. the management of the Balti more and Ohio railroad were notified that there was a . The invest ment brought satisfactory returns while business was good. On the next day but one. was the question perplexing the manager on his way home after hav from Pittsburgh one afternoon when suddenly. but dividends had ceased and bankruptcy was threatening when the traffic was reduced practically to the Frick shipments. with the options in his pockets. not merely to avert complete loss. and set forth. which might in turn enforce closing of the mines.

which might otherwise be line. frankly conceded its present undesirability from the standpoint of earning capacity but expatiated at length upon vast development plans of the coking industry which could not fail to enhance its value enormously.A Triumph of Faith and Courage young man outside who was in a position to sell them a railroad which he thought they would want to promptly upon terms. H. most favorable. accomplished sales man. di verted to another trunk traordinarily dwelt briefly upon the ex and confi low price at which.. His address was H.. he should be happy to meet their agents with a guaranty of full supply at satisfactory prices. the only firm in the Connellsville region then* producing coke in quantity. The transaction was consummated within the specified time. for the moment. acquire The very audacity of such a ones. the stockholders were duly compensated greatly 53 . Perm. No alternative proposition could be entertained and he should consider himself free to withdraw the offer at the expiration of forty-eight hours. C Frick of Frick & Co. calmly exhibited his goods in the form of options upon a property of marked strategic importance. Pennsylvania. Broadford. Whereupon Mr. probably proposal. If they should wish for anything in his line in the near future. it could be obtained. Clay Frick. dently awaited their acceptance at actual cost plus a commission for himself as negotiator and intermediary of fifty thousand dollars. at a time when even the biggest railroads were not buying even the littlest won an audience. of Broadford. owing to temporarily distressful conditions. both intrin sically and as a feeder.

owing to the fact that real estate still commanded a market at fair prices. the circumstance noteworthy than would appear. Mellon & Sons during 1874. ' ' . from the proceeds of which he was enabled not only to purchase freight cars. & Co. Not least among the helpful effects of this successful negotiation was the strengthening of the favorable opinion already held by Judge Mellon of the capabilities of his youthful customer. The slump came later.Frick the Man to their relief. when the firm own it is less was striving energetically to sell a portion of its holdings. Frick tation. the feeder surpassed all expectations in earning capacity for the purchasing company within three years. this Although was probably the only mortgage pur chased by T. In the first year after the collapse sales "Our we sold more real and at higher prices. and so on until 1877. than we did in the second. were assured adequate transpor and Clay received a check for $50." appears from the line of discount recital of his bond. "show this with great exactness. when real estate was unsalable at estate. more in the second than in the third. costing thousand dollars. a large part of which he promptly invested in more lands and more ovens while holding the remainder in reserve for possible contingencies. and business of all kinds WES equally depressed 54 .000. for coke shipments over the railroad which he had just sold. any price. books/' the Judge records. but also to obtain "a fifteen not exceeding twenty-five thousand dollars for said Frick or Frick & Co. That it helped to facilitate the mak ing of his first mortgage loan.

at least for many years.000 advanced and an agreement to dis count business paper not exceeding $24. But his own appetite was insatiable and his supply of promissory notes was inexhaustible. 1876. after beginning business. how were often required and he quickly perceived that the expansion which he craved must soon come to an end unless he could devise some method of providing for current operating costs.A Triumph of Faith and Courage Nevertheless. it could not be utilized by workmen to procure the necessaries of life for themselves and their families . he opened a store. and utilized his experience to make modest profits in competition with others . following the custom of the times.000. as late as December 4th. While credit might and did fur nish materials in large part. coal underly and two town lots in Broadford. as he was the sole purchaser in a community which had become convinced that the coke industry was dead. for the convenience chiefly Soon of the employ6s of the firm. How much additional acreage he acquired from other sources during this period of enforced liquidation can not be ascertained definitely but it must have been con siderable. Clay Frick induced the bankers to accept a fresh mortgage as security for $76. To meet his this requirement young Frick literally made own money. he ing practically no capital available for bought goods from wholesale merchants in Pittsburgh 55 . Partial payments in cash. if not for all time. Hav the enterprise. thus fixing the sum total of Mellon credits during the bad years at $100. ever.000. resting ing 143 acres upon 471 acres of land.

that the difference in labels. both admirably engraved in 56 . when the money became scarce in 1874. Consequently. to wit: NO. This gratifying situation gave rise to an opportunity of which he promptly. was not glar ingly noticeable. his reputation for prudence and trust worthiness was so well established that continuance of his custom upon any reasonable terms was not only wel comed but sought. FRICK & GO'S MINES IN MERCHANDISE STORE AT 3 DUE BEARER AT OUR ONE DOLLAR BROADFORD. 1874 face of the due bill appeared an emblematical figure of attractive female gleaner in the fields and in the center a picture of husky laborers At the left side of the m wielding pickaxes in a mine. and so like. ingeniously and somewhat au daciously availed himself by constituting his store a vir and issuing his firm's certificates in substitution for the United States currency which had tual clearing house practically disappeared from circulation. The wording was simple. PA. selling for cash. His shrewdly designed Federal were baldly imitative of those which the Government had made familiar during and fol bills lowing the Civil War. Man making pay had no difficulty in ments at stated intervals. and the supply houses were obliged to meet the changed conditions in order to keep their concerns going.Frick the and. shape and color. even typographically. of the same size. though necessarily distinguishable.

ffl u .


She was in her eighty- fourth year when his cousin and partner. Fear she cannot live very long. A bitter blow fell toward the end of the trying year. but soon elsewhere for other purposes. Overton to see Clay and I went to Grandma. ii. and the mere cost of printing the good-looking bills. with the result that business increased materially at the store. she succeeded naturally reliance in his daring adventure. then by the workmen. until presently they constituted the common currency of the entire com munity. had the use of all of the pro-* ceeds received in legal tender from sale of their products. to barring only the small portion required from time time to extend or to expand their credits in Pittsburgh. beginning with the anxious periods of childhood and boyhood and continuing through his aspiring young manhood. Oct. bills These were used primarily in payment of wages. Qct> ^ Came from Uniontown on train. greatly to the satisfaction of the whole salers. at first in purchases at home.A Triumph of Faith and Courage the style affected by the Bureau of the Treasury Depart ment. Abbie. 57 . Aunt ner with Uncle Jacob. there can be no doubt that Grandmother Overholt served as his chief guide and sympathizer and when his grandfather passed away in the critical year of his to a position of main majority. From the day when he first saw light in the little Spring House. Abraham Over- made these entries in his diary: Took din Clay and I went to Overton on horseback. Spent part of afternoon with Grandmother was very poorly. and Frick & Co. holt Tinstman. The reverse side was a plain greenback of the light official shade.

He is very sick* wrote Dr. i. 2. Clay any I for Dr. Clay is very sick with Inflammatory Rheumatism. Was 58 . strained to . Clay not so well today as yesterday. ' Clay is very low. 19. "He wasn't the brood ing kind and never showed much of what he felt but he couldn't seem to smile and his eyes were very sad/' He was ill equipped at the time to bear the blow. 1875. Jan.. power of resisting the malady of his youth waned with the passing of his mainstay. Nov. They don t think he can get well. a little better. 4. sick. Feb. telegraphed noon. Clay still very sick. Tinstman's diary. He did. 3 . Ovcrholt here again. 4. Torn men tally by anxiety over his affairs. Went to church. Jan. Found her very Clay and I went to see sick with little prospect of living many days. f Feb. S. Fuller and Phillips again this after Dixon. began to appear in Mr. Dr. Phillips (Connellsville) to get Dr. Jan. utmost ca pacity by constant need of finding expedients physically wearied by five hours daily on trains and incessant trudg ing of the streets of Pittsburgh. with him most of the day. They say Clay Feb. Was all night at Aunt Abbie's. 17. Thus ended the life er's funeral. Attended Grandmoth was very large. Clay took his loss grievously. then West Newton.Frick the Oct. It of a great and good woman. better. Frank came in the evening.. Clay no -Clay is Jan. Rode from Conon horseback. Grandma died at 5 p. 30.6. not better. but very sick and restless. and his worn to a shadow. and further ominous entries Jan.m. 15. Think he is not as well as he was.Clay came home from Williamsport. Fuller (of Uniontown). Nov. nellsville At Mill Grove. Phillips called to sec him. Jan. Dixon came in the evening. 2. z8. I is in a critical condition. Man Grandmother. 15. Uncle C. They had a consultation.Clay no better.



A Triumph of Faith and Courage
Dixon, Fuller and Phillips were all here in the morn ing. They agreed that he was some better, think he may get well. I was home all day and up with Clay last night.




Clay still improving slowly.


Was with Clay



is still

improving but very

Clay better but not able to sit up yet. Clay not doing very well. Is getting a some, wants to eat.

Feb. 9.



Feb. 14.
Feb. 17.

Washed and dressed Clay and left him feeling better.

Pittsburgh 8

Came A.M.

over from Philadelphia last night. Arrived Spent day there. Home in evening found Clay

Feb. 19.

Clay still improving.

March 9. Clay was at the office for the first time in six weeks. March 10. Clay and I walked up to Morgan's mines. March 12.. Clay and I went to Pittsburgh. C. S. O. was with us. This was Clay's first trip for seven weeks. We talked of con

Company and Morgan and Company. March 14. Clay came to Connellsville on horseback, and I walked home with him (he on horseback). March 2.1. Clay did not get up until after n A.M. He got quite
solidating Frick and
sick and

had to stay in his chair all day.

March Z5- Clay and I went to Pittsburgh on accommodation train. Met Cassius C. Markle with Morgan and Company offer
to organize stock company.

The proposed

consolidation of the

Morgan and Frick

companies did not take place. Clay discovered quickly
that while, during his seven weeks of illness, his


small organization had functioned satisfactorily, the friendly rival concern had become so widely extended

and so deeply involved that he could not see his way clear to shoulder the additional burden without gravely
he had built imperilling the property which

up and now

deemed fairly secure.

Frick the

was a factor in con

Doubtless his enfeebled condition
sideration but in

any case the decision soon proved to have been a wise one. Morgan & Co. went steadily from
bad to worse and the partners were soon driven to last resorts. Clay helped to the extent of his ability by pur
chasing the interests of Mr. Tinstman and Mr. Rist in


Co. and paying all he could raise in cash, but


Morgan was unable

to produce his larger share

and the utter collapse that followed showed unmistakably that, if Clay had made the combination, his resources

would have been wholly inadequate and Frick



would have been engulfed in bankruptcy. But Mr. Tinstman, a true Overholt, was so



being dismayed by even the loss of all he had in the

world that he recorded sententiously in his diary;

Married Cornelia Marklc.

Sept. zy.

Went to West Overton. Party at Clay's house.
firm friends and continued

The two cousins remained
with the

to be mutually helpful through the lean years following,
result that early in the eighties

operating in other fields

and profiting

Mr. Tinstman, from his knowl

edge and prescience, not only retrieved his losses but acquired a handsome fortune from the very industry which seemed to have dragged him to irretrievable ruin.

was four years almost

when room and feebly made his way to the familiar office of Frick & Co. Somewhat possibly to his surprise and much
ness for himself,

to a day, after he began busi Clay Frick emerged from his sick

had builded

surely to his gratification, he quickly discovered that he better than he had "Bills and






A Triumph of Faith and Courage
Accounts Payable' had not diminished, but neither had
they increased materially; creditors had considerately refrained from pressing demands and had granted renew
als willingly; business

of course, unprofitably,

was proceeding peaceably and, as usual; and everybody was unagain.

feignedly glad to see

him out and about

Congratulatory messages from Pittsburgh in particu lar were most reassuring. Not only was his chief and
practically sole asset, credit, unimpaired, but apparently stronger than ever. He could not help feeling that he had


valuable confidence, which in turn promptly be not got confidence in himself. While, of course, he had he was fully established himself as a man of affairs,

way; after all, he was only twenty-five and well, "he went home after a while a little tired, but looking pretty happy; and the next day he "walked on
' '

up to the Morgan mines But the illness which had proved

so nearly fatal


conveyed a useful warning. Disdainful as he was then, and continued through life to be, of restrictions imposed

Na by physicians, he recognized the necessity of giving was ture a chance to aid in restoration of his health. It
a favorable time, in any case, to abridge his activities.

General trade conditions were still very bad and showed no signs of early improvement, national finances were chaotic as a consequence of continuing inflation, railway or destitute of funds and companies were either bankrupt

no use iron and steel concerns, deprived of markets, had
for coke.

time and could Obviously Frick & Co. must bide their

Frick the


well afford to do so while competitors were going to rack and ruin and coal lands were decreasing steadily in
value. If conditions should remain static or

grow worse,

the firm's preservation would be easier without addi tional commitments and charges ; and if they should take
a quick turn for the better, the manager was not likely to forfeit opportunities through inattentiveness. In either
event, the firm had only to retain the advantages already

gained to control the situation. Already, "Connellsville coke, as a term for the best variety, had been supplanted
' '

by Trick coke," a trade mark of
value which


distinct commercial

at the end of half a century, holds

supremacy. Presently, moreover, as doubtless he foresaw to be inevitable, Clay was to reap in part the rewards
of four years of incessant toil and desperate struggle, by becoming the sole owner of the one really "going" con
cern in the district which, unaided, he

had created out

of relatively nothing and held fully prepared to meet in
stantaneously the call for tremendous expansion he never doubted was bound to come.


Content, in these circumstances, to seek physical re cuperation and mental relaxation, Clay spent most of his

daytime during the Summer of 1875 on the back of the horse which he had purchased from Captain Markle for
twenty-five dollars, following his successful sortie for

railway stock options, which had yielded his first tenstrike commission of fifty thousand dollars. If he made
incidental observations of protnising coal lands while he

jogged over the hills, nobody else became the wiser, and he made no purchases or offers. After supper he "tiaed

A Triumph of Faith and Courage
to go over to the office and take a look at the day's ac

counts and then generally dropped into the Tinstmans' to play a game of chess with A. O. and tease Cornelia/'

and then went home to read


time to go to bed.

The enforced respite proved highly beneficial. Before the year ended his health was fully restored, his weight had increased fifteen pounds and open-air exercise had
contributed to his countenance the ruddy hue which never afterward, even while he was recovering from the

shock of attempted assassination, wholly forsook it.

The beginning of 1876, signalizing his twenty-seventh
year, brought a return of



he had

loafed* long enough; so presently, after somewhat pro

longed negotiations, he opened a brand new "Store Day Book and Journal H. Clay Frick' and made this initial



Monday, March 2.0, 1876. store business here this day. Bought out stock, fix tures, etc., from E. H. Reid at invoice price and 10% added.


Amount in



Gave my personal note for same.

Although the store was conducted chiefly for the ac commodation of the neighborhood and the handling of
and petty accounts for the firm, the balance sheet at the end of the year showed holdings of more than three hundred thousand dollars in real estate and

mortgages, representing apparently the proprietor's per sonal acquisitions in addition to those of the firm. En

covering renewals, reductions and transfers of various promissory notes appear, but none of significance



14, 1877,

when "the proceeds

of a note

for $8,400 made

by me" were advanced to Daniel David63

Frick the


son and Alfred Patterson,


order to start their business

properly at Morgan mines/' This apparently served to hold the property and to put the plant into


condition pending resumption of a policy of expansion.

The plan was simple yet ingenious, namely,
position to complete the purchase

to keep in a


start the

only com
revival of

peting ovens in the

district, instantly

upon a

which would produce


seems altogether probable that he could have carried

through this transaction, as usual, on credit but, partly no doubt as a second lesson from his protracted illness,
he decided to
enlist capital instead

of borrowing money,

hoping thereby to obtain the advantage of a useful and
resourceful partnership.


this purpose in view,

he offered and sold an in

terest in the business to

Mr. E. M. Ferguson, a
completed the


capitalist of high standing,


gan investment*' with the proceeds, supplemented by $5,000 on his own account, and on March 1878, regth,

christened the firm


C Frick





He was now,

in his twenty-ninth year, fully equipped in experience, in physical vigor, in manufacturing capacity and in
financial backing, to


comers in his chosen


at the very moment which,

with accurate prevision, had foreseen as most judgment propitious.


He had not long to wait. Financial conditions


out the country had been improving steadily for some time and already manufacturers and business men were
discounting the stabilising effects of resumption of specie

payments on the 64


of the year.


England was



flocked in eager competition to little Broadford where. soft-spoken of few words but of amazing activities. Replacement of streaks of rust with new and heavy rails suddenly became an absolute necessity of the big combinations effected under the lead of the Pennsyl vania and Vanderbilt systems. Iron and steel factories could not resume operations rapidly enough to meet the demands. in turn. set were filling beyond the Mississippi. whose restive resident tlers. no alert. Pittsburgh cried out to Connellsville for coke. Bohemia. at a plain desk in his modest office. He disclosed the condition and expectations of the 65 . surely than unpretentiously conscious of his com plete mastery of the situation. Italy and Poland were sending the vanguard of the great army of laborers soon to the manufacturing plants. coke. Nearly five hundred railroads sold under foreclosure of mortgages during the preceding three years had been reorganized under plans which provided funds for recon struction. no less than purchasing agents. only to find a single firm producing eighty per cent of the entire output and the only one capable of quick and tremendous expansion. Ironmasters. coke.A Triumph of Faith and Courage peopling the Middle West. young man less keen-eyed. Furnaces yawned for fuel. Pitts burgh and Cleveland were pushing Buffalo from tenth to fill thirteenth place in population. calmly sat a sturdy. immigration which had been severely checked in 1873 reflected the resuscitation of common faith up the vast grain territories Renewal upon a large scale of abroad in the future of the States. Austro-Hungary.

On the evening of December i^th. three.Frick the firm Man all alike. with entire frankness to one and The pre vious week's output had been so week's would be so further increases many many more from additional tons. there was at the no stock on hand for sale moment he would make . the salesman. ''knew his business/ 1 Already the price had advanced materially from the suddenly then to dollars. his thirtieth birth day. steadily from rapid con struction already under way. Clay Frick dropped into the store on his way home from a prolonged game of chess following supper with his cousins. no less than the manufacturer. ingly finally to five dollars a ton. lighted it thoughtfully. the plant would com prise nearly one would follow thousand ovens within a year. he would sell all coke as produced "at the market/' That was all. the next ovens. it now leaped two three-fifths was net profit. took a look at the books preliminary to the annual accounting. bought a fresh five-cent Havana cigar on credit. as reported five years previously by Mr. employes numbered nearly a thousand and car-loads shipped daily nearly a hundred before the year 1879 was ended. Clearly. 66 . of which to unprofitable ninety cents a ton. strolled around placidly the corner to the Washabaugh House and went to bed* He had made his million. Corey to Judge Mellon. Both production and construction were pushed to the very top notch of capacity. again somewhat hesitat to and four. more than two thousand acres of land had been acquired. no discrimination between purchasers and no contracts for future delivery.

but rather as segregated units profiting from arduous 67 . notably in England. brisk. the head of the firm concentrated his energies upon the art of organization whose mastery was destined to constitute the basis of his subsequent achieve ments. had never been rec it ognized in commercial affairs although for centuries Great Rome. THE wages were satisfactory to the miners and profits were equally gratifying to the firm. so recently sleepy and despondent. Frick & Co Orders were plentiful and business . the little village of Broadford resounded from daylight to dusk with the clanking of freight cars fetch ing building materials and carrying to market every ton of precious coke that could be produced. was best of all. was stirred by unceasing activities of farmers and tradesmen. The potency of this mighty force. C. the whole coun try round. and.V Interlude year 1880 opened auspiciously for H. He had little to go upon. Free now for the first time from financial exigencies and strengthened in both resources and confidence by his partnership. except in military undertakings and to a limited extent in railway operation. not a cloud could be discerned upon the sky of widening prosperity. of had been fully appreciated by the Church industries had flourished abroad.

whose essential attributes required only expansion to assure the ultimate success of the gigantic steel corporation. He had become well ac quainted with Baltimore and Philadelphia and had made fleeting excursions as far north as New York and south to Washington. of course. and the originator of the marvelous system saw his way clear to take his first holiday. the various factors of mining. In any case. at that early day. The West possessing no lure for a divert ing jaunt of pleasure. came about that one morning early in May Clay Frick appeared at the Mellon banking house upon so it And a quest quite different from that which had first drawn him to that financial havecu He was not now calling 68 . nothing at all. That the eye of this young man's mind should have been among the first. We can only conclude that this was one of those rare instances of a correct theory being educed contrarily from experimental practice. Of those available within range of his acquaintance but one seemed to meet all requirements. to perceive the full efficacy of the methodic process whose development has given to America its present world supremacy must be attributed probably to sheer instinct. if not indeed the very first. when Springtime came. manufacture. he determined to go to Europe if a congenial traveling companion could be found.Frick the Man endeavors than as aggregations skillfully blended into to attain highest integral agencies designed primarily efficiency through eliminations of waste. Observation surely contributed little and experience. transportation and selling had been welded into a smoothly-working machine.

the Judge turned to his son and said 4 : 'That young ful in liable. He is very care making statements. personalities. . ripened rapidly into a friend without ship and virtual partnership which continued. had evinced exceptional aptitude for financial management. energetic. but so cautious in his dealings with others disposed to take chances that I doubt if he would make a successful banker. When the former had accomplished the purpose of his visit and had left for return to Broadford. Judge Mellon had with drawn from business in 1878 and had installed as his suc bank his son Andrew.Interlude upon a stranger to solicit aid denied but upon a friend to which he feared might be proffer a suggestion which he hoped would be accepted. Acquaintanceship. even before at taining his majority. break or rift. resource ful. That his only danger. to mutual advantage of amazing proportions. for more than forty years. somewhat impetuous and inclined to be daring on his own account. though more distinctively sup plementary. The four years' difference in age and experience received tacit recognition from the beginning. Clay was twenty-six and An cessor in the drew twenty-two at the time of their first meeting in 1876. he will go far unless he over-reaches. enhanced by mutual attraction of two somewhat similar. man has great promise. who. always exact and wholly re He is also able. partly as the consequence of a slight incident which tended to fix the respective personal attitudes of each to the other. industrious. If he con tinues along his own line as he has is begun. self-confident.

asserted its predominance. but for a moment only. derived from instinct and per fected by cultivation. Slightly awestruck by the spectacle and overwhelmingly appalled by the prospect. arriving at his lodgings early in the afternoon. he gulp- ingly wished himself back to what had become largely a mechanical rendition of Spencerian ontology.Frick the Very soon after the Man ' two young men had scrutinized each other inquiringly. owing to fail ing eye-sight. of which Addison's Essays and Macaulay's History of England were the most conspicuous. the nerliness had not been absorbed charming courtesy. Some weeks previously the philosophic Judge had become deeply interested in the publication of Herbert Spencer's novel reflections and. What. 70 . while closely perusing Chesterfield's Letters to his Son. The admonitions of the master of man in vain. may readily be imagined. instantly. had drawn so heavily during the long eve nings upon the dutiful patience and modulated voice of his son that Andrew had gleefully welcomed a respite. must have been his emotions upon dis covering his prospective playfellow confronting a table full of books. Pleasant 1 ' * ' and. was surprised to find his host engrossed in study. Andrew accepted an invitation to the English term 'week 'spend Saturday and Sunday* end being then unknown in Pittsburgh at Mt. that became noteworthy in Henry really Clay Frick. surprised and somewhat dismayed for the excellent reason that 11 'heavy reading had not been comprised in his joys of c anticipation. then. and Andrew Mel lon breathed forthwith the atmosphere of frank friend liness untouched by affectation.

Thence they jaunted. when the leader delighted his companions by producing an American flag from. some hiding place and waving it over their heads while they performed the customary rite.Interlude It is nevertheless an interesting circumstance that. Belfast. referred to his closest friend of their years. after three years of close and continuous application at his desk. Andrew readily assented to this thoughtful provi sion of entertainment enhanced by the desirability of 1 having "some one along to do the talking/ The other was an older man. Edin- . as and his brother Richard. the most distinguished financier of his full during the time invariably addressed his comrade as "Mr. One of those suggested was a popular young man increase the party who wrote poetry. he readily arranged for an absence of four months. having his affairs in perfect order as usual. reached the Blarney Stone on the Fourth of July. the young banker eagerly wel comed the suggestion of a trip abroad and. to Dublin. no more loquacious than themselves and commonly considered a dull companion. Glasgow. with unfailing affection ate note. as toys 00 a lark. land Queenstown in excellent form. So the party of four sailed joyously in June and. Frick/' while the latter. Naturally. He could and only ac perceive no advantage from this addition there quiesced doubtfully upon a vague assurance that was a ing at "special reason" for the inclusion. regardless 11 "the Mellon boys. two-score years of intimate relationship which ensued. sang gleefully and told amusing stor ies. Presently Clay proposed to by inviting two acquaintances to join them.

This . and presently crossed to Paris for a brief sojourn. Clay and Andrew returned home in October. C. One effect of the initial trip was arousal of the former's interest in the other sex as a consequence of his admiration of the attractive daughter of an American banker in Paris. not only invigorated mentally and physically but so pleased with their experience and cemented attachment that they toured Europe together many times. But the inclination persisted. as his young friend The season of 1 880-81 was noteworthy for social activ ities in the Iron City and the popularity of Andrew Mel lon and the growing fame of Clay Frick brought invita tions to many functions. the older companion conceived the idea of extending his tour around the world. incited by growing wanderlust. however. he was approaching was soon to learn. seeing all Man by "a dash the sights.Frick the burgh. to have been only tentative and was soon tacitly ignored by mu tual assent. upon his return. resulting in an under standing which proved. thirty and the question of future do mesticity called for grave attention. of which the very first of impor tance proved to be a landmark in personal history. Meanwhile. moreover. Frick amusement of the young banker who then comprehended ' the mysterious 'special reason" for fetching the owner of the property along. and the leader of the expedition gra ciously facilitated the execution of the bold project by purchasing his coal lands in the Connellsville region. followed across the continent" to Venice. & Co*. and the greatly to the advantage of H. their objective point. London.

The proverbial sufficed. the two young 73 .Interlude was a reception attended by all of the elite and among the first in somewhat conscious but quite undismayed their finest raiment. his acquaintanceship was . at the appointed hour.?' She was. belying his reputation for reticence. ' slight. which was on the fol graciously granted. ' 1 want you to introduce me. an older person. found himself in an eager conversation which ended with a request for permis sion. would be more such a one and succeeded. after scribed making their obeisances after the manner pre by the great Lord Chesterfield himself. in the center of an animated group and. waiting patiently. 'first sight had It was not quite clear that the permittance comprised another but. to call * 1 ' lowing Sunday afternoon. yielding finally to his friend's insistence and his own pardonable curiosity. "Daughter of Asa P. Presently the observant younger became conscious that his companion's penetrat ing eyes were fixed upon a most charming young woman. better known. impressive he would try to find with the result that in a few moments Clay. barely out of her teens. Andrew consented to "stand by" aad. the youngest. in ensconc ing themselves in an embrasure from which they could scan the brilliant assemblage. time. he soon heard a whisper: 'There is the handsomest girl in the room. were the two friends who lost no to arrive. Andrew demurred. "Do you know who she is?" He did. She was Miss Adelaide Howard Childs. besides.

When the hour struck for departure Clay Frick realized that the delicate task confronting him was more difficult than any he had ever essayed. and were entertained at midday dinner at the exclusive Windsor Hotel by Mr. a very pretty wed was universally recognized as a most successful highly suitable match of the industrialist of his community with the beautiful and accom on both sides plished daughter of a distinguished New England family. and New finally York. Washington. eyed each other thoughtfully dur the at the end of which the host sprang a sur ing repast. The two gentlemen. the ladies prise upon by adding to an exuberant toast the announcement that Mr. the other they met for the first time.Frick the Man men. Philadelphia and Boston were duly visited in leisurely fashion. perceived Miss Adelaide conversing placidly with her elder sister. with self whom presently the youthful banker found him chatting while the two most concerned strolled about the place. he was rewarded by acceptance of an engagement ring. and three this very fact months later. and all relatives were pleased . but enhanced his determination. Andrew Carnegie and his revered mother. years in the It 1881. A moment of silence ensued and 74 then the old Scots- . one voluble and hilarious. crossing the lawn of the Childs residence. where the happy couple occupied an elegant suite in the famous Fifth Avenue Hotel. Baltimore. on December 15 th. and after three long months of patient and persistent wooing. and courteous. Frick and himself had entered reticent into partnership. each of whom It was a noteworthy occasion. ding took place.

and thus casually and oddly was heralded the opening of a new chapter in their own and many other lives. that will be a fine ' thing for Mr. what will be the gain to us ?' Gaily her son reassured her while the guests quietly prepared for departure. Frick. 75 . drily: recovering from her amazement.Interlude woman. but Andrew. remarked "Surely.

indeed.VI Enter the Carnegies ""^T ~^f TT if TFHIIJE Henry Clay Prick was / c lifting his m Y ke company to a pre-eminent position. opening an office downtown. he not only weathered the storm but. resourcefulness. and popular ity.. In any case. tact. his senior by eight % /m / T Thomas Morrison Carnegie was achiev* n Although his elder brother years. there can be no doubt that the value of the Carnegie properties would have suffered severely from the finan cial stress of the time. Andrew. with the aid of his sagacious partner. Jr. still retained stock control of the Carnegie con cerns. skill. his directive interest became incidental to other activities when he moved from Pittsburgh to New York in 1867 and. chiefly for the Pennsylvania Railroad. and Thomas conducted the iron manufacturing throughout the critical panic period. when only twenty-seven years old. engaged in con struction work and the marketing of bonds. disregarded the opposition of his brother and on his own account joined . Henry Phipps. the younger would surely have shared the credit for placing the name Carnegie at the head o steel manufacture. who had been his playmate as a schoolboy. But for the overshadowing effects of the elder's extra ordinary fame and his own untimely decease. but for his energy. like triumphs in the steel industry.

were incorporated in 1881 in the new firm of Carnegie Brothers Co. Mr. had formed an ac quaintanceship affording mutual commercial advantage and personal gratification. Meanwhile. and his opin ion on commercial questions was valued above that of much older and more experienced men. Andrew Carnegie per sonally owned a clear majority. out of which in 1874 sprang into being the big Edgar Thomson works. & with $5. as well as aspirations. M. The two had attained success along similar lines while still in the early thirties and each admired.000. in his remarkable history of the steel company. Frick in the following striking tribute to one who. : cautious but progressive in his ideas. and just in all kb dealings. Limited. T. as buyer and of coke. by shrewd manipulation. Quick and keen in his perceptions. seller respectively Frick. which soon surpassed those of the Carnegies in valuation and earning capacity and. Thomas Carnegie and Mr. it transpired. James Howard Bridge reflected the mature judgment of Mr. he gave to his company that which His death in corporations are habitually lacking. He was a man of sterling integrity.000 capital. for reasons already noted. of which. 77 .. Although Mr. It can scarcely be doubted that. He had remarkable judgment. Carnegie was the older by four years. faithful to his engagements. William Coleman. in a specula tive undertaking. and it was a common saying in Pittsburgh that his word was better than some men's bond. when the deal had been consummated.Enter the Carnegies with his father-in-law. Carnegie's abilities were too numerous and complex to be summed up in a sentence. respected and trusted the other. a conscience. in common. was de prived of just recognition Mr. in experience their ages were approximately the same and they had many attributes.

C. great and small.Frick the sociates. Ltd. that the two. brought this project to a head and the terms of the 'partnership' announced by Mr. as follows : Andrew Carnegie Thomas M. resulting instantly in Carnegie Brothers . i88x. was a loss not only to his as but to the whole business world in Pittsburgh.. Ferguson Walton Ferguson Carnegie Bros. Andrew Carnegie at the luncheon in ' ' the Windsor Hotel were finally agreed upon while Mr. should have conceived the idea of a closer relationship. of which $i. rich and poor. The amalgamation of the steel companies. Co. as recorded on May jth. & 33>5oo 40. at the early age of forty-three. The *H.500 M. That young Carnegie's estimate of the younger Frick would have corresponded to this appraisal of himself there can be no doubt. To this day all who knew him. therefore. C.ooo was issued in 40. & Co becoming by far the largest purchaser of fuel simulta neously with the increasing need of additional capital for further expansion of coke-producing facilities. workman and master.000 shares 78 . H. It was but natural.ooo. Frick was on his wedding journey. Frick & Co. Frick E. as a consequence of harmonious cooperation in their business dealings. Frick Coke Company* was formed to take 4 ' over the firm's assests and liabilities and to provide fresh capital through the sale of stock.000 shares of $50 par value to original holders. revere his memory. i . H. Man 1886. Carnegie Henry Phipps Jr.000 shares 500 500 680 660 660 1. C.

of which as we now stand. liens assumed amount ing to $zi4. no less than 946. which could not fail to assure a market and stabilize the business. 2. approved.500 shares allotted to the old firm had been divided in thirds between the two Fergusons and Mr. y assumption of the old firm's indebtedness by the stronger corporation.000 applied to new purchases. 11. Carnegie group.0. 1883. 13 th 1883. we shall have 79 .846. the equivalent of zo per cent on the entire capital. Whereupon Mr. and association with his largest customer. The month of March showed a further reduction of $44. The wisdom of his course was demonstrated promptly.065 tons of coke were sold.3.5. Frick. My dear Mr. in his first letter to the senior written by his own hand. Frick. Frick had reduced his percentage of interest in the property from 3 3 z to 2-9^ per cent.100 ovens in the Con- nellsville region proper.000 liens and $2. but Andrew. In the first fourteen months of operation.500.ooo were paid and $44. Frick urged enlistment of additional capital to provide immediate expansion. demurred.000. leaving only $54. on the ground.654. greatly enhanced credit for purposes of expan sion.000 cash provided. 4. By Carnegie: the end of this season there will be 10. and Thomas Carnegie. Thus Mr.8th. in New York. set forth the situation succinctly and frankly in these words : Aug. but this he was will ing to do in consideration of the $32. the net profits exceeded $400. Frick.000 was invested in new properties. the actual ownership of shares stood: Fergu sons.Enter the Carnegies After the 33.000 of indebtedness to be met during the succeeding ten months. In these circum stances Mr. ending on Feb ruary 2.

In that view.000. The C. Co. has been with the consent holder in our Company abilities of your brother. I am free to say. are good in every re spect good coal good improvements and. neither can it be bought at present and handled at a profit I do not think we will ever see the time when coke properties can be bought cheaper. They were not built to sell. Our trade is large and steadily growing. HL C. There is no industry today wherein the demand so nearly equals the supply and the demand in new channels is increasing rapidly. is it not wise to have a good strong party join us in increasing our to such ties at capital an extent as will leave us comparatively free of debt? If we increase to $3 . Our office expense will be about the same in conducting the busi now is. We do not have coke for our orders. that will give us money sufficient to pay for C. Yours very truly.000 less capitalized at. and I do not see why we should not handle as large a proportion of outside coke. but larger. Together their producing capacity is equal to ours not quite so many ovens. well located. Taking it for granted that it is desirable to acquire these proper the prices at which we have them optional. C. Everything that has been done so far. in production operated in common with than ours is So in fine/together equal to ours and with 1400 acres of more coal for $500. and owned and ours about as cheaply operated. and with his approval. Outside of desire to follow and accept your views as the my largest stock I have great admiration for your acknowl and edged your general good judgment.000. 80 . entire and about ness as it all we need pay on Hutchinson for five years.000 less money. Hutchinson properties are the best outside of & what we have. Fourteen hundred acres of such coal cannot be bought for less than $150 per acre. and would much prefer to defer to your views in the matter of the values of the prop erties in question and the propriety of increasing our stock I shall have to differ with you and I think the future will bear me out. or $3 50. I do not like the tone of your letter.* FricktheMan but one-tenth. Rue*. you have a plant with as large producing capacity as ours costing $850. which is no inconsiderable item. G. C. what is of no small importance. so that to keep our position we must do something towards securing new properties. Co. G.

but Mr. at first glance. 81 . Obviously the Carnegies could be more helpful as partners than outsiders if their good faith could be safely assumed and. four and five years for the same. and he finally assented to the in crease in stock. Carnegie had already was interested. Carnegie's avidity for actual stock control of every company in which he seems strange. thus ena bling us to pay up that million of Frick & Co. his transactions with the younger brother were convincing. upon this point. giv ing us your paper at three. increase and buy from us $500. that Mr." This was a shrewd appeal to Mr. Carnegie may have the discovery that his felt at partner held tenaciously to his convictions seems to have been offset by the tribute to his new own sagacity. become the shares It largest stockholder through purchase of from the Fergusons and could readily obtain more at a price whenever he should see fit to do so. But Mr. To this Mr. You will then be the owner of one-half of Frick Coke Co.000.000 of Frick Coke Co. Frick should have made it. which will have over should have all eight thousand acres of coal and It about three thousand ovens. stock. "What I think you should do/ 'he wrote on November 1 3th /'is to agree that the Frick Coke Company purchase our interests in those properties for $600. does seem to me that we of our coke interests consolidated. Frick had no objection.Enter the Carnegies Whatever annoyance Mr. Prick's appetite for expansion and consolidation was insatiable and before the year ended he proposed that the company purchase the hold ings of himself and associates in properties which had not been included in the original transaction.

and a very thorough 'that we could not get investigation of the question led us to the conclusion that the Frick Coke Company had not only the best coal and coke property. Frick himself a man with a positive genius for its management. on without a supply of the fuel essential to the smelting of pig iron. ceptional man. when the num ber of ovens So the arrangement was made had increased five-fold and the output had leaped to 82 six from 1. Prick's unquestioned con trol. What he most desired at the moment was immediate enlargement and consolidation of all his benefit his holdings in order to enable concentration of energies as the him to apply that complete to regard which he had come key of great success. Mr. In i88z (3) we purchased one half of the stock of this company. could imagine nothing more favorable to his concerns than the acquisition of two vital essentials a virtual monopoly and an ex years later. "We ' found/' he wrote many with the slight inaccuracies peculiar to age and impaired memory. He had proved his ability by starting as a poor railway clerk and succeeding. under Mr. for his part.000 thousand tons per day." along the lines suggested and the company. and by subsequent purchases from other holders we became owners of the great bulk (?) of the shares.Frick the Man The general advantage bound to accrue from such enor mous expansion as he had now begun to visualize would unchanged percentage of interest proportion ately in any case. but that it had in Mr. both prospered and grew until 1887.000 to 5. . Carnegie.



The labor unions. Frick. accepted the decision. to a Board of Arbitration which pronounced the workmen's demands excessive and upheld the owners.Enter the Carnegies Then came the workers. . acting in by the labor unions and the unison. and Mr. Frick was the leading spirit. Early in 1887 the coke operators of the entire Connellsville district proposed for the ensuing year a wage scale which the miners refused to accept and by agreement the whole matter was referred operators. but the local lodges refused to abide by the decision and called a strike which the of the Knights of Labor promptly proclaimed illegal. had died in 1886. duly author ized. the ordered complete sur render to the strikers and resumption of operation upon Company the terms demanded Unfortunately for the management. at the very moment when the men were in convention and showing directors of the Frick signs of yielding. trouble. Frick 83 . whose sympathy at least would have been with his friend. Nevertheless the men went out and the struggle officers began. to the dismay of the owners and the amaze ment of Mr. Thomas Carnegie. destroying machinery and blowing up the works with dynamite. but separately. Suddenly. and with the miners and their sympathizers brutally assaulting non-union men who wanted to work. with the operators standing their ground firmly and unanimously behind a small committee of which Mr. not merely between owners and among both proprietors and wage-earners which afforded the preliminary test of Henry Clay Prick's quality as a fighting champion of property rights.

ing the policy of Mr. which had already banked seven blast furnaces and were men aced with complete stoppage of iron production from lack of fuel. having failed to convince his partners of the correctness 84 . Even more distressing than the personal mortifi cation. Walker. may safely be as sumed.. as directors. is immaterial. personally favored the action taken cannot be ignored. as commonly believed. They naturally held their obligation to their of primary consideration and as out own companies weighing their responsibility. chairmen of the two Carnegie companies. was his apprehension that surrender would serve only to invite vastly greater labor difficulties in the near future. to the coke company. That the latter acquiesced in revers is certain. Phipps and Mr. constituting a small minority of the Board. The chief factors in control of the Board were Mr. but. Frick but the fact that both Mr. who was in Scotland at the time on his honey moon. Jr. Frick felt deeply humiliated by such . Their reasons were plain. Henry Phipps. they were within their rights in overriding their President and. who were men unaccus tomed to yield their own convictions.Frick the Man and the two Fergusons. Whether. they did not feel bound by his engagements with other operators That Mr. were helpless . ation and regretted for the joined moment repudi that he had ever with or trusted the Carnegies. John Walker. morally. Prolongation of the strike steel would be disastrous to the two companies. they acted in pursuance of a peremptory order cabled by Mr. Technically. Carnegie. and Mr. such as he had never before experienced.

Enter the Carnegies
of his judgment, on


13 th

he warned them, and

through them Mr. Carnegie, of his personal determina tion, in a letter written by his own hand to the follow
ing effect:


13 th, 1887.

Henry Phipps, Jr., John Walker, and others. Gentlemen: I cannot honorably carry out your policy in regard to this com pany, and beg to tender my resignation as President. Having temporized with our employes and made concession after concession to satisfy them and largely in your interest, and against
the interest and judgment of
all other coke producers, and finally prevailing on them to agree to arbitration and decision having been rendered in our favor, I think that, cost what it may, we should


start our works until our employes resume wages, but inasmuch as you have large interests depending on our works being operated I do not feel like standing in the way of you managing the property as your judgment and

abide by


and not

at the old

interests dictate.







upon their oars, each earnestly hoping that the other would capit ulate, until June yth when, as in honor bound, after hav
ing outlined the situation to the other owners, to enable them to safeguard their interests as they might deem


parties to the controversy then rested

and having notified them of his own intention, Mr. Frick called a meeting of the Board and resigned peremp

and simultaneously submitted the following com munication addressed to Messrs. Phipps and Walker:

June jth, 1887. Henry Phipps, Jr. John Walker, et al. Gentlemen; As you hold a majority of the stock and are entitled to control in the Frick Coke Company, and in view of what has passed between

on the subject,

I feel

compelled to vacate my position as its Presi

dent. I therefore enclose, herewith,

my resignation.

Frick the



I accompany it with this my serious protest against the you propose to take regarding the pending strike. I am satis that it must occasion heavy loss to the Coke Company. Besides


the loss occasioned by granting the men's present unreasonable de it will only lead to still more unreasonable demands in the

near future.


loss to the

Coke Company may be


more than


up, so far as you are concerned, by gains in your steel inter ests, but I object to so manifest a prostitution of the Coke Company's
interests in order to

promote your steel interests. Whilst a majority of the stock entitles you to control,



that it confers the right to manage so as to benefit your interests in other concerns at the loss and injury of the Coke Company in

which I am interested.
Very respectfully yours H. C. FRICK.

"Matters/' he wrote to Mr. Ferguson, "came to a crisis today. Things have been pointing that way for

men, at their con vention on Monday, would decide to resume work at the old wages, but they did not do so. The conventions,
however, at this writing, are still in session and they may do so yet. The Carnegies, however, got restless and

several days. I felt quite sure that the

made up their minds that they would do anything to get
the works started, so I insisted that they accept my resig

nation at once. This they did this afternoon, and elected


as President in

my place. I handed in the res
which were accepted,

ignations of yourself and brother,

and Mr John Walker was elected to
cies; the other, they said would be

one of the vacan
a day or two.

filled in

"Everything passed
negie crowd that

off pleasantly


I told

the Car

I would do everything I could to clean the business up and put it in proper shape. I made them the enclosed proposition/


Enter the Carnegies
Messrs. Carnegie Brothers

& Co., Limited,

^ une 7th >


Regarding my interest in the Frick Coke Company and its kin dred Companies, I will sell you the same at the same valuation we paid the Messrs. Ferguson, with interest from same date, as paid to them, payable as follows: Fifty thousand dollars ($50,000.00)
thousand dollars ($50,000.00) every six (6) months interest payable semi-annually, and to be secured by the stocks hereby agreed to be sold. Or I will take such a pro


until paid,



portion of the Frick Coke Company property as we may agree upon, its share of the debt; for instance, the Standard Mines prop


its interest

in the United Coal

& Coke Company,

and the

Mount Pleasant Water Company.
If we cannot agree on valuations, I will leave it to three disinter ested persons chosen in the usual way; and if that property is allot ted to me I should like an assignment to me of the North Chicago

Rolling Mill

Company contract.

propositions are open for your acceptance until June i5th next, and, if either is accepted, to be fully closed by July ist, next.


Very respectfully yours, H. C. FRICK.

Thus, with characteristic thoroughness and fairness, though surely not without a heartache, Henry Clay
Frick did

within his power to make complete his severance from the splendid property, to the building of

which he had given seventeen of his

best creative years.

The differences of opinion which resulted in a change of
management fortunately produced no

serious animosi

Dignity and restraint characterized the conduct of both parties throughout the controversy and no running

were left to be healed.
Probably Mr. Car87

But Mr. Prick's offer to sell his interest upon obviously

low and easy terms was not accepted.

Frick the


negie had not expected the young man to burn all of his bridges; possibly he did not fancy the best equipped man
in the business as a potential rival of the company which

he had created; in any event., the dullest, not to mention one of the shrewdest, of minds could hardly have failed
to perceive the merits of a Fabian policy.
ently the other operators

And when pres

had won

their battle, despite

the Carnegie defection, and the Carnegie companies found

themselves burdened with


per cent higher wages

than their competitors, thus wholly confirming Mr. Frick s anticipation , one can readily understand why Mr

Carnegie's attitude became distinctly propitiatory.


July zznd, Mr. Frick, accompanied by his wife,

two young


the mother and


and Mrs. and Miss Childs, of Mrs. Frick, sailed for Europe

and, upon reaching London, found this cordial note

awaiting him


*" S Welcome to Britain's Isle, Of course you will all come and spend a week with us. It's superb Come and see what one gets in Scotland these sum mer days.



Just off this morning, ten in all, for three days coaching tour. Elaine the happiest man you ever saw. Let me hear your move ments. Can take you all in any time.


Kind regards

to Mrs. Frick and sister in

which Louise [Mrs.

Carnegie] heartily joins.


Arrangements having been made, however, for im mediate continuance of their journey, acceptance was
not feasible and the party proceeded forthwith to the


Enter the Carnegies

A second request of like tenor was made in

September to the following effect

September ^th, 1887,

My dear Mr. Frick
to visitors.


H. P. [Mr Phipps]


me you can spare a few days about i^th

Come ahead. Shall be so glad to have Mrs. Frick and her and yourself and any others of your party.

We hope you will

find Scotland in fine trim but we can't expect

July weather in September so don't expect Wire day and train.

to be always dry.

Oct. Can't you come with us? Splendid ship

and captain.

Yours always

Regards to Mrs. Frick in which Louise joins, also sends same to you.

Mr. Carnegie seems to have been misinformed by Mr. Phipps respecting the movements of the travellers and it

was forwarded from London reaching Mr. Frick in Ham

The inconvenience of changing plans made


sary another declination for the time, but the visit
finally paid before the families returned to



The way having been thus opened,

overtures from

Messrs. Phipps and Walker, authorized by Mr. Carnegie,

found a ready response and early in January, 1888, Mr. Frick was duly re-elected President of the H. C. Frick

Coke Co.,

to the great relief and gratification of all con

cerned, not excluding the competing operators who


confident that they would not suffer again from what

they had regarded as a breach of faith.

Mr* Carnegie no longer questioned the wisdom of the prick policy of expansion on a large scale and made the
on February i8th, completeness of his conversion plain

Frick the


when upon

receipt of

news of a fresh acquisition

he cabled from Christiania

Frick hearty congratulations splendid must get options other don't be afraid, want all. properties promptly or too late,

An active correspondence quickly developed between

two men, Mr. Frick constantly making

reports and

outlining fresh projects, often by his

own hand, and Mr.

Carnegie responding with words of encouragement usu ally scribbled in pencil upon scraps of paper and the backs
of envelopes. Nearly every communication closed with
jottings like these:

You can't justly estimate what a tremendously big man you arc. Perhaps some day you will realize that you are a much bigger man than Prest of P. R. R. Take supreme care of that head 'of yours. It is wanted again. Ex pressing my thankfulness that I have found THE MAN, I am always
Yours, A.C. *F is a marvel

' '



all Fs.


Prick's prediction that the Carnegie settlement

of the strike in 1887,


against his protest,


serve only to fetch fresh demands,



pectedly early in August, 1889,

when all of the Connells-

stopped work. The miners not only allowed nothing for the ix>^ per cent higher wages paid by the Frick Company but cleverly made that schedule the basis
for further advances along the line


gauged to put


workmen on

the same plane. Frankly confessing that the strike came as a complete surprise and "led one to

lose almost all faith'

in the company's unappreciative employes, Mr. Frick, in his report to Mr. Carnegie, then

abroad, could not resist the impulse to add significantly:


Enter the Carnegies
The men seemed to have made up their minds not to return to work under any circumstances nor at any wages until all of the men in the region returned to work at the same wages. They had before them the experience of the Frick Coke Company men get ting an advance in 1887, the men of other operators having been
kept out and having had to return at the old wages, thus creating a demoralization in their ranks and resulting in almost every oper
ator paying different wages.

But the union had chosen shrewdly a time when stop
page of all furnaces for even so much as a fortnight would
be disastrous; so there was nothing for it but to consent promptly to a 12. per cent increase continuing to February


when a new general scale was to be agreed upon
a second time, as

for a year.

Mr. Frick was not caught napping

the miners quickly discovered upon repeating their tac tics pending a renewal of this contract. The coke bins

were well


and the

steel business


so dull that

the Carnegie companies had only to raise prices slightly to reduce orders to suit their convenience. The Frick

Company was

fully prepared for a siege and, accepting

the issue forced upon

calmly proceeded to fetch non

union workers into


The enraged


and and

their sympathizers adopted a policy of terrorism
' '

"the whole region was given over to rioting, arson and but to no avail murder,

There was no interference with the President this time

and no4 effective pressure could be brought to bear upon him. Gradually, under the compelling force of public
opinion, the County authorities intervened sternly on behalf of law and order, shooting to kill and actually

92 . and mining was resumed of the union. upon the peaceably. without recognition company's own terms.Frick the killing. until at Man the end of three months the rioters had been driven out of the region. which incidentally proved to be eminently satisfactory to the miners.

"THE MAN" whom CONVINCED vain to effect Frick. was that the business had outgrown the management to such an extent that conditions had become chaotic. consolidation of the n harmonious segregated units into an effective. secondly. Carnegie's majority of 55^ per cent. only Phipps equalling the holdings to Mr. a two per cent interest in Carnegie Brothers & Co. second and of Mr. sound basis. with the result that in January. immense enlargement along safe whole and. Carnegie personally. the "coke king" acquired.VII "The Man" in Steel in 1887 by the happenings and 1888 of the ''genius for management'* of Mr. lines upon a many 93 . This interest was increased by the same process at various times during the next three years. 1889. and became Chairman of the firm. Obviously the pressing necessity was. and offered him a partnership. What and practically all he did realize. as a consequence of casual observation.. Mir. He had never anticipated engaging in steel manufacture and was ignorant of its details. with money loaned to him by Mr. The new Chairman made haste slowly but surely. at the expiration of which it amounted to per cent. Carnegie concluded that he was he had been seeking in a sadly needed reorganization of the steel forces. first.

- had quietly sold nearly one-half of his holdings during the year and Mr. The financial condition of the properties revealed by the balance sheet was not encouraging.900. in net profits An unsuspected slump ooo in 1887 to $1. All de pended upon two factors. Mr.000 in 1886 and $3 . The time seemed propitious for sale of the properties and Mr. higher prices from increased demand and lower costs from efficient management. from $^. determined to take advantage of it. Phipps acqui esced for somewhat reluctantly and the elder partner sailed England on a selling mission but for some reason.441 . But the task was so great and the ramifications so many that painstaking acquire ment of accurate knowledge of all phases was absolutely essential and. Carnegie.000 in 1888 was most disquieting to the chief partners Foreseeing this outcome. convinced that the rally was only temporary. profiting from his invaluable experience. 94 . problem as a requisite preliminary to any single move toward de entire he began an intensive study of the velopment.900. Phipps . Fortunately these essentials came into play simultane ously and before the middle of the year 1889 had been reached profits were showing a marked advance. Both felt that the extreme limit of earning capacity might have been reached in 1887 and that the appalling break in 1888 only presaged a steady and irresistible shrinkage. Mr.Frick the Man No other kind of work could have appealed so strongly to his imaginative ambition. Carnegie would probably have done likewise but for the necessity of retaining an actual jority for controlling ma and trading purposes.

"The Man" in Steel possibly because his price seemed too high or because investors recalled that fifteen years before he had sold to them $6. Being interested in manufacturing keeps us within touch of the world and its affairs instead of being on the shelf. who wrote to him from Dresden on November ist. 1889: With Mr. Of course I am anxious that you should not be worried by the business only pleasantly interested. or both. Carnegie early in February evinced a desire revive an old dispute over a matter of no great im portance with the Pennsylvania Railroad. If a sale had been made for a sum reasonably based upon earnings and prospects. Roberts that there is no legal liability/' an anticipated opinion in which he did not concur. have obtained for his Mr. Phipps. of new and delicate relations between Chief Stockholder and Chairman was not aus to Mr. Frick at the head. Carnegie could hardly share more than one-tenth of the amount which he received twelve years later from the Morgan syndicate. greatly to his own dis appointment and to the relief of Mr. at asking the firm's lawyers But Mr. despite his own certainty that "the narrow legal minds that led it into a mess at first will no doubt assure Mr. bankers manifested no railroad bonds and the project failed. Frick demurred to interpose if certain conditions should arise in 95 Mr.000. I have no fear as to receiving a good return upon our capital. .000 of proved to interest which subsequently be worthless. Meanwhile the opening picious.

This letter arrived while the Chairman was wrestling with the coke strike and evoked thefollowing 96 . ' 1 very much fear/' he wrote on June ist from Paris. Take care of yourself dont hard and dont grieve as I do over that $50. I believe you will fail and am disposed to be like the Frenchman this morning Just filled with one grand disgust' at the whole affair. even though addressed to "My Dear Pard. 40^ Pgh 30 E. Mrs. Jones change for sake of product . Lincoln & All well. straight cut. work too gone on compromises are so gratuitously needless.Frick the "our interests ' ' Man him an admission that ' ' Carnegie's absence." And then. R. this fight. and won from lie in future with the P. But the concession. R. was made with obvious reluctance and Mr. "are the most alarming change I have known in our history. written on the morning after the settlement at midnight of August 8th: you failed in your cokematter wish now I had persisted and fired another gun at the etc. clear Now lets victory. somewhat incongruously: : Busy to London by visiting the various republics (Southern) but shall return 13 th to give that dinner to Mr. etc. They see if we can do the coke and once for all. must have made some radical if Now one or two thousand tons more per month is noth ing we are to be fleeced so in cost. Am awfully sorry ' ' response. will be a sad ending to all. rate. monopoly. T. Carnegie became distinctly querulous as soon as he reached Europe in May.000 per annum ore rate I just late after we have won a Gladstone. ' 'that It your coke matter will be allowed to fall through. "Costs/' he wrote from Christiania.

It rests with you only don't give me any more surprises. If a concern is to be mismanaged. R.. my views freely.."The Man" in My dear Mr. have read with interest yours from Christiania. and Frick Sincerely yours H. 1889. P. It is evident a new leaf must & Co.. on September znd he addressed a long communication to *My Dear Mr. So be it. Yours A. Coke Co. 97 . promptly. was wrong and I should deprecate its renewal You cannot expect me to succeed in carrying everything through that is wished for or I It is undertaken. Carnegie be and was forwarded to Bar Har where he had gone for a visit to James G. I cannot stand fault-finding and I must feel that I have the entire confidence of the power that put me where I am. With all that. perhaps you will find me at fault about the remedy and can devise a better policy. & Co. letter did he sailed for home not reach Mr. Carnegie: Steel August 9th. the official head's policy must have due consideration.C. where we are going. very much pleasanter to agree than differ with you and in most things I would and will always defer to your judgment be cause there is no one whose attitude I hold in as high esteem. Blaine. Frick and Boys in general/ 'in the course of which he admonished "Our * Chairman" to "remember that no buyer comes to him him than with oth except because he can do better with ers" and closed with these words: you all I will give be turned over in C. Apparently this fore bor. B. I know I can manage both C. I could not and would not remain the official head of any con cern that was not well managed. successfully. I can stand losses with you but object to be deluded.C. R. In lieu of a specific reply. Let us all know month after month. FRICK. in a place I did not seek. but I always hold to the opinion that your attack on P.

to distinct mutual advantage. This highly gratifying result served to modify the few irritations that had begun somewhat ominously to tinc ture the correspondence of spirits. as against $1. was duly congratulated and closed the year's correspond ence with an invitation to Mr. fault-finding ceased entirely. and the way was cleared for full exer- .!!! to an increase in steel ingots 536. giving way to helpful and welcome suggestions.Frick the Man ' But on th^ following day he wrote to 'My Dear Mr. am most anxious to carry out the told you about but you can well understand that neither Phipps nor sure that C. Now I I only want to know how your hands work I can be strengthened. Frick continued about his business. is fairly off our hands. Frick "saying: express the relief I feel in knowing that the important departments of our extended business are in the hands of a com Let me petent manager.000. duly reported progress. Carnegie" and 'My dear Pard. Mr.991. I feel Having succinctly defined his own attitude. which might or might not be heeded without inciting resent ment.. & Co.838 gross tons and a net profit of $3. Carnegie to pay htm a visit and inspect the recent acquisitions in the coke re ' ' ' gion constituting 'a great property. Letters passed ' two naturally. The first year of the new manager's direction of the chief Carnegie concern ties showed for the combined proper produced from 332. P.540. Phipps and I exchanged congratulations upon this point. opinions were exchanged with complete frankness from what seemed to be perfect understanding and a true cooperative spirit.555 for 1888. controlling ' ' ' with increasing frequency to and from 'My dear Mr.



was at his desk . without or more than two years. and young. were held to accounting. were assembled in masterly fashion. provided only that it tended to concentration of effort and expansion his own growing of business. and slept soundly till the whistle blew for the beginning of another identical day. . played with his two little daughters. who rose methodically at 6 a. waste was reduced to a minimum. Great progress was made. studied business problems till early bed-time. walked two miles to his office to keep fit. active and ambitious men headed by Schwab and Morrison were strict installed in authority and. The various segregated plants. possession of yards which had been secured by the railroad companies was regained ."The Man" in cise of the talents Steel let and energy of THE MAN-. until then operated by dissociated and independ ent managements. while encouraged in every conceivable way. invariably at eight o'clock ready for business. at luncheon joked with his seven-year-old son. He revelled in doing and gloried in achieving big things No pro j ect conceived by imagination or suggested by an other's mind fazed him for a moment. None was expected to work harder or longer than the Chairman himself. jealous of and actually competing with one another. There can be year in the life little doubt that 1890 was the happiest of Henry Clay Frick.. for necting railways were built. con hindrance. conferred with one or more of his lieutenants.m. dined almost always alone with his wife quietly and quickly. re turned home when he had finished the day's work. And he not only kept close hold of all the 99 .

harassed by strikes and handicapped by refusal of his partners to furnish additional capital to meet the cost of expensive construction. fail to Mr.000 for the works in 1889 before they had been put into full operation. The Duquesne Steel Com pany was incorporated in 1886 by William G. E. his thoroughly trained organi100 . produce first-quality rails at a far lower cost than could be attained by Carnegie machinery. Frick was awake to the menace and made a tenta tive offer of $600. which had then be come. but. Park. gilt-edged.. three years in building.000. having thoughtfully procured a market for the next year's product in the event of being able to supply it. was the with new and improved machinery adapted to superior methods which could not best equipped in the country. On October 3oth. and its plant. Park. but he did practically all of the financ ing of all the companies for whose direction he was re sponsible. Frick promptly raised his offer to $1. 1890. and his offer was accepted. and D. as a consequence of the his management. showing under He probably could have ob first year's tained the property for less money. he perceived no possibility of loss or occasion for haggling. as the company was on the verge of bankruptcy.Frick the Man reins of operation. At the end of a year Mr.000 in bonds of Carnegie Brothers & Co. The most striking instance of his application of inge nuity and patience was afforded by his acquisition of the Carnegie group's only rival. Clark. evinced a desire to sell and Mr. and E. L. but the price was not satisfactory and he bided his time. competent and successful manu facturers.

which organization. The net profits for the first of $1. Carnegie. and surplus earnings were 'ploughed back' into the property to so vast an extent that ten years later the plant had attained the enormous capacity per year of 750. Frick was took no part in manager administration. with adequate facilities within its own area for turning the entire huge quantity of raw material into finished products. Its ownership was identical with that of Carnegie Brothers & Co. Results were amazing. thus providing the* 'two-name paper" required by banks and inciden101 . Working capital had been ob tained by discounting notes given by one company to another. already cocked and primed to take full charge and with arrangements made in advance for connecting up by rail with the Car negie plants in record time. the plant had paid for itself six times over. stead. The firm of Carnegie. The real obstacle was financial.000. Phipps had been formed in 1886 to take over the plant at Home & a separate concern.000 tons of pig-iron and 600. a relative of Mr. with young Thomas Morrison. achievements surpassing this in magni tude and celerity combined are recorded in industrial history. as buyer and seller respectively. There was no antagonism between the elected a in 1889 but two companies but the fact was evident that actual con solidation was highly desirable for economy's sake.000. if any. and Mr.- ooo tons of raw steel. was still ."The Man" in Steel nation took over the splendid plant. ' when ' year exceeded the purchase price the bonds fell due.. But further consolidation was required to perfect the Co. Few.

Frick Coke Company's credit was responding so strongly to steadily increasing earnings that Mr. amount should be "paid in cash 1 ' by the subscribers i e the partners in proportion to their from the treasuries of holdings. Co. February ioth. Carnegie: & & $1.00 of paper made by Car negie Bros. 1891.00 of paper order of Carnegie Bros. to the $860.00 of paper made made by Carnegie Phipps & Co. In these circumstances. Yours very truly H. - which were abun dantly realized during the period allotted by Mr. . C. Frick. the absorbed companies and the proceeds of the sale of 102 .000. & Co.. FRICK.. and so indeed it was.was duly stipulated in the Articles of Asso ciation that the entire . B. to go into effect on July ist. but happily the H. capitalized at $15. the Frick Coke Co. P.. & Co. negie.. and looking towards C. for the accommodation of the Frick Coke Co. Frick felt justified in writ ing to Mr. can be used. If anything of the kind is needed. Limited.Frick the Man tally funds for whichever concern stood in need. Referring to the condition of our finances. by Carnegie Bros. & Co. will enable us to get along without the necessity of taking paper P. . I find there is outstanding consolidating C. the merger was agreed to by all of the twenty-two part Upon these confident expectations ners.. C..000. Phipps it & seemed hazardous to extinguish Car Co. to the order of Frick Coke Co.000. 1890. So you see a few months of such earnings as we are now having from C.. & Co.. $590. through the sale of the physical properties to a new company called The Carnegie Steel 000. to the order of Frick Coke Co.000. Had a talk with Abbott who favors making one company..185. the proceeds of which was paid to Carnegie Bros & Co.. . Carnegie : (OWN HAND) My dear Mr. It Company.

000 through what amounted to a 400 per cent share dividend. A."The Man" the properties at valuations in Steel to match. Lovejoy. F.Dillon William W. Simpson J. Phipps and Frick were really independent shareholders. 1891. Blackburn P. Leishman William L.000. Borntraeger John G. T. for the simple reason that the second profits of $5. Bope F. Henry Clay Frick George Lauder William H. Lovejoy Patrick R. And 1890. The others were 'debtor ' part- 103 . showed net year of Prick management. Jr. F.000. Phipps William Alexander R.000 and more than ro per cent upon the entire $15. Strobel Francis T. Curry Henry W. Palmer Lawrence C. Singer Henry M. Fleming James H." as of July ist. The "subscribers. Peacock Ogdcn Hoffman John C. made No new was money was contributed.810. an increase of $1.000 to $z 5 .000. Henry B. it was a modest capitalization at that. The transaction. Carnegie. were: CAPITAL NAME Andrew Carnegie Henry Phipps. Vandcvort Charles L.Childs JohnW.000.350. in effect.000.Abbott OtisH. a mere increase in capital from the original $5. Trustee Total Only Messrs.

>r ^. P. who obviously wanted to hold fast to THE MAN who was coining money for him. Think over and suggest best plan will suit me. I don't understand why you owe (me) so little You must have all this been paying up from outside fortune." any plan that's good and fair But a full year elapsed before Mr. but it was you who so. 7 March ZQth. in fact. origi per cent to u per cent. which were expected to be and. Frick. MydcarMr." Man owing the Company for the holdings allotted to them. Carnegie and signified his willingness to incur further obligations . 104 . Phipps) satisfied. became convinced that he could go along with Mr. did (?) Should you like to merge or do something to get more for really it is to be wonderfully profitable. said 'decide (or 'divide') even'. (Mr. could get H." he wrote in February.Fnck: . Sunday. Prick's interest had been increased from his nal 2. y y am delighted to think you can now go in and increase your in You ought to for theres no business in this world that I know of which will make more money or give your talents greater I terest scope. I'm quite sure and I he feels that your interest is too small just as I do. : t 1891. Mr. 1890 "Never had a difference be 'I 4 wish we fore with him He has sold and is sorry. with his an noying experiences of 1889 still fresh in mind.Frick the ners. partly through purchase of a deceased partner's share and partly at the instance and with the cooperation of Mr. were even tually paid for out of earnings and other revenues . Carnegie. evoking the following cheery response x .

SECRETARY. Limited.. Carnegie and Phipps. Frick. Francis T. following the formal re tirement of Messrs. A. employing thirty thousand men. 105 . Yours A. Henry M. in the world. MANAGERS. Curry. Singer. hope is you will then "concentrate" upon the business and My make it the greatest ever seen even Chicago would rank second Til fix it all with you next week when I go to Pittsburgh. gin operation on July as follows : scheduled to be ist. Phipps. George Lauder. Curry. as Chairman of . and Mr. F. were unanimously agreed upon CHAIRMAN. Francis T.C. Henry Clay Frick."The Man" in Steel The "margin" idea is satisfactory highly approved for I do not wish you to be anxious about the future. Henry Clay Frick. including the largest coke company. officers of the new Carnegie Steel Company. The arrangement was soon made along the lines Carnegie Brothers & Co. was vested for one year in Henry Clay Frick at the prom of the greatest steel ising age of forty-one. pro posed to the satisfaction of all interested in the future welfare of the company. Leishman. William H. Lovejoy. Lovejoy. Lawrence C. The reorganization was complete and absolute control company. TREASURER. Simultaneously. John G. Henry M. F. assumed full charge of plans preliminary to the fateful negotiations with the Labor Union spokesmen of nearly four thousand workmen at Homestead.

from month to month.VIII Homdtead seeds of the most famous of all strikes. by the Amalgamated Association of Iron . Phipps & Co. and no provision had been to conform to the increase in the output of individual workmen arising from new methods and improved machinery applicable particularly to the fabrication of Bessemer and open-hearth steel. at Homestead in 1891. To rectify these inequalities. & Steel Workers in 1 889 made for readjustment Prior to that time there had been no standards of compensation. Chairman Abbott pro with the approval of Mr. As a con sequence. lation of future compensation by a scale which should ' follow. the prices received by the firm for steel sold. unskilled laborers in many instances getting from five to ten times as much as highly trained mechanics. This so-called Gliding-scale" basis Duquesne and had proved so satisfactory to all concerned that the union felt constrained had already been adopted at Braddock and to accept it. a general re duction in wages of about 15 per cent and automatic regu posed. Carnegie. were planted in the wage THE settlement imposed upon Carnegie. earnings based vanced to upon tonnage had not only ad grossly excessive figures but were distributed most inequitably. But the leaders flatly rejected 106 .

as best he might. The Sheriff assured him that he need have no apprehen sion on this score and promptly steamed up the river with a posse of a hundred men to fulfil his pledge. that a strike or a lock-out seemed inevitable when. 1891. ing money on its chief products in Mr. called upon the county authorities for protection of property and new employes. Results were disastrous. Mr. when the firm was los and was heading straight.50 in May. Mr. great for of battle. Mr.Homestead the other proposals and imposed so many operating con ditions. Congressional Prick's opinion expressed convincingly to the 4< Committee. Intimidated by threats of violence and destruction of property. workmen. private as well as public. Abbott accepted a summons to parley with the officers of the union and signed an agreement for three years which in effect constituted a complete surrender. Retreat obviously was the better part of valor and the Sheriff escorted his henchmen back to their firesides. Carnegie sailed for Scotland. reluctantly deciding to continue operations. after adjuring the Chairman to stand firm. to eventual bankruptcy/' or Obviously when the time approached for renewing financial prospect was bad revising the agreement the 107 . fully equipped preponderance A awaited them at the dock and dared them to try to land. steadily The price of rails declined from $36 at the close of 1889 to $15 . left to interpret his instructions.75 in 1890. including participation in determining selling prices. and so on to $11. refused to accept the stringent terms prescribed by the union and. Abbott.

officials of both the miners' union and of the potentially forceful Knights as the most formidable lion in their path to industrial control. own adage and repudiate any manager who should propose to fill the places of striking workmen was considered a certainty. Carnegie had promulgated his famous dictum to individual la borers. and yet Why had Mr. The fact that he had once. and who seemed impervious to either threats or danger of assaults. "Thou shalt not seek thy neighbor's job" and was still controlling That he would uphold his owner of the property. with the widespread Knights of Labor in sympathetic accord Mr. The Amalgamated Association. Frick portend? Here. A more fallow field for ambitious labor agitators could not be imagined. of all managers. more than eight hun dred could not speak English and the remaining two men employed thousand were incapable of perceiving the futility of to continue to lay golden requiring a strangled goose eggs. Never could they hope for a more favorable opportunity to break his rapidly growing 108 . had demonstrated its power three years before and in consequence had strengthened in a Presidential year. seemed conclusive. Of the thirtyat eight hundred Homestead only about eleven hundred were native-born. Abbott been supplanted? accession of Mr. in the coke strike. never yielded. moreover..Frick the enough. overridden and forced the resignation of Mr Frick . in precisely similar circumstances. What did the was THE MAN who had never He appeared to the truckled. its position. but the actual Man situation was worse.

Frick to Superintendent Pot ter under date of May 30th. single handed and alone. A number of rates have been 109 . Frick invited the Amalgamated Associa tion to take up the matter in January. Then. all but conferences ensued in good temper until the last of May. Mr. 'have had most careful ' ' The scales. was the time to subject him. when the firm submitted a counter scale reducing the wages of 3x5 of the most highly paid employes from of z. ' ' consideration. gestion. The union leaders neither accepted nor rejected the sug it. "the magnitude of our business/* he wrote to the chief stockholder. As the most that had been expected was maintenance of the old rates. 1891. this demand was gravely disconcerting.Homestead authoritativeness among employers. Frick did not welcome the test. to the ordeal of battle for supremacy.4/5 15 to 18 per cent and continuing the compensation lower paid men at the old rates. "is such that there are plenty of important matters to take up without being troubled with strikes/* to avoid being caught in the meshes of unpreparedness which had placed the firm at the mercy of the It was union that Mr. if ever. he stood ready to would enable the other plants to forge ahead at the unprecedented pace they had concede for a peace that much struck. but to no purpose. they simply ignored and two months passed before unceasing insistence evoked a response in the form of a proposed new scale providing a general advance in wages along the line. with a desire to act toward our employes in the most liberal manner. wrote Mr.

as desired disadvantage from negotiating during the slack period of manufacturing? no . accompanied by this communication and by a request from the Chairman for a response not later than June Z4th. pending the expiration of the existing agree ment on June 3oth. by wish of the union.Frick the Man advanced upon your recommendation.3 x. The schedules were submitted immediately to the Joint Committee.3rd On June Three questions were raised i . to avert any sumers. nor do we wish to interfere. He may belong to as many unions or organizations as he chooses. : Should the minimum selling price of steel determin ing the wage-scale remain at $Z5 per ton as required by the men or be reduced to $xz as asked by the firm? After full discussion the union offered to reduce the amount to . 2. the union leaders sought a conference and Chairman Frick and Superintendent Potter met them. Should the date of operation of the scale be changed from June 3oth to December to facilitate the by the firm making of annual contracts with con or be retained. You can say to the com mittee that these scales are in all respects the most liberal that can be offered. and the wages which will be earned thereunder are considerably in ad vance of those received by the employes of any of our competitors in the same lines. but we think our employes at Homestead Steel Works would fare much better working under the system in vogue at Edgar Thomson and Duquesne. We do not care whether a man be longs to a union or not. 3ist. $14 and the firm conceded an increase to $2.

one of the skilled employes earning $144 per month on an eight-hour shift. Action was prompt and decisive. the indeed was trivial and the other two could have been adjusted readily but for extrinsic considerations of prestige bearing upon general rolling-mill scales then under discussion through out the country. if not of actual control. On July ist.Homestead 3 . the day following cessation of operations. with Mr. as Chairman. personified by owners and unions. was squarely joined and Mr. guaranteed by the Constitution. no less than of life * ' ' ' ' ' ' ' and liberty. So no further concession was offered by either side and the issue of dominance. and vested it with full authority. but under the surface active which had preparations were being made for the struggle then become imminent and unavoidable. The workmen members quietly elected an Advisory Committee of five from each of their eight lodges. Hugh O'Donnell. relying upon the inviolability of property. the Committee adopted resolutions whose tenor was indicated by the following announcement by the Chairman : in . Should a reduction in tonnage rates be made in three departments to compensate in part for the large sums expended for improvements and new machinery which greatly increased the output of every workman with first out requiring additional exertion? These differences were not vital. on July 6th. decided to close the mills on July ist and to reopen them. Frick. There ensued a week of mildly ominous calm as viewed by the public and the Press. unless pre vented by force. between capital and labor.

and the main gates of the plant. The Commanders of these divisions are to have as assistants eight captains composed of one trusted man from each of the eight local lodges. to allow me to put watchmen in for ' the protection of the works/ 112 . It her alded much more than a renewal of the policy of terror ism which had proved successful three years previous. acting for and "tried to make an arrangement" with Chairman O'Donnell and other members of the Ad ' 4 visory Committee. decided to organ on a truly military basis. has never since been put forth. be under the The brigade of foreigners will command of two Hungarians and two interpreters. who in turn will receive the orders from the Ad visory Committee. i.Frick the The Committee has. and so complete and detailed is the plan of campaign that in ten minutes' time the Committee can communicate with the men at any given point within a radius of five miles. "turned back. the railway stations.. So audacious a manifesto as this had never before and. prevented from entering the mill and the County. The girdle of pickets will file reports to the main headquarters every half-hour. First the fore men representing the owners were "stopped and intimi dated* at the gate. The force of four thousand men has been divided into three divisions or watches. It was an avowal of a right to possession of property be longing undeniably to others and of determination to re tain occupanc7 on a truly military basis" to repel invasion from whatever source. During their hours of duty these Captains will have personal charge of the most important posts. the water gates and pumps. by "forces organized The plan was put into ' effect forthwith. These Captains will report to the division Commanders. In addition to all this. the river front. ize their forces Man after mature deliberation.e. there will be held in reserve a force of 800 Slavs and Hungarians. each of these divisions is to devote eight hours of the twenty-four to the task of watching the plant." Then the visited the scene Sheriff. to our knowledge.

Frick. later on. They They were driven away.Homestead * "What did "They 1 ' they say to that? asked Chairman Gates of the Congressional Committee. 'He said." ' and reported Meanwhile. office force. "that was not was no danger of that property being de stroyed. I explained to them that I was not the judge of that and that this firm had notified me to that effect and that under the law I was compelled to protect their that there property. the Deputy Sheriff in charge of the posse testified. the doctor up there. would not go there because I know they would kill me as quickly as anybody else. who had been suggested as a possible deputy and who knew nearly 'I every man connected with the lockout. there/' the Sheriff replied. Mr. I returned to the city to the Sheriff. said there was no necessity for it watchmen required." ' 'So ' you came away. "Some of the men came up to us and the spokesman said 'What are you fellows a special officer representing the Sheriff of Allegheny County to put deputies in the mill to act as a guard and to protect the property for the When doing here?' I said 'I am Company." they reached the station. 'Nodeputy will ever go in there alive/ There was one gentleman. and he said. having anticipated these very . What did you do next?' 'Then I came back to town. I should be afraid for my life to go near that mill. ' ' 4 'What did you do next?' "I sent up twelve deputies from my were not permitted to enter the works.

We shall wish these guards to be placed upon our property and there to remain unless called into other service by the civil authorities to meet an emergency that is not likely to arise. movement of trains and connection cer with boats will be made tainty of having the as soon as we hear from you as to the As soon 114 as men at Ashtabula at the time indicated. or some other point upon the Ohio River below Pittsburgh. when they may be taken by train to McKee's Rocks. June ^th y 1891. These guards should be assembled at Ashtabula. following the breakdown of negotiations having already been assured by the Pinkerton agency that an adequate number of men could be supplied for protective at short notice. 300 guards for service at our Homestead mills as a measure of precaution against interference with our plan to start operation of the works on July 6th. are not desirous that the men you send shall be armed unless We the occasion properly calls for such a measure later on for the pro tection of our employes or property. Pittsburgh.. not later than the morning of July 5th. 189!. Limited. Pa. was making his recovery of the firm's property. The only trouble we anticipate is that an attempt will be made to prevent such of our men with whom we will by that time have made satisfactory arrangements from going to work. the day . and possibly some demonstration of violence upon the part of those whose places have been filled. We think absolute secrecy essential in the Specific arrangements for movement of these men so that no demonstration can be made while they are en route. Ohio. DEAR SIR: I am We will want in receipt of your favor of the zxnd. own arrangements for the On June ^th.Frick the Man happenings. your men are upon the premises we will notify the . or most likely by an element which usually is attracted to such scenes for the purpose of stirring up trouble. where they can be transferred to boats and landed within the inclosures of our premises at Homestead. he sent the following letter : service The Carnegie Steel Company.

N. and we asked the county . Under Amalgamated Association. New York City." and we had had applications from many men to go there to work were not interfered "Did you doubt the ability of the Sheriff to order at Homestead and protect your property?" ' enforce 'Yes. only wanted them for watch men to protect our property and see that workmen we ' We would take to Homestead with. ' ' "Why?" ' 'For the reason that three years ago pur concern had an experience similar to this. sir. "did the company call upon the Pinkertons for watchmen to protect their property?" 'Because/' he replied. ' ' ' 'Why. "we did not see how else we could get protection. Chairman. Mr.Homestead Sheriff and ask that they be deputized either at once or immediately upon an outbreak of such a character as to render such a step desirable. Frick was asked later in connection with the Congressional inquiry. an agreement was made and work was resumed.Y. authorities for protection. Yours very truly H. We did not that stress. Esq. as generally understood. had been all summoned and arrangements made with them to be 115 . in fear of the ' ' propose this time to be placed in that position. The workmen began tactics similar to those employed in the present troubles. ' ThePinkerton men. C Robert A. FRICK. with local deputies. Pinkerton. We felt the necessity of a change at the works that a scale should be adopted based on the sliding price of billets.

transferred to two barges and towed by tugboats up the river after dark to Pitts burgh. placed guards at all the entrances. and had them taken to Homestead at an hour of the night when we hoped have them enter our works without any interference whatever and without meeting anybody. ' * The plans were carefully laid and shrewdly executed. and in order to protect our workmen. Ohio . 4 'We brought the watchmen here as quietly as possible to . and at all avenues or roads leading to our establishment and for miles distant there from. conveyed by train to Bellevue. and to them we applied. where boxes containing arms had already been placed upon the barges . we felt that for the safety of our property. men from the ist of July had surrounded our works. and we knew of no other source from which to obtain them than from Pinkerton agencies. we have found that : he has been unable to furnish us with a sufficient number of deputies to guard our property and protect the men who were anxious to work on our terms As the Amalgamated .Frick the on hand ' Man Sheriff to afford pro in case of failure by the ' tection. We proposed to land them on our own property. 116 . not only with the present Sheriff but with all others. and all our efforts were to prevent* the possibilities of a collision between our former workmen and our watchmen. On the morning of July 5th the Pinkerton guards num bering three hundred were assembled at Ashtabula. Is that a fact or not?' The facts concerning the engagement of the Pinkerton men are these From past experience. it was necessary for us to secure our own watchmen to assist the Sheriff.

as the representative of the action in case of trouble. neither he nor any of the Company's em ployes should do any act of aggression nor under any circumstances resort to the use of arms unless for the pro tection of their lives/' and Captains Heinde and Kline. is Gray. Superintendent Potter. John A. All promised well when. Aboard the boat were Captain Rodgers and crew. in charge of the watchmen. Gray. Superintendent Potter and several of his superin tendents. by suggestion of the firm's counsel. You will understand that CoL sheriff. were ordered by the Pinkertons not to open the boxes until they were placed in the and even then to do nothing until regularly sworn in as deputies by the Sheriff and compelled by their oaths to mills obey his orders. Joseph H. was warned by Chairman Frick that "no matter what indignities he may be subjected to. shrouded in darkness. Captains Heinde and Kline and finally ex-Sher iff Joseph H. ' Knox and Reed. deputy sheriff. the tug boat LITTLE BILL set forth towing the two barges toward Homestead. 117 . who had been deputized by Sheriff McCleary to act was supposed by the others to be in command of the expedition by vir tue of the following communication which he presented as his representative and to Superintendent Potter at the dock: June 5th. KNOX & REED. Yours truly. Gray. Potter: Dear Sir: This will introduce Col. Messrs. all control of to have KNOX & REED.Homeftead Scrupulous care was taken to comply with all provi sions of law.

i. than word of its departure was flashed by an alert spy to Chairman O'Donnell in Homestead. scoring many hits but finding no human targets. with the two barges in tow. to instruct the guards to 'back out ' and leave" but the Deputy did not reveal the limitations . while the LITTLE BILL puffed doggedly along past the town to the landing place on the firm's property and the crew threw out a stage plank. The mob of a thousand or more at this point were clambering down the bank when 118 . about midnight. The military organization created by the Advisory Com mittee to prevent either the owners or the State authori ties from regaining possession of the six-million-dollar plant proved far more efficient than anybody had supposed it to be. was opened on the tugboat and barges about a mile below Homestead and was continued eagerly but Rifle fire wildly. and the moment the report was confirmed from Lock No . three miles below the town.Frick the Man Although subsequently the Sheriff admitted that this authorization was added to the line of introduction by his own "direction and sanction/' he testified further that Deputy Gray was not actually empowered to take control in case of trouble but was merely 'sent along to ' preserve the peace" and "if there was liable to be a col lision" over landing. the steam whistles shrieked the alarm and the entire pop ulation scrambled out of their beds into the streets and rushed to the river banks. of his personal authority and the little fleet set forth under a nominal commander bereft of powers either to act himself or to deputize others to act for him. No sooner had the LITTLE BILL got under way.

Firing then practically ceased for a time while both sides attended to their wounded. The lack of a responsible commander then became even more serious than at any previous time. discovering that their comrades were retaliating and beginning to unpack the boxes. This im posed upon him the necessity of disregarding his own orders or abandoning his men to certain death. or watchmen on the dered them to stop. then firing for the first time. 119 . This at the project naturally failed first fire when he fell unconscious and the use of guns was required to repel the boarding crowd. he fired the first bullet that reached its mark and brought the Captain to the deck with a bullet in his thigh. but the Pinkerton men. While several this fighting was taking first place at the landing barge were wounded and Superintendent Potter.Homestead a young man leaped forward and threw himself flat upon the stage and. Twice Captain Heinde had urged Deputy Sheriff Gray to deputize the watchmen and twice the Sheriff's representative had re fused. repelled the assault sailants and drove the as back to their intrenchments protected'by pig iron and iron plates. and was obeyed. He finally authorized distribution of twelve rifles to men whom he sent below in the hope that others armed only with night sticks would suffice to resist invasion successfully. saying that it would be time enough to do that when they had obtained possession of the mills. as Captain Heinde stepped forward to push him off. Instantly the crowds along the river and on the bank pelted the boat and barges with bullets and rushed for ward to board them.

When we attempted to land alongside the barge we were met with heavy volleys from both sides of the river. particularly the Homestead side. whether we could get into the works by force or whether we "It " should let the thing take its course. He refused to take any action and I felt that feel like my instructions had been carried out. and so ran up two flags. shipmaster. Deputy Sheriff and a Pinkerton man. The Gray Captain testified: We went back with the intent to land with the barges and stay with them. away to Port Perry where'Suwounded men took a Two hours later the tugboat bearing Captain Rodgers. In anticipation we would be fired on we de termined to fight under the colors. be going away. ' ' So the tugboat steamed perintendent Potter and the six train for Pittsburgh . Gray did not taking the responsibility upon himself.Frick the Man This was the anomalous condition of affairs when. It was decided that the wounded had to be taken care of and that we as would leave the barges to remain the crowd seemed to where they were. there could be a peace able landing made. one at each end. which drifted around at the mercy of the mob. in place of Captain Heinde. or go on to town for further commissary supplies which had been left behind. his crew of six men. and from behind intrenchments. returned to Homestead. Superintendent Potter. a consultation participated by Deputy Sheriff Gray. and Captain Rodgers. and I would not. The firing was so heavy the pilot and engineer were compelled to leave their posts and we were compelled to stop the boat. Potter. was a question/' testified Mr. was held on the boat. Mr. and we thought in an hour or two or three hours. This lasted until 120 . wiiich continued firing. fol lowing the in tacit armistice. Cap tain Nordrum.

Holes in the boat show missiles were fired from artillery. drew an answering signal from the Ad121 . can only say. dynamite instant at a was exploded by to was hurled upon the barges blow them to bits on fire. and only 30 or 40 feet away. that I have never heard or read of any such inhuman action as that of this mob. and doing it with fiendish delight. all of whom seemed bent on destroying our lives and our boat. in point-blank range of the mob. burning rafts were floated down to set them cannon biased at them from the opposite bank. in I stead side. We did this with such effect that the mob scattered and we were enabled to put the pilot and engineer at their posts and so get away. natural gas. or a part of it. and a shooting at wounded men. oil was pumped upon the surface of the water and set on fire. when it ceased. late in the afternoon. without hope of succor and destitute even of food. in conclusion. rockets. only to see it riddled by bullets. A second attempt to save their lives if possible. The plight of the three hundred fight for their lives. Surrounded by thousands of bloodthirst7 enemies bent solely upon their complete extinction and equipped with all diabolical agencies of destruction. directed from a large main. they raised a white flag in token of surrender. was desperate indeed. Any one who they could not even showed a head for an hatchway or porthole gasping for a breath of air was pelted with bullets by sharpshooters. confined in the stranded and deserted barges. The shore was lined with thousands on the Home good number on the opposite side. This firing gradually died away until we were i^4 miles from Homestead. such was the inferno in which the prisoners barely ex isted until. . When we were drifting to the point. watchmen.Homestead we drifted away from the point and to some extent out of the range of the guns. our destruction would have been inevitable had we not used means of defence we found on the boat.

' The Very inhuman treatment" noted by Mr. and the contents bedding and every portable thing was taken away. who incidentally followed the procession. and children and I must say they were subjected to very in human treatment. The rest were dis armed and marched out. in his own words. We took them to the rink and that night ' ' we sent them off. Bridge from information gar nered from newspaper accounts. in these words : The doors of the barges were flung open and the victorious crowded into the barges. women. and I know that many of our men have received scars and bruises in their endeavor to protect the Pinkertons. O'Don nell. Cases of provisions were broken open distributed among the women and children. which our men were powerless to pro tect them from. was de picted in his book by Mr. and across and that the barges were in the hands of the rabble. down. and the people formed on either side men.Frick the Man ' visory Committee." went down to the boat and selves to a accepted the sole condition asked by the prisoners 'that you will give us free passage from Homestead/ ' * "When his was ready/' continued Mr. were coming up. having ad dressed the crowd who. O'Donnell in testimony. The reporters who followed them found one dead and eleven wounded watchmen. and the strikers turned to escort their prisoners to a public hall in 122 . "I gave the order and they marched out. all and I remained on the boat until the last man. while the crowd swarmed over the boat strikers for loot. Then the barges were set on fire. and Chairman O'Donnell. 'pledged them man to let the watchmen go unharmed and in peace if they surrendered. I left the boat and they were marched to the rink. I will state by this time people the river.

For nearly a mile the watchmen walked. named Edwards. and coats were snatched away from them. Frick. and across it to the public road. and in many cases they were robbed of their watches and money. with bared heads. 123 . ran.Homestead town. Their hats. and stones. shattered noses. and never did captives suffer more in running a gauntlet of redskins. the triumph hardly less im pressive than that which followed the first battle of Bull Run. Sheriff McCleary. Another. who provided a special train. bruised heads. gouged eyes. also wounded and helpless. the latter descended the gangplank. One by one. went to Homestead at midnight accompanied by President Weihe of the Amalgamated Association and brought the watchmen back to Pitts burgh hospitals. Connors.. About thirty others were afterwards taken to the hos pital with broken arms and disjointed ankles. and children. women. Both of these men died. was deliberately shot by one of the strikers and then clubbed. satchels. clubs. climbed up the incline to the mill yard. unable to move and defend himself. the victory the most costly of its kind ever won. The rout was complete. The day's casualties were ten killed and more than sixty wounded. or crawled through a lane of infuriated men. and at every step they were struck with sts. and another became insane and committed suicide as a result of the fearful beating received after surrender. Not a man escaped injury. One of them. at the instigation of Mr. and injured backs. was clubbed by another striker with the butt end of a musket.

"Mob law/' a special correspondent who had been thus treated telegraphed to the NEW YORK TIMES. Not only have from the three hundred Pinkertons. known as the Hibernian Rifles. telegrams to newspapers and individuals were censored and reporters suspected of writing unfavorable accounts were kicked out hatless and coatless to grope their way through the darkness of night to Pittsburgh as best they could. but they have also been sup plied with rifles by three independent military organi zations of Pittsburgh. Strangers were excluded. they in their possession the guns captured to that fateful expedition. citizens were arrested without warrant. with all the ammunition belonging absolute.IX The State Intervenes THE ants morning of July yth dawned upon a wholly peaceful community. with the Advisory Com mittee of the Amalgamated Association in ab solute possession of the properties owned by the Carnegie Steel Company and in full military control of the town of Homestead with its ten thousand inhabit and all the approaches by land and water to both. Today they received a box of ammunition from Philadelphia. 'is ' Never were rioters better armed. and yesterday one of the strikers informed a reporter that enough dynamite was 124 . and by a Polish gun club. A state of siege was declared.

or an cry of 'bread or blood' from famished lips ebullition of angry passions from a sudden outrage or of men without provocation. Prick's Potter. "Reinforcements are hourly pouring into Homestead from all quarters of the country lawless desperate. was the reply. sym sympathetic over the trouble which has final result. 'Yes. Mr. derous characters. walked toward the works. 'You cannot visit them. there had not been at any time. Mr. mur . the Superintendent of the works. interested in the It is impossible to reach the Carnegie works. Childs. ' * At the railway track they were stopped. but we have orders not to allow any one to enter ' ' the works/" There was no strike. It was no mere riot. Potter. They all pathetic and interested claim to be workmen. ' ' 'You know who I am?' asked Mr. ' 'We desire to visit the works. Childs. no lockout. it was organized rebellion as clearly as Shay's in the early "It ' history of the Republic.The at their disposal to State Intervenes blow all the Carnegie works out of a remark which was exaggerated into a rumor that they would destroy the works before non-union men sight were permitted to enter them. work had simply ceased automatically when the time fixed by the agreement expired and terms for continuance had not been arranged. Today assistant. accompanied by Mr. ' said Mr. was not" 'a sternly declared Chief Justice Paxson later. It was a deliberate attempt a grievance to wrest from others their lawfully acquired 125 . 4 fallen upon their brethren.

and to deprive any portion of their fellow-citizens of the rights to which they are entitled under the Constitu tion and laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. But when a number of men arm and organize themselves by divisions and companies. to resist its officers.Frick the Man property and to control them in their use and enjoy ment of it. appoint officers. Aggres sive Democratic and timorous Republican newspapers solicitous for the "rights" of labor would be equally 126 . was one which could not fail to give rise to uneasiness in the minds of the leaders of the Amalga mated Association and all. ' A mere mob. and engage large in a common purpose to defy the law. not of wages for ignorant workmen known to be fully paid. collected upon the impulse of the moment. Neither of the two great political would dare antagonize the millions of workingmen whose votes could and probably would be organizations massed by their various unions throughout the entire country in the forthcoming National election. True. imperceptible to the ex ultant rioters. they still held fast the powerful factors which they had counted upon originally to ensure their success. although it human life. and the offense treason/' This phase of the situation. that constituted the chief stake in the contest. destroys property and takes without any definite object beyond the gratification of its sudden passions. does not commit treason. is it is a levying of war against the State. it their experienced advisers. After was a matter. but of establishment of their own power as officials of the union.

with the c ' 'privileges* both parties would a thread point to dreaded tariff reduction as suspended by over the heads of steel manufacturers. So the leaders argued. It ! looked easy. had expressed his approval and pledged his support of unionism over and over again and in one signal instance had overridden the very manager who now blocked the way of the ambitious labor leaders. would be certain in the event of Democratic tacit alliance and severance of the which had a Repub provided heavy duties would surely follow lican defeat which could be attributed to the selfish ob duracy of a favored "infant industry. both past and to come. all but one. Surely not only the one controlling owner but all other stockholders. a high protectionist and an eager recipient of political favors. to allay and lic resentment at their shocking resort to brutality 127 . AND YET It might be the better part of valor to waive magnani conceivable pub mously the claims of the men. could be relied upon to temporize for permanent advantage." The consequences to the Carnegie shareholders clearly would be disastrous if a settlement satisfactory to both unions and men should not be effected before election day. to beat only one of all tenderly nurtured manufacturers.The State Intervenes as contrasted son would of capital. extinction of 'pro The wholly practical leaders of * tection" success. and Mr. only one of all the Company's shareholders. Carnegie. only one of all contributing Republicans. and rea be submerged in waves of public sympathy. All? Yes. every of whom was a lifelong Republican. who owned a majority of the stock.

"that under no circumstances will 128 we have any . the union.Frick the Man all.. and murder of sole question its employes began. On the day following the battle Chairman O'Donnell. in any case and above the face of the union. Frick publicly rejoined that terms ceased to be an issue when the company was deprived of possession of its property by force. and this could be an swered only by the State authorities. to save No time was lost in trying to appease public opinion.e. calmly. murder and thereby. 1 may say with the greatest he concluded ' ' ' He emphasis. 'We today/ he continued. to company of a proposal to recognize. there is simply a mass of idle machinery with nobody to look after it/ ' is in the mills refused to confer with the officers of the union whose followers were rioting and destroying property. singled demands had lacked out the insistence that the date of fixing the scale of wages should not be changed from June to December as the one unalterable resolve which "under no circumstances" would be modified. and de clared that "the final adjustment must be made now/' Anothermember of the Amalgamated Association who had the confidence of the Sheriff informed that official that mere acceptance by the "confer with/' fice i. tacitly admitting that all other justification. 4 ' * nobody up there now. 'are turned out of our plant at Homestead and have been since the first of There July . would suf 1 to "stop the rioting/ Mr. The was whether the Carnegie Company or the Amalgamated Association should have absolute control of the company's property.

The further dealings 1 ' State Intervenes as ' with the Amalgamated Association ' an organization. Frick. mother or son for many days. junior. after a sleepless night. recipient of hourly bul 8 a. Local authorities must exhaust every command for the preservation of peace. beginning on the day of the battle. If they are unable to cope with the situation. a second Henry Clay. : Situation at Homestead is very were driven from the ground and watchmen grave. and there were grave doubts of the survival of either son. This is final/ What of the future?' he was asked. Sheriff from McCleary and Governor Robert E. Shots were exchanged and some men killed and wounded. Wish you would send representative at once.000 The GOVERNOR TO means at their SHERIFF. The father. -The works at Homestead are in possession mob. was born to Mr. striking at least 5. Meanwhile. SHERIFF. it is is 'That clearly the duty of the Governor of the State to * see that we are installed in our property and permitted to operate our plant unmolested/ On the evening of the day July 8th. letins. as follows JULY 6. iS^z when this vitally important declaration was published.m. SHERIFF TO GOVERNOR. and Mrs. on the following day. workmen and their friends on the ground number and the civil authorities are utterly unable to cope with them. The mill owners this mprni&g attempted toland a number of watchmen. Unless prompt measures are taken to prevent it further bloodshed and great destruction of property may be ex pected. was at his desk as usual. they number thousands. Pattison were ex changing telegrams. to 6p. My deputies sent by mill owners attacked. when an attack SAME DATE of an armed 129 . in the hands of the authorities of Allegheny County.m.

GOVERNOR. GOVERNOR. I have no means at my command to meet emergency. SHERIFF. having been abandoned by the steamer which towed them there. but they were driven from the grounds. which had broken down company's fences and taken possession of the landing. The guards remain on the barges near landing.Frick the Man .~ SHERIFF. therefore. The strikers arc in control. I then sent twelve deputies (almost my entire regular force) to Homestead. and the works are in possession of the mob. I therefore urge immediate action on your river. effort to execute the you calling Your telegram indicates that you have not made any law to enforce order. urged to act at once. and I must insist upon upon all citizens for an adequate number of deputies. JULY io. The mill owners early this morning sent an armed guard of 3 oo men by river. in which a number were wounded on both sides. You are. was made on boats and 6 men on boats were badly wounded. How many deputies have you sworn in and what measures have you taken to enforce order and protect property? The county authorities must exhaust every means to preserve peace. After personal visit to Homestead works yesterday morning and careful inquiry as to surroundings. The boat later came down and was fired on from the shore and pilot compelled to abandon pilot house. The situation at Homestead has not improved. who are armed with rifles and pistols and are reported to have one cannon. An encounter ensued. The guards have not been able to land. The civil authorities here are powerless to meet the situation. Boats containing this guard were fired on while on their way up the and when they attempted to land at company's ground were met by an armed mob. I en deavored to gather a force to guard works. makes no request for military assistance. a large armed force will be re quired. An armed and disciplined force is needed at once to pre vent further loss of life. and openly ex press to me and to the public their determination that the works 130 . part. several are reported dead. any delay may lead to further bloodshed and great de struction of property. The coroner has just informed me that one of the guards has just died. JULY 7. a number of men on shore were killed and wounded how many can not say. Sheriff reports inability to secure adequate force. but was unable to obtain SAME DATE any. while all is quiet there.

Governor Pat tison. Communi port at once. The county is responsible to the mill owners for as yet. Only a large military force will enable me to control matters. and I am satisfied that no posse raised by civil authority can do anything to change the condition of affairs. . made this statement : The law is very explicit on this point and left me no other way to act. of the gie officials in possession. and that any attempt by an inadequate force to restore the right of law will only result in further armed resistance and consequent loss of life. comprising eight men. After making all efforts power I have failed to secure a posse respectable enough in my numbers to accomplish anything. George R. Besides.The in State Intervenes shall not be operated unless by themselves. Put yourself cate further particulars. preservation of their property the militia. I believe if such force is sent the disorderly ele ment will be overawed and order will be upon you to furnish me such assistance. Snowden with the division of the National Guards of Pennsylvania to your sup in communication with him. headed by Major General Snowden and Sheriff McCleary. Conformably to arrangements made in pursuance of this order. Witness the The last year when the militia was out for more than two months. on July ixth the entire division of the Penn thousand sylvania National Guard. Company's property Without encountering resistance. marched into Homestead and put the Carne under continuing guard. smarting under criticism for leged dilatoriness. Gen. Have ordered Maj. The statutes expressly provide that military aid shall not be furnished the civil authorities until the latter have exhausted every means in their power to quell an the insurrection. but It is a very easy matter to talk about calling out coke riots of it is not so easy to call them in again. I therefore call GOVERNOR. restored. Immediately upon issuing his order to General Snow al den. militia have a very salutary effect on turbulent strikers while they . Sheriff McCleary had not demanded military aid He had only suggested it.

however strong in numbers or in wealth. Pattison's conduct from the beginning give greater weight to the decision he now feels himself impelled to reach. in any case." he leased a house and announced his intention of remain ing with the troops "until preservation of law shall be fully established and permanently guaranteed/ ' any surmise that public authority could be defied successfully by a private. There will be far greater if certainty that resistance. There will be far less likelihood of resist ance. will be overcome promptly and with the least possible injury to those who offer it. but the public generally coincided with the view parties expressed effect : by the NEW YORK TIMES on July nth to this The calmness.Frick the arc present. offered. 132 Thus was dissipated probably for all time . Mr. and faithful effort to avoid resort to the military power of the State. if possible. prudence. resolved to use no half-way measures. And he has done well in that when he saw the time to act had he has come. Samuel Gompers gravely doubted the Governor's right to call out the militia at all and politicians of both were disposed to complain for one reason or an other. but to employ all the force of the Commonwealth. dispelled by the Governor himself when a few days later he appeared personally upon the scene and declared flatly that he would the entire six mil spend lion dollars in the State treasury and mortgage the com monwealth itself ' 'if necessary to maintain the National Incidentally Guard here until law and order are res tored. Whatever doubts may have lingered in honest minds were. within the boundaries of the United States. that have characterized Gov. organization. but their Man exceedingly likely to cause a withdrawal is renewal of hostilities.

Limited. the union workers in three outside plants voted play. wire mill. obedi ent to the law.The The State Intervenes firmness of the Governor. the Amalga mated Association promptly expanded the ' field of con troversy to comprise the entire force of men employed by the Carnegies by bringing the 'sympathetic strike' into * the very day -July 13 th after the militia ar rived. the rod mill. and nail mill. from historic Braddock Employers and employes to a single issue ' now stood upon a level. Field." Two thousand men promptly walked out of the Upper and Lower mills in Pittsburgh. thirty miles down the Ohio following telegram: came the We. Frick de clines. and all phases of contention were resolved Could the workmen compel the com pany to 'recognize' and deal with the union? : ' Undismayed by their failure to force a second quick surrender by menace to life and property. have come to the conclusion that we will refuse to negie Steel H. C. Chairman of Car Company. emphasized by the re sounding bugle notes and reverberations of sunset guns where eight thousand troops had pitched their tents. the Amalgamated Association of Beaver Falls. Frick would confer with the union leaders of Homestead. Crisp and decisive came the laconic response: "Mr. Frick. left no doubt of the elimi nation of rapine and murder as factors in the contest. Beaver Falls. Association gamated work until such time as is ARTHUR THORNTON Chairman of Committee. to break their agreement On and strike unless Mr. 133 . and from river. willing to confer with the Amal in order to settle the Homestead affair.

Chairman. FRICK. By H. or when you are ready to start (the mills had been temporarily shut down for repairs) we shall consider do so as a cancellation of the agreement existing and when these works do resume it will be as non between us. LIMITED. composing the Amalgamated Association at Beaver Falls Mills. named will be considered Such of our old employ6s as do not apply by the time above as having no desire to re-enter our em and the ployment. Chairman of the Commit tee. Simultaneously. July xi. Thornton. and who signed an agreement with us for one year. The Carnegie Steel Company. former and union. and those first applying will have the choice of unfilled positions for which they are suitable. NOTICE stead Steel Individual applications for employment at the Home Works will be received by the General Superintendent either in person or by letter until 6 p. do not go to work on Monday (this was Friday) next. C FRICK. It is our desire to retain in our service all of our old employ6s whose past . Frick repeated Wrigley at this Man : ultimatum to Superintendent Beaver Falls and added You will please say to Mr. Chairman.Frick the Mr. Limited. the attempts records are satisfactory and who did not take part in which have been made to interfere with our right to manage our business. and the fol lowing placard was posted conspicuously: THE CARNEGIE STEEL COMPANY. Superintendent Potter addressed a perr sonal note to each of the former employes inviting him to return to his old position on July i8th. Thursday. with steam up in seven of the ten Homestead mills. . and ask him to so notify the men. H. C. positions which they held will be given to other men. The Carnegie 134 Steel Company (Limited).m. You can say that under no circumstances will we confer with the men at Homestead as mem their failure to bers of the Amalgamated Association. that if they. iSgz. employes satisfactory to us who desire to work there will have to apply as individuals.

and on the i7th. "I am pretty well pleased with the situation' * . July the date of a memorable and tragic episode. adding. many applications from out siders were under consideration. Prick's many callers on the day when this Russian who report appeared was an alert.The 190. He can be seen at his desk from the a of guard sign of the hall building. State Intervenes . and anybody can reach the hall by public that Mr. The interview lasted about half an hour and an appointment was made for called himself Alexander further conversation. "on the whole/' Mr. one . 177 men had returned to work on the 1 6th. Among Mr. Frick wrote to President Morse of the Illinois Steel Company. on Saturday.i892_. the There have been published numerous statements to the effect is constantly guarded by detectives. 2. intelligent Berkman and professed to rep resent a labor agency in New York. week later. There is no in his office. On the 1 5th. 'You can rest assured that we propose to manage our own business as ' we think proper and right/ * Referring to the innumerable rumors then correspondent of the NEW YORK TIMES said : rife. in response to another anxious inquiry.10. 135 . Frick going up in the elevator. and.

Frick and obtained * * an appointment 136 for Saturday. compelled him to resign.X Attempted Assassination BERKiMiAisr ' was a professed anarchist AJSTDEK. After working for a short time as a compositor in New Haven. He came to New York when nineteen years old and obtained a position on the FIREIHEIT. Presently he drifted back to New York where he invented an 'employment agency' under the name of Simon Bachman and it was in the guise of a representative of that imaginary concern that he sought an interview with Mr. and destructive opponent of all government'* and a disciple of the notori ous Emma Goldman. but soon began to mouth doctrines so extreme that John Most and his associates. in 1867. and while attending a college exploited views of such radical nature that he was expelled from the town by the authorities. he'obtained a place in the Singer sewing machine factory in Elizabeth. He was then . July 2.3 rd. the son of a prosper ous druggist. He was born in the *a violent province of Vilna. fearing that he might embroil them in penal offenses against the government. an organ of discontent. where he joined the Penkert nihil ists who held that every individual was endowed with absolute right to do whatever he might please without regard to group opinion. Russia.

Mr.EGRAPH building but got only as far as the anteroom owing to the presence of other callers. Revolver in hand though still in his pocket. prick was not in his desk-chair but in another at the ead of the long table conversing As it with Vice Chairman Leishman and. Prick would be un able to see him for a few moments. twenty left minutes too late to find his victim alone. he called twice at Mr. But this time he gave himself no opportunity to falter. but. At noon on Saturday he appeared a third when word came that Mr. he became so agitated time. was 137 . of average height. apparently failing to calm his nerves sooner. Berkman reached Pittsburgh on Thursday evening. he brushed past the office boy. happened. un suspecting and helpless in his desk-chair. that he hurriedly and. had revealed Mr. If Berkman had gone prepared on that occasion. His first call. quick as a cat and sinewy as a leopard a san guinary fanatic. when he arrived about half-past-one and found his quarry absolutely alone. and yet a tyro. Prick's custom of lunching more quickly and returning sooner than his office force. athletic. and on Friday forenoon unable to restrain his impulses. cir cumstances and nerves combined to defeat his purpose.Attempted Assassination twenty-five years old. Prick's office on the second floor of the CHROISTCCLE-TEI. with all the cunning and daring of his breed. he could have surety and ease. rising quickly. slender. made the week before to spy out the ground. did not return till nearly two o'clock. threw open the door and darted into the room draw ing his weapon. But inexperience. lithe. killed him with Too tense to bide his time.

But the nihilist had not yet reached the end of his re when a Deputy Sheriff. While his was wrestling to get hold of the revolver Mr. rushed in and overpowered him.. but raise his head and let me see his face. Leishman A who leaped forward and struck up the weapon just as partner it exploded and then clinched with the assailant. and bleeding profusely from his wounds. thrust piercing his hip. greatly excited. Frick. held him fast till the clerks. third attempt to kill was frustrated by Mr. By a supreme effort. who had been leaning on his desk and keenly. pinion the man's aroused by the noise. rushed into the room and was trying to get a clear shot at him without imperilling others when sources. the second jabbing his right side and the third tearing open his left leg below the first knee. ' ' This demand having been complied with none too 138 . Frick managed to arm and wrist to the floor and. Mr. however. watching "Don't shoot. brought all three to the floor with a crash. Frick staggered and fell as Berkman quickly fired another bullet into the right side of his neck. struggled to his feet and. but. "leave him to the law. made a gesture of dissuasion. Frick the Man Berkman fired the first left ear." he ejaculated. the fanatic wrenched his left hand loose and the seizing from his pocket a dagger made from a file stabbed viciously at his weakening adversary. Mr. seizing Berkman around the waist. which pierced the lobe of his entered his neck near the base of his skull and passed down between his shoulders. throw ing himself upon his body. Frick. still He was struggling Mr. dazed interlocked though he was. turning to face the intruder when bullet.

A similar message was these words added : There is no necessity for to fight the battle out. I am still in shape physicians. following the direction indicated by Mr. following loss of blood which was still streaming from his wounds.Attempted Assassination gently. I tell you let the law take its course. saying that it was Meanwhile the 139 . the Sheriff. 1 cabled to Mr. much for a carpenter who. This was too Berkman's head and was drawing back for another blow when ' again Mr. Prick's index finger. While the wounds inflicted by the nihilist's jagged dagger were being staunched Mr. exhausted him and he effort The would have fallen if those nearest had not sprung to his support and borne him to a couch in the adjoining room. having rushed in from his work hammer in hand. who had been prostrated since the out break of violence: Was shot twice but not dangerously. FRICK. Frick reso lutely refused to have administered. were providing an anaesthetic. struck at. which Mr. Carnegie with you to come home. By this time policemen had arrived and taken charge of Berkman. Frick interceded faintly: 'Don't kill him. C. preparatory to probing. * ' of speaking. but missed. saw the culprit's jaw moving as he were chewing something. . Instantly his mouth was forced open and a capsule containing enough fulminite if of mercury to blow all in the room to bits was extracted. and surgeons and physicians were not far behind. H. Frick arranged for noti fication of his sick wife in such a way as to cause a mini- mum of anxiety and dictated the following telegram to his aged mother.

Mr. that feels like it. just before dictated in the forenoon and lance. I'm T all right. he made : submitting to be carried to an ambu the following statement to be given to the press This incident will not change the attitude of the Carnegie Steel Company toward the Amalgamated Association. He did not reach home until nearly eight o'clock. propped up brief rest. then new em numbering about five hundred : 140 . speci which he had been negotiating. then Mrs. in a chair at his desk after a Mr. Frick. in response to a query from her. I do not think I shall die but whether I do or not the Company will pursue the same policy and it will win. This surmise proved correct from the moment the surgeon inserted the instrument forward gently and tentatively in pursu ance of the patient's directions until in each of the two and pushed it searches he heard "There. I may come in how is the baby?" not Although permitted to leave his bed that evening or for several days following. signing several official documents and many letters which he had finally. Frick. Ada. as he was being borne past her bedroom door on a stretdher suffering intensely but able to sing out to : "Don't worry. Doctor/' and extracted both balls with unerring precision.Frick the quite unnecessary and Man was inadvisable because he might help in locating the bullets. then proceeded to finish his day's fying the final tefms of an essential loan work. secretary as soon as the doctors had left the next morn ing and dictated and signed this notice to the ployes. Frick summoned his ater to say good-night.

he was summoned to be hold the passing of the spirit of his little son and name-* sake. August 3rd. On Wednesday. Homestead Steel Works. walked alone across the lawn. (LIMITED): NOTICE- To all men who entered our employ after July ist. Frick not only kept fully informed but personally dictated every move in the continuing contest and attended to all other details of the Com pany's business with customary thoroughness. entered his office on the stroke of eight and 141 rang for the morning's mail. few hours. on the day of the battle at Homestead. born less than four weeks previously. July 24th. Mr.Attempted Assassination CARNEGIE STEEL COMPANY. The Carnegie Steel Company. During the succeeding ten days. Chairman. Positive orders to this effect have been given to the general superintendent By order of the board of managers. the following Rising and breakfasting promptly on he morning. ignoring pain and scoffing at the sweltering heat. C. thirteen days after he had been attacked. FRICK. with a telephone installed with in reach and secretaries in constant attendance in defiance of the doctors' orders. 1891: In no case and under no circumstances will a single one of you be discharged to make room for another man. upon the tiny coffin during a brief funeral passed at the bedside of the stricken mother. (Limited) H. . and on Thursday afternoon his eyes rested service. propped up in bed and swathed with bandages. iSjz. finally wore away and he slept for a The long evening. You will keep your respective positions so long as you attend to your duties. stepped upon an open street-car.

his severest critic. the WORLD correspondent ' ' asked how he was feeling." he remarked to the TIMES reporter. where tive was he remained as long as the Chairman was in the building. Leishman knocked up Berkman's arm and which. indeed. "cannot live in his own home without ' ' surrouiided by a bodyguard. 'Very well.Frick the * Man "admire Those who hate himmost. but for that act. There was no body guard. 1 answered Mr. 'I am nearly well. and today. He looked a little thinner and was not so is it paler than before he was shot but the change marked left had been expected. Frick. NEW YORK WORLD. "wrote the correspondent of the . he seemed just the same as ever. I had much I too to do to stay away from the office any longer and am glad to get back again. and in very good trim for work. I am going right along 142 . would have ended his own career. it is While he was ' in his office being time to quit. thank you. when he returned to work after thirteen like bodyguards. But he was not worried when he was attacked nor while lying in his home during those terribly hot days when his recovery was anything but cer tain. There ear where a bullet passed through as a mark on his and behind the ear is a hole stuffed with cotton in which the bullet buried itself. Mr. Frick does not When he saw the detective who had been watching the Company's offices ever since the shooting he frowned and the detec sent downstairs. "If an honest American. the nerve and stamina of this man of steel whom nothing seems to be able to move. days. He was particularly interested in the hole in the ceiling made by the bullet when Mr.



Fortunately there is noth ing behind. Prick's peace of mind and possibly hasten e c 'Very well. Frick went up stairs and returning in a few moments said to him : ' 4 My wife asks me to thank you most kindly for your ' ' the thoughtfulness but earnestly requests that you take men away. H3 ." was the reply.Attempted Assassination now attending to my affairs. The outlook is most bright. The Chief replied that he had stationed his men upon his own notion that her recovery. I could not ask any better management of this trouble than that of my assistants. ' ' ' their presence would contrib ute to Mrs. she fears that their being here all the time might make the servants nervous. for during my absence the work has been done most satisfactorily by the officials and clerks. come in and we will find While the Chief waited in the hall Mr. Frick made his trips daily to and from his office alone on the slight open street-cars at fixed hours without paying est heed to the other passengers." He lunched with the managers of the Company's vari ous plants and left for home on a street-car unattended shortly after three o'clock. and the results thus far are all that could be wished for. The Chictf laughed and complied. There have been many grave situations and complications and all of them have been successfully met. Half a dozen or more police men were patrolling the block and at the gate he met Superintendent O'Mara and protested somewhat vehe mently. and thereafter Mr. I could not ask for any thing better. out.

1905. ment. April i^th. was concerned. Frick directs me to say. All newspaper reports regarding arrange ments made by him to keep track of Berkman. Replying to a famous detective agency's proposi tion to furnish adequate safeguards against fateful pos sibilities. are unfounded. upon once the law was in voked any matter. wholly without their con had meant to serve. having grievously sent or knowledge. and twenty-one years in the penitentiary for assault with intent to kill years. which he de clined to accord to either the one or the other upon the familiar ground based. and both parties solicited Mr. that he is not at all interested in Berkman or in any of his class and has no fear whatever.Frick the Man injured the Berkman meanwhile. Mr. in reply to yours of the twelfth. no species of influence should be brought to bear upon the courts in their dispensation of justice. a secretary wrote: Dear Sir: New York City. Frick take or per mit anyone else to take the slightest precautions respect ing his personal safety. Neither then nor thereafter did Mr. At the expiration of twelve less earnestly commutation of his sentence were strongly urged and no opposed by thousands of persons actuated by contrary motives. convicted and sentenced to one year in the workhouse for carrying con cealed weapons. When news of his death on . Prick's support. he jail until cause of the workmen whom. proposals to obtain . or anyone in con nection with him. remained in the autumn when he was tried. so far as he his own in tenet to the effect that. The advocates of clemency finally won in 1905 and Berkman was released after thirteen years of imprison .

along with Emma Goldman. 1919.Attempted Assassination December znd. was deported by the United States Government. reached the unrepentant anarchist. he remarked with brutal cynicism: "Well anyhow he left the country before I did. Berkman. by an odd co incidence. ." At a later hour of the very same day.

THAT crat. The party in national convention had disregarded its conservative candidate's wishes and had forced an issue. Republican. able and well matched in ability. The first Democratic administration since that which preceded the Civil proved unsatisfactory.XI Politics politics should play a large part in the Homestead controversy was inevitable. Harrison in 1888 by a substantial majority. but between Protec tion and the closest feasible approach to Free Trade as fundamental principles. only to be beaten by Mr. lacking both definiteness of purpose and cohesion in action/ 'a thing of shreds' and patches" ill War had fitted to establish and maintain prosperous conditions throughout the country. were unexception rison. Elaine in 1884 upon an issue of personal integrity by the narrowest con ceivable margin. The Har and Mr. Demo each standing for a second term. character and experience Of the two Mr. two leading candidates for President. 146 a far cry from the mere resent- . Mr. the Republican party seemed to have demonstrated superior capacity to conduct a government successfully along constructive lines. not between excessive and moderate tariff rates. As between the two organizations. . Cleveland. Cleveland possessed the stronger personal appeal but had won his election over Mr.

and they were quick to take advantage of it. But any change. Despite the apparent significance of that stinging rebuke in 1890. Powderly. in the pro portions of legalized gains shared by the beneficiaries in a time of marked prosperity could not fail to exasperate the class affected adversely. ' but the leaders preferred to deal with the Repub ' lican 'party of privilege' as the more capable and better equipped for trading purposes. and workingmen through out the country. and still distrustful of large numbers of consumers. In the Homestead instance Labor seemed to be the sufferer. One of the perplexing problems which confronted the at the outset had arisen from Republican management 147 . though Free Trade.Politics ment McKinley Bill which had overwhelmed the Republicans in the Congressional elections two years pre at the viously. however essential. felt their natural probably a ma ority of the workingmen affiliation to be with the Democratic "party of the j ' ' masses. disinclined to consider the merits of the case. then engaged in an endeavor to create trades unions upon a vast scale. Upon the main issue Capital and Labor engaged in in dustrial pursuits were as one for mutual benefits derived from the protective system of which the great steel-manu facturing State of Pennsylvania was the citadel. headed by Mr. fair and desirable. began to question the soundness of Protection. This gave rise to a situation most serviceable to the clever organizers. Individually. were easily aroused to consciousness of injury. the country seemed likely to swing back to the Republican policy in iSgx unless some extraneous question should alienate a large block of normal partisans.

Carnegie to propose a settlement upon his own terms. Reid to intercede with Mr. Mr. and the powerful Typographical Union No 6. Reid's attitude. quite unexpectedly and with out expectation or desire on his own part. Whitelaw Reid for Vice-President. he was nomi nated as the Republican candidate in place of Vice-Presi dent Levi P. Morton. years but in 1890 negotiations view to unionizing the probable settlement office had been begun with a and were approaching a the Republican Convention nominated Mr. realized that Mr Frick was practically certain to win the contest. The TRIBUNE had been main tained as a non-union establishment for nearly fifteen . when Mr. he appealed to Mr. Mr. The conversations which had al ready begun between Mr. Having returned from France. Hugh O'Donnell.Frick the Man the strained relations existing between the NEW YORK TRIBUNE. however. . the head of the Amalgamated Association in Pittsburgh. In when point of fact an adjustment would already have been reached but for the circumstance that Mr. Reid and the officers of the Union were quietly continued without regard to his can didacy and a settlement satisfactory to both parties was reached without difficulty. contingent only upon recognition of the Union. indeed. had been so friendly and considerate that. he was about to resume parleys when. Reid thereupon. Reid was serv ing as Minister to France and unable to give the matter his personal attention. the chief Republican organ. after having communicated his purpose to Secretary of State Foster for the information 148 .

through Mr. in position to render He believes you will be able to start your mills. ask in any political interest. see him at once. theirs or the public's. Mr. in a matter which has al ready cost many lives and threatens yet more bloodshed and mis ery. relations. addressed the follow ing cypher communication. but that the trouble will then have only begun. without transmitting his message direct to you. that such a bitter war fare should be inaugurated concession he asks. and sub ganization. Consul-General in London to Mr. These assurances have been given to me in writing. they mit to whatever you think it right to require. which you have heretofore recognized. for so small a reason as the objection to continued recognition of their organization. for aid with you He says he does not organised Labor. Carnegie in Scotland : Have received appeal from Hugh in reaching settlement Homestead difficulty. to prolong this distressing and bloody strife which may spread so widely.Politics doubtless of President Harrison. either yours. but solely for the men. women and little children making up their dis tressed community. whether as to scale a conference with or wages or hours or anything else. New. thus recognizing their or will waive every other thing in dispute. New Proposition heartily approved here. in presence of witnesses. over his signature. and do all in their power to re establish harmonious relations. and he makes appeal to me because he thinks me. Send copy of same to : Fnck aad have Elkins and Wanamaker portance. He thinks it to nobody's in terest. or in that of O'Donnell. and have been repeated and emphasized in conversation. and without I begging you to weigh it most carefully before deciding. two days* visit he has made New cannot rest under such an appeal. during the to York for this purpose. Reid received the following reply from Mr. in consequence of our personal efficient aid. John C. Utmost im 149 . and that you can well afford the only He assures me that if your people will merely consent to reopen their representatives.

Milholland port to Mr. that they did not have Mr. I told Mr. He seemed. He told me that he had intended to trans mit the message through Mr. Frick was lying in bed when I called. Reid had cabled to Mr. Carnegie be cause he found it impossible to come in contact with him. Frick and also that our enquiries for Mr. to say. however. Carnegie's address or the use of the code. that is Mr. I had presented your letter of introduc tion. Immediately following this conversation Mr. your despatch to Mr. I discovered later in the conversation that he had received some cablegrams from the other side informing him that somebody from you would call within a few days. I told him then of my visit to Mr. his face and head swathed in bandages. that Mr. He looked surprised and asked what I meant. Mr. that is. Man Simultaneously Mr JohnE. Reid made the following it re who forwarded promptly to Mr. Frick. Harrison : Mr. Reid. Car negie approved the proposition and recommending that it be im mediately laid before Mr. Carnegie would have been the means of bringing us into re lation with Mr. Schoonmaker Mr. Schoonmaker. I further stated that finally Mr. Carnegie's address and they did not have the code there. Schoon maker informed me after holding telephone communication with the Pittsburgh office. and he seemed to know all about my mission. Milholland. with Mr. Frick. Reid. arrived in Pittsburgh on July 3oth and sought an interview with Mr. actingforMr. the New York representa tive of the firm. Frick. namely. I briefly laid the correspondence in the case before him. to be in a fairly vigor ous condition and displayed considerable excitement when we opened the conversation. There was of course but one interpretation to be placed upon such a reply. Carnegie and Consul-General New's cablegram in reply saying that Mr. O'Donnell's letter.Frick the . Frick. Frick that Mr. I told him that we had spent three days in en deavoring to get from Mr. by request of the Republican National Commit tee. Frick did not care to meet Mr. Reid and 150 . Frick at his house with a letter of introduction from Mr.

Carnegie. "If it takes all summer?" Tes. Mr. He had put up with it as long as he could and proposed to stand it no longer. the might demand whole Cabinet. and all next summer and all next winter." for some time on the favorable outlook for the from the situation Company's point of view. If he interferes every manager that he has will resign and of course I will get out of the concern. Amalgamated Association. At this point. the whole leadership of the party it but he would not yield. Carnegie. Carnegie has said to General New or to anybody else. was one of the most tyrannous bodies on the face of the earth. I added "It makes no difference to me what Mr. he said. quire into the merits of the case. Notwithstanding the fact that he was a Republican and a warm friend and admirer of the President. as I knew something about trades- unions. never. He believed that was what he doing was really in the true interests of the men The themselves. I will never the Union. Frick detailed some of his unpleasant experiences with the Then he talked Association. Reid had inter ested himself to the extent of transmitting O'Donnell's message to Mr. But I do not think he will interfere. but that it had not been the purpose of those who had interested themselves with a view to effecting a settlement to in the right or wrong of it. settlement that would be satisfactory to both sides? It was simply A with that end in view and only that end. I won't settle this strike even if he should order me peremptorily to do so." His 151 . at this point. "if it takes all summer and all winter. Yes. I remarked. he the cause of the strikers. never!" He was considerably wrought recognize in my hand. I told him that I could fully appreciate the annoyance to which he had been subjected. Mr. or situation existed. He was going to fight the strike out on the lines that he had laid down. It was of the most deplorable character.Politics was evidently bent upon preventing any intercourse between him and Mr. He had no sympathy with the lawlessness. that Mr. His sole to had no object was champion disposition to bring about peace if it were possible to dio so. Frick declared emphatically that he would never consent to settle the difficulties if President Harrison himself should personally request him to do so." he said. even my 4 will fight this thing to the bitter end. The Could anything be done to bring about a practical question was. and noticing the despatch that I held up life itself.

You must decide without Amalgamated Association evidently distressed. Frick and as transmitted by Mr. July z8th." delay. Frick in cablegrams from Mr. was so clearly defined in the tele gram that it was unnecessary to dwell further upon it. be done. however. New was not mentioned to Mr. but I do not think any important point touched upon has escaped me. . Useful of showing Amalgamated Association. Frick document. That could not be done. is not worthy of consideration. This position was unalterably fixed. He seemed to think that keep the matter of my visit a secret. I told tention of giving it it was just as well to him that I had no in whom I represented. however. had not bound I believe I have here stated the main points touched upon in the hour or three-quarters of an hour's conversation we had.Frick the Man position in the matter. I made it perfectly clear that I anyone to maintain secrecy. concluded Tribune too old. Mildifference in The perplexing 152 . The first intimation of what was going on had reached Mr. yet I publicity and while I could not speak for those thought it would be perhaps best all least for the present. who by this time had seemed to take a less hostile view of the matter said that it was impossible to bring about peace by any way that involved a recognition of the Union. and there was no use discussing it. The proposition is worthy of consideration. Carnegie's attitude as revealed by his direct cablegram to Mr. Use your own dis cretion about terms and starting. July xgth. H. Replied 'nothing can * Rannoch. Send H. C. After due consideration we have Rannoch. Frick. Andrew Carnegie solid. Carnegie dated July 18 th and July x<jth reading as follows: We have telegram from Tribune Reid through high official Lon don Amalgamated Association reference Homestead Steel Works. George Lauder. C. Frick forever! Probably the proposition distress Mr.. Before round to say nothing of the matter at leaving. Mr. Jr. Henry Phipps. there was some incidental conversation.

I am that Reid has been keeping O'Donnell and inclined to the opinion to believe he was still string. from any standpoint otherwise than fight or time. and leading them a settlement about to through you. O'Donnell emphatically that you did not propose then. Carnegie until August 2-3rd. and continued: I told Mr. placed before you correctly or you never would have matters certainly not heartily approved. for you to say or do anything in the matter. It is too bring endeavoring late now. and when the issue was once made. Mr. you had not availed yourself of the opportunity offered to Reid and Mr. viewing it that you might. From information received from time to time since then. Reid to expect us to treat with the Amalgamated Association. we could not afford to do it to cost through to the end. that it was most unreasonable for Mr. and I know or that you could not have had any other idea but that sooner or union later we would have to run non-union at all the works at all the works. I have always feared that the consolidation of our various companies would give us some trouble with labor where the Amalgamated Association was in charge. I went over the situation and am satisfied convinced him very fully with him at the time. Milholland that I did not think the matter had been entertained. He was very solicitous that the fact of his having called should be considered confidential. however. nor at any time in the future. while his ac way to Scotland. nor was the incident recounted to Mr. and that I was surprised that tell Mir. any proposition to adjust with the Amalgamated Association. Frick confessed apologeti cally that in the stress of business he had neglected to write of it. I assured him that the matter would go no further than my associates. his gang on the As you know.Politics holland. when Mr. without regard No more was heard of the matter until. to urge your partners here to treat with law-breakers and assassins. Frick received word that Secretary of War Elkins and Postmaster-General Wanamaker wished to make an apcount of the interview was on its 153 .

it seems to me. Mr. Firm's honor pledged never to dismiss them. Party only bringing thou sands to misery by allowing places taken is lost. by strangers after fight "Frankly.Frick the Man pointment for an interview with him upon a subject of great urgency. and giving that as a deal with the reason really why we would make no compromise would. "I do not think you sent the proper message to Reid. Over two thousand men working Homestead. but would never have any dealings with the Amalgamated Association." 154 . under any circumstances. Frick with respect to this. Reid should have been given to understand that we not only would not compromise." wrote Mr. that we did not propose hereafter. indicate that if we had not so many new men at work a compromise might be possible. to . Every one of the twenty-three owners would sink works rather than dismiss one man. Saying to him the number of men we had at work. Amalgamated Association. You should have said emphatically in my opinion. Carnegie replied promptly : Wired Reid as follows: Tell party no compromise possible. Would advise cabling Reid at once most emphatically to the contrary and that we will never consent to any compromise of any kind at Plunge (Home stead) and tell him to so notify Laugh's representative immediately as I know they think you will interfere sooner or later in their favor. Carnegie on August x6th The 4 : fact that in your communication with New you advised 'having either Wanamaker or Elkins see me" and the fact that they are both now wanting to see me leads to the conclusion that WhitelawReid is holding out to Laugh's (O'Donnell's) representa tive that some arrangement can yet be made. This is the way it strikes me. Whereupon he cabled Mr.

Politics Mr. I ask for a clean dismissal on the count that the message to him was not what you 'had a right to expect. Carnegie countered on September 9th : cleverly and good-naturedly My dear Mr. It must have stung him hard. That nevertheless Mr. Elkins that I could not see him now. Your cable read: "Wire Reid we and these will never consent to any compromise of any kind. Reid had.C further appeals from the Republican leaders to either of the 'recognize the Union" were received by No 4 partners. I wrote to Mr. If I find . Had I known then that Mr. and kept to it. To is travel beyond them might not have suited your book. Frick had reason to an ticipate further nagging was indicated in this lugubrious Mr. received. and a wrong word might easily be said. I could not have been so cruel as to put the matter in the way I did. Frick Yours. He had no right to do so after my interview with his representative. being your own and * ' * my boy. Wanamaker on Monday night at Cresson. A. You have no idea how much in the dark one up here among the moors. its : I thought I had sent a rattling message to Reid. Yours sincerely. I added the strongest proof why compromise was impossible." form is were the words I began with. for to my mind. Carnegie: postcript to his letter to At his request I am to meet Mr. or was going to change his office from a Non-union to a Union office. business. yours and not mine. the firm's honor being pledged in that public notice renders any re-instatement of the Union simply impossible. I shall promptly inform Reid that he must cease meddling in our affairs. twenty-three miles from a railway station. just what you wished to hit at the time and how to hit it. since I am so ignorant of conditions. I don't know what about but surmise it may be on this it is so. Having wired your very words.

if you should think otherwise. Dear Mr. through a com mercial concern not likely to talk. I sent the same messenger to It Pittsburgh. upon making inquiry. What Mr Wanamaker really sought was a substantial . After fruitless efforts for a day or two. but. You will find enclosed herewith his report of the con I Seeing no opportunity for further useful action in the premises. and meeting Secretary Elkins '56 . the matter ***** is in your hands. within as few hands as possible. 1892. I at last found a method of sending the despatch which you saw. That some contribution should be made was agreed and the amount was still under discussion by correspond ence when Mr. With high respect. Ut most importance. WHITELAW REID. you ought to know the steps taken. Reid had written the following letter to President Har rison Private on August 4th : August 4th. Mr. to be as distasteful to Mr. Frick was called to New York on business. Always faithfully yours. settled the matter by hand- . contribution to the Republican Campaign fund osition a prop which Mr.Frick the Man But Mr. in cypher. As Mr. seemed to me unwise to involve the Administration in any way in this matter without first ascertaining the probable recep tion it would get. have not communicated with Messrs. Carnegie as it was to himself. Frick found. versation. and in order to keep the matter for the time. Frick guessed wrong. President. Wanamaker and Elkins. General New transmitted once and on Friday last telegraphed me as follows: it at Proposition heartily approved here. As already noted.. Send copy of same to Frick and have Elkins and Wanamaker see him at once. Milholland talked with you about the Homestead busi ness.

whose view he found in a letter awaiting him upon his arrival home. Cleveland for Venice tomorrow. for $Z5. "but I cannot see that our interests are going to be affected one ministration. "Mr. 1893." 4 ' or the other by the change in ad ' ' Cleveland Landslide ! ! replied Mr.000 Wanamaker had intimated had been promised real by Mr. following the inauguration of Mr. People will now think the Protected Manfrs. Harrison would be elected. Mr. "that very sorry Homestead did much to but no use getting scared. elect Cleveland On March zoth. Carnegie. to which I said I thought it a waste of money. will be attended to and quit agitating. himself Democratic majorities in both Houses of gress. Dolan and Clarkson felt very confident. Cleveland. But Mr. Elkins told me/' wrote Mr. ' ' but we wanted to do our duty and I hoped Mr. Frick on October 3ist. sum he had suggested in lieu of $50. Carnegie. the which Mr . Con "I am very sorry for President Harrison/' way wrote Mr.Politics ing him a check drawn to the order of Thomas Dolan. . Carnegie addressed the following letter to Mr.ooo. Well ' we have nothing to fear and perhaps it is best. to the effect that not more than $10. Off week ' ' later from Venice. Prick's wish was smothered by his expecta tion Mr Cleveland was elected and bore into power with . Frick. Reid: 157 . Carter. "I fear/' he wrote a is pretty good fellow. "that Quay. Letters dated November ^th crossed.000 should be contributed.

Supposing you would soon return I waited. that you might not be here until May I feel that too long to wait to express my sincere and heartfelt thanks for the noble effort you made to settle that deplorable Homestead blunder." They voted soon ' enough but I only started to express myself your debtor and to assure you that all three of the principal owners are very grateful to you. I would be promptly settled. gone through all the works and shaken hands with the chief men. no manufacturer is wise who attempts to employ new men. Mills' house. The guards were intended only to protect them. Reid: upon you upon my return from Pittsburgh but found your house closed. The workmen were terrorized and dare not appear. (where I called to it is I called ask about you). partners thought the three thousand old men would keep their promise to work. Between ourselves. I told the Committee they were right in saying 'I would never fight but they had to learn one thing I could beat any Committee ever formed. but never starting until matters were right.Frick the 5 Man Fifty-first Street West Private New York. No one knows the virtues. Here was the turning point. Lauder whom Phipps & I had summoned to Scotland to confer with me. March zoth. For twenty-six years I ran all our various works and never had but one labor stoppage. 1893 My dear Mr. but learning from the woman at Mr. I assure you my partners Messrs. the noble traits of the true working man who has not lived with them as I have and there's one conI This has been the hardest trial I ever had to endure (save when the hand of death has come) I have been in misery since July. and therefore the My opened works for them. as a supposed consequence of your We never suspected that the seven hundred men. sitting down. I rested believing men work were new reported as at them to be our former em ployes. the matter action. but am reconciled somewhat since I have visited Homestead and 58 . The works should then have been closed and the firm should have kept on negotiating. agree with me in feeling ourselves under a debt of gratitude to you. the works would start when they voted to ask me to start them.

Mr.Politics solation in all my sorrow. Reid and Mr. When the election was over he returned to business without apologizing to any body for anything that he had done. Car you had only been here it never would have happened. Frick supposed to be dying no step could be taken that would not have complicated matters still more. Presi dent Harrison and yourself. I was all ready to return by the first steamer. Mills and renewed thanks to you believe me always Your friend negie if ANDREW CARNEGIE. but I was powerless after the riot and with Mr. Mr. I remained abroad. Ah. Excuse this long epistle. Prick's virtual depo sition and he had begged me not to do this. but as my appear ance on the scene would have implied Mr. My kindest regards to Mrs. Frick said nothing. . Not one of them but said. To add to my cup I know the mistake injured my friends.

This accusation. 1 60 . in pursuance of a routine which he had followed for years. and wisely. He sailed in April as three months before the expiration of the agreement. indulge his fads and play betimes at publicity. among His withdrawal from directive responsibility. was attribut able undoubtedly to his sincere desire to shift the entire executive and financial burden to the shoulders of THE MAN whom at last he believed he had found. postponement would have served only to evince apprehension which he did not feel. insofar at any rate as it bore upon the date of his leaving the country. experiment in philanthropy. nearly no foundation in fact. One widespread impression respect ing the conduct of the former was that he forsook the workmen whose friendship he had sedulously cultivated 4 ' and 'ran away to Scotland' in the nick of time to avoid facing the situation. and to en since courage the labor leaders in inciting disaffection the men.XII "The Laird" and "The Man" P^HE I motives and the acts of both Mr. Carnegie and Mr. and thus leave himself free to work at philosophy. Frick were misunderstood or misrepresented from the beginning of the struggle at I JL. even from nominal membership of the Board. had usual. Homestead.



by force if necessary. Carnegie nor Mr. Although this understanding was observed faithfully."The Laird" and "The Man" The possibility of serious disturbance in one of many working organizations was incidental rather than unusual and in no sense a controlling influence over his activities. whose sole duty was to guarantee and to it 4 secure. Prick fore saw anything approaching in magnitude and consequences the terrific hurricane that was to follow. either at Homestead or elsewhere. Mr. and so it was arranged to the satisfaction of both. to conduct its business as it might see officials as fit. 161 . no less than of an individual. both were awarelong before trouble began that their respect to either general in most trying circumstances. but. as a practical matter. throughout the entire con test. could be handled most by the Chairman alone. all 'equal privileges'* ac corded by basic law to both Capital and Labor. less than amonth before the outbreak. but should not be compelled to do either through complicity or negligence on the part of the State. content to aid by suggestion. minds were not in accord with policy. without inter ference by the chief or any other stockholder. Frick stood for squarely upholding what he considered the absolute right of a corporation. the two had agreed that whatever might arise in the form of strikes or lock outs. the one assum effectively ing full responsibility and the other. It might or might not deal with union authorized representatives of masses of workmen. pledging unqualified support of whatever de cision might be reached by the management. In point of fact neither Mr. they were planning a long conference in Scotland . or specific methods.

To the logical mind of Mr." equivalent to those depicted pendence as by Jefferson in the Declaration of Inde "endowed by their Creator. to those who perceived in its ment by a leading employer evidence of great breadth and magnanimity. A sharper disagreement "in principle* could hardly be imagined." thus clearly on human pronounce superseding rights of Capital derived from mere mundane authority. But Mr.Frick the ' ' ' ' Man Mr. but it made slight impression upon minds for the simple reason that it applied solely to organized Labor in its unending" struggle with Capital and barred from consideration the vastly greater dialectical number of individuals who were thus left out in the cold without recourse of any kind. Carnegie bestowed upon it his benediction as being equally desirable from the standpoint of the best employers. Carnegie held contrary views acclaimed by some as 'advanced* or 'progressive' and condemned by others as "radical" or "socialistic. Frick it spelt con by responsible managers of control of property from whose owners they clusively nothing less than abdication had accepted virtual trusteeship. This doctrine appealed strongly. did not hesitate to carry his theory to its irresistible conclusion with a dictum approximating an Eleventh Commandment to the effect that 4 Thou shalt not take thy neighbor's job. itarian grounds. ' " Pronouncing this 'the unwritten law of the best work men/' Mr. 162 ' . heed less of his own disregard not only of logic but of the very sympathy which he was striving to manifest for the toil ers. Carnegie." To Labor he was accus tomed to accord rights that were "natural.

the stern deter- 163 . and suffer. Carnegie in offsetting at least. until a majority vote (secret ballot) rel. or much ill feeling. am satisfied that the Employer or Firm who gets the of adhering to that will never have a prolonged stop reputation start it is. that it will confer freely with them and wait patiently until they decide to return to ' ' ' work. could cause no embarrass ment. "is that the Company should be known as determined to let the men any works stop work. This was a private communication from controlling owner to responsible manager and.C." I page. Who can blame with "Thou shalt not seek thy them!" Taken in conjunction neighbor's job. but unfortunately the like could not be said of a sweeping generalization along the same line made pub lic some time before. And outlined the method which he reasoned would coincide in these words : with his theory. never thinking of trying new men never. Frick. idea." this naturally induced the labor lead ers to believe that they might count upon the moral sup port and dominant influence of Mr. Carnegie then wrote. Later he added 'Workmen can always be relied upon : to resent the employment of new men. Carnegie had already. from its permanent abiding place in the office safe. and probably overwhelming. Mr."The Laird" and "The Man" yet the difference In application was even more vivid. in a letter to Mr. no quar the not least in the world. Gentlemen let's hear from you. A. to go to work have a good time when a majority vote to start." "My at Mr. let My idea of beating in a dispute with men is always to shut down them decide by vote when they desire to go to work "All say kindly right.

the labor ' negotiators insisted that he was deliberately using a tri fling disparity as a pretext for completely smashing the union. unrevealed for many years. while holding that a company was bound by its con felt agreements. This deduction was natural but erroneous. but he was so eager to carry on peaceably the great under takings which he had in mind that he not only welcomed tracts. and a large portion of the popular Press denounced apprehension of Mr. involving of course the 'recognition" so ardently desired. Carnegie but Mr. Frick who vetoed the proposal. Mr. Frick that he had ample reason to distrust a union which. in the face of this proposal. Carnegie embodied his idea 164 . Shortly before sailing in April.Frick the Man mination of the man whom they most feared as an enemy of labor organization . Mr. and it was not Mr. Carnegie's purpose in going abroad him bitterly upon this false assumption. had persistently repudiated its own but sought a continuance of the existing arrangement with the Amalgamated Association upon a wage scale which he and the labor fair leaders tacitly admitted to be offer at the and reasonable. it was not Mr. In point of fact. Carnegie who wanted to make open war on the union from the very beginning. Frick but Mr. Nevertheless. following several con ferences in New York. even going so far as to last conference to split the immaterial difference of only two dollars per ton in the fixed minimum. The public mis was trivial by contrast with this misrepresentation of Mr. Prick's true attitude.

Sunningdale. rejected this plan. the contrary. that a sober second-thought would avert the ne altercation cessity of engaging in and possibly forcing an issue of control at a most inopportune moment. but every man will see that the firm cannot and Non-Union. there has been forced upon this Firm the question Whether its Works are to be run 'Union* or 'Non-Union. or "ultimatum. These Works have been consolidated with the Edgar Thomson and Duquesne and other mills. and on May 4th addressed communication which he labelled to Sir. These works therefore. Frick a was joined long 4 ' ' 'a joint production. negie by two of his partners. But I hope you might have to use. * * * * * This action is not taken in any spirit of hostility to labor organ run Union izations. in it: I did not get it quite right. Phipps and Mr. most of the This does not imply that the men will make lower wages. On men at Edgar Thomson and Duquesne Works. England. This Immediately upon his ar Car rival at Coworth Park. Mr. It must be either one or the other. Frick neither accepted nor he hoping and abided events. policy quickly justified itself. in the course of which he said : You remember I gave you a type-written slip which I suggested It is probable that you will. reading as follows NOTICE TO EMPLOYEES AT HOMESTEAD WORKS.' As the vast majority of our employees are NonUnion. his cousin. have made and are making higher wages than those at Homestead. : to be posted at a suitable moment. the Firm has decided that the minority must give place to the majority. Mr. you will make this change 165 . Mr." as subsequently he de scribed it. which has hitherto been Union. will be necessarily Non-Union after the expiration of the present agreement. Lauder. simply pigeon-holed the document."The Laird" and "The Man" in a manifesto. both Non-Union.

Carnegie cabled from Pitlochry : On July jth. Carnegie replied : 166 . is think it said that the firm I 'Union' or 'Non-Union. Mr." He made no reference to the proposed 'ultimatum/ nor ' ' . You will win easily next trial only stand firm law and order wish I could support you in any form. Mr. All anxiety gone since you stand firm. Two days later WORLD succeeded a correspondent of the in tracing NEW YORK to a secluded lodge in Perthshire and reported as follows: at his him Asked if he had anything to say concerning the troubles mills. we do not care whether a man belongs to as many Unions or organizations as he chooses. Cable received. It No contest will be entered in that Homestead than it would have been last time when we had the matter in our own hands as you have always felt. On the other hand.' This am wrong. did Mr. and we should not. 1 ' the day following the pitched battle at Homestead. 'No doubt you will get Homestead right as you can get anything " right with your 'mild persistence. but he must conform to the system in our other works. We will be harder this time at . so that I really do not believe it will be much of a struggle. Mr. not stopping short of approval of a contest. saying that if "a stubborn fight" should arise. Never employ one these rioters. it would be "fought to a finish without regard to cost or time. Frick accepted this assurance as approval of his determination as outlined in a letter dated April list. Carnegie on May i^rd when he wrote. your reputation will shorten it. We simply say that consolidation having taken place.Frick the because I Man had to make the decision of sure. We need not meet that point. Must not fail now. We are with you to the end. we must introduce the same system in our works. all approve of anything you do. ***** are all sure of: One thing we will fail. Let grass grow over works.

or simply availed himself of a plausible pre text to escape from a perplexing situation is perhaps a a direct answer. The men have chosen their course and I am powerless to change it." 'But do you not still exercise a supervision of the ' of the company?" "I have nothing whatever is management deal with every question that may arise. alas. "No. the works were in the hands of the Governor. the following question since. Carnegie and to effect a break between the two partners by cabling this message: Kind master. "was most touching but. Carnegie in his Autobiography. it was too late." "But you must have some opinion in the matter that you are " willing to express."The Laird" and "The Man" ' 1 have nothing whatever to say. : 167 . Frick Governor's action settles matters all right now no compromise. The mischief was done. I have given up all active con do not care to interfere in trol of the business and I any way with affairs the present management's conduct of this affair. * f Immediately following the arrival of the troops the union leaders sought to embarrass Mr. The handling of the case on the part of the company has my full approval and sanction. tell us what you wish us to do and we shall do it "This/' wrote Mr. Further than this I have no disposition to say anything. I am not willing to express any opinion. too late. for you. Whether he meant to convey the impression that he might have intervened if the affecting appeal had reached him sooner. in lieu of breath of apparent relief was flashed to Mr. 4 in the hands of those to say on that point. the business who are folly to competent * 1 * 'Have you heard from Homestead since the not occurred?' "I have received several cables and among them several asking my interference with the parties in control. sir.

and dear friend my appearing upon scene as long as you are able to from house and unless partners call.Frick the * Man 'Much pleased with your cable. and re-organizing the entire works. Carnegie received news of the attempted assassination of Mr. Frick he cabled promptly: Too glad at your escape to think of anything. We know too well what is due to you. Am subject your orders. he was writing: We will lose no time in resuming operations at Homestead. "I tremble yet to think of your escape. selecting the best men. Car negie's favorite method of merely shutting down." he wrote but was reassured on August 5th by a cablegram 168 . Never fear brave direct matters . Frick promptly responded by letter in these words : Your cable of this morning was received. in the course of frequent reports. Be careful of yourself we ask. Louise Stella myself is all all relieved by cables just received. so that we shall not employ any more men than actually necessary. did not doubt your and amplified position/' Mr. wait ing patiently for the thinking of men to return to work and 'never trying new men never. and I cabled a reply. Thus quite casually and without argument. acquainted with all had sufficient confidence in the management here not to form an with the meagre information that opinion unfavorable to it. even you would receive or gather from newspaper dispatches. it shall but be done with the greatest care. Mr. was ignored and ' ' * no protest was forthcoming. When Mr. Never had a doubt but that you would thoroughly approve of would once be made every action taken in this matter when you and in the have felt that you facts the of case. Meanwhile. awful.

only doing what it seems to me to be for the inter ests of the owners of the property. if it is thought somebody else can do better. Lauder (Mr. its immedi ate effect would be strengthening of the union and dis couragement of the new men the result might. and if we want to get the full benefit of all that we have gone through. there should be none in the present nor in the future. The first rift in the lute came on September loth. would be hailed as a signal that the controlling owner was dissatisfied with the situation and was feeling his way toward taking a hand. You owe it to all your friends to is be careful of yourself. and replied : Hearty congratulations from all here. upon return to post of duty everything right when you and Mrs. There had been no interference in the past. there must be no devia tion from the policy we have been pursuing all along. suggested undoubtedly by his Chief. his appearance upon the scene. Frick wrote : Had a cable yesterday evening from Mr."The Laird" and "The Man" ' * reading. After it is all over. Lauder's coming over now would only give them further hope. Carnegie's cousin). so far as I am concerned. nor to my knowledge have I ever shirked it. The decisive note in this crisp utterance was unmis takable. Wired him not to come at pres ent. 169 . who said he would be glad to come over if he could be of any use in any position whatever. Mr. and Mr. ' everything assum ' ing good shape. the position is open for him. Lauder was recognized universally as Mr. so know. when Mr. Frick are right every other consideration insignificant. I have never sought responsibility. and quite . as he had done on previous occasions. There is a feeling yet that you will in some way interfere to settle this strike question. There is far as I nothing personal in this matter. At office feeling first-class. I am. Carnegie's personal representative. and wrote him fully.

not. Owners held." should prove unsatisfactory a significant phrase which. His attitude had undergone no change. to come. had conceded the right of majority stockholders to dictate a policy and had withdrawn from the management. Carnegie. full control of their properties Again he would retire volun . refusing to carry out instructions which When he considered ruinous. a precisely similar crisis arose during the coke strike Mr. ignored it for the moment. be defeat Man Mr. Frick had misinterpreted "Mr. admittedly ill and obviously despondent. Lauder ought and disaster. Mr. Mr. Frick answered a specific question somewhat laconically in these words It if : seems to you felt well 170 me that you would enjoy a trip 10 Italy much more satisfied with the way everything was running at . strip an for the instant velvet revealed the hand of ping glove. and should be empowered to exercise. expressing his regret that Mr. but at the expiration of a week he wrote at great length. Lauder's volunteer 1 ing to go to you/ hoping that he had not alienated him by making "a remarking that he great earnestness Mr.Frick the likely would. Frick. steeL Whatever construction hemay have put upon this plain intimation and whatever may have been his emotions. Paying no attention to the general dissertation. tarily if his administration "after it is all over. Phipps as was "too touchy" and arguing with " that the more partners there are in curt reply/' quoting 11 the works the better unit and as ' ' showing that the firm was "a bound to win . and would not be permitted.

Lauder. setting forth his reasons for declining the latter 's proffer of aid. is too much against our Chairman partakes of per It is very bad indeed for you very and also bad for the interests of the firm. many respects as you imagine them to turry and Leishman both think it would be better that you should postpone your return until next spring. Prick's response to Mr. P. but then one is sometimes wrongfully got this struggle as wise man as you Your partners should be you as much identified with It is know think over this counsel. inside Homestead Works. Altho we dont agree with your decision Lauder is a -partner big word. having received Mr. I merely say this to show that the decision reached in regard to Mr. on October nth. but I cannot see wherein I can profit by it. Mr. and not a small word anywhere His presence there could only tell strikers the firm was a unit not a personal quarrel of any one member If twenty of our young part ners were inside better. Frick.C. You will find that things are not as bad in be. although I freely concur in it. Carnegie wrote : My dear Pard : H. summed up the situation in response to this peculiar epistle as follows I : note the counsel you give. Mr. Phipps or Mr."The Laird" and 'The Man" here home. matters in respect . Homestead encouraging new men so much the This fight sonal issue. There's another point which troubles me on your account the danger that the public and hence all our men get the impression that it is all Frick Your influence for good would be permanently impaired You don't deserve a bad name. Lauder was not made on my own turn until this matter responsibility. and a true friend. A. and that you would be better satisfied with the situation if you were to return in November. or what action could be taken by me that would change to that which you mention. from a very Mr. Meanwhile. and I are delighted with tone of your reply to Lauder. and they have felt more strongly all the time than I have that it would be a mistake for either yourself. as you have counted on. Lauder to re is over.

and anything we do for them will not be credited to the Amalgamated Association. was the fear that long the strike. Our victory complete and most gratifying. etc. you will recollect. 2. or when he proposed it. For no other reason.Frick the Man As you understand. waiting. but to the one that we are most deeply interested in. I told you then that I did not like to think of the labor situation at Homestead. in your next to the last visit library.. So far as the strike is concerned.). during my with you. and the fight would yet have to be made. and then we would have been accused of trying to starve our men into submission. Phipps & Company. in as good shape as Edgar Thomson and Duquesne. and if we had eventually been com pelled to make a deal with the Amalgamated Association just think what effect that would have had on Edgar Thomson and Duquesne. Strike officially declared off yesterday. where two cablegrams from in Italy. having decided to follow his inclination and seek diversion by easy stages to Milan. is 18. and should now soon have Homestead and all the works formerly managed by Carnegie.F. If we had adopted the policy of sitting down and waiting. 172 . etc. proceeded : Pittsburgh awaited his arrival Nov. That is no concern of ours. and when this victory is won it will not take very long to show our men at Homestead how much better it is to deal with us direct. I assure you. when you gave me a memorandum expressing your views about the labor situation at Homestead. Mr.1. Nov. Lauder's return it might pro ing now. Let the Amalgamated still exist and hold full sway at other people's mills. Victory! EARLY (H. Carnegie replied. Carnegie. we would have still been sitting. before you left for Europe. the only objection to Mr. Do not think we will ever have any serious labor trouble again. and happy morning since July surprising how congratulate all round improve works.C.go ahead tariff not in it shake. or any other Association. now "Life worth living again! followed with: Cables received pretty Italia clear track first 11 Mr. Venice and Florence. This is the way I think. Of course I may be wrong.

and added ' ' ' ' ' 4 : Shall see you all early after the New Year. Homestead. but it is all over years older than now write So once again Happy New Year to all. Fricfc at their head. But he did not Proceeding straightway to the battle-ground. he wrote from Rome. of which I knew nothing. His four years' management stamps him as one of the foremost managers of the world not exchange him for any manager I know.C. People generally are still to learn of those virtues which his health be spared I predict partners and friends know so well. His are the qualities that wear. Think I'm about ten when with you last. If his that no man who ever lived in Pittsburgh and managed business here will be better liked or more admired by his employees than my friend and partner Henry Clay Frick."The Lakd" and 'The Man" 1 am well. with Mr. reiterating his numerous asser ' ' tions that he had ' 'retired from active ' business' for all time four years previously and closing with this striking tribute to his partner: And now one word man. Mr. what he promises he more than fulfils. until we are all sick of the name. are not dependent upon me. hope after this statement that the public will understand that of the Carnegie Steel Company. Of his ability. or upon any one the officials 173 . Limited. I am not mistaken in the show. Frick. Ever your Pard. I cannot believe you can be well. I wish someone would me about your good self. A. nor do I believe any man will be I more valuable for the city. Carnegie returned home in January deeply dis tressed by consciousness of the contemptuous attitude of the public toward him for what was regarded mistakenly as the craven part which he had played. he never disappoints. fairness and pluck no I would now the slightest question. Europe has rung with Home stead. ' come to Pittsburgh to rake up but to bury the past. he published a carefully prepared statement with 'I did not flinch. 'and able to take an interest in the wonders we see. one has as the future will about Mr.

it is true. Carnegie. remained unimpaired. And further. Mr. that I have the most implicit faith in them. The relations of THE LAIRD and THE MAN. but the fact remains that he did play the game to the finish and emerged from the "most terrible experience" of his life unscathed save in popular repute. Many years later. . having thus miraculously survived the ordeal. actuated by motives not then existent. said and did many things diffi cult to reconcile with this unqualified encomium.Frick the Man in any way for their positions. and that I have neither power nor disposition to interfere with them in the management of the busi ness.

XIII Viftory's Cot and Gain Homestead and elsewhere in at the district improved steadily. physicians. indicted. An unac countable epidemic broke out among the workmen who obtained their meals inside the mills and completely mys tified the after several deaths had taken until. inaugurated with mills in Upper and Lower Pittsburgh and by non-union men at Fort Duquesne lasted only a few weeks and work was resumed by the men individually all along the line on a non-union basis. Analysis showed that these powders contained croton oil and arsenic varied withrpowders of antimony. by union men at the Nearlytwo thousand new men half filled the Home stead mills in August without serious menace from the former employe's. convicted in due time 175 . suspicions of poisoning were confirmed by helpers who confessed that they had been paid by Dempsey and an associate to put certain yellow powders into the soup and coffee supplied to the men. 3 of the Knights of Labor. great reluctance pany's standpoint. from the com CONDITIONS The sympathetic strikes. Dempsey was arrested. place. during the summer months. But one dastardly performance marked this the direction of Master Workman trict period under Hugh Dempsey of Dis Assembly No.

to seven years in the peni tentiary. Mr. Powderly and its supersession the American by Federation of Labor which was guided wisely and success fully for more than forty years by Mr. is it no desire to interfere. Samuel Gompers. Carnegie on October will see a decided change. "is Mr. C. by both advocates and opponents of clemency to intercede. when the last instalment departed. Frick wrote to Mr. FRICK. H. interfere would not seem proper to protest.Frick the Man and sentenced. but I think after the election we not much that I can . but the claim of innocence and unfair trial heretofore made is so tempt to manifestly untrue as to call for a protest from every well-informed and law-abiding citizen. and immediately assaults upon the non-union employes were renewed vigorously though only in a few individual instances effectually. If the application is put upon the ground of clemency. The troops were withdrawn gradually until October i3th. with others. "The firmness with which these strikers hold on. 3ist. The cynical effrontery of the Knights of Labor in up holding Dempsey and keeping his name on their rolls after he had been sentenced to the penitentiary contri buted materially to the breakdown of the organization under Mr. At the expiration of three years. There 176 is surprising to every one. Frick addressed the follow ing communication to the Board of Pardons : I have been requested to write yon upon the subject of the appli cation of Hugh Dempsey for pardon. besought as in the case of Berkman. There and indeed it would be improper to at its with the exercise by the Board of Pardons of so as its exercise is invoked in the name of power long mercy. Very Respectfully yours.

000. owing to being held back by the Amalgamated men. as This diagnosis proved to be correct.Viftory's CoSt and Gain say about Homestead except that we are gradually im proving. Charles M.600. Schwab. the Amalgamated Association formally abandoned the contest and released their members. Frick from the Edgar Thomson works to become Manager of the mills Three days later the local lodges of . This strike.ooo. always something going wrong. the workmen in loss of wages $1. a grand total of approximately lions of dollars.200. of course. and. but this is a chestnut. The mills have never been able to turn out the product they should. two hundred of whom broke large away on November iyth and were followed by groups of different classes on the following day. will cost us a large sum of money but we will get it all back in the next two or you know. all of whom were cordially greeted personally and few turned back by Mr.000 and the State for militia service five mil $1. Frick summed up tersely ' : . and had cost the company in necessary expendi tures and loss of profits $z.ooo. Homestead has never been well managed. who had been brought by Mr. The struggle had continued five months less one week. Carnegie that all expenses had been the dose as charged up/* so that we swallowed we went 177 aloag/ Mr. After notifying Mr. and a large amount of money has been wasted by poor manage ment. The political cul mination pulled the last prop from under the Amalga mated Association and dissipated the faint lingering hopes of the former employes. etc/' three years.

000.000. fell off only $300. its with the result that in 1900. fight.5 .000. 1893.000 to $4. as suffered if the struggle had not taken place. the last year of its net profits amounted to $40.000 and still showed 6% upon the entire expanded capital of $2. Carnegie dated September 8th. The reinstatement of the Democratic party in full power on March 4th. both to the owners and the employ6s of the Carnegie Steel Co.000. the net profits of the Carnegie Steel Company for 1892. I and reading as follows: as stated i0 do not agree with you. 1892.. but we will talk this all over when we meet.000. caught between enhatK:ed timidity of capital and 178 . we surely would have Notwithstanding the heavy loss entailed by the shut down at Homestead. your cable. that we are going to suffer for years at Homestead. Ltd. contained in a letter to Mr. thus fully verifying the prediction of Mr. We had to teach our employes a lesson. was preceded by symptoms of much uncertainty respecting continuance of prosperous con ditions. Business began to slacken early in the year and misgivings became so strong insisted in his inaugural when President Cleveland message that solemn pledges of substantial tariff reductions ttmst be kept that manufac turers.000 from the gains of 1891 1 from $4.. I am sure that I never want to go through another such Thereafter the company dealt with all their workmen and satisfaction and never rela as individuals to mutual benefit had a strike or a lock-out to mar their harmonious tionship. Frick separate existence. It is hard to estimate what blessings will flow from our recent complete victory.300.Frick the Man We could never have profited much by any of our competitors making and winning the fight we have made. and we have taught them one that they will never forget.

with whom he in cheery was still in fall accord. All thought of expansion or advance ment inevitably before the absolute necessities of working capital and most rigid economy to provide liv the ing wages. Many indus trial establishments "closed for repairs' 'and all "slowed down' to over. written in England and Scotland. and ending with the following: 179 . anyone perceived. The consequence was not actually the 'panic' that it was termed but rather * a universal and irresistible business depression which settled like a pall over the entire country.Viftory's Coft their and Gain unusual caution of consumers. Carnegie. were thrown back upon own resources for money with which to fabricate * products which they could not sell. calling upon the controlling owner for a The experience was less exciting than that of quelling terrific outbreak in the previous year but the task was fell hardly less difficult. Oddly the most revealing glimpses of that dreary period appear comments from Mr. Frick patiently and. His aims were three fold (i) To guide the company through the critical period with a minimum of loss or that sacrifice: (z) To demonstrate with their workingmen fare better in co-operation employers than under direction of labor unions and (3) To meet the financial requirements of the Com own pany without assistance. Day by day and hour by hour throughout so far as blazing summer time Mr. ' curtail production until the storm should blow The Chairman of the Carnegie : Steel Company found himself in a most trying position. happily paced the treadmill.

This his in lots of of the Carnegie happy stroke. upon your arrival. "all things considered.Frick the Man I know you have. when the firm's credit was finally exhausted. C. Andrew W. John Walker on August ioth. achieved hardly less own high 1 80 upon finajjcial rating than tipoa the record of . The Chairman. consisted of pledging varying amounts the entire resources of the H. but. the tenor of your letters and also your cables has been reassuring. but Mr. been having a hard time. but I really do not think I could have secured the money without it. Mellon was so fully occu pied in protecting their mutual interests in outside under takings. Prick's most noteworthy covp. he could always be relied upon to fill temporary gaps. meanwhile. we are getting along comfortably/* You took in the situation promptly. Mr. evinced no desire for the controlling owner's return and brought into play the in genuity developed years before in hiring money."in promising Mr. and while things are bad I am sure we can get through this with unimpaired credit. under the cir cumstances. Frick Coke Company and realizing no less than six million dollars for the "accommodation concern. I must say. and have added even to your unsurpassed reputation as a financier. Arbuckle your individual guarantee. and I you will have no hesitancy in doing this for us. It did me great good to get the words that. He not only stood ready whenever requested to endorse person ally any note offered for sale but also did not hesitate to pledge the backing of his friends "I took considerable liberty/' he wrote appealing to . ' ' trust Although Mr. As you know every dollar I have or any of us have would always be used to protect you against loss of any kind.

' pose without impairing the full usefulness of the 'great ability" which he ungrudgingly accorded his youthful coadjutor. really tided over the and won the confidence of the full force employed while neighboring mills were shutting down. so that. Frick had cepted by all affected without a whimper. his meth ods did not satisfy the pressing need of rigid economy in operation at such a time and the Chairman felt constrained to institute many reforms while the Manager was in Scot land visiting Mr. charm and vivid personality had proved of inestimable value in restoring good feeling between the various groups so recently incensed at one another but. Carnegie. he merely remarked somewhat drily would expect anything else than that a reduction when made should include everybody. . The salutary effect throughout the entire organization of this evidence of unflinching determination to carry out the company's policy could hardly be overestimated. sensible person 181 . Young Mr. A substantial reduction in salaries was decreed and ac Mr. Carnegie's sugges tion that reductions should apply to all salaries begin acknowl ning with the Chairman's. Happily Mr." an observation which drew no response. Schwab's zeal. Schwab proved wholly tractable upon his return and. already forwarded an outline ofthe percentage basis which he had adopted when he received Mr. But Homestead continued to be a thorn in his flesh. in making that "No edgment. by promptly renew ing his full support Mr Frick achieved hi s immediate pur. from the company's standpoint.Viatory's the company of his financial crisis Cot and Gain own creation.

There was no pressing need for money.Frick the Man Mr. A. the dreary year would show a net profit for the Carnegie Steel Company (Limited) of not less than $3. to do but to hold fast and mark time in hopeful an which was ticipation of the general recovery in business bound soon to come. After all. as a con sequence of shrewd financiering and enforced economies. but I am subject to cable. compared with that of the country. a decrease of only one million dollars from i89z. to facilitate consul tation with Mr. Carnegie had predicted. Frick: to go to Europe for the winter and on the eve of sailing wrote to Good-bye If I had been as well two weeks ago as I am now I should not have thought of deserting you for several months. was absolutely pre-eminent.000. Carnegie returned to New York early in September and went immediat ely to the White Mountains in search of relief from a slight indisposition and a few weeks later whence he returned to proceeded as far west as Chicago. 182 . despite all drawbacks.C. The condition of the Com pany. the bark of the Wilson tariff had proved worse than its bite and toward the end of December the Chairman was able to report to the controlling owner that. Whereupon Mr. Frick. Yours ever. no sign of labor disturbances and nothing. recall or conference and I have faith in your judgment which keeps me easy. was satisfac tory and. in fact. But there was no imminent or important question to discuss. Carnegie promptly decided Mr. New York by way of Pittsburgh. as Mr. contrasted with other steel concerns.000.

all problems and Pittsburgh in November seemed to tighten even more closely the bonds of understanding A return visit to and friendship. Differences of opinion among coke operators as to the method of meeting a labor crisis prevented the Chairman from leaving in early summer but." During the latter part of 1894. when this meeting took place. Undoubt edly.Victory's Cot and Gain auspiciously for business The year 1894 opened more and manufacturing than had been anticipated. Carnegie looked backupon it "with rare pleasure/ indeed. but a satisfactory adjustment of all points in dispute was finally an unrecorded personal interview. "we never enjoyed ourselves so 1 much. Mr. Carnegie that he wrote immediately from Luxor insisting that the Frick family visit Scotland in the summer.000 net '83 . Carnegie's persistent importunities. finally yielding to Mr. a difference in opinion respecting methods of dealing with competing coke oper ators so nearly caused a break between the two partners that each offered to sell his interest to the other. Results for January clearly evidenced the upward trend and so delighted Mr. Carnegie could not have failed to contrast the $4. Assuredly Mr. he sailed late in July and proceeded directly to Cluny Castle for a few days' visit.000. sober second thoughts effected at had implanted the conviction in both minds that each needed the other and that full separation would involve enormous mutual sacrifices. which ended with mutual consciousness that per haps never before had the two viewed policies so nearly eye to eye.

who should superintend operation without interference but under the supervision and general direction of the 184 . Frick.Frick the profit of his Man with nearly its company in the previous year $1. Prick's surpassing management. Despite the unacceptable offer of each was to sell out to the other. to have been one of degree only. the Illinois Steel Company. to be filled by an official designated as President. Frick proposed the creation of a new post. Carnegie had been even more insistent than Mr. could not have failed to recognize the wider opportunity afforded himself as the head of the commanding combination. the difference was no disagreement in which had so nearly caused a complete severance of relations was found. So pne may readily surmise that the atmosphere of the conference wherever held and by whomsoever initi ated it was from the beginning far less antagonistic than assuasive. and had written frankly: "Last year was really fine under the circumstances. In any case. too. for his part. in full matu rity of his powers and broadened by experience. Mr. there principle. Frick himself that the time for a respite for the working partner ter of it is had come as a mat both personal right and corporate policy. This year may not be better but a year comes after when I think double/* Mr. Mr. and altogether probable that. at forty-six. he evinced willingness to accept any solution that would ensure continuance of the single-headed management. at the peace meeting. after all.000 actual loss incurred by chief competitor.000. as a direct consequence of Mr.

not being a Limited. Carnegie declined. since adopted by nearly all great corporations. From the day when he borrowed two thousand dollars sister to from his begin business with he had never been full quarter century. out of debt and now. Leishman was appointed President. and the only trouble about it is its off. to take up the notes he had given in payment for his interest in the steel company. Frick Coke Company. Mr. so all dead wood can be lopped * and Mr. ought no longer to exist The thought was not new. after a seemed an opportune time to fact free his mind of consciousness of a which. saying: "Remember you are not really in debt the collateral given up frees you or your estate I don't think you should lessen your interest in Frick Company It is You. 185 . As long before ." But Mr. was initiated and Mr. Carnegie at a low price a sufficient amount of his most cherished possession. While relinquishing his purpose to dispose of his entire interest in the Carnegie Company. Mr. Frick nevertheless felt constrained to rid himself of all financial obligations. Mr. C. writing somewhat plaintively in the midst of the Homestead warfare : * 'I should like to is feel that I was out of debt for once. and that what moves me to make this proposition to you. Frick responded with full candor that on the whole he was 'not at all disappointed. Carnegie approved unhesi tatingly and the arrangement. as i8c)Z he had offered to sell to stock in the H. though not important in itself.Vi&ory's Cost and Gain Chairman of the Board.

So the controlling owner and the controlling director free continued their business relationship upon the new and even basis of neither feeling under the slightest legal or moral obligation to the other.000 involved.344 on the $1. from incumbrance of any kind. at 1.150. but left the remainder along with his large holdings in the coke company and in many other concerns conjointly with u Mr. Mellon. 1 86 . Prick's total interest in the steel company from per cent to 6 per cent. This transaction reduced Mr. and to cancel the notes.Frick the Man But the wish had persisted and Mr. Carnegie reluc tantly accepted a fresh proposal to purchase 5 per cent of the 8 per cent interest in the Carnegie Steel Company which he held as collateral security for Mr. Prick's obli gations to himself.

Frick had realized that control of sources of supply of raw material was essential to full independ ence of the manufacturing unit into which he was weld ing the segregated and competing plants Its own coke. The Tyrone region of Pennsylvania had promised well prior to the .000. but it lay in ranges so distant that min187 .000 to $40. it must have. unsurpassed in the history of net earnings increas ing eightfold. without the addition of a dollar of cash Chief among the contributions to this amazing result . Iron ore had been discovered in the Lake Superior region as early as 1860. was the acquisition of mines capable of yielding huge quantities of Bessemer ore.XIV Oliver and Frick ensuing five years 1896-1900 comprised a period of successful expansion of the Carnegie THE capital. Chairman's advent but in practice deficient in its product had proved both quantity and quality. Steel Company industrial development. meeting at lowest costs enormous demands for steel prod ucts. and prospecting had approached a standstill when a gleam of light ap peared in the northwest.000 a year. its own ore. the company had. Very early in his man agement Mr. from $5.000. and actual values of properties owned in yet greater proportion.

which soon became and continues to be the most fruitful in the world This was in iSfjz. the year of the Homestead trouble. Rockefeller was making large investments in the region was needed to attract widespread attention. each. he opened negotiations with Mr. Henry W. John D. Frick was not so busy as to neglect an opportu nity whose coming he had been awaiting for years and. the extraordinary purity of the mineral did not escape notice. who lost no time in form ing the Oliver Iron Mining Company to operate the first mine opened up on the famous Mesabi range. plow and shovel manufacturers. . immediately upon his return to his office partially recov ered from the effects of Berkman's murderous assault. with a primitive tools transported through hundred miles of forest from Duluth. and only a rumor to the effect that Mr. Both desired above all else to be assured adequate supplies of high-grade Bessemer ores for their blast furnaces. Although pro duction was restricted to this section and development lagged for years. The primary purposes of their two companies were identical. would gain through a combination providing a market for the entire product of the mine and the lowest transportation rates for guar anteed tonnage. moreover. and the new company itself would be susceptible of ualiinited expansion through unequalled 188 . of the big Pittsburgh firm of was Mr. Among the most alert and energetic of investigators Oliver. that the first railroad to the nearest Vermilion range was not built until 1884. His approach was cordially wel comed. Oliver for participation in his mining enterprise. but Mr.Frick the Man ing was impracticable except in so small a way.

the Carnegie Company would . in proportion to offset its greater consump tion.000 to the latter for development purposes. But Mr. Carnegie strove persistently to prevent com pliance by the company and. or probably ever could be made. and Mr. despondent over the pro longation of the shutdown at Homestead and possibly chilled by the failure of his own costly experiments in the Tyrone region. and the Mesabi is not the last great deposit that Lake Superior is to reveal/' Although the Chairman had made the bargain with full authority and insisted upon strict adherence to its terms. for the Carnegie Company. in confident expectancy of winning his enthusiastic ap probation. it is just like ore.. It never has been very profitable." 'is he responded from Rannock him nothing in it. in the face of his opposition. of the property was seriously retarded development 189 . Mr. Frick hastened to notify the controlling owner of his accomplishment.Oliver and Frick advantages in the purchase of products of other mines upon a royalty basis True. If there is any Lodge/ department of business which offers no inducement. Fully convinced that this combination was the most advantageous that ever had been. Oliver agreed to give the Carnegie Company one-half of the mining company's capital stock in return for a mortgage loan of $500. Mr. but this could be by provision of money needed for development purposes. profit more largely. had reached the conclusion that 'pioneering don't pay/' ' 4 'Oliver's ore bargain. Carnegie. Quick trading between friends who held each other in highest esteem proved feasible.

Remember Reckahands. etc. when the activities of the Rocke feller managers produced a disturbing upon his mind. "Oliver. 4 cannot but recognize we are right in flanking the combination as far as possible There are no doubt others still I in Oliver's position us. Oliver isn't a good manager and mining needs just that thing.. 190 ' ' was * 'not greatly . they ore a monopoly new venture and Rockefeller's reputation now is one of the poorest investors in the world. to take care of our selves and if forced could make another outlet somehow. it gives us a wedge that can be driven in somewhere to winding up. Cotton Seed. In less strong the Oliver would be squeezed. as I see but in view of threatened combination it is good pol 'hasn't much icy to take the half as independent of its intrinsic value. it. 'Taking half with Oliver means we have all the risk. however. etc. with have failed in every think Standard people will succeed in making like oil.. We are big enough. etc. It's a pity we have to go in at all. Note Troy. and that's like own ing the pipe lines Producers will not our advantage in the general have much of a show. of a bargain in his Mesabi. besides. This obviously reluctant assent was qualified within a fortnight when he wrote that he should 'not be sorry * if you miss one-half of Olivet mines. & fellows Porter will own the R. His railroads are almost worthless. ' etc. R. I don't who will offer to do as he has. 1894. Still I favor taking the Oliver half gratis ' .Frick the Man effect through 1893 into 1894. must furnish all the capital not a small amount." he wrote from Sorrento on ' March i6th..

J. or attention. as against 65 cents a ton then universally paid.Oliver and Frick scared about Rockefellow/ did "not want any business * managed by Harry (Oliver). like all other ventures in trouble and less profit than almost any branch of our business.Z34 tons in 1894. the face still persisting of constant discouragement. Mr.7. the out put of the Mesabi range was increased from 2. I hope you will make a note of this prophecy. good fellow though he is" and that "really** "in any case Mr. Frederick Byers in an address delivered on February i6th. than is required for their present duties. Byers. in. in consideration of a guaranteed output of 600." So. on April 1 8th. A. Simultaneously. If any of our brilliant and talented young ore. Oliver and Frick. to be shipped over the 191 . Oliver and Kimberly because of the hazards of the under taking. will result in much partners have more time. he was advising his friend. they will find sources of much greater profit right at home.245 tons in 1891 to i. through the introduction of huge Oliver steam shovels. M. as revealed by Mr. Messrs. 1894.9i3. thirty- three years later. effected an ar lease his rangement with Mr.5 cents a ton. Rockefeller's managers to properties upon a royalty basis of 2. 192.9. he addressed a formal communication to the Board of Managers to this effect : " You will find that this ore venture.000 tons a year and a like amount from the Oliver mines. "against investment in association with Messrs. despite the astounding fact that. Carnegie himself should stand for controlling interest/' The hint thus conveyed evoking no response from the Chairman. But in 1896. the mining company continued to languish from inadequate capital for an other two years.

He has got matter really in good shape so HE SAYS.000 a year. for which probably Mr. QQ the other hand. Carnegie wrote immediately upon the con clusion of the interview: Oliver called today. Frick. Mr. Mr. He may be too sanguine about closing on basis reported. But then arose another question. Hope he will have final papers to submit when you come. he thought. Carnegie's mind as to the advisability of engaging in mining operations were Apparently all dissipated by the obvious merits of the proposition. Oliver was prepared. Carnegie as controlling owner of the steel company. Oliver should be 192 . The contract. without which he was never content years previously that he two with any corporation. misgivings in Mr. Oliver acquiesced. was made subject to ap proval by the Boards of the two companies and required the consent of Mr. with the astute Scotchman in his element.Frick the Man running Rockefeller railroad and steamship lines to Lake Erie ports at a total rate of $i . In for long to continue association any event. Mr. And then the trading began. Qliver waited upon him in New York shortly after his return from Europe and submitted the agreement with a strong recommendation of acceptance from Mr. Oliver was in no position to dispute it. That seemed undeniable. of course. to whom Mr. ought to be revised to to the correspond per centages of consumption. in the light of the hint conveyed was "really" entitled to a controlling interest. for a period of fifty years and indicating a visible saving to the Carnegie-Oliver interests of $500. a total of twenty-five millions. The two interests. Mr.45 a ton.





000. with the net result that the Carnegie Steel Com pany acquired five-sixths and. 4. I think. after it had proved highly successful. the summer of 1897.60. only to discover that purchasers could not rare opportunity thus presented itself and be found. Carnegie complacently But better yet was to ensue immediately. The trading continued. The next year did.ooo 60. Oliver Mining l as related by Mr. when the demoralization early A m 193 . began to throw their shares upon the market. 5 . for literally nothing.000 but when I showed him he had given as $60.0. in fact. 3 . for this he sells us |th He asked $12." Mr. Company made.3 3 3 One year like last would pay it entire..000 He wants his $2. remarked.and that this was "gone" He agreed. resulting in a corresponding lowering of selling prices at the Lake Erie docks. % No doubt the interest sold will net this before it is due. The reduction of royalties paid on the Rockefeller output from 65 cents to Z5 cents a ton. of course. He wanted i z 3 ooo 4 5 years.000 Now he says his /% Now he got half his cost $12. "Pretty good. I said we could not pay anything shorter than 2.0. $zoo. fore seeing only disaster. years with interest making us fths. greatly alarmed the stockholders of other mining companies who.Oliver and Frick reimbursed to the extent of the actual cash he had paid in. full control of the Oliver Mining Company. say. Carnegie: $400. fth of $4oo ooo is to begin with then we have only to pay 3 $ I 33333 13 3 .000 2. years. "pay it entire" and much more.

Oliver undertook it with characteristic energy and succeeded It difficult task. that I per cent. The options were about to was only too well aware that extensions could not be obtained. good times make again at fifty at indications here that Norrie options expiring are to be refused. The it. Oliver was expire and he in despair. Frick went to Scotland laden with facts and figures calculated to avert conceivable opposition * from the controlling owner.. owing to the wide distribution of the stock throughout the country. Carnegie continued to balk at 'pioneering" and. sent the following telegram: To CARNEGIE I am distressed LAGGAH- on Monday. advance. They have sold over one million tons 194 . he vetoed the proposition with a jocular quip at the enthusiasm of his partners. could not possibly secure these options The Norrie mine controls the this year. 1897. Carnegie for consideration of any kind. Having no such compunctions himself. he also realized that the time had passed when Mr. he hung his last hope upon the slender thread of personal entreaty and. on September i-5th. Man was at its worst. whole situation. warned by previous ex Mr. Messrs Oliver and Frick concluded that the time was ripe to gather options upon the shares of the three most important companies. but Mr. Oliver of more than four hundred options at astoundingly low prices. But Mr. perience. It would be a terrible mistake.Frick the . Frick would plead with Mr. Although knowing that nothing effective could be added by way of argument to the Chair man's strong presentation of the case. was a so well from the beginning that. even after having studied the final report showing the acquisition by Mr. Mr.

the Carnegie-Oliver interests gained a position which enabled them to ac quire within two years sufficient additional lands to give them exclusive ownership of two-thirds of the greatest high-grade Bessemer ore deposit in the world. in the nick of time. canny Morrison. counting the surplus they have in their to return in dollar we invest in two years. we secure fifteen to twenty million tons of the ore that the Carnegie thousand Company are purchasing this year five hundred and fifty tons.Oliver and Frlck With the additional property we will get from the fee owners. Mr. 'that we are now secure in our ore sup ply. Mr. Carnegie replied promptly agreeing to abide by the decision of the Chair man and the Board of Managers and. Mr. OLIVER This beseeching message added the requisite touch to Mr. Once the deal was made. it was the only element needed to give us an impreg nable position/* Rejoicing in the Carnegie and the Oliver rally offices natu far- was boundless but even there none. treasury. comprehended fully the vastness of the potentialities of the commonplace A very few figures suffice to indicate the concrete re195 . profits every Do not allow my hard summer's work to go for naught. ' f Frick as early as October 9th. By so small a margin. from the partners headed seeing Frick and the indomitable Oliver to the sanguine young by the buoyant Schwab and the transaction. Carnegie quickly awoke to realization of the wisdom of overriding his own whim ' against 'pioneering. HENRY W. Oliver was authorized by unanimous vote to declare the options. I will guarantee. 4 1 am happy/ he wrote frankly to Mr. Prick's impressive reasoning.

could (2. as presently we shall of Mr. with huge net earnings of $xoo. John D. To this extent at justified any rate the dictum of Mr.396. Carnegie. Oliver and Frick.000.000.Frick the suits. the known From less than supply turned over to the United States Steel Corpora tion by the Carnegie Company in 1901 was valued by Mr. the out put of the Mesabi range increased to 9.) Without the subsequent intervention of Mr.303. Bernard Walter. he would unhesitatingly name the vast iron deposits of the Lake : Superior region and the consequent phenomenal growth of our steel industry.541 tons in 1901 and reached 40. in the expert opinion alone. Frick show.711 tons in 1918. Rockefeller.ooo a not have been organized.000. the colossal United States Steel Corporation. Editor Emeritus of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN said If the writer were asked to name the principal agent in the enor mous growth in wealth of this country during the past two decades. and its later ' year. the recent increase in national wealth from xzo billions of dollars to 350 billions.400. After noting in his book. Walker by two warrantable deductions.ooo. re gardless of the relative economic merits of competition and combination. Mr. with the assent of Mr. Schwab Institute of i at $333. J.000 tons of ore in 1891. the Corporation could hardly 196 .6. to wit seems to be : (i) But for the acquirement of the Mesabi mines ob tained for the Carnegie Company by Messrs. "The Story of Steel." pub lished in 192. and the total known re serve of the Mesabi region in 1910 was reported by the Mining and Metallurgical Engineers to be . in the manner noted.000 tons. Man 30.

tracks the the privilege of operating over Pennsylvania trains of ore. the powerful corporation had calmly assumed itself to be so strongly intrenched politically that there was no cause for apprehension. with its own loco Carnegie Company's motives and crews. subsequently. Frick. a touch of This was reprisal for past injuries with to have been justified and the vengeance. domination for years in vain. Carnegie. but was conveyance by rail for two hundred provided. origi and Mr. but it seems 197 . by guar ing to furnish ample shipments and. The acquirement of the Oliver Mining Company and the making of the Rockefeller alliance effected a com in this situation overnight and Mr. on its own schedules. Both Mr. Impervious alike to the threats of the former to arouse public opinion repeated in behalf of justice to the city and of the latter to project a competing line. That miles from lakes to furnaces. without itself contributing anteeing construction bonds. had chafed under this nally. a dollar in cash. Frick plete change lost no time in pointing out that the Carnegie Company was now in a position to finance a new railroad by agree if necessary . he flatly demanded.Oliver and Frick have survived the first crisis of its infancy. The Pennsylvania railroad was the natural medium but emboldened its its virtual monopoly had management to exact excessive rates for with the vari inadequate service while dealing separately ous Pittsburgh manufacturers. He no longer pleaded. The Carnegie Company was now assured an abundant supply of iron ore and cheap transportation from its mines to Lake Erie one essential connecting link was yet to be ports.

While the contract with Mr. Carnegie to the effect that he had qui etly acquired control of the rusty rails called Pittsburgh. Although naturally peeved at secret intervention which might have put him in an equivocal position. Mr. it 198 . Frick perceived two reasons for rejoicing. Samuel B. which established the invulnerable preeminence of the Carnegie Steel Com pany. stretch ing from the bowels of the earth north of Lake Superior to the salesrooms south of Lake Erie. across the Alle gheny. rebuilt throughout. be cause no conceivable project could have served better his purpose to attain complete independence for the Carnegie Company.Frick the Man discomfited Pennsylvania management was hesitating when word came from Mr. rechristened the Pittsburgh.000 tons of ore per annum for fifty years met immediate reqiiiremeats fairly well. and trains of thirty-five steel cars were running from the Company's docks at Connaught over steel bridge. and Mr.000 tons of ore to the big blast furnaces at Braddock.100. secondly. and delivering 175 . who had saved the company from actual bankruptcy by paying its coupons. the Boston capitalist. its President. Thus was completed the thousand-mile chain. Rockefeller's steamship company affording conveyance of 1. Bessemer and Lake Erie. the old road was reorganized. in less than fifteen months. two-thirds its new of a mile long. Duquesne and Pittsburgh. that fortu nately he had made no commitment and. first. Shenango and Lake Erie railroad through arrangements with Mr. and every link was unassailable save one. Fred erick EL Prince. extended forty-two miles to join the Company's Union railway. So it came to pass that. Dick.

offered him fied a valuable interest in the Carnegie Steel Company. Frick enlisted the services of Mr.5111 in 1889 structive effort.000 on its five-sixths interest in the Oliver Mining Company. fortified to 1. Carnegie. that patient and skilful negotiator had purchased for the Oliver Mining Company a fleet of six vessels. as in the previous instance already noted. labor.000. and incidentally still left the company even then partially dependent upon the service of unsubstantial shipping concerns. incidentally. and had formulated a plan for financing the undertaking through the issuance of bonds by a new subsidiary Pittsburgh Steamship Company. along with the ore mines on the Marquette range owned by the Lake Superior Iron Company. of which. but the great con by amazingly efficient executive capacity. C. then abroad.153. 199 . promptly rati the arrangement and. attended by many vicissi had been required to fulfil Mr. now began to find its reward in an increase in tons of steel ingots produced from 332.Oliver and Frick neither provided for the needs of probable expansion nor ensured the perpetuity of ownership. at the end of fifteen months. Ten years of arduous tudes.900.411 in 1899 and in net profits from $1. frankly reversing his opinion of the desirability of Mr. Oliver as a partner. Frick Coke Company and no less than $1. Oliver and.000. To safeguard the situation fully. so far from interposing objections. The securities found a ready market and the transaction was completed so expeditiously and admirably that Mr.000 to $11. Mr. 853 was earned on the company's 30 per cent interest in the H. Prick's ambitious project of unification and expansion.067. $1.663 .

without consulting or even notifying his partners.XV Negotiations year 1899 was the most eventful in the his tory of the Carnegie Steel Company. but contrary views were advanced tentatively. Frick felt that he could not tacitly assent to continuance of the practice by permitting the episode to pass unno ticed. Carnegie's recurrence to negotiating with outsiders upon a basis differing from that adopted by the firm. not only revealing clearly for the first time its enormous earning capacity of more than 80 per cent upon inflated its capital. and expressed courteously. Frick were not marred by serious alter cations. equal to 400 per cent upon its original paid-up shares. Carnegie and Mr. 200 . Correspondence was renewed promptly and fre quently educed differences of opinion respecting both policies and men. though plainly and frankly. with obvious design to avoid ofFensiveness Early in 1896 a rift seemed imminent in consequence of Mr. but also marking a complete severance of the personal and partnership relations of its two creative THE and guiding spirits. But his remonstrance was mild indeed as compared . The three years following the reconcilement of Mr. It was his yielding to this inclination that had just caused the rupture which came so near being complete and Mr.

Negotiations with the caustic protest that would surely have been forthcoming before the two had pledged the mutual con fidence essential to better understanding. etc. It might from some points of view be con sidered a fault. I never you what you say about the Bessemer Coke rate nor could anybody else have done so and told you the truth. you could wish and my sug have not weakened your position I may view the whole matter differently from you. "we did shake hands but there is a difference in the so? way of stating things: don't you think set in On Sunday morning you had reached a different con and were so clusion. and this is certainly not what that open told book above your mantelpiece says. quite likely none other than of a jocose and conciliatory nature. Carnegie gave no further cause for complaint Almost immediately. looking to the future. aoi . as you have often said. I have stood by you in gestions as to appointments. your idea that you would not even discuss the matter. In all my dealings want of frankness with you on all subjects has not been a failing. What. You do not find me putting you in a compromising position when we get into discussion with outside people. We should not allow feeling to enter into such matters. if any. as I said to you recently when you referred to the matter/* And. Don't put words in my mouth never uttered. . You may not care for the dollars but your partners do. the pleas ing change in tone proved effective. and Mr. What we are both after is this matter just as loyally as . response was evoked by this temperate avowal is not of record. the ultimate best interest of the Companies in which we are in terested. 4 'True/' he wrote. in any case. but there is no reason why we should quarrel about it. he added that I : Suppose you deal frankly with me.

his most businesslike though bearing no longer the familiar superscription began to reflect "My dear Pard. if not all. sorry you couldn't arrange dead-head! bo. was imperilled. degree the bankers who had floated their securities. The advent of the year 1899 synchronized with a crisis in the entire steel industry.Frick the Man letters. How goes the struggle for European trip? I can give you plenty of fishing in salt or fresh water. Douched. ." the temperamental buoyancy. by frequent reiteration. The pre-eminence of the Carnegie Company in resources. castle and all tell Helen I about this am anxious for her to come to MY side.000 more pictures per year and remember me in your prayers. massaged fine! "No family should be without it.S. Not only The menace was widespread. me Don't let us fail now and you can buy $60. P. in hardly less than the shareholders of the various corporations. were hundreds of millions of dollars and the priceless prestige of scores of investment brokers at stake but all stock values might be seriously affected by a general crash in steel shares. involving. good fel lowship and friendliness of former scribbled communi cations. through the year 1 898. after this fashion : Suppose you put your "gigantic intellect" on this and write freely." Paid my bill at Aix out of capital. moreover. I have We are all hoping for a visit from the Pricks this season at Skimy eye on adjoining estate. Can you not get more land adjoining Illinois Steel? And so forth. Competing companies sud denly awoke to realization of the fact that they had been so skilfully outgeneralled by the Carnegie management that the very existence of several.

Two questions. Lauder. In the event of these anticipations being verified by results as subsequently they were the company would inaugurate the coming century with an earning capacity of 160 per cent upon its outstanding stock.ooo. was undeniable. Schwab. Frick. But those few had access to accurate foreknowl edge in the estimates of their Chairman which had never failed of realization. Only the few men in full control could compute the potentialities of the young industrial giant. Phipps. by request of the controlling owner.ooo and might be expected to double that sum in 1900.Negotiations plants and organization. Frick Coke Company. confronted the part ners present. the Chairman announced his judg ment that the net profits of the coming year would reach $zo. Carnegie. C. Messrs Carnegie. Carnegie called them together at his house in New York on the evening . and a vastly greater earning power than had yet been revealed was shrewdly suspected. fortified by ownership of all agencies contributing to manufacture and by absolute financial independence. representing practically all of the share (i) Should a price be fixed upon the entire property. the equivalent of 800 per cent upon its entire cash-paid capital. Mr. saidMr holders: . for submission to a syndicate of New York and Chicago capitalists who had made overtures for its purchase? and 203 . Lovejoy and Peacock reported present and. including 30 per cent of the stock of the H. of January 5th to consider the sit uation.

These and other proposals were under consideration when a fresh was made by a syndicate headed by Former Judge W.000 in cash. Moore.- 950. Mr. reported. five-per cent gold bonds. pay able one-half in cash and one-half in fifty-year.000 to be paid to himself if the Syn dicate should fail to consummate the transaction within fixed ninety days.000.000. one by Mr. The amount thus he reckoned as his percentage of a total option price of $. H. for the consolidation of Two plans were then the Steel and Coke Companies. This sum was pronounced satisfactory by Mr.000.000. Carnegie. and the price was fixed at $2. This offer was declined by the Syndicate which.Frick the (X) In the event of a sale Man basis falling of upon that consummation.50. it was had hoped to make drawn partial payment in the stock of a new company. payable in $100.000 of preferred and common stock and the bond issue to $150. looking to the purchase of Mr. Frick pro viding for the purchase of both properties by a new com pany with $60. Carnegie's proffer majority holdings in both companies for $157.000 first mortgage bonds and $ but as a consideration for an option he required a cash deposit of $1. Carnegie increasing the proposed capitalization to $150.000.950. should steps be taken to consolidate the Steel Company and the Coke Company on terms to be agreed upon? Both proposals were unanimously decided in the af firmative.000 capital and $100.000 bonds and another by Mr.000. 204 .000.000.

Frick to keep him fully informed. i^iz. your partners underwrite largely for kind aid. : Langham Hotel. London. Carnegie and his designated agents but later developments indicated much confusion in the former's 4th. his senior partners. when asked by Chairman Stanley if he "did not know at any time*" that his partners *'had any interest in that option/' Mr. and * ' * the colloquy continued : 205 . regarding the progress of the Syndicate's endeavors. Carnegie replied. Messrs. Frick and Phipps. however. having publicly proclaimed tion to sell out to his partners his inten retire when he should from business. the following mind from the beginning. Frick and Phipps contributed the additional $170. and all parties to the agreement signed the papers on April 24th. He There then seemed to be a perfect understanding be tween Mr. On May cablegram was sent from New York Carnegie.Negotiations $1. Testifying before the Congressional Investigating Committee in January. preferred not to deal with outside parties personally and gave his power of attorney to Messrs. I did not suspect it. We famish one hundred and seventy thousand.000. the Carnegie part ners waived payments for their percentages in the total Moore offered to put up option price. Option money deposited today. to execute the agree ment and half. Carnegie. Mr.000 required by Mr. -> and look to you J PHIPPS. Except Lander. FRICK. Carnegie. 'No sir. to complete the entire transaction on his be then sailed for England after having arranged with Mr.000.

or make a statement at the time. I will hand you a letter here. stating that if your partners 4 'Of course any part paid by I shall refund/' I my partners if that is in your handwriting. and ask you if this is not your handwriting. Carnegie). CARNEGIE. Did you not stipulate at the time. or promise at the time.180. I think so. the option money was deposited.Frick the Man to your credit. I do not remember that at all. and no part ner ever asked me for any money that I can think of. I will ask you if that is not in your handwriting? MR. of course. That is a photographic letter (handing paper to Mr. Were you not ners told in Europe that your part had put up a part of that money? MR. When I returned from Europe found that they had deposited the amount due me. About that. I lost all in it. THE CHAIRMAN. Frick and Mr. Later he declared his willingness 'to refund to all of them today.000? MR. I THE CHAIRMAN. and things that came to me bearing upon it I never read. and I did not hear anything. containing a statement with reference to this option. A part of the $1. CARNEGIE. but the line across the middle is will ask what I refer to. THE CHAIRMAN.180. that you will demand this money and that Europe this at the time. I have never . CARNEGIE. Phipps entered 206 ' .000 that option. I sailed before I was in Europe. Part of what money? THE CHAIRMAN.180. but if Mr. CARNEGIE. Which was $1. CARNEGIE. or send a letter from terest in had put up any of refunded their would be money they portion of the money? MR. Did you not know at that time that a part of that money was contributed by your partners? Were you not told that at that time? MR. When the option was not executed. that was put up for MR. THE CHAIRMAN. I wrote this. Yes. I never knew of the deposit of my money until I came back.000 was it not? MR. CARNEGIE. Was not the amount put when the option was not carried through.seen this since I wrote it. THE CHAIRMAN. I shall have to study it a moment. CARNEGIE. $1. THE CHAIRMAN. which I got. The main part the of copy of it is written by an amanuensis.

that the option ran in the name of Judge Moore for your share in the com pany. REED.000^000 apiece. I do not MR.000 the other day.000. I should say it was half a million each.000 in all? MR. MR. and never told me about it.000.000 each or $5 . 207 . MR. I had known it. CLASHMORE Moore's plan cabled was not made public but requiring our aid consented to Pennsylvania charter. CARNEGIE.000.Negotiations into a "contract with the Moore Brothers by which they assumed to make $5 . 1899. MR. Am I right." ooo? MR. I do not think I am obligated to pay them any thing now. Present plan capital Two hun dred and fifty millions of one kind of stock to be sold at par subject to bonds. that is know. Frick and Phipps cabled an outline of the Syndicate's plan of reorganization and clearly identified it ten days later in a second cablegram reading as follows : New CARNEGIE York. show that on May ioth.You said $5. Was it $5 .. I think. I can only state what I heard about this. 1899. The testimony was. it may be half a million or it may be $5. as I remember it. GARDNER. I think you said day before yesterday five mil lions. SCOTI^ANB. CARNEGIE.000. Carnegie's attorney). Five millions of the stock of the new company was to go to them. MR.000. he said. CARNEGIE. nevertheless. If would not have given them an option upon any account. why. Mr. ***** Well. One-third of the balance to Moore. one-third to us and ooe-thkd to be held for deserving young men. I I never knew Judge Moore was a party to it. Messrs. MR. Now. did I not? If I were asked what I thought. The records. GARDNER. 1 think I said five millions. Proceeds of fifteen millions stock go into treasury and fifteen millions to bear expenses. GARDNER. the best of my recollection. REED (Mr. May xoth.000. GARDNER* Do you mean half a million dollars or $5. Reed? MR.

It is astonishing the from that source. These communications certainly seem to show that. Carnegie. hence uncertainty. the fact could hardly be attributed to any attempt at concealment on the part of Messrs. Frick and Phipps. which he refused to accept. . We endeavored to limit Moore's share of the profits in pro motion to one-fifth of the amount compromised on one-third. however. (x) of the participation of Messrs. but finally This agreement puts the matter in control of Mr* Phipps and is on a very conservative basis. Frick and Phipps in both the general under taking and the promotion profits and (3) of the expec tation that the junior partners would partake of the underwriting. PHIPPS. Carnegie was kept in ignorance (i) of Mr. beg to enclose a copy of the agreement reached last Friday. Moore to return his money. I demand there is propose having all of our partners who take stock in the neyv of their stock for Company join in an agreement not to sell any two years. and on a basis where our employ6s and friends can safely invest. after a hard struggle. Moore's connection with the enterprise. and left of $15. and after an offer to Mr.000. FRICK. Carnegie at Skibo Castle reading in essential part as follows I : May Z3rd. unless otherwise mutually agreed. 1899. if Mr.Frick the Man thus carrying out your long cherished idea. Frick to Mr. else. in view of what has been agreed to pay you. These strange misapprehensions on the part of Mr. After allowing fair premium on bonds you will see we are offering the stock at less than paid you. tion. myself. being unsuspected by anyone 208 . Expect to offer public soon.000. perhaps fatal. This cablegram was amplified three days later in a letter from Mr. Bonds are a serious objec The sum needed is immense.

were in no position to make farther commitments. Frick posing wrote to Mr. and in the circumstances he did not doubt that it would be granted. Carnegie regarding an extension myself in the interview with 209 . As you are go to Skibo. Flower. Phipps and Mr. He said he would be however. should induce you to go abroad and join Mr. then head of the most ac and most seriously extended brokerage firm in Wall shrank so sharply overnight that the great number of banks and bankers involved. so large. Frick and Mr. would suffice to meet the temporary crisis. Baker. being expires about August 4th. an office business. in reply to sent him on Friday. to raise the many mil lions required to take up the Carnegie option within the time allotted. even with the power ful aid of Mr. George F. the one which you saw delighted to see us. On May 29th Mr. such as was being A Moore had generally allowed in like enterprises. and as our option Carnegie. Moore in Chicago: On Saturday we received a cable from Mr. Mr. already overloaded with underwritings. at Edinboro: we would have to renewing it seems to me that your interest. Phipps were far less confident and promptly cabled to Mr. as he was doing strictly of opinion that October would be the most propitious time for our efforts to put this matter through. All values P. reasonable extension. not. it was a virtual certainty that the Moore Syndicate would be unable. While the partial panic thus created was not expected to be of long duration. Judge reason to believe.Negotiations had no effect upon the negotiations and all signs pointed to success of the undertaking when suddenly there fell a bolt from the blue in the complete demoralization of the money market caused by the unexpected death of Former Governor Roswell tive Street. Carnegie pro a conference at Edinburgh.

as far as you are con lose the money you have paid. moreover. much better if Carnegie will decline to extend the option. he should doubt the advisability of making the trip. Carnegie's willingness ever to return it. at the end of a month. on the day following the expiration of the option. Phipps cannot I feel certain convince him that he will be a loser if he does not take advantage of this opportunity.000 was credited to Mr. Carnegie would undoubt edly believe that the long distance travelled sole purpose of saving it. so that the result. it would be well to keep it entirely quiet. Mr. would be to serious doubts about Mr. was for the If you and Mr. Carnegie's personal account on the books of the Carnegie Steel Company. and a modification of some of terms. Carnegie's castle on the xist of June.Frick the should feel Man its of the same. Moore replied that the necessity of attending to other matters at home would prevent him from going. the forfeited $1. I personally you would join us at Mr. and I have Mr.170. Frick cabled to Mr. Frick and Mr. Impossible. and not let the newspapers know that you are going abroad to see him. Phipps sailed and put forth their best endeavors. Mr. ' that he can ' Reluctantly but frankly concurring with this judg ment. "Of course/* he said with shrewd insight. Even though circumstances were otherwise. marking failure of the third attempt to enable 210 . not be convinced. Moore : Carnegie refuses to extend or modify option. cerned. If you should decide to go. with the disappointing result that. I have grave fears that Mr. Please think this over and let me hear from you. He will regard it as a cold business transaction. The breakdown of negotiations with the Moore Syn dicate. So the deal fell through and. "I do not care to lose the money and Mr.

The real motive of Mr. with the understanding that the latter should return to America for consultation with the jun ior partners It was and the formulation of a fresh proposal. Having reached this conclu sion. lapse of the latest to by the col trading which would have brought him a fortune greater probably than any other in the world and given to him the freedom which he craved? If so. a hopeless undertaking. 211 moreover. Was he.000 huge a sum cessive even per cent upon so realized surely could not be reckoned as ex in the bush? One though it should be sacrificed. Obviously. Carnegie to withdraw from active business. for no apparent reason. Carnegie was wholly conjec like his partners. was most disappointing naturally to his partners who. it could not. and divining further that parley with the con Steel would prove surely futile and possibly acrimonious. Phipps returning to his trolling owner at that stage place in Scotland and Mr. the two chief senior mem bers of the firm separated. Mr. Frick. there was nothing to do but to take up anew the various plans which had been suggested for consolidation of the and Coke Companies.000 in the hand worth $157. why had he refused to grant the brief extension of the option which everybody believed would produce that result? Or did he consider $1.950. disconcerted tural.Negotiations Mr.170. would have gained control of the great property which jointly they had built up. a disheartening renewal of what seemed to have become. Frick to Aix les Bains for rest and meditation. however. under the final arrangement skilfully effected by Mr. be lost in case of a second forfeiture of the .

the four principal owners of the Carnegie Steel Company. Frick and then quite contrary to his desire. And yet. Lauder and the junior partners the following personal note : H. Frick Coke Company (Messrs. Phipps. Limited. Carnegie. Mr. Have written Lauder as desired. Carnegie had simultaneously pencilled on the back of a memorandum sent to Mr. 212 care. It's my . Tm. Let them decide whether to include our Frick Coal Company stock or not. with Henry Clay Frick at their head ? This was the question that puzzled the two senior members because it bore directly upon the problem of consolidation. not going to force it on my partners. Carnegie's attitude changed since he sold the privilege of purchase to persons then unknown but sub sequently revealed to him. identical terms of the original Had Mr.Frick the option." as Mr. Frick and Lauder) now retire from active business. Man in whose price was already hand and would re main there under the agreement. C. as chiefly his own associates? Had he really wished to pass control of the entire property to his partners. It is hardly conceivable that either of them had forgotten that the first words of Mr. though not that he could re call. Phipps but a complete sur Mr. Frick must have recalled. C. I don't good enough to hold as long as I can have you as pard looking after it. somewhat contradictory of this "decision of long standing. F. Carnegie's pros pectus which accompanied the plan submitted by him were these: In pursuance of a decision of long standing. a statement true as to prise to Mr. and the H.

Carnegie really favor the consoli dation for which he. prove to be of inestimable value. Mr. to eliminate him from steel manu facture? Or did he truly care as little. had voted? Or was it his underlying purpose to segregate the two companies and. What was the tent of it all? por Did Mr. he had seemed to mind smashing the trade with the Moore Syndicate? Or what? as Bewildered by the strange workings of a mind which he was never able fully to comprehend. Mills oldest member. preceding Mr. as the only surviving partner of the brothers Kloman whose one little engine and single trip-hammer constituted the basis of the great plant. Henry Phipps. in common with his associates.- ooo to take over the firm's property and the Cyclops mill. Phipps was then twenty-six andMr. was not merely the second largest owner of the Carnegie Company. dubious and mistrustful. which Phipps might. by relegating the Chairman of both to coke production. when the Union Iron Company was organized with a capital of $500. Carnegie had acquired an interest. at the end of which they sold their holdings to the United States 213 . in which Mr. The partnership of the two young men Mr.Negotiations And there the matter had been left. Jr. harassed. with only the consciousness of the es tablishment of a closer personal relationship with Mr. one way or the other. Carnegie thirty continued through many vicissitudes for thirty-six years. he was its by four years. Frick sailed for home on August ' 3oth to evolve a reorganization * ' ' through anticipated consolidation. as in fact it did. Carnegie from 1861 to 1865.

although from the beginning subordi nate to Mr. That is subordinate.Frick the Man During this long they were to each Steel Corporation for colossal sums. A right decision in this matter is less important to me in its upon effects my pocket than its influence upon my mind." he interjected. powerful convictions so long held was very clever and ever held it as a notable instance of your reasonableness It was fraok recognition of his own responsibility un doubtedly that impelled Mr. period. I "the time had to get Frick in. Phipps to uphold Mr. Phipps scrupulously maintained his full independence in thought and action. to this effect : With regard to the sale of undivided stock. careful to voice his own appreciation of his partner's considera my argu ments and strong urging you consented. with the proviso tion. could not be better depicted than by himself. indeed. until toward "Andrew" and "Harry/* and no serious disturb ance of their amicable relations had arisen when the transaction with the Moore Syndicate fell through. other Nevertheless. I can with when to concur me you properly ways gives pleasure do so. in a letter addressed to "My Dear Andrew" in 1890 protesting against what he considered the unfairness of a virtual edict of the con trolling owner. safe 44 and just business principles. the first is everything. To feel that I have been rightly treated is a greater pleasure to me than any probable or possible gain in money. Your overcoming your I * * . Mr. You have not forgotten. Frick 214 . has been dealt with on timehonored. I would do pretty much as you would wish. but on that I should represent his stock. His undeviating course. and next to it is the feeling that the business in which my heart has ever been. the very last. if it were in my as it al possession. Carnegie as controlling owner.

000. perhaps years of earnings 215 . We cannot defend the transaction to the community now. The outcome of the ensuing difficulties on all sides was an arousal of mutual respect and faith which led them to see eye to eye from that time forward.oooa - My ooo. Phipps's prolonged absences. unless it is intended to make a quick sale and get out of business. in the negotiations with Mr.Negotiations in the trying early days of his management but it is no less certain that. Carnegie deputed them to act for himself. yet I consider it a proposed that we take over the prop too high. therefore. Perhaps it will be necessary to give more.6th. Frick: Beaufort Castle. nor in later years to ourselves. that was Mr. 1899. Phipps's conception of perfect fairness to both share holders and management. It may be well believed. as well as for the Company. once the new executive had won his spurs. Time taken now to negotiate will bring better results than . which appears to be the inten tion of mainly one member. Our friend only wants to make them good enough to give away. The senior says we can prick the bubble of trusts. that Mr. the two men apparently never disagreed upon any point of policy or method but. You suggested $Z5o. I gave my views strongly and fully to my three senior duty to put them in a more enduring associates.000. In point of fact.0.ooo. Frick wel comed the wise counsel of his sympathetic associate con tained in the following letter which awaited his perusal on the steamer: Dear Mr. his every act was judged upon its merits. Where is there one that is burdened with fixed interest charges exceeding $8. Moore. we should not pay the $32. aim is to make the securities good enough to keep. Though form. owing to Mr. they were not brought into close personal contact until Mr.ooo > and I The price at which it is erties of the firm is far but think you spoke wisely. August 2.

Mr. Enheartened by this assurance of firm support by the most powerful partner other than the controlling owner.F. Frick. few men in the world have ever had to meet. if not now. make bad times. Gayley. while on the ocean. quiet and time for reflection on the voyage. whipped arrival. has stated his when. I think take my share. many letters and conversations. and one Mor week after landing cabled to Mr. We have experience to know these elementary truths. desire to benefit the firm. Schwab. C. obtained the written into shape immediately upon approval of all the junior partners within reach. C. Reputation and profit alike require that you should pause before you take this serious step. which. 216 . otherwise. The Yours very truly HENRY PHIPPS. probably we would be to give the retiring partner all bonds. without regard to the conservative to his latter's wishes. Phipps. Upon you will rest the great responsibility. a law sure as the swing of the pendulum.Frick the We confidence instead of derision. Clemson.C. willing I will my I reserve the same right that any of the other partners possess as to a final decision. comprising Messrs. Phipps: Unanimous favoring reorganization two hundred fifty millions without bonds but will write fully after further meeting next week. Singer. Have we the sense to put them into practice? If a fair value was agreed upon. Curry. L. Man we start. is he to do it? Good times like the present. gives you a chance to think carefully over the good foregoing. Phipps. Peacock. suggested by it made a rough draft of a plan upon the lines Mr. of a prudent and programme such as had always appealed own judgment. in respect to the value of the property. H. should want the basis on which in one to inspire As Mr. and advise friends to do likewise. rison and Lovejoy.

Lovejoy is mailing Mr. closed. However. before you take the mat ter up. settled it. before the middle of November. you will not approve of some features of it reading. Carnegie rejected the plan in He wanted bonds. That stantly. or on first am inclined to think others. you will give me an opportunity of talking it over with Even if should not you.S. Phipps I : The enclosed plan is the outcome of many conferences and much consideration on the part of all. From what I know of your views. 217 .Negotiations On September x8th he wrote to Mr. Carnegie a copy of the en signed by all today. Mr. as your last letter to me would indicate. "We would not favor any plan that would contem plate bonding the property/' were the final words of the proposed agreement signed by the junior partners. I should like you to give it serious consideration. P. Mr. you sail. we would have ample time to talk it over before it need be taken up with the Senior. and on your return home.

only one subject out of routine being considered. Frick Receives His Resignation CARNEGIE returned to ISTew York in never more jovial. Mr. the fact was not apparent. The meeting October and shortly after his arrival at tended a meeting of the Board of Managers in Pittsburgh. Lawrence Phipps. in view of Mr. partly ex change for other real estate that he had owned for years. Personally he doubted that the^ Company could utilize it advantageously for many years and the only reason for acquiring it would be to prevent construction of a large competitive plant or to hold in meet possible contingencies. certain lands above Peter's Creek which he contemplated itself ijti putting on the market. appreciativeness of his associates and kindliness for all men. the Manager most familiar with real estate. he felt that he should offer the privilege of purchase to the Board. He was in high spirits and was harmonious throughout. which probably could be reserve to 218 .XVI Mr. had valued it at $4000 an acre. Mr. however. sweetness of spirit. He fairly radiated goodfellowship. Schwab's opinion that the Company would need the property be fore long. If he detected a certain tenseness in the atmosphere. Frick announced that he had recently acquired. MR. Before doing so.

caused deep resentment." and con versed at length with Mr . Frick more deeply and. having decided to retaliate by making his refutation of what he considered a personal insult a matter of record. made a few desultory remarks privately to Mr. Frick Receives His Resignation obtained. Mr. but the price to the Company would be $3500. No sooner had he reached his home in New York than the purport of his various observations. in the course of which he casually submitted a mystifying proposal to exchange for the est in the Steel latter's coke stock an additional inter * Company. with Mr. Carnegie chatted gaily with individual members. Frick concerning a new plan for consolidation. he addressed a formal communication to the Board reading in part as follows : 219 . Phipps & Co. former manager of Carnegie. The Board. voted unani mously to buy the land. Carnegie's sanction. 'dollar for dollar. and still a large holder of Frick Company stock. The condition referred to consisted of a peremptory de mand for nothing less than an apology from Mr. Following the highly agreeable meeting of the Board. however. Frick. Chief among the aspersions reported was an alleged insinua tion that the Chairman had wrongfully exacted from the Company an undue profit on . the sale of his land to the Board of Managers Nothing imaginable could have offended Mr.000 more than he would have obtained from the Company.John Walker.Mr.. Carnegie . Subsequently. divulged to Mr. Mr. Frick felt constrained to impose an unacceptable condition upon the transaction and presently sold the property to outsiders for $500.

and demanded that the Managers sign a paper requesting the Chairman to resign > saying that he should not use it unless it became necessary to do so. to make such a purchase. Frick and reminded him of his repeated assertions that he had no desire to retain for a moment an executive position. I Man while here. Frick brought the interview to an abrupt conclusion by a nod of acquiescence and. ma What more he may have had in mind to say can oaly be surmised. before the Steel Company becomes the owner of that land. at its next meeting. I desire to quarrel There are many other matters I might refer to. on 220 . or to raise trouble in the organization. Carnegie also stated. as Mr. purchased that land from me above Peter's Creek. that he had am told. contrary to the wishes of a shareholding jority. Frick refrained from attending. which Mr. He knows how I became interested in that land. because I told him so in your presence. but. Why was he not manly enough to say to my face what he had said behind my back? He knew he had no right to say what he did. A copy of the statement was sent to Mr. Carnegie in the past. in justice to myself. the Board had approved the minute. As soon as he received this information. Now. of the Board of Managers of the Carnegie Steel Company.Frick the Mr. I could not at this time. although he had his doubts as to whether I had any right. while Chairman. say less than I have. called for an immediate meeting of the Board. Mr. Carnegie entrained for Pittsburgh on December 3rd. Harmony is so essential for the success of any organization that have stood a great many insults from Mr. but I have no with him. but I will submit to no further insults in the future. Carnegie and was followed by a notice that. he then waited upon Mr. the other day. he must apologize for that statement. that he had agreed to pay market price. Armed with this document.

Pa. zealous and faithful service as a member of this Board from January 14. FRICK. Pa. The following communication was read: December Gentlemen I : 5th. motion. Singer. Pittsburgh. price Mr. Henry Phipps. Tuesday. The vote being unanimous. to the present day. Morrison. The of contention for ten years. H. Schwab (president). Phipps. (MM. De cember 5. Yours very truly. Pittsburgh. but not the struggle of two determined men.Mr. and all present On concurring.. Frick Receives His Resignation the next day. Carnegie Building. C. as such and as representing the Shareholders. the resignation was with the sincere thanks of the Board of Managers. Carnegie. both accepted. Frick had not yet begun to fight. Carnegie's letter to which the Carnegie Company should pay the Frick Company for coke had been a bone Frick. the former as by far the largest purchaser quite properly demanding a preferen221 . To the Board of Managers. George Lauder and W. Limited. held at the General Offices of the Association. Clemson. Carnegie's war proved to be one of extermi nation and Mr. at 11:30 p. there were present MM. 1899. Of vastly greater importance than ' ' a mere question of propriety involved in a minor real estate transaction was the 'coke difference' mentioned in Mr. Peacock. Ltd. for efficient. So ended peaceably an arduous service often years and eleven months.m. 1899. Clemson and Peacock). beg to present my resignation as a member of your Board. Mr. the following entry ute book of the Company : was made in the min At a meeting of the Board of Managers of The Carnegie Steel Company. The Carnegie Steel Co.. Gayley and Lovejoy (secre tary). and MM. 1889... H.

Frick as against $i. 1898.50 per ton asked by Mr. Carnegie and Mr. Lauder and Schwab that a clause must be inserted in the contract providing that if at any time the market price should fall below $1. he refrained from discussing it. Carnegie did not go to Pittsburgh and. Each year the officers of the respective companies had experienced increasing difficulty in satisfying all con cerned and. Mr. Each natu rally favored the company which bore his name. the charge 'to the Carnegie Com pany should be reduced accordingly. Carnegie gave notice through Messrs. beginning on January ist. But Mr. and Mr. Perhaps would be well to make the matter rest until Mr. Nevertheless he stood ready to make any reason it able concession to effect a settlement. 1899. Pending formal action by the two Boards of Managers. early in December. when Mr. Mr. Frick raised the question in New York on the eve of his sailing. Frick 222 .xo offered by Mr. but the question quickly simmered down to $1. was agreed upon. Carnegie should his promised visit to Pittsburgh when another let effort might be made to reach a definite agreement. Frick personally took the matter in hand with a view to effecting a permanent arrangement.Frick the tial rate Man and the latter insisting with equal justness that the charge should not be so low as to warrant criticism by its minority shareholders. Mr.35 per ton for a period of five years.35 per ton. Frick promptly rejoined through the same intermediaries that the under standing did not comprise any such arrangement and he could not recommend the execution of a contract on that basis. Carnegie and a compromise at $1.

President Lynch record of the company's posi submitted the following: RESOLVED. Mr. Carnegie's representa tive. That the president be authorized and instructed to notify the Carnegie Steel Company. Frick and Lauder.000 for the year 1899 and seemed likely to amount to millions annually for years to come. Limited.Mr. under a contract which Mr.35 per ton. whose in the steel interests were in the coke company exclusively. That is to say. Carnegie declared he had made with Mr. Such was the confused and dangerous condition of affairs when the Chairman returned from Europe follow ing the Moore Syndicate fiasco and called a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Coke Company for Octo ber 2. Limited. Lynch andBosworth. the seller was charging the market rate. will be recognized or entertained by this Company. Messrs. . quite paradoxically. and the purchaser was accepting at $1.5th to make official tion. Frick Receives His Resignation pressed its consideration no further. that the existence of any contract is denied and that no claim to settle in accordance with the terms of the alleged contract for past. Frick. as usual. less about zo per cent preferential. the Coke Company was selling large quantities of fuel to the Steel Company at one price and the Steel Company was buying the same product from the Coke Company at another. Meanwhile. present and future deliveries of coke to the said Carnegie Steel Company. refrained from voting because of their partnership company and the resolution was adopted by the votes of Messrs. Walker. chiefly no doubt be cause the Moore option was then uppermost in the minds of both. The difference in favor of the steel company was exceeding $600.

Carnegie has no authority to make a contract that would bind this Company. Carnegie's real attitude in those days was more frequently conjectural than assured. whose interest is larger in Steel than it is in Coke. at any rate. giving their views of the attempt. to the extent of at least The value of our coke properties. Prick was caused by this indignant "Minute With respect. to force their coke. and I submit that siderable feeling it is not unreasonable that I have con on this subject* He also threatened. Company should pay for their coke? The Frick Coke Company has always been used as a convenience. has $6. at been. Carnegie and Mr. It was not my business to bring that question up. Frick an opportunity to in corporate in his 'Minute' filed with the steel company. to the very dispute out of 224 . Carnegie's conversations in Pittsburgh. Carnegie. if the minority stockholders would not give their share of the coke to the Steel Company at about cost. the following: I learn that Mr. That is to say.Frick the ' ' Man This action afforded Mr. for example. While Mr. He is in possession of the Minutes of the Board of Directors of the Frick Coke Company. while here. while here. there seems to be no doubt that the quick change in his state of feeling Tt toward Mr. on his part. and is to-day. The records will show that its credit has always been largely used for the Steel Company. he would buy twenty thousand acres of Washington Run coal and build coke ovens. if a low price did not prevail. he would attempt to ruin them. Neither have I any au thority to make any contract that would bind the Frick Coke Company. I am told.000. that. or something was not done. every opportunity. following Mr. and. It is them to take practically cost for two Companies to make Mr. depreciated by Mr.000. insist on fixing the price which the Steel the business of the Presidents of the contracts of all kinds. Lauder. for over a year. why should he. he threatened. stated that I showed cowardice in not bringing up question of price of coke as between Steel and Coke Companies.

*" ./ # %.. ?' % f # g t . . i *J ? / f * ' ''< ' * > " . C. C. AND MRS. P.- .J.^ MR... AND MRS. H..4i.IWFt'. ICNOX (On a holiday in Venice) .t. FRICK MR.'M * n.


Co. to C. Frick Receives His Resignation which the final rupture grew. they will not argue or object freely but they None of them want to stir up things with F.000 thing. noting an : un settled misunderstanding of precise terms H. (fortunately the only point) you are. Frick.C We never had friction before even than Philippines.C.35 you said 1. It is all settled anyhow. Give me a settlement permanent on coke and Do want I'll get at a to make bless you. Schwab I high. of the F.Mr. filed. The best plan is to get a fixed price for all time and relieve the friction which has arisen. think its My friend. You your pard a Christmas gift anyhow. thanks to you for him. its only business with nothing personal Yet so permanent arrangement and greatly oblige. and we all have our "crazy bones" you know where Roslander.C. It is me they are all willing to pay 1. from Mr.S. Now Surely you and Lauder and Lawrence can figure this out. in it. you are so touchy upon F.35 your own terms and ends it.C. the fair price company Co. doesn't it? But now all's over and you have a mighty good bargain and a big profit.50 and idle ovens I think 1. 225 . we find him writing. & very foolish Isn't it? when it is. Co. Esq.. just before the displeasing paper was with all his for mer sprightly and ingratiating pungency: There's one question I wish you would fix With market price up coke is prices. it annoys me more than dollars And letter few days later.F. I had no part fixing price. Do get at this and fix it and always remember that none of your partners can or will regard you as only the representative of a seller 1. a in reply apparently to a evidence. read writes I have no time to waste upon the Prest. who Its begins saying he didn't know the bargain that's all I gone to waste basket. think all the same.35 was right. Excuse me. not in then. to them. Ill not look for a $40. A. permanently. gets his finger sometimes and oh it hurts.Co.

This is all was not over and nothing was well.C.Frick the It's all Man is the same to I believe all me provided there back things are also settled the Christmas gift I ask. The im movable object had not yet felt the impact of an irre But all sistible force. A. 216 . all's well. no more so now dissatisfaction.

having lighted a fresh cigar. Andrew Carnegie poised at the entrance. as he had said over and over again. with a cheery 'Good morning. he stood in an attitude of expect ancy while the unheralded visitor. Mr. was reading leisurely a personal letter from his friend.7 . placed himself gingerly upon the edge of a chair obviously assigned to callers. R. Having office in * MR. Half rising. he beheld without appearance of emotion the familiar figure of Mr. who was then sojourning in Colorado Springs. Chairman of the EL C. Frick Coke Company and former Chair man of the Carnegie Steel Company. MJT. He had finished dictating answers to various business communications and. Frick. Frick. HENRY CLAY PRICK. 22. he could perceive no reason why a satisfactory contract . He had dropped in to see if they could not reach a definite and final settlement of the coke dispute between their two companies Personally. Carnegie readily announced his mission. with out speaking. Raising his eyes upon hearing the door open and close.'* stepped jauntily forward and.. Whitney. MX. was seated at the desk in his private simultaneously resumed his own seat. Mr. A. Lim ited. 1900. in response to a grave bow.XVII The Final Dramatic Break the Carnegie building at midday on January 8th. looked at him inquiringly.

let it stand for two years. Frick. expressed with a hint of impatience. Every that. So the arrangement provision would be perfectly fair all around. body knew And it must take no chances. It must provide for all contingencies But two years would afford ample time to acquire fifteen or twenty thousand acres would be The Coke Company too could make any only prudent. Carnegie. what do you say?' 'But if I object. for the future it saw fit. Frick. *it would have been closed "If * long ago/' Well. "Is that the contract of coal lands to be mined if necessary. At the end of that time both parties would know whether they wanted to go on or to make other arrangements.Frick the Man should not be executed at once. there was no use in going over all that. Very well. The Steel Company must have coke of course. ' Tt 1 is perfectly fair. Let bygones be bygones the one to be considered. You may as well make up your mind to that. you had stood by our arrangement originally/* quietly remarked Mr. he had decided upon a plan. . $1. Each could do what he liked. 228 .35 was mutually satisfactory. ! In fact. That you propose to have made?" ' asked Mr. The price had been agreed upon and he stood ready to close the matter and be done with it. in the opinion of Mr. The present situation was He had thought the matter out. it is your intention to put it through anyway?" ' 'That plan or something similar will undoubtedly be adopted.

Carnegie. the verdict rendered. If the company wants to take over your interest. by Mr. it's the company's/' 'And the company will try to do it?* * ' 4 'Why not? The company has the right/ "And you will advise the company to power?" ' exercise its 'Your interest will surely be taken over by the com pany. Frick looked long and intently into Mr.The Final Dramatic Break "Mr. I will buy it/* 'I will have nothing to do with outsiders. ' ' ' 'It's not my business. you can depend on that. Never have had. you mean. with ' out regard to its actual value?' 'As provided by the contract/ ' ' ' ' do not accept your proposed agreement be tween the two companies. Mr. Frick in notably distinct but even tones." "Nothing to do with outsiders. you can have ' it. by Mr. the way " is provided and you have signed for it." "Will you buy my interest in the Steel Company at a price to be fixed in the same way? If so. Carne gie toward the end impatiently." The colloquy had been carried on thus far. 'At the sum appearing on the books. Carnegie's defiant eyes while. would you like to sell your interest in the Coke Company at a price to be fixed by competent and disinterested business men? If so. There was nothing more to be said by way of explanation* The case was dosed. 229 . one cannot doubt. or whatever else you may if I 'And you intend to take over my interest in the way you have indicated?* suggest.

neither Mr. he had been reading when inter rupted. whose letter and dictated a reply to Mr. closely followed by Mr. During the ensuing nineteen years. John Walker. Steel writes Mr. entered the Board room of the Carnegie Company and directed his associates awaiting him to proceed with the work in hand. "his ' ' anger. his way back to his office from luncheon at the in Mr. lost " my temper 230 . his steps suddenly hastened and dashed into the hall. Five minutes later Mr. appearing distressed. "I this morning. ' on his old friend and asso "John/ he remarked meditatively. from 1900 to 1919. when both passed away. looked at his watch. rang for his secretary Whitney. Frick dropped ciate Mr. Carnegie. Frick. On club.Frick the Man the steel was creeping slowly into his own. Frick spoke to the other. the elder in August and the younger in December. Carnegie. Carnegie nor Mr. who had been edging toward the door. speak ing still evenly but with steadily rising inflection. Bridge in his History of the Carnegie into flame/* and his pent-up Company /'burst out was indignation finding full vent when Mr. All concerns are making money and the outlook is quite bright for the coming year along all lines. Frick returned to his desk. reverted to his custom of clearing his desk before lunch eon. Then. Mr. in the course of which he said incidentally: Everything here moving along very pleasantly. I hope that this will find your daughter much improved.

" 4 Tor the first time in years Washington ' ' . Lauder. "I knew you had one. and January 8th. Phipps. Carnegie obtained Mr.The Final Dramatic Break "Oh. Frick : 231 . "That will clear ' !' the air. Mr. with the acquiescence of Mr. Walker. and he confided in none of his associates barring possibly his cousin. the following communication from Mr. you know. Sunday. well/' smilingly observed Mr. time/' The month intervening between December 5th. Carnegie himself could tell where in Pittsburgh. Mr. I suppose Proceed . December jrd. 11 lost his once. I just returned from New York this morning. Carnegie. and his most valued manager. Frick ' depicted the episode in detail ' and quietly awaited comment. Schwab. Whereupon Mr. when Mr. I I write My dear Mr. Phipps. having al ready revealed their lack of sympathy with his pro gramme by pleading with him to refrain from taking the first step. when he reappeared They had not long had been one of ominous silence on the part of the controlling owner and of anxious waiting by his partners. Prick's resignation. Nothing could be done with him looking towards a reconciliation. He seems most determined. the next blow would fall or what its nature might be. Only Mr. Frick : yon confidentially. Mr. Walker. Mr. We shall soon be out in the open now. his oldest comrade. It is high to wait. Carnegie is en route to Pittsburgh today and will be at the offices in the morning. 'All right ejaculated Mr. * ' . On Schwab was delivered to Mr.

instructions to the Board and Stockholders to you to sacrifice considerable if necessary to avert this crisis. wanted you to know before tomorrow.S. I beg of you for myself and for all the Junior Partners. Am satisfied that no action on my part would have any effect in the end. if possible and consistent. Of this as above stated I am well advised by one most friendly to you. by reason of his interest. But the indirect effect upon Mr. Frick. Carnegie himself was to strengthen his confidence that he could safely ignore his junior partners. Personally my position is most embarrassing as you well know. I believe all the Junior members of the board and all the Junior Partners will do as he directs. Under these circumstances there is nothing left for us to do than to obey. although the situation the Board is thus placed in is most embarrassing. to the extent at least of acceding to Mr. to avoid putting me in this awkward position. I it is could say much on this subject but you understand and un necessary. I have gone into the matter carefully and am advised by disinterested and good authority that. But and I fidential for the present. So did Mr. he can regulate this matter to suit himself with much trouble no doubt. We must de clare ourselves. I write you this instead of telling you because I cannot under the circumstances well discuss this subject with you at this time. It -would probably ruin me and not help you. Please consider con and believe me As Ever C.M. whom he had terror- 232 . long association with you and your kindly and generous My I it very hard to act as I shall be obliged to cannot possibly see any good to you or any one else by doing otherwise. but he can ultimately do so. treatment of me makes do. Car negie's demand for his resignation without protest or argument. Carnegie will no doubt see you in the morning and I appeal I feel certain my best. This was a fair warning which was heeded by Mr. Mr. Phipps.Frick the did Man as to his he will give positive wishes in this matter. Any concerted action would be ulti mately useless and result in their down-fall. partly no doubt in consideration of the perplexities of others.

his senior partners. was abolished by unanimous consent. who appear in any legal proceedings against Mr. when he reap peared before the Board. Clemson and Morrison. transferred the office of Chairman. he felt fully equipped to meet any contingency. Moreland. lay in the dropping of Mr. the num ber of directors was increased from five to seven.The Final Dramatic Break ized. Walker and Bosworth were dropped and Messrs. on the following day. namely. Gayley. who was not only the largest stockholder hav was guardiaa of ing no interest in the Steel Company but 233 . to his mind. were chosen giving the Carnegie interests control by a major and ity of three. Frick. whom he mistakenly thought refused to he had cowed and. Frick Coke Company. John Walker. Frick. to eject Mr. Clearly. his recent experi ence left no alternative to proceeding to the extreme limit of possibilities. Messrs. previously held by Mr. Mr. Carnegie seems to have believed he could do legally under the terms of various agreements and he proceeded forthwith to execute his purpose. At the annual meeting of the stockholders of the HL C. last but far from least. Lynch and Lauder wore re-elected. barring of course the change in control. Frick from partner ship and forcibly seize his interest at virtually whatever price he himself might see fit to pay. Calling other lawyers into service. Messrs. Lynch was continued as President shares had been . the Company 's distinguished counsel. Frick. All this Mr. he perfected his plans during that holiday month and. The only significance of this action. Knox and Reed. to whose names qualifying by the Steel Company.

and. Carnegie and added an other doughty foe to the latter adversaries. a minor who had inherited his share of Mr. Presently. the new Board voted five to two to rescind the resolution of October 15 th denying the existence of a contract to deliver coke to the Carnegie Steel at $1. on January X4th. Walker had been on friendly terms for years. : adopted the following resolution.Frick the Man Andrew Carnegie Wilson. Mr. the fact transpired that. moreover. Carnegie would guar antee full recompense in some form for any loss to his personal interests if he would withdraw his opposition to the coke contract which he had voted to repudiate. Walker had rejected Mr. Carnegie's deceased partner. Frick. the exclusion of the latter from the Board caused surprise. Frick.35 per ton. who alone had tried to protect the minority stockholders. whose widow and daughter he also represented In view of these circum . over the protests of Mr. ? s swelling galaxy of Immediately following its organization on the same day. Frick and President Lynch Whereas this Company acting by H. 1898. entered into an agree- 234 . Carnegie and Mr. stances and of the common knowledge that Mr. Subsequently. feeling that such an act would constitute a betrayal of Mr. however. Company two weeks later. Carnegie's proposal that he ex change his coke stock for an interest in the steel firm and a position on the Board. C. then chairman of the Board of Directors in December. in the course of the recent interview between the two. he had spumed the suggestion with words that virtually enforced his deposition by Mr. when assured that Mr.

and pursuant to said agreement the shipment of coke began Jan uary i. at the price of $1. beginning January i. by direction of the Board. ratified Resolved.). this Company. executed protest. whereby this Company agreed to purchase ail the coke required for the furnaces of said Steel Company for the period of five years. no less than $5 . Frick comprehended the inclusion of a clause giving the steel company the advantage of a lower price a provision if such should appear "at the market/' which he now abandoned the contract would have been executed at the time for a period of five years. and Whereas said agreement. or $1. cars at oven. Car negie had not insisted originally that his understanding with Mr. 1899. and the same is hereby. It is interesting. was never formerly set forth in writing.o.5oo. .3 75 . A proposed contract with the Carnegie Steel Company. and confirmed as fully and completely as if the same had been originally entered into under authority of a resolution of this Board.000 a year. That the said agreement be.The Final Dramatic Break mcnt with the Carnegie agreed to sell Steel Co. (Ltd.50 per ton. though acted upon by the parties. and the officers of this Company are hereby authorized and directed to reduce said agreement to writing.ooo tons. and the Coke Company would then have been forfeiting to the Steel Company the difference between $1.ooo pounds delivered f. at this point.35 per ton and Steel Company of z. and to execute and deliver the same in the name and on the behalf of i. payable on or before the zoth day of each month for the preceding month's shipment.35 and the mar ket price of $3. to it under note that if Mr.b. embodying the terms recited and already executed by President Schwab was then submitted and President Lynch. taking effect as of January 1899. 1899.15 on ^.

it never came to trial.Frick the Truly. for reasons pres ently to be disclosed. Car negie of an enormous advantage and enabled Mr. need not be considered since. which. Man which deprived Mr. however. a costly inadvertence. John Walker to bring a promising injunction suit. 236 .

Mr. Mr. how which he naturally desired to keep within his own con trol for investment in enterprises. The "book . ever. was very large. which offered to accept. although not the sum total. The difference between this price and the Mr. no longer had a voice in the management of the severance complete. Carnegie to acquire his per cent of stock in the Coke Company and his onesixth interest in the steel firm.3 . His holdings in the two concerns constituted the bulk. Frick actual value. was equally clear but the holding itself. it 2. Frick was as eager to sell as Mr. also fully paid for. Frick Wins His Fight been thus quietly ousted from the Chairmanship of both companies. HAVING To make was either. Frick incumbent upon Mr. There was no question of his full ownership of his coke stock for which he stood ready to accept any price fixed by disinterested persons as its fair value. of his fortune. the management of which he would share. There seemed to be no insuperable obstacle in the way Mr.XVIII Mr. Carnegie was will ing to buy. His title to his interest in the Steel Company. was subject to recapture by the Company for the sum at which it was carried on the books at the time. Carnegie maintained. as appraised by disinterested persons.

the receipt whereof. The procedure was based upon the following clause in an "Iron-clad Agreement "signed by Mr. for and in consideration of the execution and delivery of this agreement by each of the other active members of said Asspciation.000. was 'approximately $4. as well as for other good 238 . Mr. all realized that the amount of money involved in the con troversy could not be less than six millions of dollars and might easily prove to be twice that sum.Frick the * Man ' value" of his one-sixth interest.D. witnesseth: 00 That the party of the second part. is hereby acknowledged. ' '. as determined by Mr.000' his own esti mate of its real value was 'upwards of $15. ist.900. 1891. Limited. While the representatives of the Steel Company were assuming control of the Coke Company and ratifying as a valid contract the tentative verbal arrangement made by Messrs. certain dates thereafter. and each one of the members of that Association who has hereunto affixed his name.000. : Made this first day of July. party of the first part. Prick's interest in the steel partnership. A. Frick and other members of the firm under date of July This agreement. and on shown. The Carnegie Steel Com pany.000. Although nobody foresaw this quick quintupling. it was exchanged for securities of the United States Steel Corporation having a market value at the time of not less than $Z5 .. as party of the second part. following transformation through the new Carnegie Company. and in consideration of the sum of One Dollar in hand paid by the party of the first part. between The Carnegie Steel Company. Carnegie was personally directing the recap ture by his Board of Managers of Mr. years later. Limited. 1892. by the signing hereof. Carnegie and Frick thirteen months previ ously. .000' two Carnegie.

who. that he. on the first day of the month following said assignment. the value of the terest assigned. at the time he is called upon to act. the said party of the second part. interest in the Limited partnership of The Carnegie Steel Company. the Attorney in Fact for said party of . the said party of the second part. is hereby declared the of the to party part hereby gives to be irrevocable. shall re quest him. to do so. assign and transfer to said first party. but shall not exceed twenty (zo) per centum of the Capital Stock at for as follows: One-fourth cash par. and three-fourths in value of said interests. promise and agree to and with the party of the first part. and the option the party first part. as it shall appear to be on the books of said The Carnegie Steel Company. to be evidenced by the notes of said party.Mr. will sell. or to such person or persons as it shall designate. at any time hereafter when three-fourths in number of the persons holding interests in said first party. Limited. all of his. the person. and that it may be carried out in good faith. (II) The request of the requisite number of members and value of interests shall be evidenced by a writing signed by them or their shall be proper agents or Attorneys in Fact. at least five (5) days before the day fixed in said request to make said transfer and assignment. docs hereby cove nant. The interest shall be assigned freed from all Hens and en cumbrances or contracts of any kind. the party of the second part. Frick Wins His Fight and valuable considerations. is Chairman of the party of the first part. Limited. Said payment shall be in manner as follows If the interest assigned shall exceed four (4) per centum. Limited. party or mailed to him at his post office address. and this transfer shall at once terminate all the interest of said party of the second part in and in connection with the said The Carnegie Steel Company. and a copy thereof is it interest whose the either served upon proposed to buy. and of the second notwithstanding any effort on the part of the party the party of the second part does hereby appoint part to evade it. to him moving. then the same shall be paid within six months after the date of the assignment. of the second (IV) This agreement. and the balance : in five equal annual payments from the date of the assignment. (HI) The party of the first part covenants and agrees that it will in pay unto the party so selling and assigning.

and its partners. each.000 by $1.666. sur ' ' passed the 'book value' of $4. Frick and others but neve executed by several. as the holder oJ a majority interest. itself. since liquj on September ist. Iron-clad Agreements. total. Carnegie. $4. 1903. Either the company had o had not a legal right to appropriate the share upoi the terms specified in the option quoted. the net earnings upon Mr. 1887 its successor. In point of fact.000. however. $i. Limited. dated.Frick the Man it the second part. for him and in his name.000. 1904 and 1905. an instalment of $735. 1901. which consequently would have paid for with a net gain to Mr. a constituent concern.. 1901. Prick'* one-sixth interest. Carnegie.900. whenever under this agreement said party of the second part to would be the duty of do so. this extraordinary circumstance had no bearing upon the question at issue. a sum prac tically certain to be exceeded materially by the profits accruing during that period to the credit of the onesixth share. Of these the first was between Cat negie Brothers & Co. On March ist.ooo. including Messrs. in that very year of 1900 alone. of many millions. and some of its partners. each differing when thre from the others were really involved. dated Jul ist. Technically. though hardly perhaps in fair ness. executed the second was between the Carnegie Stee Company. 189X7 and signed by Mr.zx5. Limited. PhipJ 240 . Frick as follows: On or before September ist. Application of this method of recapture would have resulted in payments by the company to Mr.900. place and stead to assign and transfer the said interest in said The Carnegie Steel Company.766. 1900.

of 1887. Prick's signature and (4) To obtain additional signatures to this agreement in order to pro vide the 'three-fourths in number as well as the* 'threefourths in value* 'required to take over the interest desired. A. Whitney's having been secured readily. Frick on January 8th. bearing the signatures of all the partners. Carnegie alone. either thinking that the task would be distasteful to Secretary Lovejoy. All of these except Mr. Frick Wins His Fight and Lander. Carnegie immediately following the conclusion of his spirited interview with Mr. Prick's interest at "book value** and obtain legal narily (i) title. dated September ist. in order to obtain Mr. Carnegie. but executed by Mr. 4 the agreement of 1892.> signed in part only. (3) To validate the agreement of i&$2. was referred to for the first time as 'Supplemental" instead of the entirely new partner ' ship compact which previously it had been considered to be. and the third was of the same parties. who was not in sympathy with the 241 movement. ' 1 * Resolutions designed to accomplish these purposes were produced by Mr. and were promptly adopted by the Board of Managers. Mr. 1897. R. it To considered necessary prelimi abrogate the resolution of 1897. and the secretary was instructed to obtain all sig natures not yet attached to the document. Henry Phipps's and Mr. thus establishing mutuality of benefit and obligation. To recapture Mr. (z) To re was vive the original agreement of Carnegie Brothers & Co. the original agreement of 1887 was recognized simply as 'appearing in the Minutes' 'of an unidentified company..Mr. or surmising that President Schwab would . The resolution of 1897 was rescinded.

Phipps and Frick. being three-fourths in number of the persons holding interests in said Association. M. Building. ex pressing their belief that it exceeded "considerably" joined in notifying the $X5 0. Frick to sell. and transfer to The Carnegie Steel Company. Limited. a transfer of your interest in the capital of said Company* Yours truly. company that the "fair and true value" of its properties was not shown on its books. 1900. Dear Sir: I beg to advise you that pursuant to the terms of the so called "Iron-clad Agreement" and at the request of the Board of Man agers. : RC. having already protested separately at the action of the Board on January 8th. all assign of his interest in the capital of The Carnegie Steel Company. do now hereby request Henry C. C. the following letter was delivered by hand Mr. . I have to-day acting as your Attorney in Fact executed and delivered to The Carnegie Steel Company. and the partners composing it. Messrs. and three-fourths in value of said interests. deputed the latter to obtain the three-fourths required for the formal demand and.000. Frick.42. on January lowing notice was served on Mr. Limited. Limited. 2. and on February ist. the undersigned. * ' we. the fol Under the provisions of a certain Agreement between The Car negie Steel Company. Limited.000 and declaring their willingness to accept the appraisal of three disinterested men as "final and con clusive/' Receipt of these communications was not ac knowledged. said transfer to be made as at the close of Business Jan uary 31. SCHWAB. known as and generally referred to as the Iron Clad' Agreement.Frick the Man speak more influentially as his personal representative. and to be paid for as provided in said Agreement. Frick: i5th.

243 . that it I hate to say was but they stated rather carelessly a full and accurate value of the assets when it. Prick's retainer was the first to arrive. D. Carnegie's were Esquires George Tucker Bispham. Dale. to show that Mr. how much was his interest worth? The attorneys who had nothing to do with it drew it with the main object in view. coun but Mr. had fixed his own valuation and was committed to it. Rich ard C. Eleven years later. the foremost lawyer of the country. Carnegie were filed with the Court of Common Pleas of Allegheny County promptly upon the opening of the Spring term early in March. the company's attorneys who had refused to represent their most affluent client in any legal proceedings against Mr. Frick could be put out at all under the agreement. as one of a committee. Frick* s Bill of Complaint in his Equity Suit against the Steel Company and its shareholders and the joint and several answer of the defendants headed by Mr. The great man's distinguished associates were Esquires D. Mr. set forth tersely the main point at issue. There had been a sharp competition for the services of John G. Judge Reed of Knox & Reed. Frick.Johnson. The next question was. in his testimony before a Congressional Committee. Frick Wins His Fight The stage was now set for trial of the most famous lawsuit ever brought in Pennsylvania. Watson and Willis R McCook. Mr. drew this answer I Frick.Mr. namely. How they found that I do not know. Esq. "was whether Mr. as senior sel.. Clarence Burleigh and the firm of Dakell. solicitors Scott & Gordon. 'The fundamental question in the case/* he informed the committee.

Frick the Man they should have said that it was a fall and accurate ac count of the method adopted by the parties. Frick in my life. I never settle it/* Asked in his how he personally accounted for the assertion Bill that the sworn Answer to the "book value'* of the entire assets of the company was accurate/' Mr. MR. you any doubt about it yourself? (Laughter). understand it. Have 244 . BEAL. MR. "Do you Gardner. CARNEGIE. BEAL. MR. Car negie with rare insouciance. No. Surely. BEAL. "since you have mentioned the name of Mr. gentlemen/' interjected Mr. as you under now. CARNEGIE. Carnegie replied: "full. Frick. is not a correct statement? MR. account at stand MR. I tried to go in and us. It is a misleading statement? MR." "Let me tell you. As to the value of our property. It is misleading. that the quarrel was not between had a quarrel with Mr. Everything have said here shows you that the property did not go into that all. It was with the partners he quarreled. do not know what they did with the profits except that think they depreciated things to about the extent of the profits and never allowed their book values to rise at all. certainly it is an incorrect statement. CARNEGIE. Then it this statement in this answer. Judge?* 'asked Congressman "Sometimes I I I think I do and sometimes that I do not. Can you not go further than an incorrect statement? that and say that it is Yes. fair and I MR. Not at ail. CARNEGIE. BEAL. MR.

THE CHAIRMAN. Frick that reply. CARNEGIE. Gary on a railway train. 1 advised him not to it was too abusive. It is sworn to. his hope was rudely by this defiant and scornful atti tude. in line with the tender of his resignation without a protest. There was no casualness in the preparation of the for the plaintiff. proposing lines of bold attack supported by facts and arguments. and even suggesting innumerable questions for himself to answer. Mr. The purely legal aspects of the controversy hardly call for consideration in view of their failure to attain judi cial determination. 'and here dispelled * is the reply which I want you to read/*' ' 4 ' I did so at once. I sent this on as an answer no doubt glanced over it and signed it. CARNEGIE. Carnegie was plainly disappointed. Yes. brief Mr. Carnegie had thought to intimidate Mr. and his feelings were deeply hurt. Frick gave his undivided attention to the matter. My partners prepared by our lawyers. file 'and* found that Mr.Mr. Carnegie had excoriated Mr.* * Judge Gary told his own biographer. in violent language. and generally laying a broad founda tion for comprehensive presentation of a case punctuated and enlivened by severe and caustic phrasing of his own devising. but if Mr. Frick Wins His Fight THE CHAIRMAN. Elbert H. 'Trick has filed an abusive Bill against me/' he con fided to Mr. Yes. 245 . but I did not read it all. not only gathering the data required down to the minutest detail but sifting and analyzing it with the painstaking thoroughness of a trained mind inviting . By you? MR. Frick into full submission. MR.

Carnegie's An swer in Part I of the Court of Common Pleas appeared the Bill of Complaint in the coke suit of his lifelong friend and associate. Walker. not honestly ity or in good faith for the Coke Company but dishonestly ' and in bad faith for the benefit of said Carnegie/ thereby becoming "guilty not only of constructive but actual fraud/* also of Since it ' was obviously 'Vain and useless" to look to such 'representatives of the Steel Company and Carnegie for any redress for the aforesaid wrongs and grievances. bore perhaps even 246 . yet another defec tion. While these blunt accusations from such a source made highly unpleasant reading. II. Walker pinned the entire responsibil upon Mr. it he had done a to show the paper to his counsel. particularly when spread over the first pages of the newspapers. and but he agreed was never filed in that form/' Simultaneously with the filing of Mr. Compared with the scathing terms of this grim indictment. Prick's denunciation was less per in Part sonal and almost indulgent. ' ' Mr. Mr. desig nated and qualified by him to act in his interest. although relatively unimportant. on his own behalf and as guardian ofAndrew Carnegie Wilson. Carnegie personally for "the execution of their evil design to cheat and defraud. Mr. Contemptuously depicting the added directors as mere tools of their master.Frick the for he believed Man fine thing. was driven to pray the Honorable Judges for equitable relief. the redoubtable Mr. John Walker. in ' ' 'utter and fraudulent disregard' of the rights of the minority stockholders.

while we haveporchased mr terests of deceased partners under it. who was then in Scotland. else and had served as special counsellor to the controlling owner in constructing and a thorough investigation of the proposed Agreement of 1897 with a view to perfecting it in every detail.Mr. All but two of the junior or 'debtor' partners accepted Mr. Schwab's ' ' judgment that Mr. who was more familiar with the intricacies of the various Iron-clad Agreements than anybody interpreting them. and "would prob ably/* ruin them if they should disobey his orders. F. to make it legally bind ing beyond question. "The fact is. Hie latter requirement was supposed to have been met in the Agreement of 1887. F. Frick Wins His Fight greater significance to Mr. Carnegie could. Phipps and dependent for validity upon assumed continuance of the Agreement of 1887) is not binding oa anybody and never has been. unsigned by Mr. Frick promptly apprized Mr. Vandevort was not appended. Secretary of the company. original Mr. if objection had been 247 . Love joy. of this fatal defect. Carnegie's mind. but inquiry developed the fact that the name of Mr. Carnegie. he was informed by While acting under instructions to make the company's attorneys that. but of these two one was Mr. it would be necessary to give to each shareholder the privilege of taking up his interest for cash and to secure the signature of every partner without exception in order to establish fall mutuality of the pledge to surrender an interest upon demand."he wrote on June joth. T. iS^S/'that the present Iron-clad Agreement (that of iS^z. and bowed submissively.

ering the point. however. owing to the imminence of a conference at Skibo Castle designed to assent to the win Mr.' 'Germanic. Squire and Mr. fully cov ' drawn a paper. with the greatest pleasure to the arrival of you Hastily yours H. Frick. it could not have been enforced. bound by his sig nature to the 1887 Agreement. Phipps could not be persuaded to sign . Frick sailed. Frick. ANDREW CARNEGIE. in common with the other junior partners." But time was pressing. I do not agree that the present one that point. Curry expect to come up here with you. and a copy was enclosed 'for your con sideration and POR MR. Mr. at least until he could be Educed to accept the new one which superseded it. . Lovejoy's discovery that he was not. Esq." No cablegram being received in response. Although Mr. Phipps) comes here with you.Frick the raised Man by their estates. Phipps was to be kept in ignorance of Mr. no further step was taken and Mr. to find awaiting him at Liverpool the following commu nication TV A- : SKIBO CASTLEj DoRNOCH> N-B-n i My dear Mr. invited the loss of fortune foreseen by 248 . Phipps's new Agreement. But the precaution was to no purpose. zyth / June. not binding. better avoid The We are looking forward all. is j TV/T > 1898. and Mr. ? <> Just occurs to me perhaps much better not to talk over new Iron clad Agreement until Squire (Mr. as he had been led to believe.S. as planned. Lovejoy had for the debtor partners to sign. PHIPPS'S CONSIDERATION. Liverpool. Lovejoy. C. White Star S." The intimation was plain that Mr.

that. Carnegie returned. he could not conscientiously join with his fellow man agers in an effort to enforce an agreement which the dis tinguished counsel of the company had pronounced in valid.Mr. Knox implacable > Mr. he considered. Walker Messrs. Mr. Frick and pro viding for recapture of his interest "for a consideration virtually nominal/' Consequently he resigned as Man ager and Secretary and filed a separate Bill setting forth that the agreement was 'null and void/ that 'even if it were in full force and effect. calling for the resignation of Mr. Frick Wins His Fight Mr. Lovejoy's legal opinion. Mr. indifference he advertised by going to Florida. its superb organkatioE 249 . Lovejoy undisturbed. was attributable to his own generosity. justice and to accept equity required that he should not be compelled ' ' * such payment as the purchasers themselves might fix/* However grieved he may have been by this singular action on the part of a junior partner whose fortune. The Carnegie Steel rate was up profits at an undreamed-of Company piling but its prestige was diminishing. having missioned an associate to make. no cause existed for the plain" tiff's expulsion" and that. Reed courteously aloof and the renowned Esquire John & son smilingly unapproachable. Schwab if he should disobey Mr. on his own account. tentative advances looking to a settlement. in any event. It was an anomalous situation. Frick continued imperturbable. Carnegie's orders. Mr. In vain. and discovered upon the defect in the original agreement com reported nearly two years previously. Mr. was so Carnegie not only betrayed no resentment but basal deeply impressed by Mr.

with minds possessed by self interest. Mr. The public detected no more than a difference in judgment. bankers were beginning to look askance. and rumors were rife of prospective dis closures compelling governmental rending of the very- foundations of its industrial supremacy. struggle between its masterful guiding spirits. Phipps intervened. all con cerned. its rivals Man were chortling. no resent ment at what he must have considered a personal defec tion and felt Mr. Nobody living was maker as he. There was a touch of pathos in the meeting. Frick. their friendship had never been seriously shaken. perhaps had felt. Carnegie's better nature. customers were showing signs of dismay. but for how 1 long? Appearances had been safeguarded scrupulously. their associates. They were still" Harry "and* 'Andrew 'to each other. Mr. between them was no jealousy.Frick the was quaking. each admired and respected the other. Clearly. the two had toiled shoulder to shoulder as partners for nearly tively to the sentimental side of forty years and had shared a prosperity far surpassing any registered in the dreams of either. none could meet him on the same level. so well fitted for the role of peace effec none other could have appealed so Mr. 250 . Phipps had confined the protest which he bound to make to the smallest formal compass. and undismayed by his recent failure. they were growing old. from the most affluent shareholder to the hum blest yet highly prosperous wage-earner. had everything to lose and nothing to gain from protraction of the bitter Again with the full acquiescence of Mr. Carnegie had shown.



Phipps was not accustomed to champion the causes of others in public. was his Prick's suit at law. privately. The one must have been as surely conscious as the other was clearly aware of the entrance into their of relationship the fatal element of mistrust. in whom it was not unreasonable for me to impose im and I plicit confidence. Frick on January lyth. grievance own. Carnegie the unwisdom of deposing Mr. that was not his Nor was Mr. not upon legal rights. threatened with ejectment and partial confiscation of his interest. signed the original Iron-clad Agreement of 1887 most reluctantly and only upon the definite under He had standing that it "should apply only to debtor partners or employes' and under no circumstances to those class ' ified as "Senior Partners" who had bought and paid for their shares." he added in a Mr. his he had indicated plainly to Mr. as but upon personal honor. memorandum filed with 1900. am confident that the agreement 251 . he had not sought an interview to discuss the merits of that . but he seems to have raised no objection when he heard the controlling owner direct his Board to demand the Chairman 's affair. Frick Wins His Fight prudently perceived nothing. with Mr. resignation. mutual friendship and identical interests. when the latter was "much was left to the honor of the Managers. Frick himself. he had urged upon Mr. Schwab. But the two concerned knew that at last a rift was opening which must be closed quick ly or it would widen beyond possibility of repair.Mr. and it was based. Frick as Manager. Mr. "Of course.

" know of no reason why the Iron-clad is not pleasing to you." second time. Carnegie's commit view was afforded by both word and deed of Mr. the "party of the second part" being explicitly designated as an "active member of the Association whenever. when he began : a letter designed to allay Mr. Phipps found wholly satisfactory and most comforting. *' Sept. Limited. or to any member thereof for the purchase of Capital in said Asso ciation. Phipps' s apprehensions respecting the proposed new Agreement with these words j A/T Dear Para: My T-k T> J 1897. His refusal to sign the last Agreement 252 . been heeded. and hasn't your wish been granted? Mr. I Surely you are a little "off. Carnegie and me at his place near " Windsor. in 1 892. he received personal reassurance to the same effect with respect to "the intent of the paper of 1887. r x^th. and at any time he shall be indebted in any sum to The Carnegie Steel Company.. This clause Mr." thus relieving all actual owners from any com mitment whatever. Did you not suggest that the power to expel should not apply to such as own their interests. Carnegie himself in 1897.Frick the Man would never have been made an engine of oppression and robbery." Still further confirmation of ment to this Mr. Phipps discovered upon examining the revised document that his desire to have the restriction to debtor partners clearly specified instead of being left indefinitely a matter of honor between partners had. indeed. 'when the consolidation papers A * were agreed to by Mr. England.

would have done * anything for my friend. and fix it to your satisfaction' I On ' such a promise. "I replied/' Mr. so clear and explicit. Frick and himself had confided fully in each other from necessity in mutual defense. and especially in his condition. Frick and himself. I ana ill. Phipps carried out the plan of the interview pre cisely as agreed upon by Mr. executed by the company and by Mr. seized by the company at fictitious book value. he had burned his bridges. but it was only fair to say that Mr. and am going abroad. he had never engaged in one. Personal altercations between partners he viewed only with deep regret. and rescinded by the latter 's direction on the memorable 8th of January. but of favor. He scrupulously refrained from uttering a word that might give cause for offense but he spoke with a frankness equiva For himself. Phipps continued Memoran dum to Mr. was based in his upon other grounds. Carnegie alone of all the partners. Frick Wins His Fight of 1897.Mr. "that since then he has ' shown no willingness to correct the agreement as promised/ Mr. Frick had done . he never should. <4 I am very sorry to say/ 'he concluded mournfully. there had been nothing else to do in justice to himself and his family. and he replied 'Harry. not of right. He frankly accepted the responsibility for suggesting that Mr. Frick search the records of the settlement with so and Superintendent Abbott and Mr. if one owner's interest could be lent to his friendliness. another's could be. continued possession of his own would be a matter. Frick/ 'that there were clauses in the agree ment that were unjust.

Mr. Carnegie had upheld the very principle for which Mr.Frick the had found in a Man him in Mr. Mr. I am willing/' 254 . Frick and he were contending. And he got it and. Mr. *> 4 'Make your own plan. Abbott came from Washington to see me as his friend. whose sole comment was: *'It is useless now to talk about anybody buying or selling. Carnegie welcomed the opportunity to respond to his lifelong associate's freshening of their friendship and his reiteration of faith in himself. no doubt. to his mind. and he did not believe Mr. Carnegie had forgotten all about this act of generosity. The fair thing to do is to make the consolidation of the two companies upon the terms agreed to by every body a year ago before the Moore offer was received. Harry/ he finally said. ' ' 'I only want what is fair. it surely might not have legal effect. I said of course it was worth ^o% more than the books and if he decided to retire and sell. but there stood the admission. by seeing that he did. as he had forgotten many other kindnesses of like nature. He thought that if he retired his half was worth far more than the books and I could not say otherwise. Frick. Phipps immediately reported to Mr. did have moral force which no honorable man could. That will solve the whole problem justly and honestly. Carnegie's letter addressed to : own handwriting these words Mr. I should see he got that for it. It might or but. So the interview ended to mutual satisfaction and Mr. While plainly surprised at this bit of information. ignore. Car negie would.

C. Three days later it was adopted by all parties in interest at a larger gathering in Atlantic City which became famous and. Carnegie. Limited. Pittsburgh. Referring to the tentative Agreement made at Atlantic Gty. other Dividends. to adjust the relative Book-Values of the Stocks of The Carnegie Steel Company. Schwab.). Phipps. Schwab and Mr. Frick Coke Company and its subsidiary declared by The Carnegie Steel and of any and all Companies. shall be cancelled to the end that you Dividend the of entitled to and shall receive your full share (6%) Company. shall be February ist. Carnegie. on March zist. the following com munication was delivered by hand : THE CARNEGIE STEEL COMPANY. C. PA. of the Capital of The Car me (as Attorney in Fact negie Steel Company* Limited. . Love joy. attended by Mr. Frick Wins His Fight At a meeting quickly arranged to take place at Mr. if any. between January }ist. and of the H. Lovejoy. as provided in said Agreement. Phipps submitted the latter 's suggestion and it was favorably received. Frick. You shall receive out of this merger the same moneys. Dear Sir: March igth and xoth. Limited. March list. Clemson. on the evening of March lyth. Mr. C. 1900 and the date upon which the consolidation is consummated and the balance of surplus turned over to the new Companies. 1900. H. declared by The Carnegie Steel Company. Mr. Mr. Morrison. Phipps (L. Mr.Mr. 1900. by Messrs. bonds. LIMITED. on which you To you do not consider the language sufficiently explicit: I would say that it is the understanding of all the persons making said Agree ment that the transfer of six per cent. Carnegie's house in New York. limited. Pa. made by under the "Iron-clad Agreement*') out of your Capital Account. covering a plan for the consolidation of the Carnegie Steel and Frick Coke interests recommended by all the signers: said tenta prevent any misunderstanding as to the terms of me that advise tive Agreement as to one particular. 1900. representing Mr. Gayley and Moreland. PITTSBURGH. Frick. Phipps (Henry).

the reorganized concern. of the Frick Coke Company. Carnegie and an unqualified triumph for Mr. 1900. and we now agree to do so by June ist. who received from the new com pany precisely $15. at the rate of $60. The month of March. President The settlement was heralded. at furthest. Frick. reading: I get what is due me.588.Frick the stocks and other properties as if transfer such interest. $4. All well. * "Pretty satisfactory figures.000. M. the last of separate operation. but the former assumed full control from Scotland and the latter kept a sharp eye on operations in Pittsburgh. for courtesy's sake as a "compromise". Whitney. have not met this man Carnegie and never expect nor want to. Frick to Mr. on the day when 256 .41. I. 1900.000. Mellon in London. neither Mr. Man no attempt had been made to We hope to be able to complete said merger in all respects by May ist. and who celebrated the event friend. of course.000.000 for the interest whose value he had estimated at "upwards" of that sum. Frick was included in the directorate.394. It is not my intention to be officially connected with Settlement made. SCHWAB. it was really a complete surrender by Mr. showed net profits of the Carnegie Steel Company. are they not?* wrote Mr. 1900. Carnegie nor Mr.000 per year. by arrangement.48. by sending a single telegram to his Mr. by unanimous assent. This to be without prejudice in case the Agreement referred to be not approved by all concerned. $666.000. But he chafed at signs of what he considered loose and wasteful management and late in August. a total of more : than $5.142. C. In point of fact. ^ .

You need commercial rather than professional ability to cope with concerns managed by brainy and honest men trained to the business. Meanwhile the consolidation of the two companies had been effected under the name of The Carnegie Com pany and $160. he sent the following cablegram.000 bonds and $160. and six per cent while others were selling. Frick Wins His Fight the great concern headless to sail for Skibo. Simultaneously he wrote a long letter to Mr.Mr. then in England.577. Five year contracts for coal est price paid. stockholders and public look to you to see that the great Carnegie Company is managed fifty successfully and honestly.000 17.7. Phipps.23.000.484.000 17. Ruinous. for inattentiveness to his obligations. per cent above the low above prices now currently paid by smaller concern. You being in control.800.000 Andrew Carnegie Hei*ry Phipps ' $86.000 HenjryC.000 the remainder going to sixty junior partners and heirs of deceased members of the firm.147. specifying many instances of losses ag gregating millions per year incurred unnecessarily and calling him sharply to task. You are being outgeneralled all along the line.000 15. and your management of the Company has already become the subject of J est - FRICK. now being sacrificed abroad. Scrap unloaded on you at fancy prices. the last President left Schwab message ever sent by him to his former partner: CARNEGIE.000. Do not let them hide things from you.Frick 15. shareholders resulting in the delivery to the three chief of the following securities : STOCK BONDS $88. You cannot trust many by whom you are surrounded to give you facts. . Clashmore. Look into these and other matters yourself.381. as a director.000 of stock had been issued proportionately to the original owners.

and he proceeded with unexampled and audacity to accomplish his purpose.? Mr. 1900. Carnegie to realize his cher ished ambition to retire by forcing a sale of his prop .000 tube plant upon land already purchased at Conneaut on Lake Erie. In any case. whatever disposition might be made of profits. A way had been opened through the enormous successes of the steel and coke concerns which enabled the new con solidated company to earn interest upon a thousand mil lions of dollars. P. Morgan & Co. early in the summer. which it might either pay in full or use in part to crush its competitors. just formed and floated by no less a firta than J. 258 . the credit of the Company was limitless and its power as resistless as its position was impregnable. 000. and passed out of existence on March 3 ist. This was a dagger thrust at the very heart erty skill What was about to happen to the National Tube Company. upon his rivals. 1901 The time had then come for Mr.XIX The United i States Steel Corporation Carnegie Company died a yearling. light of the undertaking. Carnegie made of corporate finance. of immediate construction of a $12.. It began operations on April ist. That its policy was to be one of expansion along new lines was clearly indicated by the announcement.

and very little trust in the efficacy of arti . of course. But the misgivings of the * ' etc. They left us. all over-capitalized and . which they had a perfect right to do. Such is my This clearly presaged aggressive and ruinous compe tition. vulnerable. hoop for lines of boats upon the Lakes for our manufactured articles. were greatly en hanced when it transpired that Mr.The United "The States Steel Corporation policy of the Carnegie Company/' he declared. to bring back scrap. security holders. would make no save all surplus. ficial result of strengthening advice. Now we are ready to shake hands and cooperate with them in the most friendly We are better for them than a dozen small concerns conducted in a small jealous way. not merely for the National Tube Company. . "is to cooperate in every way with its fellow manufac turers in the industrial world. We believe there is spirit . Put your trust in the policy of attend ing to your own business in your own way and running your mills full. which have the serious them if they strengthen you. arrangements with your competitors. but for eight other near-Trust metal concerns. Schwab had brought back from Skibo a message to his partners from the con trolling If I owner containing these significant phrases: I were czar (of the Carnegie Company). We did not leave the National Tube Company. etc. wire mill. . which had five been organized during the previous few years and financed in Wall Street through the sale of more than hun all dred millions of stock. and not to push itself into any new field save in self-defence. regardless of prices. instead of being dispelled by this naive declaration. for tube mills. room enough for the two concerns. and spend it for a and cotton-tie for and nail mills. and dividends upon common stock. .

very advantageous. all a historic Richelieu's advice: means to conciliate.Frick the 44 Man who still It is all Carnegie bluff/' sneered brokers had stock for sale. True. had openly instructed his managers. "that we do not propose to be injured. that we ''Inform these people/' he will observe an 'armed neutrality* as long as it to our interest to do so. Here uation for the Managers to study "First. directors and managers were less confident. more advantageous than existed before the combination. all means to crush'/' This relentless policy he was now in a position to adopt with every prospect of success. then there must be no is bluff. It was the stern reality of the actual situation. If they decline to give us what we want. bluffing had constituted a large part canny Scotsman *s shrewd trading with the new corporations but that was no secret. But responsible bankers. he had admitted the in the fact with a frankness which they had found most dis concerting. we expect to reap great gains from it. failing that. but that we require this is made arrange ment then specify what is advantageous for us. in vastly greater measure than either the eager pleading of Judge Gary recounted by the eloquent portrayal of possibilities by Mr. and his pronuncia- mento indicated only too distinctly that he meant to en force it promptly and rigorously. Schwab at a celebrated dinner party. We sit must accept the situation and prove that if it is fight they want. that finally his biographer oc 260 . and we will get it. on the contrary. here we are 'always ready'.



'* 'Mr. and quickly returned with a pencilled memorandum embody ing his terms. Mr. the Rockefeller ore proper ties must be acquired and included. His liberal proposals were accepted promptly by the frightened owners and plans for the United States Steel were actually published when a singular and Corporation with deep concern. chiefly in securities. Morgan accepted the figures as final and. was commissioned to obtain his price. Obviously the only solution of the problem upon a lar ger scale than had ever been dreamed of. Mr. "when a business proposition of so great importance to the Steel Corporation is involved > would you let a personal prejudice interfere with its success?" 4 *1 don't know/* he replied. Morgan to essay the greatest undertaking of his career. Carnegie would sell. continues "How are we going to get them?" Mr. taking the option sum as a basis. 4 ' 4 You are to talk to Mr. There then took place an extraordinary episode shed ding interesting sidelights upon various personalities. Morgan asked. Rockefeller. Characteristically.The United States Steel Corporation impelled Mr. Morgan. but the Judge the biographer: persisted and." said the Judge. * * "Why?" "I don't like him. and Mr. himself fixed arbitrarily the amount. 261 . to be allotted each of the desired constituent companies. Schwab. who had reported that Mr. Carnegie lay in amalgamation of the segregated Trusts held the key to success or failure in his whiphand. "Morgan growled" that they "had all they could at ' * tend to. To possibly vital omission was noted "round out" the enterprise. 1 would not think of it. records Judge Gary's biographer.

and finally announced. Rockefeller expressed regret that Mr. Mr. * ' ' we ought to pay?" "I am not prepared to say. Morgan made no response and there the matter rested for several days . I just told him that we ought to have them. * ' f ' Mr. known supposed that he had retired from Mr. Mr . as he the fact was generally business. having originally Mr. Rockefeller. told Mr. precisely as he had recited to Judge Gary. that Notwithstanding this restriction. ' ' ' 'How did he treat you ? ' ' "All right/' *Did you get the ore lands ? "No. "I have done 1 'Done what? 'I * ' have seen Rockefeller. having briefly depicted the situation. to have his iron ores. How much do you think . replied to a second suggestion that he would be happy to see Mr.Frick the his it/* * Man The next morning. Morgan for an interview at his office upon the ground that he never went down town. 'there's an outside figure so many millions. owing doubtless to a misunderstanding of his previous message. * 'Well. with the understanding that only strictly personal matters were to be considered. however. Morgan at his residence at the latter's declined a request from convenience. and sug262 . he came in excitedly. The Judge worked for half an hour. Morgan called and. tell me offhand what you think we ought to pay. Morgan had the new Steel Corporation ought put himself to unnecessary trouble. throwing up arms in exultation and shouting to Judge Gary. Rocke feller. It would take me a week * to figure ' ' out what I would consider a reasonable price. and asked him if he would not make a proposition.

Rockefeller when his son repeated his remarks. How much do you want for them?' Young Mr. to call. but I have no information to the effect that he wishes to dispose of his ore proper ties: in ' ' point of fact. The two sat down. I bid you and walked out. Mr. Corporation who had charge of such matters and would undoubtedly be pleased to wait upon him. time alone can answer that ques263 . I said 'If good afternoon. know how. sir?" that is all. he sat quite silent/* 'And what did you do?' 'Mr. Mr. replied: It is true that I am authorized to speak for my father in such matters.. Morgan. Rockefeller meditated thoughtfully: ' for an instant and replied 'Whether what you said was right or wise. ' "I picked up my hat and. 4 'I understand/* said Mr. and at the appointed hour. I would not venture to judge. I am confident that he has no such desire. Did I do right. Morgan brusquely. Having obtained Judge Gary's judgment of a suitable price. Morgan. the young man he was then only twenty-seven appeared for his first interview with the lion of Wall Street. junior. "that your father wants to sell his Minnesota ore properties and has authorized you to act for him. John D. with an evenness of tone suggestive of his father's. Morgan invited Mr. Morgan say?" quietly asked Mr. Rockefeller rose from his chair and. bowing as courteously as I Mr." 1 'And what did Mr.' Mr. ' 1 Morgan said nothing.The United States Steel gested that he talk with his son.

Carnegie in words of fulsome praise and had received hearty congratulations upon the "intelligence. But Wall Street was agog with excitement. but I Man that if I may say to you. Morgan. sensitive himself. rendered signal service to all corporate interests. asked what. after due consideration. I should have done precisely what you did. Frick could feel was that Mr. courage and firmness" which he had displayed in the Homestead controversy. subscriptions to the syndicate underwriting were being held up and publication of the completed plan was in the hands awaiting inclusion of the essential ore printer's properties. ting the situation before him. without consulting anybody or even Notifying Mr. The whole project was endangered and time was pressing.Frick the tion. Rocke feller regarded him favorably as one who had friendly. Years before he Mr. Obviously no ap Negotiations were at from Mr. Morgan sent for Mr. had been in your place. relations and that their were Proud and buff. " a standstill. Mr. The two had met once or twice more recently but their conversation had been only casual and the best assurance that Mr. Rockefeller was had been introduced to him by slight. could he suggest? Mr. His acquaintance with Mr. Morgan if in any way they could be utilized to advantage and. Frick and put if anything. Frick said he would think the matter over and went home. Rockefeller and Mr. proach could be expected Morgan could not reopen the subject without sacrifice of dignity. he decided to take the 264 . my son. he disliked to invite a re but he had voluntarily proffered his services to Mr.

Frick. however. found Mr. set forth the purpose of his mission. Rockefeller himself strolling thoughtfully through his spacious grounds. Rockefeller which should be regarded as wholly private and confidential. he sought an interview with Mr. Accordingly. just within the entrance. Do you or do you not agree with me that the price these gentle true value?'* men propose to pay is less by several millions than their 265 . to ask Now I want you a question.The United initiative and. understanding of the situation coincides in all 1 My respects with yours. I do frankly object. such as had first won the approbation of Judge Mellon years before. Mr. Mr. shortly before 10 o'clock. Frick joined him in his walk and. Mr. as you surmise. I naturally suspected what you had in mind. walked up the driveway to Mr. I am not anxious to sell my ore properties. Morgan. Rockefeller listened attentively to a concise. briefly apologizing for what he feared might prove to be an intrusion. States Steel Corporation through a trustworthy intermediary. Rockefeller would be happy to see him respeaing any matter of mutual interest and suggested that he come quietly to Pocantico Hills the following morning. That seems too much like an ultimatum. Nobody is more familiar with those properties than you are. Frick. As my son told Mr. and then said : 'Mr. never wish to stand in the way of a worthy enterprise. leaving his carriage to wait on the main street. but. to a prospective purchaser I arbitrarily fixing an 'outside figure' and I cannot deal on such a basis. Rocke feller 's residence and. The response was prompt and cordkl. accurate and straightforward statement. Mr.

*in a business proposition as great as this would you let a matter of $5 . Frick replied that unquestionably. exclaimed Mr. believe you to be a know your judgment is good square man. Rockefeller.000. if payment was to be made chiefly in securities of the new company.Frick the Man Mr. and quite likely than I do. and the allotments made for other taking into consideration the sum suggested was far too small. calmly remarked Mr." Judge Gary says in telling the story. 'That is a prohibitive proposition* 4 ' I said. full appreciation Frick. Now you will wish to be see on your way. Rockefeller a few days later $5. I am willing. properties.000 stand in the of success?' way 44 But I told you. to put my interests in these properties in your hands/' Amazed at this proposal. hesitated to assume ' ' the responsibility. "I thought that Rockefeller. Mr. You need not hesitate. put it this way: would you let these properties go? f 4 "No/ 266 .000 more than my outside figure. Frick brought in a figure from Mr. Mr. while expressing of the compliment. Mr. I Frick. would be your answer/* said Mr. Frick. You will receive no complaint ' ' from me. I want only a is. Morgan. You know what and I that certainly better than those gentlemen do. I will tell you what I just will do. and fair price. Morgan. Mr. Frick. ' Gary. "Now. "Mr. Mr. "My confidence is implicit. The two men shook hands and of their conversation parted. The outcome recorded by Judge Gary's biog rapher in these words 4 'To my surprise.000. I thank you for coming to is : me. that mine was the outside/ *J U(lge 4 ' * *WdI.

.' he added remi- niscently. Bridge summed up the great accomplishment from the this un standpoint of the Carnegie shareholders with divided encomium: It was the most masterly piece of diplomacy in the history of American industry. the historian . In view of the tremendous enhancement of the new company's prestige through the subsequent inclusion. he replied slowly/ theUnited States Steel Corporation could not have survived the ' * ' * stress of its formative period . In any case. ' ' Then. * it was " * ' 'I doubt as I recall the circumstances. Years afterwards Mr.The United " States Steel Corporation " 'Well. if anybody but Mr Frick could have effected the transaction. recalling the inci dent. the Lake Superior Consoli dated Ore Mines were included in the amalgamation. this deduction seems more nearly certain than probable. said "The price seemed wholly fair at that time and was entirely satisfactory to me. and formed a fitting climax to Andrew Car negie's romantic business career. permitted Mr. Rockefeller and his son." 4 'And if it had not been effected?" he was asked. Rockefeller. addressed to the stockholders. in my opinion. as late as 1903 with his consent and approval. another circular came out. Frick. . in its first directorate. greatly to his credit. of both Mr. no mention of the part he had played in achieving the reconcilement and. write out an acceptance/ And so it happened that when on April 2. 267 . It was not long either before the purchasers themselves realized that really very low. Frick. arranged by Mr.

268 . Common stock .......000 2-3 5767. barely sixteen months after orders. Frick received Carnegie in exchange for his interest in the Company these securities in the United States Steel Corporation. Bonds $15.. Carnegie's from the management of the two great companies which he had done so much to build... Frick Coke Company for thirty-one years and to the Carnegie Steel Company for twelve years..... by Mr.Frick the Man Mr... . he had been ousted...800. Henry Clay Frick was brought back. through Mr.. into a position soon to become hardly less potent in the controlling Committee of both. to wit : Preferred stock . and retained it to his dying day...940 z representing substantially the net combined recompense for his services to the H... (7%) .. C....... Carnegie's retirement. He was elected a member of the first Board of Directors of the United States Steel Corporation as a matter of course. And so it came about that.

they took a drive up Fifth Avenue. 640 Fifth Ave nue. Mellon and himself -were waiting to embark on their first trip to Europe. Pausing in front of the cathedral. was admirably located and most comfortable. Frick directed his friend's at tention to the new brownstone Vanderbilt houses across the street. Frick's fixed requirement of "al ways the best/* He had known for years precisely what he wanted.two.XX A Capitalist WITH completion of the processes which transformed ids ownership in trie steel and coke companies into bonds and shares of the great Corporation. Their first house in N"ew York. Massachusetts. a capitalist of the first rank whose in terests were no longer confined to a manufacturing town but now lay In. . the financial center of the country. but it did not quite fill Mr. tie never forsook and frequently occupied his handsome resi dence in Pittsburgh but in 1905 he leased for the family an additional residence in New York City and two years later took possession of the magnificent country estate which he had acquired at Pride's Crossing. Frick as an executive ended and he emerged. the career of Mr. at No. at the age of fifty. while Mr. Mr. Away back in 1880.

that is all I shall ever want/' Mr. (x) Art. as a matter of course. twenty odd years later. 270 . Mellon. Vanderbilt So. "those are really the best residences in the city. friend work after office thirty years of close he took no but shared that of his Mr. I should "Itmight. for transaction of business. Pittsburgh. say a thousand dollars a day. while retaining his rooms in the Frick Building. a&d they continued to be allotted in about those pro : portions during the ensuing years.400. "I think they are so considered. Mellon ventured no estimate. Meanwhile he entered upon his new vocation. Schoonmaker until 1914. Mr.ooo on the site of the Lenox library to serve primarily as a residence and ultimately as an art gallery for the public. Frick remarked. when he provided a small study for his personal use in his new residence. "Say three hundred thousand dollars a year? think that would cover it " . "I wonder rej oined Mr." "That would be 6 per cent on five millions or 5 per cent on six. how much * the upkeep of the one on that corner would be/ Mr. Frick rented the residence of Mr. George W.Frick the Man * ' * ' ' "I suppose/' he remarked meditatively. Weary of the exactions of desk application. His waking hours quickly and automatically resolved into three approximately equal parts (i) Investments. and they walked along. (3) Recreation. when they moved into the palace which he had built at a cost of $5. and the family occupied it until 1914.

Frick was unquiet.S. As he was not a member of the Syndicate and was a director only in name. was held in United States Steel had car securities and the stock exchange prices justified the valu ation when Mr. having declined to participate in the management even to the extent of attending meetings of the Board. The accuracy of his judgment was quickly confirmed by the gyrations of the stock market. to wit: 1902. 1903 1904 High Low U. Nine-tenths of Mr. James R. but he appreciated the danger of the company's heavy over-capitalization and was most distrustful of the management of which he had com plained to Mr. STEEL. under the adroit manipulation of Mr . Carnegie the year before. He not only had too many still of his eggs in one basket.S. ried the Corporation successfully through its first crisis by personally settling the strike which was called coincidentally with its launching.000. High Low High Low Common 97^ 46^ 79 ^ 89^ 50^ 39^ 10 95^ jiK 33^ &< 271 .A Capitalist The first problem which demanded prompt attention was financial. by a stroke of genius. Keene. But Mr. He had no wish to sell but study from his expert knowledge of results and methods of operation convinced him that declines in earnings were inevitable. Prick's entire fortune.000. and the prospect at the beginning of I^OL appeared auspicious. STEEL. The Syndicate still con trolled the market. and he began to liquidate his holdings. Preferred U. he was under no commitment with respect to the dis careful position of his shares. estimated at $50. Morgan.

A Only a Morgan could hope to stem the tide and weather the storm. Dividends. Rumors were rife of a receivership and foreclo sure. Carnegie* s reported expectation that the entire property would fall to him as owner of the bonds by default. but the time came when he had disposed of his entire block of 1.000 remaining had been reduced from $716 to $677. Frick recom mended :(i) Stoppage of dividends on the common stock.Frick the Man common stock and Mr. 272 . which had been paid regularly at the rates of 7 per cent on the preferred stock and 2.18. Business was bad.324 shares of all but 10.679 shares of preferred. who might lose every dollar of their hard-earned savings. The bottom was reached in January. After having depicted the true situation with the lucidity of which he was a master. 1904. Frick for advice and assistance. Morgan's yacht the CORSAIR.000 of his original 2. per cent on the It common were not being earned. confirming Mr. Mr. Again the great banker called upon Mr. was indeed a desperate situation. Thousands of these had bought from the company at 8x^2 preferred stock which was now quoted at 50. Twenty-one thousand employes had been discharged and the average wage of the 147.37. The "profit-sharing" plan seemed to have resolved into a "loss-sharing*' plan devised by Wall Street promoters to unload their worthless shares upon their own work- ingmen. semi-panic was already hatching on the stock exchange. Frick sold slowly and circumspectly on temporary rebounds. when the common struck 834 and the preferred shivered around 50. The meeting took place on Mr.

Prick's pres entation of the case. upon Mr. Morgan purchased the Union Steel Works' at a price which. he could not face going down town on the following day. Mr. Mellon 1 ' ' * declared. Mellon and himself had been driven by a disagreement with Mr. hie said to him. but he could not properly participate actively in the management of a competing concern. Mr. Morgan. Finally. Mr. this did not appear as an insurmountable obstacle. 'y^lcled a fair profit to all concerned/ There remained only the question of continuing divi dends upon the preferred stock. Frick. 'Mr. Mr. "For the purpose of inducing Mr. Redmond continued : Mr. Mr. Frick pleaded earnestly and Mr. Morgan had just rejected Judge Gary's fervent plea to pass divi common stock but. that if the divi dends were not paid on the preferred stock. Schwab dends on the having resigned. Frick to become active in the Steel Corporation/* said Mr. . ^Com Mr. which had not been included in the big combination. Frick was deeply touched. With Mr. Mellon's consent he had lent the use of his name as a director to the Corporation. Frick could not consent. To this Mr. he would now assent. however. To Mr. rising from the breakfast table and going on deck with Mr. George F. Redmond in his Financial Weekly. and plete reorganisation of the operating force. Car negie into expansion of a small wire enterprise to steel manufacture on a large scale as the Union Steel Company. with tears in Ms eyes. Morgan listened intently. he would approve a thorough reor ganization if Mr. Frick would contribute his energy and experience to make it effective.A Capitalist (z) Reduction of dividends on the preferred.

The crisis had been met successfully and incidentally. the financial expert. avert further disaster. accord ing to Mr. During the anxious period which immediately followed in public announcemcfnt of his resumption of activity .' ooo shares of preferred and 50. all ingly to convey to Gary be deposed. all other preferred Inevitably the market responded slowly but steadily. Albert W. internal dissensions ceased. joined in firm determination to Good fortune attended earnest endeavors. Mr. Business began to pick up. now assured good management and convinced of sound conditions. accepted without resentment. him that not another Morgan felt upon the subject and word should be said. George F. 'was down on the books of the company as the owner of 100.Frick the He then realized how assured Man keenly Mr. and stockholders naturally took heart.000 shares of common stock/' the amounts which he had quietly acquired as suitable for permanent investment. the working shareholders accepted the as evidence that their passing of the common dividend interests were being safeguarded. when dividends were resumed. Atwood. Frick. Before the close of 1906. certain influential directors. Baker unwill Mr. Morgan a proposal that Judge his refusal to acquiesce. at the end of the three- year period of resuscitation. the preferred stock had climbed from 50/4 to 113^ and the common from 824 to 50^. Prick's action. At once he threw himself energetically into the task of aiding in steering the great organization through its trouble. who had induced Mr. The other directors were enheartened by Mr.

and which from time to time should be charged against Is earnings. Charles W.A Capitalist steel manufacture. Earl of Los Angeles/ 'in suspecting that Mr. of the "wait and see" order. Barron of the Boston News Bureau: Striving to inculcate caution. Are you sure of your position on the Steels?* Does the Corporation have any cash surplus applicable to divi dends? not their surplus invested in improvements made on their properties. E.'* he telegraphed to the new inability to be pres Mr. Cotey. "I very much President. Frick was deluged with letters all of inquiry from anxious investors. with a view to spreading warranted reassurance without conveying undue encour agement. of which he an swered with painstaking care. Mr. "my ent at the dinner to the Presidents of the constituent 275 . "I are know you Morgan has in any way intentionally deceived investors. November jth. Of course some things were done that should not have been done. Dear Sir: 1904. especially so in view of the high capitalisation of the Company? Can you not ascertain for a regular READER But he did not withhold words of encouragement from his co-laborers. wrong/' he wrote in December to Mr. E. regret." he wrote anonymously to Mr. His were somewhat perfunctory. W. but toward the end of 1904 first replies he became more explicit. T. but it is a great property and I think it is now well managed.

Man 1 this evening. I congratulate them. leaving little time for discrimi native purchase of paintings or for recreation. . although neither of those pursuits was wholly neglected. "are the Rembrandts of investment. of general conditions which presaged easy or difficult marketing of securities and finally all details of bookkeeping." And railways began and continued through life to con stitute his chief financial interest. of judicious extravagance as compared with false economies. one and upon their efficiency during this trying year. But self with all of the intricacies he acquainted him of values. of financing through is suance of shares or bonds. 276 . to the virtual exclusion of all other considerations. and guide "Railroads." he concluded. decrease growth and forced development. Hemustplace his money where he could watch tive policy forbade without encroaching too heavily upon his time Inquiry and reflection finally evolved a programme it . of natural increase. of and distribution of earnings. the splendid condition of their organizations and the pres ent bright outlook/' Those were busy years. of which his thirty years of practice since he first took his place upon the high stool in his Grandfather Overholt's little counting- room at Broadford had made him a past master. present and pro first spective.Frick the Companies all. of trans portation and rate-making with which as a large shipper he was already familiar. Many millions of dollars derived from sale of his steel securities were awaiting judicious investment and his concentrahaphazard purchases of dissimilar properties.

but he seldom expressed an opinion. he did not trade on margins.000 par value in each of his seven favorites. Topeka and Santa F6. Baltimore and Ohio. Norfolk and Western. found him a director in the follow ing railway companies Union Pacific. presently he became the largest individual railway stockholder in the world. Small interests in small companies did not attract him. he was always a bull. never a bear. the trans He actions were outright and deliveries wore duly made. if he could not exercise of perceive a possibility of building one up by talent and use of exceptional resources. 1905. : Chicago and Northwestern. never "speculated" in the common sense of the term.A Capitalist April i4th. He never tried to break down a property. when he bought or sold. that is to say. being recorded on the various books at one time as the owner of an average exceeding $6. he let it alone. To these were added shortly: The Pennsylvania. In voicing his views. Atchison. without taking into cal culation many additional shares held by brokers and others for his account. Those enumerated he selected as the ones preferable among the large corporations and.000. adding steadily to his hold ings from his constantly increasing income. Reading. as frequently happened. Personal contact with strong financial institutions being 277 .

the Commercial Trust Company and Franklin National Bank of Philadelphia. he did not attend a meeting until February 8th. . 1905 Prior to that time he had shared without a shadow of doubt the universal belief that the phenomenal success of the great Society afforded convincing proof of the ex cellence of its management. though vested business men by the company's charter in the directors. he was recorded in 1905 as a director in the Union Trust Company and Mellon National Bank of Pittsburgh. as the actual power of direction. 1901.Frick the Man considered a desirable safeguard for railway financing. Mr. Then came the culmination of an unsuspected feud be tween the President and the Vice President over the future control of the Society and each made public charges against the other of such a character as to create a veritable . con trolling owner. During the summer of 1901. the Equitable Life Assurance So ciety with its allied banks and the National City Bank of New York. as it is everywhere/' The Board then comprised fifty-two of the most distinguished of the country but their titles were only nominal. but in common with the other 'outside' ' ' directors . Frick was duly elected on Au gust yth. that he accept election as a trustee of the * ' ' . was exercised by small committees headed by President Alexander and Vice President Hyde. Equitable Life Assurance Society and wrote confirming his cablegram that he considered it "quite an honor to be offered the position on the Board of a company held in high esteem in Pittsburgh. Mr.278 . Frick had granted with pleasure* a request from Mr James H Hyde.

(2. committee comprising Messrs. Frick who. Harriman. had done no busi with the Society and had never profited directly or indirectly from its operations. they had The first meeting of the Committee was held on April 7th and no time was lost in beginning a searching in quiry into the practices primarily of the President and the Vice President. Mr. vestigation and to submit recommendations.) that the Vice President had been guilty of affairs irregular conduct in relation to the of the Society. Ingalls and Brayton Ives. was appointed Chairman. ness it was well known.A Capitalist sensation throughout the entire country Public opinion. and he accepted the responsibility. forced a meeting of the big Board of Directors. was promptly designated to make an in Bliss. intensified by his consciousness of a pub lic duty. aroused by hundreds of thousands of indignant and fright ened policy-holders. at which a thorough investigation by com petent and disinterested members was decreed. It was an arduous and thankless task which he would for his chagrin at his have gladly shunned but own ap parent neglect. would not have if acquiesced in the appointment of Mr. Frick. (3) that the President had not only 279 . A strong Henry C. with the resultant findings (i) that both had profited materially through participation in underwriting syndicates at the expense of the Society with no risk to themselves. Melville E. subservient to the two high officials whose acts were in question. Cornelius N. Subsequent events clearly and quickly demonstrated that a majority of the Board. . Frick estimated correctly the quality of the man. Edward H.

The policy- and the public generally. was submitted by the folly sustained by indubitable proof. (4) that the two. including the Mercantile and Equitable Trust Companies of New York and the Commercial Trust Com pany and Franklin National Bank of Philadelphia. not only resigned from the Equitable Board. but severed his connection with all of its allied financial institutions. joining forces for this purpose. (5) that extravagant. and made for more scrupulous con duct of all corporations. therefore. Alexander and Hyde. Frick. the newspapers ever. Chairman to the Board. owing a amples set by the heads and (6) that complete reorgan ization by an entirely new management was imperative.Frick the Man been aware of but had encouraged such conduct and had concealed his knowledge from the Board. to the pernicious ex penneated the entire force. Thus a very signal service was and rendered. on May 3ist. had mustered a sufficient number of directors to constitute a majority. with the accompanying drastic recommendations. This unanimous and unexpectedly inexorable report. were equally guilty and should be de loose and irregular methods posed. but to the fundamental practices of in surance management. holders. He had had his 280 lesson. immediately upon the rejection of his recom mendations. never again to lend his name to a . but meanwhile Messrs. not merely to millions of policy-holders beneficiaries. Mr. and the Board rejected the report. how upheld the Committee so overwhelmingly that the resignations of both President and Vice President were soon forthcoming and ultimately the complete reorgan ization advised was effected.

resigning from the National City Bank of New York in 1910 and from the Union Pacific and its auxiliary railways in 1911. by the virtual labor or mate adequate maintenance and. during the remaining four teen years. he re stricted his directorships to his favored Pennsylvania. Atchison and Northwestern railways. Hines. 1919. 281 . of whose meetings he practically never in each of which missed one except when abroad. who had succeeded Secretary McAdoo as Director General of the Railroads on January loth.. Normal progress had been arrested even before the country became directly involved in rials essential to strife impossibility of obtaining either capital. the Mellon National and the Union Trust Company. problems confronting the United States Government at the conclusion of the war difficult One of the most pertained to the return of the railways of the country to the control and direction of their original owners. in Walker D. a man who did not hesitate to face the situation squarely while there was yet time to avert widespread disaster. but progress was distressingly slow. and of course to the United States Steel Corporation. he did not. and is said to have at tended more than a thousand between 1905 and 1919. . join another Board and. The condition of the vast properties was inevitably deplora ble. Esq. the Congress had undertaken to enact req uisite legislation.A Capitalist concern with whose condition and operations he could not maintain full familiarity . to his trusted Pittsburgh banks. Fortunately the Administration had. following the armistice. Reading. In point of fact. he was a large shareholder.

whom he knew well and held in high esteem. was Chair man. he addressed a communication to Chairmen Cummins and Esch of the Senate and House 1919. Director General of Railways. But the latter's open warning to the Congress gave hension that all plishing the purpose. Theretofore he no part in the discussion of ways and means of accom upon the Association of Railway Executives. D. Hon. C My dear Mr. presently published by the Congress men. I should con forcibly effectively and. Frick who. October ijth. Hines: Permit me to express the personal gratification which I feel at the convincing clearness with which you have put before the Con gress and the public the exact situation of the railways of the how it could have been done and for that reason. to co-operate with the Director General. 1919. Committees depicting the situation and setting forth the urgent need of legislation to avert irreparable damage to shippers and consumers no less than to holders of securities. his co-director of the Pennsylvania Railroad. In common with many 282 others I am deeply distressed by the . Walker D. attracted the attention of Mr. De Witt Cuyler. sider that I were remiss in as a citizen if I should fail to my duty congratulate you most heartily and sincerely upon your rendering country. I frankly cannot conceive more of a notable public service. was natu had taken rally concerned most seriously. Mines. relying mind to appre was not going well and he dictated the rise in his following lucid and convincing argument: New York. This statement. of which Mr. T. Washington. as the largest individual holder of railway securities.Frick the Man On October yth.

Everybody realizes that ade quate railway service is the keystone of the entire arch of indus trial progress and prosperity. and this can be obtained only through prompt and decisive action such as would follow naturally and logically your admirable diagnosis. relief comes straight back to the railroads. you show in your lucid statement which. the manufacturers are overwhelmed with orders which they cannot fill and they naturally refrain from making necessary enlargements of their plants while in doubt as to their ability to make deliveries. not merely in justice to the great army of investors in railway securities who accepted without question So it all the President's definite promises of fair treatment when they turned over their properties. '. The United States simply cannot afford. What the whole country needs now above all else restoration of confidence.A Capitalist math appalling conditions which now confront us as a part of the after of the war. to my mind. plainly aster. Even more vital than the circulation of money is the circulation of goods. As of course you are aware. and while I cannot doubt that a just and true solution will ultimately be reached. from even a purely prac tical standpoint. I cannot escape the conclusion that something must be done at once to avert overwhelming dis are fully appreciative of the dangers which lurk in in delay grasping the situation manfully. That you could not be improved upon. Without that the enormous demands now being made upon the manufacturers of all kinds of products cannot be met and business will continue to be at a stand still so long as the requisite facilities are not provided. to send the railroads further along the road to And the only way in the world to prevent this is to increase the rates immediately so that everybody may know to a to their owners certainty that when the properties are turned back rack and ruin. They must have and have it quickly. as I have said. even boldly. There is one phase of the existing condition. It is the essential element of time. but all for the general effect upon the public mind of reassurance in the good faith of their Government. however. 283 . basis the vast a fair they will be given a chance to live and to obtain readily on amount of capital whose outlay alone can prevent the choking of the great arteries of commerce. which I trust you will permit me to submit for your consideration without meaning to be is in the slightest degree intrusive.

But upon one do not hesitate to express a very positive opinion. encour condition would be hardly less better than none am convinced that than a agement and resolution to had. This is no time eases call for drastic remedies. It ought. but this would probably be sufficient to tide over the crisis and give heart. in fact.$ percent general increase would not get results. I only want what is best for our country and for all the people in it. that can the pall of depression and mistrust which is surely settling I down am over the country. H.C. But there it is upon your shoulders and there is no escape. for cheese-paring or niggardly treatment. If I should seem to have written too earnestly is accept my assurance that my doing so that that is the way I feel. holding as I do so high an opinion of your breadth and courage. confident that I need make no apology frankly. You formation point I large an increase should be allowed I do not pretend to are far better qualified to judge than I because my in is necessarily general and not expert. I should feel hurt if I suspected for a moment for speaking thus that you would not welcome frank suggestion or that by any possibility you should attribute to me any unworthy motives. Desperate dis Homeopathic doses in the present at all. lam. Nor. This letter quickly elicited the information that a seri ous disagreement between the Director General and the Railway Executives had produced a dangerous deadlock 284 . Consequently I do not hesitate to point out what strikes me as a superb opportunity to do the right lift thing at the right time and the only thing as I perceive it. I beg you to due simply to the fact With renewed appreciation of your splendid statement. I position to sibility do and how you are the one person in a the appreciate fully magnitude of your respon must seriously you regard it. The only essen tial thing is to press the button and it.Frick the Man How know. Personally I z. do I believe for a moment that you would care to evade it. to be more. FRICK. all whose earnest co-operation must be We have in this country everything to do with. Most sincerely yours.

A Capitalist which seemed unlikely to be broken. legal and moral. copies of which he inclosed for his inspection. upon the eve of relinquishing control. war time privilege to deprive the Interstate Commerce Com mission of the power of regulation which it was designed by law to possess. put him in possession of the facts. in ordinary All this. would surely evoke refused to grant strong disapprobation throughout the country. Mr. which the Executives had demanded some what peremptorily and which the Director General had ting on the general ground that such action by the Government. Mines gladly wel comed Mr. for the sole benefit of the railways. Frick. and the exercise of which course it would soon resume. The Director General's attitude obviously was and the resolution adopted by the 285 fixed irrevocably . he had pre sented to the Railway Executives in amplified communi cations. Mr. Frick found himself responsibility in a position of grave which he had not sought but could not evade. Prick's intervention and promptly responded from a train en route from Chicago to Washington. and appreciate your me frankly 00 the subject. Thus Mr. he could not see his own way clear to take advantage of a technical. but I cannot escape the con clusion above expressed. as a matter of right. adding simply but sturdily: I am writing glad to get the benefit of your views. no less than that of the impracticability noted. The crux of the entire difficulty lay in the question of rate-raising. which might in turn produce a severe rebuke from the Congress . Hines informed Mr. Moreover.

October zjth. and am inclined to the belief from the accompanying letters and what you that not could well have taken any other course. you 286 . My dear Mr. He called into consultation a few friends who. C. to the exclusion of all other considerations. he summarised ' sively.Frick the Man interested to a Executives was unanimous. following a final conversation with one whom he deci knew to be wholly disinterested. he thought might have a clearer comprehension of public opinion and its probable effect upon both the Congress and the future of the properties. teristic And this he did with charac thoroughness. say. After having carefully weighed the arguments of both sides. Walker D. then. embracing the representations of all of the companies in greater degree than which he was anybody else. indeed. I Hines: have to thank you for your valued favor of the i^th. he conferred at length with members of the Railway Committee. having no personal interest in the matter. was akin to that which confronted him when he to answer questions re citi was requested by the President zen. I shall stand by him/ He then dictated the following letter: New Hon. who were in his effect own representatives. York. Hines. D. His situation. "Hines is right. But he did not stop there. Clearly. he must reach a decision upon the merits of the case. Director General of Railways Washington. 1919. not as a director/* specting the actual cost of steel manufacture "as a He took a full week to decide.



months Interstate a very heavy rate increase. that you could not well have taken any other course. 1919. Sincerely yours." and indi cates that instead of an do is immediate rate increase "the only thing to to turn the railroads back to their owners with a guaranty for several probably as long as a year or until proper can be secured/' railroad legislation in line with Mr. he said: line with what you said. substantially greater than have been would possible during the greater than anything that last Commerce Commission made As legislation. was most emphatic that he Although in his letter of October i/th there ought to be a large and immediate increase in freight rates. say. It had already been be turned back on December 3 ist. Prick's complete reversal of his own position. who fully realized that the obdurate Executives crisp The relief borne by this were powerless against Mr. Prick's attitude was exactly in yet when he had considered the explanation which I placed before him he stated in his letter of October zyth that he was "inclined to the belief from the accompanying letters and what you say.A Capitalist I take the liberty of writing yon again in the near future. must have been intense. however. C. message to the Director General. recommended and far Prick Mr. and Congress was actively This legis engaged in shaping comprehensive railroad legislation. FRICK. Prick's idea as thus much The thing turned out announced that the railroads would expressed. time the which within lation included a six months' guaranty. in order to enable Congress to complete the the actual turning back of the railroads did not take 287 . it seems to me the only thing to do is to turn the railroads back to the owners with a guaranty for several months probably as long as a year or until I may might proper railroad legislation can be secured. in response to an inquiry. H. Writing of the results years afterward. a matter of fact. days of Federal control. as it stands today. Mr.

WALKER D. HUMES. Frick. moreover. .Frick the Man new place until March ist. counted for one of the most powerful factors in averting a deplorable renewal of hostility to rate ad vances seems now to be undeniable. from a public standpoint. Sincerely yours. That this achievement of Mr.8th. that this was the last and perhaps. with re spect to this biographical record. Hines. a noteworthy circumstance. the most helpful act of a business and financial nature in the career of Henry Clay Frick. 19x0. and the President signed the railroad legislation on February 2. thus aided by Mr. It is.

none was volunteered. after having transacted his business at the Mellon bank. he was flat tered to be thus singled out by the leaders as the one young man most likely to reflect credit upon the district. he had felt a keen interest in all public affairs. He was thirty years old. "he often jumps at a thing but he never decides untM he has taken time to 289 . "but he would be foolish * to take it/* "Never fear/* came the rejoinder. That was in 1880 when he was offered a Republican nomination for Congress. The position which he had attained in the community had brought the proffer to him unsought and a nomination was equivalent to an election. Frick had several opportunities to enter public life. The time was propitious and the proposal alluring. he made casual allusion to the matter but. "He is getting ambitious. too.XXI Public Affairs Mr. as he sought no advice. was master of an established business which did not require his exclusive attention. he was really tempted but once. like his grandfather before him. ADTJGH had just made his first million. and his inclination was to broader fields. Naturally. tie had been too fully occupied to take an active part in politics but. One morning." the Judge remarked to his son Andrew when he had left.

Prick's closest political associate was Philander Knox and far-reaching consequences were attributable to their mutual fidelity. Esq. It has position of Attorney General under your been my idea that a President should be free to choose his advisers solicitations without pressure or from outsiders." The next day he announced perfunctorily that he had declined the offer and thanked his friends for their com to mendation of his judgment. recalling the incident some forty years later. Dear Sir: I great have been the demands upon your time. several times referred to P. "It is always a mistake for a good business ' ' man take public office. Hon. tatively at the mused Mr. Knox. William McKinley. 1 6th. Andrew Mellon. have refrained from writing to extend my congratulations. C. Never a seeker of office for him self. have. as a possible appointee to the administration. Mr. but I feel that I must your patience in regard to a matter Knowing how trespass upon in which I take a sincere personal interest. Frick was always chary of urging the candida of others outside of his cies own State but. while gazing medi Washington monument from the office of the Secretary of the Treasury. Canton. as you have doubtless seen. 1896. Ohio.. Mr. feeling in 1896 that his notably effective support of the Republican ticket might justify the breaking of his rule. he paid his friend the following striking tribute in a letter to the President-elect: Pittsburgh.Frick the think it Man out and then he is pretty sure to reach the right conclusion. The Pittsburgh papers. but as custom 290 . Dec. C.

if you are considering the desirability of giving Pennsylvania a representative in your Cabinet. from a business man's standpoint. With great respect. by does not trim his advice to suit the desire of his client. Knox possesses certain traits which it seems to me would be in such a position. would seem sufficient evidence upon that point. might not sub in sist four years later. not only to the interests of his clients. 291 . I have known him through both business and personal relations. Knox. He has well been described especially valuable to me by a Pittsburgh lawyer as a crystal thinker. &c. I may say intimately. he ingenuously added. I have had abundant opportunity. You are better qualified to judge of his legal edu cation. I venture to call your attention to the merits of Mr. he is an independent adviser. fact. He is intensely loyal. but the estimation in which his brother lawyers hold him. for twenty years past. that you could not find a more loyal lieutenant. C. President McKinley made the tender. but what is more im which I mean that he portant.Public Affairs seems to have made it permissible to present names for your con sideration. Let me venture to say that.. and his state ments are always clear and to the point. Yours. but as a friend. H. Knox constrained to decline for financial reasons of a per sonal nature which. FRJCK. hesitate to say so. and other interests with which I have been connected. Mr. renewed and accepted. which Mr felt . I think I may say also that would be his satisfactory to both factions of appointment entirely the party in this State. at the end of which the offer was. As counsel for the Carnegie Company. as I can especially testify. but if in his he does not judgment the proposed course is unwise. when fully beside me. to judge of his ability as a lawyer and his char acter as a man. having lately elected him President of the State Bar Association. for I have he has stood faith gone through some troublesome times. and perhaps might be a step towards a very much desired harmonizing of masters in State politics. or wrong.

Mr. however prominent. representing the dominant Republican oligarchy. At torney General Knox and ex-Senator Donald Cameron. interim appointment to be supplemented by an election for the full term in 1905 Taken completely by surprise. in that case. and I sincerely hope that you will not interfere with its going through. Mr. came about that. Knox with characteristic frankness announced that. waited in 1904 upon him and . Prick's influence. he demurred but by their earnest request withheld a positive refusal for a few offered him the ad days. Cameron and I discussed. but for his Mr. Taft and.Frick the So it Man own disinclination. even effort. Frick would have become Senator for Pennsylvania when. velt for aid Knox appealed to President Roose : and on May zyth wrote to Mr. and Mr. Frick had reached a decision and three days later replied I : Regarding the other matter. to in duce President-elect Harding to appoint their mutual 292 . his own name might be considered. was enabled. subsequently being again returned to the Senate largely through Mr. Knox resigned in 1909 to become Secretary of State under Mr. I am decidedly of the opinion that should adhere to my determination not to accept any position. I certainly Being assured over the telephone that this was final. Thereupon Mr. in the year following the latter's death. Frick The President was very much delighted about the matter you. if it could be secured without much most highly the fact that I have some appreciate friends who think I might satisfactorily fill such a position. Frick did not rest until he had obtained the pledges req uisite to his election. But in the meantime Mr. following the death of Senator Quay.

1896. Secretary of the Treasury . Frick was a staunch Republican of the type of George F. "I thoroughly agree with you. without changing his view. who held to his dying day that 44 the Democratic party never was. Frick definitely refused upon the ground that he had "no political ambition/ * Mr. again.Morse of the Illinois Steel Company : he could not resist now as if there was going to be quite a struggle for the Republican nomination for President. Besought a second time to permit his name to be used in connection with the Senatorship. Mr. Mr.6th. the appeal of a friend and wrote to Mr. He is my first choice and has been since his name was first mentioned. he refrained there from public declaration of his personal preferences as between candidates but he never hesitated to voice after privately his opinions. Andrew W. On Saturday I had an inter view with Senator Quay who told me he was going to try to secure It looks 293 . A month later. Reed the man for President. ' ' he wrote to Mr. Pattison. John W* is Gates on January 2. Edmunds. contributions "to maintain the organization /* Dis gusted at being forced into a defiance of his party's managers during the Homestead strike. C. "that Thomas B. and his support was restricted to modest. in a letter to ex-Senator Cameron. J. Mr. is not now and never will be fit to govern the United States/ But the prepon derance of voters in Pennsylvania who shared this view ' was so overwhelming that there arose no occasion for partisan service following the retirement of the solitary Democratic Governor. Robert E. though invariable. Mellon.Public Affairs friend. however.

But fortunately for the Republican party Senate leader. and has much greater ability than is generally conceded him. As a result of this pressure. In that If event. Immediately there arose a powerful cessively demand from manufacturers tariff rates for an ex upward revision of its and the House of Representatives responded readily. oddly. and he thought his chances were very good. Industrialists capitalists and manufac and bankers. The task was not turers. Bryan and their calls for recom pense were both insistent and extortionate. had not forgotten the disaster of 1891. Taking pen in hand. But Mr. Bryan. and it was this circumstance. Quay would make a splendid President. al though he admitted that at the present time McKinley seemed to be in the lead. that sug Mr. Hanna's war chest to accom plish the defeat of Mr. I am inclined to think he will be in a position to name the successful man. from what I know of him. McKinley was nominated and elected after a desperate straggle with Mr. Nelson W. and he grimly determined to avert a pos sible repetition.Frick the Man the nomination. it will not be McKinley. had dumped millions into Mr. He is a man on whose word you can absolutely rely. he wrote the gested to following 294 letter: . Mr. the steel industry had been particularly common with and most unduly favored by the House of Representa tives. experienced and far-sighted. in easy. he does not get the nomination for himself. in my opinion. Aldrich a move which must be reckoned among the most adroit ever conceived even by his extraordinary mind. Aldrich. generally accredited in about equal proportions to the ill-fated McKinley Bill and the Home stead warfare.

ALDRICH.Public Affairs United States Senate Washington. now revealed for the first time to our knowledge in this seemingly naive commu nication were manifold. that there should be no excessive rates levied in any portion of the new tariff bill. Dear Mr. who would be willing to give me reliable information in regard to the present condition of the different branches of the iron and steel industry. and to the iron and steel industry.C. to appease capital by testimony of the man who then stood forth as the foremost champion of property rights to confound political opponents who . Senator Aldrich's purposes. concentrated into one. I would treat all information and suggestions as strictly confidential. to surprise and gratify the great body of consumers who still believed that they were being its political . and I cannot help thinking that some of those suggested by the Ways and Means Committee in the metal schedule are unnecessarily high. and who would make sug gestions as to the proper relative rates of duty upon different prod ucts. . Frick:- March I am very anxious to talk with someone connected with your concern or otherwise. To modify the claims of the tariff barons through presentation of facts proving them to be excessive and greedy. to save the Republican party from the perpetration of a second blunder which to his politic mind bade fair to prove worse than a crime. I believe that it is extremely important to the country. D. Very truly yours NELSON W. eagerly awaited evidences of Republican subserviency to the moneyed power which undoubtedly had restored supremacy.

Frick tejplied immediately : 296 . "protective" duties produced ad vancement and prosperity. to the head of the greatest metal manufactur ing unit which had most to lose or to gain. Carnegie and Mr. Consultation was not requisite. Mr. had met long before in realization that the high protection under which their industry had thrived peak of necessity or advantage and that gradual subsidence from artificial planes to natural bases had become the part of wisdom in striving for an im its had reached pregnable position. There was no delay. had actually won the favor of labor. whose skill had been directed to reduction of costs and corresponding increases in wages through inventive processes. to the oper ator whose facts and figures were at his finger tips and could not be confuted. and his appeal. not to the selfishness. The minds of Mr. the one perhaps altruistically. to the employer who could not be denied by capital and. these were the essentials of re-establishment of the Republican party upon a sound and enduring basis. resulting in lower prices for larger production to consumers. by ordeal of battle. to justify Protection as an economic principle operating to the advantage of the whole country and of all the people. to show from revenue only" resulted in de practice that tariffs "for pression and dearth of scientifically adjusted employment while moderate. Frick. So the sagacious leader went for aid straight to head quarters. the other surely practically. but to the wisdom and reason and broad vision of this man was not made in vain.Frick the Man mulcted in the interest of the few.

Swank.Public Affairs My dear Mr. by the Iron and Steel Manufacturers. The undervaluations going on are and scandalous. keeps primarily in view increased revenue. Frick and his associates and revised sharply but accurately down ward conjointly with Senator Aldrich and his advisers. Speaking broadly. C The metal schedules presented by the House of Repre sentatives were studied carefully anew by Mr. Swank. Of course Cotton Ties should be taken from the free list. specifying just what information you would like. It is not in "If a bill can be passed the increase of duties that our advantage lies so much as in the change from ad valorem to specific duties. among other things. of Phila delphia. rapidly driving honest importers out of the busi ness. after giving him our views. if you will kindly write. Aldrich:I March 3 Ist ' Acknowledging receipt of your esteemed favor of the Z9th: beg to say that we will be glad to give you any information as to the present condition of the different branches of the Iron and Steel industries we can. to the end that the strong leader easily won the approval of his own chamber and scored perhaps the most notable of his many triumphs in conference. To Aldrich. Very respectfully yours PRICE. and made to pay. say one' half of the duty imposed by the McKinley Bill We have preferred thus far to leave this matter with Mr. as he is well posted. H. or wanted. we shall have done a great day's work for Protection. as follows: We which even our opponents will consider and which moderate. credit 297 . or should be. as to what is generally needed. and the leaders of every branch of manufacturies should be required to submit schedules of specific duties as far as possible. have had some communication with Mr. entirely agree with you that it is extremely important for every one that there should be no excessive rates levied in any We portion of the new tariff bill. and have said to him. we do not know anything in the Iron and Steel Schedule that requires increased duties.

Frick was so fully occupied trying to save his for tune that he paid slight attention to the National cam paign of 1900. persuading Mr. my "Your administration has warmest endorsement and where I feel I can be of service I am yours to command ' ' . so the record stands. Harriman with the President. Frick. the inwardness of the achievement was never re vealed. H. Roosevelt became so surprisingly and needlessly alarmed at what he regarded as his prospective defeat that he drew upon all available sources for aid. but he took a most active interest in 1904 on behalf of President Roosevelt. consulting frequently with Chairman Cortelyou. Cornelius N. the result of which in any case seemed to be assured. while constrained to decline. thanks largely for the successful performance. effecting a temporary reconciliation of Mr. wrote the President in 1903 in a cordial letter ' ' ' asking him to serve on the Isthmian Canal Commission. with whom casual ac quaintance had been ripened by mutual respect and ad miration into close personal relationship. both being men looking always to results without exploita tion. Mr.ooo. "that no man's name in the country would carry more weight than yours. E. Bliss to accept the treasuryship. and. Frick re sponded promptly and generously with both time and money. selecting a Pittsburgh finance cojnmktee whose initial contribution was $100. Mr. *The time came during the following year when Mr. to Frick." and Mr. personally subscribing even more than that and 293 .Frick the Man for the sagacious idea. added heartily. 1 feel.

Cordial congratu H. replying to the President's request that he find a position for a friend. Bacon invite Loomis to call on him and it is. approached a climax and he joined with other prominent Republicans in trying to a solution by obtaining the appointment of Mr. situation in expressed his views on the railway strike the following communication : October xyth. Loomis just been received. through Mr. Frick had become a trustee. however. which the young man promptly de clined. but the best effect the President could be persuaded to offer was the istry to Min Belgium. of which Mr. Roose velt and Mr. Charles Evans Hughes into public life ensued. We are extremely anxious to secure 299 .possible he can be placed in the near future. FRICK. C. Frick seem to have been wholly social until . will. the latter part of 1905 when the latter. Presi Your personal note dent Corey of the Steel Corporation. he tele The endorsement citizens is magnificent lations! of yourself and your policies by your fellow and truly well deserved. Hyde as Ambassador to France. the relations of Mr. Immensely gratified by the graphed the President on election night : result. 1905. the inside struggle for con trol of the Equitable Assurance Society. having wrongly addressed. President: of the sixteenth regarding Mr.Public Affairs abandoning his customary trip to Europe in order that he might remain within call to do whatever might be asked of him. With this unimportant exception. There is no opening at present suitable for Mr. James H. Loomis. Dear Mr. Shortly after the election. and the insurance investigation which brought Mr.

the appellant should be required to give bond 300 . and. unless an appeal should be promptly presented to the court above referred to? In case of appeal. as circumstances might require. Man this con from Russia. com nine of the highest ability and standing. would be unjust and unreasonable. But I think the evils which now exist may be overcome without any legislation which will seriously damage property rights or the great railroad business of the country so closely identified with business prosperity. I am sure the members of your Cabinet and others in authority will be influenced by your conclusions. Also. Also. I believe with you that the demand for legislation relating to transportation rates is imperative and pressing. By this I mean the commission should not have the right to fix rates generally nor except on complaint in specific cases that rates put in force by the railroad are unreasonable. and in Your I visit to the South has been very successful. the rate cases should as to disposition. What we need is a prevention of unjust rates. which.Frick the orders for battleships and cruisers nection may be able to use him. or. s with competent. and am any legislation or action which will injure or retard business pros perity or interfere with private property. to whom com posed of. and no doubt I congratulate you. plaints might be made. there should be an Interstate Commerce Commission. whose duties hould be confined to the disposition of rate cases. unjust discrimination. as applied to different localities. which sit in groups of three in different might perhaps parts of the coun try. if additional always have preference jurisdiction is given. and a prompt remedy for existing wrongs. with heavy penalties for violation. and would result in fixing them on a basis of mileage. or in a body. This is particularly applicable at the present time to the Department of Commerce and Labor. say. adequate and final jurisdiction. pleased to note that you have not in any respect departed from your previous public announcement that you do not favor of great benefit. This committee should have power to secure the evidence applicable. I think there should be created a court or courts. in view of widely different conditions. It seems to me that the idea of placing the power in a commission to originate rates is more or less impracticable. particularly. and its decision should go into immediate effect.

case. C. always. If the decision appealed from be sus tained the judgment of the court would date from the time of the protect the ag in either loser the should and. acceptance of rebates. before the two men were brought into contact by questions bearing upon public of 1907 policy and governmental action. and the cordial relationship continued. Under such a law very few appeals would be taken. Sincerely yours H. to the gratification of Mr. 301 . greatly. position subsequently assumed by the President clearly indicated that his course was influenced by atten tive consideration to these sensible suggestions. FRICK.Public Affairs to cover damages and costs. and no less than thirty-four prose six cutions under the Elkins act forbidding the giving or sums of money. including reasonable attorneys fees. involving large were under way Nobody could tell where the headsman s ' . axe would fall next. and important actions. Cordial congratulations. The autumn found the business and rest financial worlds in a state of un and apprehension. however. (Mr. Possibly the complaining party at the outset should file a bond to cover costs in case he is finally decision by the commission. and in any event both sides to a controversy would be fully pro tected. Roosevelt's birthday. and the bond would unsuccessful. The no doubt. of which two had been won four were pending. pay all costs grieved party. President Roosevelt's warfare on the trusts had already produced. Frick. under the Sherman law. Two years elapsed. large business was rapidly approach were distinctly ing paralysis and financial conditions alarming. Many and happy returns of this day.) With great respect.

302 the exigencies of the time quickly de- . for mutual protection. not only in New York but in Philadelphia and Chicago. often remaining till under the direction of the most courageous financier of his time. they were un possible upon their reserves able to supply their customers and were calling all col lectable loans. investigating recapitulating resources and mak ing tentative plans to meet any contingencies that might arise. Moore and Schley. were heavy borrowers money from financial institutions. one of the largest firms in the country. with which they of had deposited. studying reports. The fright had not yet become so wide spread as to present unmistakable signs of a panic. when the fact transpired that the key of the situation lay in a stock brokerage house. The supreme test came in the last week of October.Frick the Man Although the country banks had drawn as heavily as in New York. P. All appreciated the magnitude of the danger but none could foresee the extent of the disaster and suffer ing that would inevitably ensue from a general panic. rumors. Bankers were meeting nightly in Mr. once become nation-wide and irresistible. but was becoming more general daily and only the light ing of a match was needed to explode the magazine. they refrained from asking. Morgan's it daybreak. a huge number of shares of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company which. while in the city itself runs were begin ning on many small banks and were trust companies. J. seriously menacing Large depositors had not been denied but they were well aware that they could not get two big their money and. library. along with other collateral securities.

and directed him to place it before Mr. . ' Mr.' he said/ 'the most serious thing that has appeared in con nection with the panic. later. Both were familiar with the Tennessee property. Neither considered the stock worth more than $60 a share and neither approved buying it then at any price. Morgan. Ledyard recounted the subsequent happenings. If Moore and Schley go. in testifying before a Congressional committee. who had exchanged with them mil Among the friends of lions of current securities for these useless shares. Mr.Public Affairs veloped. I will see what can be done about it at once/' Judge Gary and Mr. Morgan was deeply concerned Tt is very serious ' . firm be forced into bankruptcy but Moore and Schley was Colonel Oliver H. with expression of his own belief that cates. had no market value. Colonel a smash was inevitable unless the United States Steel Cor poration could see its way clear to purchase the Tennessee shares at a price that would relieve the brokers Four years . 303 . Frick were summoned by tele phone. Lewis Cass Ledyard. there's no telling what the effect will be on Wall Street and the financial institutions or how many houses will go with them or how many banks throughout the country will go down. Payne.. hoping to tide them over the crisis. Esq. not only would the many of the lending banks throughout the would also country be imperilled. But the effort was unavail ing and. If some other disposition could not be made of this large block of stock. simultaneously with the failure of a Providence trust company and the issuance of clearing-house certifi Payne put the matter before his attorney.

" He 34 . in my opinion. and yet at the last moment before definitely registering his assent. I have not been personally over thei but I have over it been with their books. Morgan's argument and finally terests admitted that. in so perilous a condition. Mr. the in of the whole country should be regarded as para if necessary mount and that. "Are you of the opinion. from what yo have seen and from what information you have gathered are yo familiarize myself condition. the Steel Corporation should not hesitate to pay an excessive price for the stock. I have known you foi and I know you very well. bookkeepers. and I hav been over it with Mr.Frick the fearing that its absorption suit Man invite a government might under the anti-trust act such as was then pending against the Standard Oil Company. Have you looked into this situation yourself o Moore & Schley?' I said. but I will say that. if it does not or unless someone furnishes immediate effect relief. Schley. I I was. "Mr want to ask you something. and he said. no man on earth can say what the 1 will be on the critical financial institutions of the country under these conditions/ Others were called in and conference followed con ference in rapid succession during the night. to avert the disastrous con sequences of a vast panic. Led: yard. "Mr. 4 'I do not know/ 'ejaculated Mr. Frick. Morgan/ 'whether the United States Steel Corporation can afford to buy this stock or not. what you say. he forsook the conference and sought Mr. Frick was visibly impressed by Mr. I have looked into it to th< ' extent I have been able. who testified as follows Mr. Frick came into the room where Led/yard. and I have done what I can t< with their affairs and the necessities of thei said. and I depend absolutely upor years.

But the apprehension respecting governmental prose cution was still grave to the mind of Judge Gary. you would be to make the financial conditions very much worse than add to our holdings and thereby know they are now. "I am. Ledyard. we ought to feel about would of how the President and the Department Justice "Well. It was Sunday evening and announcement of 305 .Public Affairs frankly of the opinion that nothing less than par will poll these people out and save them?*' I said. your standpoint of buying this stock would be to allay this storm. "Very good. Mr. right to say whether you buy or not? I said. Morgan. and if the Department ofJustice or the President should find out we had purchased. : who gave this testimony I said to Mr. at his earnest in- and greatly against his own inclination. and of the entire question for me. or were about to purchase it. and therefore. I But Mr. Frick. "In the first place. Time was a vital factor in the un dertaking. Mr. they have the and from a financial But here is object crisis. or both. "No. and should enjoin us from purchasing on the ground that it would raise the question of creating or at once that what we had done see can a to adding monopoly. if you say so. to assist in over coming this panic. I would not think of considering the purchase of this stock without going to Washing ton first and taking the matter up with the President or the De partment of Justice. and see no objection to your going over there if you fed like it." the question." He 1 said/ 'Why? ' Have they any not. I think that is very forcible. Frick agreed to join with Judge Gary in presenting the case to the President. Morgan was sistence still dubious and did not make his half-hearted assent definite until. Mr. but I think it will. that is the end " I The question of the stock purchase was thus disposed of." He said. I do not think any less than par for the Tennessee stock will pull them out. it seems to me. do not know whether that will do it." He said.

the President was induced to leave his breakfast untouched to hear them . now thoroughly aroused. that the big brokerage house was saved from dissolution and that President Roosevelt had personally assured Messrs. Secretary Root was hastily summoned and. before the gong sounded in the Stock Ex change. upon the legal advice of Mr. soon realized that only a breathing spell had been gained and that heavier clouds still hovered over the financial and indus Most threatening of these. But Mr. to his mind. he felt it no public duty of his to interpose any objection/ This "good enough Morgan" saved the situation and ' the two commissioners returned from Washington the and many expres recipients of hearty congratulations sions of gratitude. 306 . The story of the subsequent happenings is familiar.Frick the Man the completion of the transaction with the approval of the government was deemed essential to obviate calami tous frenzy on the Stock Exchange at its opening at 10 o'clock on the following morning. which turned invariably to the common advantages of consolidation and concentration. was the trial conditions of the country. in the absence of Attorney General Bonaparte. Frick and Gary. A special train bore the two commissioners to Washington in the early morning hours. Frick. Root that/ 'while he could not advise them to take the action proposed. the glad tidings had swept through Wall Street that the menace of the Tennessee steel pool no longer existed. that United States Steel bonds would be sub stituted immediately for the uncurrent shares.

If that could be settled out of court upon terms which would effect practical compliance with the anti-trust law by ensuring full protection of the pub lic through some form of governmental supervision and regulation." Whereupon Mr. 'that ' it is always a with you and Judge Gary. ' 1 think. in the hope of supplementing the successful outcome of their recent conversation. he became convinced that an enormous revival of business and corresponding resto ration of universal prosperity would follow promptly." Senator Knox replied. nothing can be done meets with his approval and therefore. help to the President to talk and such a talk at this time would be helpful to the the results in the partic general situation irrespective of ular matter. still reluctant but emboldened 307 . Having no interest in the oil concern and being averse on principle to interference with other people's business.Public Affairs government suit pending for the dissolution of the Stand ard Oil Company. in my view to take Kellogg consenting. without depriving the producers of their le gitimate opportunities. Mr. With respect to that. the advice of Senator Knox as to the advisability and interview with the propriety of requesting an informal President. Frick. it would be best with the President if you think it possible it except it up directly to get him to agree to anything the other side would accept. after carefully studying the grounds of he sought complaint and conferring with Judge Gary. he hesitated to make even a gesture along the natural line but finally.

no doubt this litigation materially affects the business situation and very greatly adds to the feeling of financial uncertainty which exists in this country and other countries. 1907. But conditions are very grave and are not improving as we could wish. Three days later. President I have been considering the pos some disposition of the pending suit brought by the Government against the Standard Oil Company which would be satisfactory to the Government and to the public generally. If in your opinion what I propose is impracticable or improper or unwelcome. It is I think there is not necessary at this time to discuss its merits. it would be the effort of Judge Gary and myself from an independent standpoint and solely in the public interest to get into communication with those who control the defense and ascertain exactly what can be done. C. Personal November : 3oth. have discussed the propriety of consulting you We have had some conversation with Mr. intention to keep the matter very confidential. My interest in the question is confined to the public welfare. My dear Mr. probably after conference with his advisers. and understand that he does not It is our object.Frick the Man by the President's previous reception. using our influence to bring about such a solution as would be satisfactory to the Administration and yet protect the properties involved. No doubt you and I would agree as to where the responsibility lies. H. The impor tance of the subject-matter cannot be over-estimated. and at the same time might be accepted by. For some time Judge Gary and sibility of the defender. Kellogg upon this subject. We stated to him that we might desire to talk with you. FRICK. the President replied: 368 . If you think favor ably of my suggestion. Roosevelt: New York. Judge Gary and I in regard to this matter. Sincerely yours. if not entirely satisfactory to. of course I know you will say so frankly. addressed the fol lowing communication to Mr.

though naturally disappointed at being denied the privilege of placing the outlines of the plan which he had conceived to be a possible prac tical solution before Messrs. The courteous but definite response. While. I should al be ways glad to see you and Judge Gary on any matter. the only possible outcome of any talk with me would be that I should ask you to have the Standard Oil Company. who would then go over them with the Attorney General. hope you understand the reasons which actuate me in writing thus. * 1 Taft. Roosevelt and Rockefeller personally. thru its counsel. THEODORE ROOSEVELT. he replied to an 309 .000. Frick supported Mr. disposed of the sug gestion. from the standpoint of the Government. they would be brought before me. Sincerely yours. I should be glad to see you and Judge Gary. and Mr. and necessary. : letter of the 30th ultimo was duly received. but it seems to me that the only wise course in the case of a suit before the Department of Justice is to have the communication come from the counsel of the Standard Oil Company to the counsel of the Gov ernment. Frick. and I think Knox would tell you so if you would consult him. as a 'regular/ from force of habit.Public Affairs THE WHITE HOUSB WASHINGTON December My dear Mr. as I say. 1907. I think if you will go over the matter with Judge Gary you will see that it would be inadvisable for me. restricting negoti ations strictly to official channels. afterwards. Fnck Your 3 rd. Kellogg. Mr. believe me. to take any other course. abandoned the attempt with a sense of relief rather than of resentment. After having contributed through vari ous channels sums aggregating $50. if it was I With regard. formulate any proposals and put them before Mr.

Sincerely yours. also told me that he did not know that such a charge in the suit was to be made against me. towards the campaign and I would contribute almost any amount to insure the success of the Republican party if I thought there was a chance. I think President on Tuesday next. The administration utterly failed to treat friends fairly. Knox. C. Frick obviously felt aggrieved by such misrepresentation of his position by the govern ment and seemed quite willing that Mr.Frick the earnest solicitation Man for an from Mr. This shows a^great lack of interest in very important matters on the part of the President and his Secretary. I write you thus fully as I do not want my position misunder stood. as show for reelection your favor of the first. But I think I should not have been asked to contribute to this campaign. I have contrib you state. his chief com plaint own was of what he regarded as a breach of faith on 310 . Charles D. 1911. After much discussion I was prevailed on to go to Washington. FRICK. Much to my surprise Secretary Knox. Hilles I : am just in receipt of Taft has no uted. told me the bringing of the suit had never been brought before the cabinet. as its purchase looked as if it would save the country from a very disastrous panic. H. Mr. in which they charge me with Take misrepresenting very important matters to the President in order to enable the Steel Company to purchase a property which I was always opposed to its buying at any price. Knox should be informed of the fact. The President. Hilles additional subscription at the last moment: PRIDE'S CROSSING MASSACHUSETTS November xnd. the case of the suit against the United States Steel Corporation. My dear Mr. many of its warmest for instance. Although Mr. Taft and even Mr. when I last saw him. I think.

Public Affairs the part of the Attorney General. for seven years. at the cost of simple right and a solemn pledge. It may be mentioned. but I should be sorry to think that after election Mr. according to Judge Gary's biographer. we want everyone's assistance. without specifying a single objection. at heavy cost. I wish some one would give Mr. the hostility to the Steel Corpo being favored by the Ad ministration led the Administration to feel that it must ration and the charges of its bring suit for dissolution of the corporation. ' 1 ' Gary confessed himself 'overwhelmed by this announcement and Mr.Wickersham mentioned casually to Judge Gary at a dinner that the excitement over the Stanley investigation. Wickersham a prominent place in his administration. or suggesting the slightest change. and Mr. and leaving the impression that he is his chief adviser. that the suit was brought and dragged through the courts. Of course. Nevertheless. in passing. Writing to Secretary said: I sec Knox in 1915. only to fail in the end. Mr. he by the press that Mr. Mr . It will cool the ardor of a great many friends of the nominee if they are left under the impression that that gentleman is to be prominent in the coming administration. to whom Judge Gary reported to the Board he had pledged prompt correction of any practices which the Department should give notice were deemed illegal or improper. Frick did not forget. Hughes an intimation of this. . Hughes . Wickersham is making himself quite prominent in calling and conferring with Mr. George W. shortly thereafter. Wickersham had tacitly acquiesced in this arrangement. but Mr. Frick was highly indignant at what he con sidered a contemptible admission of yielding to politi cal exigencies. Hughes might feel obliged to give Mr.

312 . when the war spirit became irresistible. Hughes was defeated and presently. partisanship was buried in a vast wave of patriotism and the whole American and determina people rallied with unprecedented vigor tion around their eloquent leader in the White House.Frick the Man But Mr.

They felt no animosity toward Mr. as the inevitable consequence of a Republican row which had been universally "discounted" by Wall Street. Roosevelt responsible and tranquilly reconciled themselves to the prospect of a respite in business which they hoped might not run into general depression. revert to the call of his reasoning faculties. after * an interlude in control by the only party really fit to a govern might serve an excellent purpose in conveying needed lesson to the Republican politicians upon whom trade. once confronted by the grave responsibilities of authority. Wilson for such of his utterances as they regarded as radical and menacing . so perhaps. Republican capitalists pronounced Mr.the political to their interests. in his choice of methods and varied appeals to discordant elements.XXII The Patriot BG BUSINESS accepted the return of the Dem ocratic party to power in 1913 without serious . and that. he would all. as befitted a highly intelligent student of government. He had simply played game. In any case he was 'safer than Roosevelt' '. Many believed that at heart he was conservative. Big Business relied for intelligent pursuit of their . after the manner of a candidate to whom American tradition had accorded much latitude. misgivings.

Even so. And if any one attempts it I such machinery promise you that I will build the gibbet for him as high as Hainan's. What precisely this mystifying and startling decla ration foreboded nobody assumed to know. upon his return. Wilson derived either from some undisclosed source or from his own from the imagination an impression that Wall Street was con spiring to discredit his administration start and. ruffled which had supported Mr. the people are not going to let any man do such a thing. and I think that they manage to cut him to the quick.Frick the j Man But while so ourning in Bermuda for rest and reflection immediately following his election Mr. What I will do will be to direct the attention of the people to him. they were not even put aside. so quiet as to be hardly noticeable. somewhat oddly. they were merely subj ected to a process. Large undertakings on the part especially of railway corporations were not aban doned." remained un and apparently passive. With their eyes open. manifestations of alarm and remon were confined chiefly to the strance columns of public journals Capital. since nothing whatever had transpired from Wall Street so likely to arouse panicky apprehensions as the utterance itself. After heralding at a Southern Society his suspicion that the moneyed power was fomenting a panic "to create the impression that the wrong thing is going to be done. as represented by "the Street. I do not believe there But that will is only figuratively speaking. he said ' ' : is any man living who dares to use that to create a panic. of masterly inactivity. Wilson's candidacy. 3H . he publicly assumed a belligerent and banquet of the menacing attitude.

while sedulously avoiding any appearance of being any thing but 'neutral even in his thoughts. who was the last of his many visits abroad. This arranged accordingly to prolong his usual stay abroad in search of Old Masters. to the Belgian Relief Fund. Frick. he remained at home as a precautionary measure bearing upon his heavy responsibilities and was at Pride's when the live coals which he had been carefully watching flicker in the furnaces of Europe burst into flame. during this period was to the and ultimately was. But his sympathies were strong with the Allies from the beginning and. but this was in the form of a low-rate loan which presumably would be. Outright gifts were made. in varying amounts. In common with the great majority of thoughtful Americans. such aid and comfort as he considered suitable.The Patriot "It is a time to abide events/' was the calm advice of Mr. he simply adhered to his own admonition to his friends at the beginning of the war to "stand with the President/ and he did not grieve when the responsi bility ' continued undivided as the result of Democratic success at the Congressional elections. the American Ambulance Hospital in France. repaid. Disturbed by the Continental outlook in the Summer of 1914. the maimed 315 ." he never missed an opportunity to extend quietly. His largest subscription Gold Note Syndicate for the relief of the British Treasury. and in many in made no records were made. even furtively. A complete tabulation of his contributions cannot be compiled as they were stances deliberately for secrecy's sake through different agencies from various funds.

But he never failed to respond to a call. Altogether. How many additional he purchased through other channels cannot be ascertained. and to other like organizations whenever solicited by responsible persons. FRICK The same as you take yourself. BAKER start. Frick personally and through generous members of his family must have ex ceeded one million of dollars. FRICK Of course.545. was purchasable on a 15 per cent earn- 316 . the total of gifts made during the war for humanitarian purposes by Mr. If you should want anymore. don't bother to ring. Frick made on the morning of May Z2_nd. Put me down. BAKER How many shall I put you down for? MR. MR. he never knew how much and His initial he permitted no computation. Frick bought $4. with whose affairs he was fully conversant. the Allies' Bazar.Frick the French Man French artists.000 of the various issues through the Union Trust Company. MR. the families of disabled 'Trench sufferers. soldiers." the Armored Motor Squadron. BAKER I thought a million. FRICK All right. in truth. and the following conversation ensued Washington is MR. when Mr. George F. Baker of his closest finan : the First National cial friend. MR. was called to the telephone by Mr. subscription to the First Liberty Loan was 1917. Mr. Bank of New York. about to ask for subscriptions to the First Liberty Loan and of course we want to give it a good MR. Mr. Subsequently. McEldowney's records show. not even when later the stock of a company.

MYOPIA HUNT.1 iililiifi"'.: AT THE l6TH HOLE. CLUB .


A joint resolution declaring a state of war against Ger many was introduced in the Senate by Senator Martin of Virginia and referred to the Committee on Foreign Re lations on April ind. Characteristically. Stone. Lane.5 00. as contrasted with a yield of 4 per cent from government bonds. McEldowney to see that it re ceive no special mention at the big public meeting but 1918. in sending his final subscription of $1. Being found unsatisfactory in form. and I rejoice that we have you in the Senate to continue doing credit for. Prick's only son was accepted for air service and his only daughter sailed for Red Cross service in France in November. ' you treat all other subscriptions. La Follette." many fine things that you will get no "Of course.The Patriot ing basis. Gronna. 1 was glad to hear through Mr. Schoonmaker. Mr. it struck me as a very good paper." was reported back on April 3rd and adopted a substitute resolution pronounced by the votes of ' all Senators except Messrs. "that you were the author of the Declaration of War." he added in reply to a query. he requested Mr. Frick wrote to Senator Knox. Vardaman and Norris.000 to the Fourth Liberty Loan on September x8th . ' by many Senators *a model." but the amount was too large to be ignored and was heralded 'be treated as by the Pittsburgh newspapers as "the largest ever sub scribed by one person to any war activity. "I thor oughly believe that those of us who stay at home and take our ease should willingly pay any taxes that 3*7 may . Mr ' ' .

while from you in politics. Dear Mr. May I be permitted to congratulate you and the country on your admirable address to Congress only one of many. President: 1917. FRICK. although I have to confess that the present disposition seems to be to impose unfairly upon those who are supposed to have large incomes/' In common with a vast number of Americans of like energizing disposition. From that day forward Mr. HENRY C. subscribe without reservation to all It is you are contending for. Woodrow Wilson. my fervent wish that you may be spared to see the trouble satisfactorily. as I firmly feel ended you are devoted to this great work and will carry it forward fairly and honestly. Hon. You have stated the situation just as any true American or citizen of any countryshould view it. Cordially yours. It is a great satisfaction to feel that : we have in you I differ a leader in whom we should be proud I and. the President responded expressing his gratification and his feeling that the sentiment of the To which country was more and more uniting for a great dem onstration of the nation's power as well as its high purpose. Mr. Frick chafed at the laggardlines of the government during the Summer. December yth. Frick held himself at 318 the .Frick the Man be'assessed to carry on the war. and every one should be willing to make any neces sary sacrifice to bring about what you have stated should be done. but he was so thrilled by the splendor of President Wilson's address reopening in December that he could not refrain from voicing his approbation in these en to Congress at its thusiastic terms : New York.

especially in view . Yes. Responding one morning to a summons to the White House. found the President greatly disturbed by complaints that the prices of steel ticularly ship plates as offered par the manufacturers by were in excess of fair prices. was missing an opportunity in failing to show that in time of war its representatives placed the welfare of their 319 . Chairman of War Industries Board and economic adviser of the American Peace Commission. both in at Pride's.The call of Patriot the Administration and engaged. Mr. it was true. as alleged. in frequent consultations New its York and with representatives. Judge Gary did the talking. acquiescing. that the manufacturers desired to charge the United States four and one-fourth cents per pound for steel plates and Judge Gary considered this a fair price. The conference with the heads of the various companies was held in the office of the United States Steel Corpo ration and proved most unsatisfactory to Mr. Bernard M. of the President's insistence that no higher price be charged a matter seriously affecting the profits of the manufacturers. Baruch urged that Big Business the Allies. Mr. Baruch. the New York financier who the subsequently became a member of the Commission in charge of all purchases for the Allies. One notable instance afforded an inter esting test of relative loyalties. authorized him to take the necessary steps and to act by official authority as his personal rep resentative. Baruch suggested that a meeting with the heads of the various steel companies be arranged and the Presi dent. Mr. Baruch.

he replied. he had not depicted the grueappeared to the Chief Mag someness of the situation as istrate. his pride fault was shaken. the matter was important. he would not. and the was his. and his alone. he 320 left the club. then out of reach. Very well. was to dine that evening at his club where. . he would wait. hurt.Frick the government ahead of their Man insisted that Judge own and up the White House and get the President's views. An hour passed. Mr. His mission must be ful could not. and to the safeguarding of his country's detail. Baruch was informed that Mr. . At the expi ration of half an hour. There was no answer. ingly. it keenly sensitive to his personal responsibility for official the keeping of his engagements. saying simply that he thought the Government would accept his judgment that the price fixed was fair. his vanity. He had not insisted upon presenting his entire case. he sent up a card upon which he had written : My message is from the President and I must return tonight. at an hour which he deemed suitable for calling. Judge Gary refused to do this and declared the Gary call conference ended. honor to the smallest filled. The discomfiture of Mr Baruch is easily imagined His mission was an abject failure and he must report accord . Gary was in conference and could not see him. Diligent inquiry elicited the information that Judge He Gary. whether written or understood. return to Washing ton humiliated. Finally Judge Gary appeared and.

This country is at war and I 1 have come here by the President's direction to obtain from you as a patriotic citizen certain information for ' his guidance in the performance of his duties/ "What precisely does the President wish to know?" "I have already told you that the manufacturers are cents per pound charging the Allies four and one-quarter for ship plates. Frick nodded assent. I do not interfere with business which does not fall within my province. Frick medidated for a moment and then said : "Mr. Baruch. "but I am not here to see you in that capacity. to learn from you. course/' he remarked when his visitor had fin "you are aware that I am a director of the Steel Corporation. "The President would like can tell." Mr." Mr. But if the Presi of his own. story from start to finish. has authorized you to ask me as a citizen to state the production cost of ship plates I can answer his question. Frick listened attentively. called upon Mr ." 4 ' 'Including a profit?' 321 . for purposes able conduct of the war. It is two and one-half cents a pound. if you what the production cost of ship plates is. "Of ished. perturbed and Frick at his house and told his indignant. I selling opera know nothing of the arrange ments between the manufacturers and the various govern ments to which you refer. Mr. Baruch. Baruch replied.The Patriot On the following morning Mr. in the proper and honor dent." "Certainly/ Mr. I have nothing to do with tions of the Corporation.

Baruch kept in constant touch with Mr.Frick the ' Man 'Only sufficient to safeguard the manufacturer against only fair and proper. Prick's testimony was not required and. generally considered fair. which is Mr. should be criticized no doubt. the ^accuracy of my figures The President's order to the Commission to stand firm. were materially higher. A luncheon guest . Baruch' s failed to own words "he never keep an appointment whenever and wherever suggested/" Mr. fer that it Mr. "and/' in Mr. Frick respecting all perplexing problems of the War Industry- Board. Mind you. Baruch was profuse in his thanks and assured him that the information which he had given the ' President would beheld in strictest confidence. Frick replied simply. I have no information respecting costs to other companies/' loss. Frick' s attitude toward personal profiteering dur ing the war was disclosed incidentally. that is the cost to the United States Steel Corporation. was effected upon the basis of three and forty-one-hundredths cents per pound. I should not have answered at all. and perhaps rightly. I am always respon sible for if what I say and you may tell the President that. was so convincing of his knowledge of the facts that Mr. after much hag gling over the evidence that costs to the smaller concerns. But if I had wished to dodge. a compromise. ' ' f 'Naturally. whose products were essential. should be questioned in any such way as might embarrass him. by the President's explicit direc tion. Mr. Thereafter. he need not hesi tate to ask me to prove them openly. I 'I should pre be kept that way.

Presently he was upon returning. Questions were being asked. The thought of making a profit never crossed my mind. this particular operation had escaped public attention. financing and with the understanding that subscribers would receive no iriore than a moderate rate of interest QB their payments to be fixed openly by the Government. and observant persons were manifesting unpleasant disclosures impair the navy's fighting capacity at a critical time. but ways without being so readily ascertained. which were published need of forming subsidiary companies for manufacturing and other pur poses whose costs might easily be enhanced in various as to the and appeared moderate. lest Mr. . Frick listened attentively but said nothing. I took it up to its heavy help the Government by relieving it of a part of to his office and. not with respect to the per centages to be allowed for profits. Although . it was anticipated.The just returned Patriot from Washington reported remarks heard at the capital somewhat critical of the methods of a cer huge shipbuilding the with and approval project prospective support of the tain Syndicate engaged in financing a Government from which. vague suspicions of the devious workings of High Finance were becoming concern rife. he excused himself for a moment to send a telephone message before rejoining his summoned guest in the drawing room. remarked quietly: "I had an interest in that Syndicate. Fol lowing the luncheon. in the confusion attendant upon the making of many other like arrangements upon a large scale. however. construc tion contracts would be obtained on a cost-plus basis.

The contest quickly resolved into a bitter struggle against heavy odds. so the best I can do is to stand pat . which seems to indicate some ground for the rumor you heard. Ani- . no doubt to my in all instances/' ultimate advantage. that the only two multi-millionaires effectively. This endeavor. I cannot keep shifting ' ' my if I investments in any case and it would do no good could . Henry Clay Frick and Andrew W.Frick the I find. I gave orders to sell my interest when is I went to the telephone . and have ' just now been notified that it has been sold I don t know whether there a profit in the transaction or not. theappraisal of Mr. who supported quietly. but my will in show the and if there is. It is an interesting fact. Mellon. not generally known. Prick's estate fol lowing his death showed that his fortune shrank many millions between the beginning and the ending of the war of the United States against the Central Powers of Europe. Man however. but the successful organized effort to prevent the inclusion of the United States in the League of Nations were Messrs. In point of fact. nobody can tell. that my money is no longer needed by the Syndicate. ' It is difficult for a man of means to know what to do he added. as the subscriptions are selling at a premium. others may decrease for one reason or another. it may be recalled. I hope not. was initiated and di rected by a small group comprising a dofcen resolute United States Senators and a few publicists. "Some of my shareholdings will increase in value during the war. go into the United War Work treasury before night. upon inquiry. it will report morning.

the group op posed to joining the League. Their strategy had consisted of disseminating propaganda chiefly through out the middle West at mass meetings and by distri " bution of quantities of campaign literature'* for the purpose of starting "back fires" upon wavering Senators. seemed to be literally unani mous in their advocacy of the most far-reaching and most appealing experiment ever adventured by the Republic. 325 . with the powerful aid of a few public journals headed in the West by the CHICAGO TRIBUNE and the KANSAS CITY STAR. 1919. following the world's greatest devastation. one evening in May. assembled at their accus tomed meeting place in Senator Brandegee's residence in Washington. and nationally by the aggregation of public journals owned by William Randolph Hearst and. so determined and so active as the moneyed ele ment of New York.The Patriot mated by a natural revulsion against warfare. BOSTON EVENING TRANSCRIPT and WASHINGTON POST. in the East by the NEW YORK SUN. a powerful sentiment sprang up throughout the entire country in favor of any movement designed to perpetuate peace. by a small but energetic weekly paper printed in New York. Bankers noticeably and though less aggressively. Such was the atmosphere in which Henry Clay Frick lived when. incidentally. To oppose its undertaking was to invite personal igno miny. Republicans and Democrats alike fell into line behind President Wilson classes and Former President Taft and of all none was so zealous. capitalists. were apprized that their whole plan of campaign was seriously endangered. Thus far.

Frick and Mr. but the time essential travelling itures required considerable sums. he himself would follow it up immediately with Mr. for financial aid had be Various plans were proposed only to be rejected as im practicable and the outlook was lamentably gloomy when late in the evening the resourceful Senator Knox suggested as a last resort an appeal to Mr. to oppose successfully skilful antagonists suffering from no such handicap was poignant. The problem of ways and means. the other would join. Mellon. attended by forty of New York's most distinguished men. Frick was to give to General afford Wood on him an the following evening. if might be impressed with the could be placed before them effectively. The proposal was accepted atid the dinner. that if either could be won over. was so . and the modest funds which the committee had been able to supply were com pletely exhausted. in were accustomed to act together such matters and both of whom. Senator Knox suggested. to broach the subject and. Mellon. The finding of a deeper reservoir upon which to draw come a paramount necessity. he thought with said it who he no reason for his surmise merits of the cause. in any case. The suggestion had crossed his mind by the in consequence of a chance remark New York representative present that he would be obliged to leave on the following morning to attend a complimentary dinner which Mr. He felt confident. if the response should by chance be favorable. This might opportunity.Frick the had come when Man and mailing expend the campaign had progressed favorably.

and to agree in ad that to sur- vance to abide by the policies and practices adopted by a majority or two-thirds of its associates. Mr. while Mr. 3*7 . and I judge from the little I have read about it that there is. the proposition : * is to pledge the richest and most powerful nation in the world.The Patriot successful that afterwards the host pronounced it per haps the most satisfactory he had ever given. Fortunately for his design. Taft and I must confess that. purpose. and finally said 'As I understand it. to pool its issues with other coun the United States. Wilson's was not convincing. which are largely its debtors. ing many questions. although at considerable ask length. now tries. he was informed pres ently that enlightenment respecting the contest over joining the League of Nations was desired. I went to the opera house and listened to the President and "seem to feel that Mr. the delegated conspirator was requested by his host to remain yet after the party more happily for his had dissolved and. is." Marvelling at this auspicious fortuity. Mr. I should like to hear the other side if there is one. "Those Frick. the eager propa gandist set forth the stock arguments of the group of Irreconcilables as with whom he was aligned as succinctly he was capable of doing. then. Mr. Frick followed the statement closely. Taft's speech seemed to me very good. But the fact is that I have been so busy of late that I haven't followed the discussion as closely probably as I ought. whom I come into contact with/' said this country ought to join and I am being constantly urged to support the movement.

Mellon might feel ag grieved. "Well. In fact. Now the question is. do you consider that a compliment or a reflection?" "Oh.Frick the Man 1 render its present right of independence of action upon any specific question "That is substantially it. am opposed to Of course I am. as think it might be well for me to pull your leg first/ 4 ' 'Come now." he chuckled. "I un derstood you to say that Knox was going to see Mr. yes/ "That's rather odd. smiling. "I don't think you needed to worry about that. my only objection to his programme was that Mr. "you were going to fetch up the matter anyway?' ' ' could get a chance. see I whenever such a question may arise/ " that. but" he added quizzically. "So/' remarked Mr. I don't how any experienced business man Why. Mellon was here tonight. for some reason or other. Prick's gay mood. the Senator seemed to "Well." This was too much for one possessed of humor in Mr. also. it seems to me a crazy thing to do That is what Senator Knox and the rest of us . Frick. then sobering quickly. Mr. Will you help us to beat it?" * 'What do you want me to do?' visitor then recounted the ' The happening of the pre vious evening in Washington as the simplest way of pre senting the full situation. could " fail to be. a compliment surely. he added : 328 . 'If I ' Mellon ' . ' think. why didn't he?' it happens.

Massachusetts) at ." his country place 'ride's Crossing.IN LATER YEARS -k at "Eagle Rock.


he said: ' 'Be sure you put up a good fight. P. I had already received a letter from Mr. win. his eyes gleaming with the joyous light of battle. Now that we are in. appeared pointing a finger admonitorily and with seriousness. Very sincerely yours. ' How much do you want?' That won't go far/ ' "Only for a starter of course. The highly gratified guest had said good-night and was on the threshold when a quick step was heard down the long corridor and Mr. Rejoicing pervaded the camp of the Irreconcilables. The desired reservoir full. I'll go along. Frick announcing what he had done and I wrote to Pittsburgh and obtained the same amount from Mr. efforts was both sinews of war was it were redoubled all along the line and the band pushed on to the victory which. presently was won in the Sen ate and ultimately was ratified by the people. Keep me posted. had been found and deep and All anxiety respecting dispelled. Frick. partly mock and partly real. to ' ' ' 'It will be sent in the morning. you know. Good luck " and good-night. C. KNOX. Three days later the New York member of the cabal received the following note from the Senate Chamber: we must Thanks for your note.The ' Patriot ' 'Well. . I told Medill [Sen ator McCormick] today and he says he can now go to Chicago and raise about twenty [thousand]. morrow. time is important/ ' to Senator Pepper. Mellon. redoubtable little whether desirable or not. A sum was mentioned.

Prick's interest Man became intense and never flagged for a moment during the seven months left to him of earthly existence. he smiled contentedly and pronounced it "GOOD/* 33 . three days before he died. to an encouraging report of progress in what proved to be his last fight.Frick the Mr. After listening.

many of which. as already noted. He was attracted first to the French School. perhaps a question. Whether he actually essayed the use of pencil and brush. and a signal refinement of taste are manifest at least from the time of furnishing his home in Pittsburgh. as vaguely recalled by one or two of his contemporaries. Although he undertook his new avocation with characteristic caution and only after studies as thorough and as painstaking as he ever applied to a business venture. the walls of his living room were covered with such * 'prints and sketches* ' were obtainable in a remote country village for the meager remnants of small earnings at his disposal. thus pursuing his unwavering policy of 33* . although a surmise to that effect is not improbable But testimony to his inherent interest is abundant and evidences of a steadily increasing bent is . more catholic. yet in his teens.XXIII An Art I Collector art of ^^HAT MR. he subsequently disposed of. as can be no question. PRICK'S love While was innate there I _M. he quickly developed a rare power of discrimination which he applied unhesi to substitute an tatingly whenever an opportunity arose to one which he example of an artist's genius superior had acquired. and begin ning while abroad in 1895 he bought a number of paint as his taste became ings of varying merits.

Frick in fulfilment of his noble aspiration might seem invidious and could serve no useful purpose. Van Marcke. his particular friend Chartran and others. to the people of his own country. work a masterpiece representing of fifty or more of the world's greatest is In addition to paintings. Frick acquired exquisite examples in sculpture. Dagnan BouDaubigny. Cazin. that left To compare with other can hardly be dissent from the expert judgment of Mr. by Mr. Troyon. Greuze. Alma Tadema. Corot. Ge- rome. consti tuting altogether an admirable nucleus for the superb collection ultimately achieved. Rous seau. Even while proceed ing by this winnowing process. Watts. Renaissance bronzes. at the end of three years he had gathered into his mansion in Pittsburgh no less than seventy-one pictures fairly representative of Rem brandt. Millet. Jules Breton. Jacque. Hoppner. Monet. and every one the best artists. Mauve. suitably housed and amply endowed for acquirement of meritorious additions years to come.Frick the Man always getting the best obtainable. Mr. It resided in NewYork that was not until after he had he was inspired by an inspection of the famous Wallace collection in his London to make own as complete and as nearly perfect as possible for through all ultimate exhibition. Cortissoz that "this excels any single gift ever made to the public in the past It comprises more than a hundred ' ' . his family and his friends. Reynolds. Nattier. Fritz Thaulow. Bouguereau. Limoges 332 . veret. This much he did solely for the gratification of himself. paintings. but there collections.

The collection of so-called black hawthorn vases of the K'ang and Hsi period is one of the most choice. Prick's Will. The bust of a Neapol itan Princess by Laurana and the Portrait of Madame Cayla by Houdon. "A Noble Landmark in our Art History/' was the title given by Mr. Cortissoz to his appreciative and dis criminating tribute. just ' gift of his collection to ' now upon he wrote.An Art Collector enamels.' 'is naturally enough concentrated the mere magnitude of his bequest. in exist ence. those rare masters in the art of 'Limoges.000 to $40. Nothing could be naore commendthe newej: policy which has given a Johnson 333 . ''Comment upon Mr. and thus the enamels * ' rival in quality the finest in the museums of Europe. Verrocchio and Michelangelo. Yet it in the particular disposition of his works of art that he has done most to place his countrymen in his debt. they have gravitated to public museums. Both Limousin and Penicaud. or to the state as the exact terms of his will may determine. It is said that it cost him from $30. and among the bronzes. are the works of Giovanni da Bologna. a prodigious body of artistic treasures. and Chinese porcelains.000. He leaves to the city. and the beauty of these objets d'art is greatly en hanced by the dignity and harmony of the setting afforded by the paintings themselves.000 and the estimate seems reasonable.000. For a number of years. published simultaneously with Mr. are masterpieces in marble. Benvenuto Cellini. Prick's the public.' are represented. when our great private collections is have not gone to the auction room.

not as a 'museum specimen* but as a human thing. giving his house along with his pictures and other beautiful possessions he has done all that a collector 'In * could do to send Velasquez or a Rembrandt or a Gains borough down to posterity. the announcement of the Frick bequest should be made. a work made truly for the delight be lost without museums. and to Philadelphia. at the time when the historic interiors of Europe and Great Britain are being broken up as never before. The old order changeth. giving place to the new. and it takes on a particularly rare atmosphere when it reduces to a minimum the in stitutional character inseparable from the public mu seums. Is the ancient tra dition to be revived in the United States. There is the ideal precedent which Mr. The Frick collection will inevitably be compared in with the Wallace Collection is London. Frick has fol lowed. smaller shrine of art.Frick the Man Museum to Museum ton. is a boon for which we are always bound to be grateful. It is by the atmosphere of an individual's an interesting coincidence that. so to say. at Milan. camou home. But when the reader making comparisons of this sort let him think of another. instead of Hertford House. let him think of the Poldi-pezzoli. isolated in a building of their own. but is of mankind. ancestral col lections being scattered abroad only to enter a more upon pcrmaneat form of existence on this side of the Atlantic? 334 . We would we are trebly enriched when the museum idea flaged. "The independent gathering of masterpieces. a Freer Washing now a Frick Museum to New York.

An Art Colleger

It requires no great stretching of the imagination to

recognize in Mr. Prick's gift the establishment of some

thing like a landmark in our art history." Mr. Frick did not merely admire and enjoy his beauti
ful pictures;

he loved them with a passion

as tender as


felt for little children.


rested him,, refreshed his

mind, soothed his spirit. Often late at night, at the end of a trying day, when perfect stillness reigned, he would
almost furtively, into the darkened gal lery, turn on the lights and sit for an hour or more, first on one divan then on another, absorbing solace and hap
slip noiselessly,

piness through the mirrors of his heart before seeking th? mental and physical relaxation of dreamless sleep.

And nothing gave him so much pleasure as quietly wit
nessing, himself unseen, the delights of enraptured visi tors, and listening to their comments.

In his later years, he personally superintended and di rected the unwrapping and hanging of every fresh acqui

and made

careful notation, in a diary deplorably

casual in other respects, of dates of arrival and the like, but with no superfluous word, as for example:




Purchased Stuart 'Geo, Washington." Re the Venneer.



Purchased paintings from Bacon Estate.




to Pride's.

Brought the Vermeer from Pride's.



Old Master purchased was Rembrandt's

'Portrait of a Painter.

The Venneer referred
the last

"Lady with a Letter," was Mr. Frick, and this, with painting bought by

Frick the


Rembrandt's "Self Portrait/' Velasquez's "Philip the
Fourth/' Holbein's "Sir

Thomas More/' and

"St. Francis/' comprised his favorites.

But he never

wavered in allegiance to his first choice among artists. Asked late in life what man's gift he would have pre
ferred to inherit if

he had possessed the privilege of


he replied unhesitatingly: "Rembrandt's."

His first announcement of his purpose, after viewing the Wallace collection was made confidentially to a friend.

The American people, he said,
works of

' '


'are fond

and prop
going* to

erly so

of going to Europe, chiefly to see the famous
art there. I

paintings and other
try to bring


some of them here where all Americans may

have the opportunity of seeing them without crossing
the ocean."

And toward the last, while showing the last Vermeer purchased to another friend, he looked down the long

and remarked quietly:

can only hope that the public will get one-half the pleasure that has been afforded me in enjoyment of these

masterpieces in proper surroundings. lection to be my monument
' ' .



this col


An Art Colleftor




In the Louvre



The Reader


MEYER VON BREMEN The Darlings MARTIN Rico Fishermen's Houses, Venice
J. B.


Flower Piece


Last Gleanings

Sunday Evening in a Miners' Village The Pool Gray Night Minding the Flock

A. B.




J. R.




Landscape Horse Fair
Harvest Scene
Village Night Scene Among the Polls




A Quiet Hour
Portrait of H. C. Frick

Five Water Colors Lake at Briare
Sunset Pool


LesLaveuses French Gardens in Venice

A Pond of Vipers
Yellow Roses
Early Morning Ploughing



Edge of Woods
Love's Caresses


The Haymakers

The Farmer's Wife

A drawing

Frick the





*La Riviere
Evening Hampstead Heath *Mary Finch Hatton The Dipper La Toilette
*Ville d'Avray





Tigers Drinking


The Knitting Lesson Le Lever

A drawing


A Rainy Day
A drawing

Hoar Frost DAGNAN-BOUVERET Disciples at Emmaus MILLET Shepherd Minding Sheep CHELMINSKI Moonlight Drive


Winter in Norway


The Sower A drawing Road near the Woods
Portrait of P. C. Knox *Miss Byng The Smoky City Chagrin d'Enfant Cats the Burglars



A drawing

Cow Herder
*A Young Painter
*The Honorable Elizabeth Hamilton




Horse in Stable
Piturage en Normandie Le Village de Glaton
Still Life


Bords de la Seine

*Antwerp Van Goyen Looking for a


DAGNAN-BOUVBRET Consoling the Afflicted
* In tbe Fricfc Collect! oa


An Art Colledor




A Waterfall
Amsterdam Mother and Children *The Music Lesson




La Plaine
Les Baigneuses Near the Cradle


Mussel Gatherers


Hauling Logs

*A Woody Country HOBBEMA THOMAS LAWRENCE Marquise de Blaisel
*Village de Becquigny




*Herdsman and Cows Lady Beaumont Sir George Beaumont *Le Matin Lac de Garde *The Honorable Miss Harford


*Mrs. Hatchett GAINSBOROUGH GERALD TERBURG *Portrait of Lady in Black CONSTABLE Agitated Sea DAUBIGNY *Dieppe Portrait of the Artist MURILLO THOMAS LAWRENCE *LadyPeel ROMNEY *Lady Hamilton



*Boats Entering Calais Harbor

*Mrs. Cruikshank *Portrait of a Cardinal *Portradt of Canevari *Sunri&e on the Maas or Dort

*Lady in Blue Neglig

Family Party
Sea Shore
*P6rtarait of an Artist


Prick Cdllectioii

*Iii tlic


Frick the



*La Femme a la Lampe

*Mrs. Harcourt

*Lady Skipworth
*Self Portrait




*Marchesa Giovanna Cattaneo *Halt at the Inn



The June Idyl
*Lady Warwick and Children La Sortie A drawing
*Salisbury Cathedral Marianna of Austria




The Honorable Mrs, Watson *Mortlake Terrace
*Purification of Temple

La Galere
*Mrs. Snyders *Franz Snyders
Scene in the Berkshire Hills


*River Scene


Landscape *Lady Elizabeth Taylor
*Polish Rider
*Portrait of a



*The Quay at Amsterdam


*A Burgomaster
Italian Prince in





Man in Broad-brimmed Hat and^Ruff Woman in White Cap and Ruff

*In the Frick Collection

*PhilipIV *Soldier and Laughing Girl
*Landscapc *James Cruikshank *The Honorable Frances Duucombe


An Art Collector

igil 1 9 ix


*Lady Milnes
*Sir Thomas *

More Wisdom and Strength

*Virtue and Vice



*James Stanley, Earl of Derby, his Wife and Child

*Knight of Malta Canal Scene
Canal Scene
*Study of a Lady Seated

A drawing

*Study of a Lady Seated

*Landscape *Landscape with Cottage *Houses around Courtyard
*Isaac Blessing Jacob



*Paola Adorno


*The Bridge *The Honorable Mary Edwards *Senora Dona Maria Marlines da Puga
*Count Teba

*Lady Innes *Rosa Corder *Comte de Montesquieu *The Ocean (Nocturne)
Boat *Cologne: Arrival of the Packet

191 5


*Dieppe: Moving Day *Descent from the Cross *St. Francis in the Desert BELLINI GIOVANNI
*Sir Thomas




*The Misses Bligh *Ambrose Spinola *Romance of Love and Youth *The Mall in St James Park
*Old Woman with a Bible

*In the Fritk Collect-toil

*Mrs. Leyland *Map with a Red Cap

34 1

Frick the



*The Forge *Admiral de Ruyter
*Countess of Clanbrassil

*Mrs. Wm. Peter Baker
*Interior with Figures
*Sir John Suckling

191 8

*La Musique
*Le Dessin
*Jeune Fille Tenant Fleurs *The Feny, Venice


*Nocturne, Venice *La Cimetiere, Venice


*Adam and Eve *The Three Trees *The Goldweigher's Field
*Pierre Breughel, Younger *Franz Snyders

*Knight, Death and the Devil *Coat of Arms with the Scull

' '

*Cottage with White Palings

*Landscape *Landscape *Clement de Jonghe
*St, Francis Beneath a Tree *Le Pont au Change *I/Arche du Pont Notre Dame


' '

*Fourteen Etchings


Andromeda *Mother and Children Docks in Winter
*Perseus and




*George Washington Sketch

Portrait of a Portrait of a

Man Man

Princess Sophia

In the Frick Collection


An Art Collector





*In the Frick Collection

Mrs. Thomas Raikcs and Child

Dutch Interior

Lady Cecil Rice R. B. Sheridan Venetian Scene *L'Orchestre du Village
Portrait of

*Marche Comique Four Engravings after Boucher
*Reading a Letter


500.000. Prick's possession of ready money in 1916. 1915 to and library book fund. Paris. organ. land for campus $2.3 14. $9. $3. total. $358.- endowment for upkeep of organ. It held in its treasury at that time one thousand shares of the Chase National Bank. The University also profited handsomely from Mr.$10. $10. $5. subsequently increased to $36.XXIV Benefaftions and BequeSts Princeton University stood first among edu cational institutions in the estimation of Mr. . $2_. $100. Prince ton Bureau. though the greatest was but is .000. 1919 alter ations to chemical laboratory.000. $46. ooo. Others followed chronologically as follows gymnasium were made during the Wbodrow Wilson's : 1906 tion of deficit To endow a bed in the infirmary.2. for service to men overseas. the last of many gifts that had preceded it. 1918 additional compensation for organist. His first con tributions of $10.3.000.. land for campus.500.000. 1914 for erec Freshman and Sophomore dining halls.000. whose capital was about to be doubled. 344 .514.ooo for the President first year of administration in 1903. 1916 sketches for chemical laboratory. $92. for the purchase of land for the Colonial Club and $xo. THAT to it was made clear to the public when an nouncement was made that he had bequeathed Frick thirty out of a total of one hundred shares in the residue of his estate.500.oo. $1000. but the fact not generally known that this splendid donation.

The privilege was val uable but the University was unable to exercise it. reported Mr. This was but natural. The only question was how to render real service in a practical way.'insiders Even the ' 1 ' ' * ' ooo at 4 per cent for such time as might be required to protect its rights. too. Frick. with the result that at the end of six months the treasurer was able to sell three hundred shares for enough to pay off the loan. and this he answered from a close study of conditions which con vinced ^ him that the first requisite of improvement was 345 . when he sought advice from Mr. To those humble institutions he was indebted tellectual training as he chiefly for such in was able to acquire in his youth. and subsequent experience undoubtedly impressed upon his mind a sense of their deficiencies It is quite probable. leaving seven hundred shares free and clear and realizing for the University a But Mr. he directed his attention to the needs of his native community may well be believed. What better service could he render than to supplement the work of his most revered pro genitor? That such an aspiration crossed his mind when. had 'enough of the stock. in 1909. advancement was not confined to universities and colleges. .15 .000. that he took pride in his Grandfather Overholt's successful endeavors to raise the system in Pennsylvania to a higher plane.Benefactions and Bequests affording stockholders an opportunity to subscribe for their respective allotments at par. Moses Taylor Pyne. Prick's interest in educational net profit of $2. who promptly loaned the University $100. It was even keener in common schools. owing to lack of funds and inability to get a bid for its holdings.

"Briefly. two ex ." Seven years later Judge Joseph BufSngton. and it was so for seven years." says Mr. an original member of the Commission. Brashear. 1909. We all entered upon our duties with enthusiasm and a deep sense of responsibility which had devolved upon us in such an unexpected and unusual manner. with especial reference to assisting to improve their methods of teaching. the fund permanent has and at a recent confer- 346 . Man carry out his purpose he To John A. and two man ufacturing engineers interested in educational work. was elected President. perienced members of local boards of education (now the Board of Public Education of Pittsburgh). At the first meeting of the Commission. Brashear in his naive Memoirs. made public the following report: * The de&ife of the donor to now make necessitated the disclosure of his identity. but I remained the spokesman of the unannounced donor The Educa tional Fund Commission contained two judges. Mr.000 for the betterment of our grade schools. the humble millwright and idealist who had become summoned to Pride's his old friend. With committee of enthusi astic men to assist in this his help and consent I appointed a important work. October I md. Frick wished that the name of the donor of the fund remain unknown. simply because he 'loved the stars/ and confided to him his 1 design. "he made me custodian of a fund of $^5 0.Frick the teaching of the teachers. famous for his invention of astronomical instruments which had widened the boundaries of science.

Henceforth it of going ahead on the lines mapped. the problem solved. the schools. thousand school children of the They determined that in the public school the individual teacher was.. I vidual. of an American public-school system. field. stimulate. and the community would be benefited. There have been. thus be seen that the basic feature of the Commission It will was teaching the child by teaching the teacher. and if that teacher could be led from the sphere of humdrum routine into an atmosphere of progressive selfimprovement. The keynote had been struck. but after they had been heard from. These schools were beginning to draw to their sessions the most ambitious and progressive teachers. the teachers grasped the idea of the was a mere question 347 . the donor has at our urgent request permitted us to lift the veil of modest retirement which has hitherto characterized this splendid anonymous gift. on a large scale. as in most cases of re sponsibility. had to evolve its own plan. of course.Benefaftions and Bequefts ence with him at which he made the fund of $2. in the final analysis. and the Commission determined as an experiment to select about seventy Pittsburgh teachers and send them to these schools with the dis tinct idea of coupling vocational and vacational work. and develop the ambition.. and inspiring the individual teacher the Commission turned to the summer schools of pedagogy which were being established in differ ent parts of the country. By the time three years had passed.50. he added an annual income of $12. vitalizing. that the child.. instances here and there of small but this gift is. the first and only instance of an endowment by an indi * gifts to the public schools. and enable these teachers to bring back to Pittsburgh the best ideas they could from the best teachers from other American these cities who attended summer schools. the power behind the gun. In substance that plan was sion of the to create. and vi two thousand teachers who were moulding the eighty city. 500 for a term of five years. historically speaking. the Commission finally. and in doing that to get the best ideas of the best school work of other cities and bring that best to the schools of Pittsburgh . With that specific end in view the energizing.000 permanent. believe. In starting out on this new field the Commission sought the views of the best educators over the country.

the Superintendent recounted the results to date in these words On May 3rd. Brashear declared.Frick the Man need of mobilizing the forces and powers which had been called into being in their summer studies. and the result was the forma tion of the Phoebe Brashear Club. 19x7. be it in college. but it has paid either part or all of their expenses incurred while attending these summer schools. or public schools/ Mr. Prick's beneficence has made it possible for the Educational Commission to award free scholar teachers connected with the ships to more than three thousand free these On Schools. It is the Tenth Legion of the educational forces of Pitts that inspires the whole teaching burgh. one-tenth of his entire residuary estate. in addition to the original donation. the force of the city and reaches "I feel free to say/' Mr.000. a tribute to the memory of a woman who had made much of the life-work of the adminis good trator of this fund possible. more effective work than any endowment ever given for ' education. William M. "that the Frick for the betterment of splendid gift of Henry Clay the public schools of Pittsburgh has done more good. . of Schools. university. This great club has now. Davidson : Since and before that bequest. grown into some seven hundred members. 1917. In the year 19x7 the Commission awarded 639 scholarships to members of the Pittsburgh Teaching Staff at a total cost to the Commission of $96. Mr. Frick was made as early as by the progress 1915 that he bequeathed to the Educa so deeply impressed tional Commission. It is the dynamic force home of every school child. scholarships teachers have Pittsburgh Public conducted by the schools vacation summer been able to attend leading colleges and universities of the land. The Commission has likewise brought from the fields of Art and Literature some of the most eminent and successful men and women in America to inspire the twenty thousand boys and girls enrolled in the High 348 Schools of the city. The Commission has not only awarded scholarships to teachers. Dr.



Frick. one evening while visiting Pittsburgh. unique in the annals of America. Brashear was made Chair man of a committee to raise funds for construction of a new one. Frick invited his old friend to dinner. I venture to say that no bequest has ever been made to an educational institution in this country that has accomplished so much in a given space of time as has been accomplished by the magnificent bequest of Henry Clay Frick to the uses of the public school teachers of Pittsburgh. Seven additional years rolled by and the undertaking was still lagging in the Spring of 1905 when. 'go and find out what 349 ii . Due to this be neficence this city is today among the foremost all cities of America and of the world in ' matters pertaining to the professional growth and the professional improve ment of its teachers * . 'Well/ rejoined Mr. William depressed scientist shook his head. had contributed handsomely. 1 "This ' gift of 'is Henry Clay Prick/ Dr. At the expiration of four years enough money had been subscribed to prepare plans and lay a corner stone but that was about all. "Brashear/' he asked. Mr. Davidson con cluded. ing on?" "how is the observatory com The Thaw still 4 Mr.Benefactions and Bequests sional The Commission has generously encouraged the routine profes work being carried on with the teachers throughout the school year by making an appropriation to pay for the services of outside school experts who may be brought to the city to assist in the development of such work. but a second stand ' ' had been reached. The old observatory of the Western University had become useless in 1 894 and Mr.

comprises the following: EDUCATIONAL: Harvard University. Beverly Hospital. Pittsburgh Gvic Commission. Pennsylvania College for Women. HUMANITARIAN: Pittsburgh Newsboys' Home. Asso- 35 . Young Women's Association. but declined to have it called the "Frick Library. before or since: PHOEBE S BRASHEAR 1843-1910 We have loved the stars too fondly To be fearful of the night. General Education.Frick the will cost to finish and equip it Man and I if you can raise half of the amount by October i5th. Frick de cided to bear the entire cost of the building." will pay the other So the beautiful observatory was completed and in the crypt was placed a tablet in memory of the two bestbeloved of all residents of Pittsburgh. the home of his parents." although finally he consented to the placing of a tablet reciting that it was erected in No records memory of his parents. JOHN A BRASHEAR 184019x0 Responding in 1900 to a request for a contribution to a fund for the construction of a library for the College of Wooster in Ohio. Home for the Friendless. Home for Crippled Children. prior to 1914. American Academy in Rome. but a partial list of contributions for educational and humanitarian purposes. exclusive of those mentioned elsewhere. of his many miscellaneous gifts. Mr. Metropolitan Museum of Arts. Boston Museum. Bev erly High School. half. can be found.

leader of the American Bar. Francisco Sufferers. Frick' s final disposition of his great accumulations stantly or strove was made Cass pronounced by Lewis the most adLedyard. Homestead Park. The year 1914 brought a sufferers contribution for the Salem followed by donations of various sums to the the Lying-in-Hospital. Martinique Sufferers. Pittsburgh Tuberculosis Hospital. the Women's Service League. Beverly Playgrounds. Children's Aid Society. Mercy Hospital. Girls' many Boy Scouts. Homestead Hospital. notably for anything helpful to children. the Valley Forge Memorial. Lakeside Hospital. for the Unemployed of Pitts the burgh and New York. Soho Bath House. the Railroad Fund. Association for the Blind.Benefactions and Bequests ciation for Improving Condition ofthe Poor . Home all for Deficient of such gifts were made anonymously and frequently in cash to avoid pub Children and nurseries. Cleveland. Probably no man ever gave more freely and con more earnestly to prevent his left hand from knowing what his right hand was doing. Ear. Camp Outings. the American School in Rome. the Actors Fund and others. San Hospital. Infants' Hos pital. Nearly licity. Dorchester House Hospital. the New York Police Relief Fund.. Children's Hospital. Home for Incurables. Pittsburgh. Seamen's Church. Presbyterian Aged Women's Home. New York Dispensary and Hospital. Roanoke Auditorium. Pleasant Park. Gloucester Fishermen. the Scottdale Temperance Campaign. Mr. Horticulture Society. Kingsley House Association. theMasonic Homes. San Bois Coal Mine Sufferers. the Memorial to Mrs. theNew YorkMilitia. in 1915. and Throat Hospital. the Museum of Natural History. the New York Charity Organization. Allegheny General Russian Jews. Esq. Pub Baths. Schenley. in a Will . lic Eye. and Mt. Actors' Hospital.

I am imposing upon these 4 gentlemen a duty which justification for 4 may prove very burdensome. I am conscious that. mem : he made the following public bequests To THE FRICK COLLECTION (Incorporated): Real estate bounded by Fifth Avenue. His own detailed conception called for ' no more than certain legal phrasing to become as nearly perfect as any testament I have ever read/ After allotting about one-sixth of his estate to bers of his family . and Horace Havemeyer and their successors) $15. Horace Harding. "not only knew precisely what he wanted to do but precisely how he wanted to do it. Rocke feller. subject to occupancy by Mrs. Jr. Baker. for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a gallery of art in and at the said house and premises above described. To THE TRUSTEES OF THE FRICK COLLECTION (Mrs.000ooo in trust to collect the income therefrom and use the same for Frick. maintenance of. the said Collection. It is my desire and purpose through the provisions of tht& Article of my will to found an institution which shall be 35* . Miss Mr. John D. Seventieth Street. George F. Lewis Cass Ledyard. Madison Avenue and Seventyfirst Street. Frick/' he once said. Childs Frick and Messrs. 'SECTION 6. and encouraging and developing the study of the fine arts. . and of advancing the general knowledge of kindred subjects. J. 'SECTION 7. Hines.. Walker D. and additions to. furnishings and organ. subject only to reasonable regulations to be from time to time established by the said corporation.Frick the Man many mirable and the easiest to put into form of the involving large bequests he had drawn. Jr. Frick during her <4 lifetime. "Mr. ' ' Frick. to the end that the same shall be a public gallery of art to which the entire public shall forever have access. in asking their acceptance of these trusts for carrying out my wishes for the formation and or ganization of THE FRICK COLLECTION. dwelling house thereon with contents thereof. and my only asking this advice at their hands is found in my belief that they will undertake it because it is a public service. com prising paintings and other works of art. such gallery of art to be for the use and benefit of all persons whomsoever.

The devise and gifts made by this Article to the said corporation herein directed to be formed and to be known as THE FRICK COL ' LECTION are subject only to the condition that the said gallery of my art shall at all times subsequent to the termination of the estate in wife in and by the first sec house devised to said dwelling my which maintained under the name my have directed to be given to said corporation. Pittsburgh Free Dispensary. and had profited no less his splendid donations to educative and humanitarian services will live longer in a the grateful recollection of his former neighbors than fine act done by him in 1915 relatively trifling but very Not even . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Children's Hospital. Women's Christian Association. Western Pennsylvania Hospital. Uniontown Hospital. to. Har Trustees of Princeton University. President and Fellows of vard College. Cottage State Hospital. 353 .Benefaftions and Bequests te th permanent in character and which shall encourage and develop knowl study of the fine arts and which shall promote the general edge of kindred subjects among the public at large. of the ciety Lying-in-Hospital Frick to reside Although circumstances required Mr. and such of my paintings and other works of art as are herein bequeathed to it shall at all times be there preserved and maintained. tion of this Article of I will. orial Hospital. Mount Pleasant Mem Braddock General Hospital. ciation. free to the people.000 for its maintenance. he retained his citizenship of Pittsburgh and never lost interest in the community which had contributed much from. Kingsley House Asso Mercy Hospital. Pittsburgh Central Young Newsboys Home. The public institutions which shared in the residuary estate were the following: General Hospital. Educational Fund Commission.000. Allegheny Home for the Friendless. and in and it is my will that upon the premises mentioned in this Article. elsewhere much of the time. Westmoreland Hospital. Homestead Hospital." To THB CITY OF PITTSBURGH One hundred and fifty-one acres and in trust of land (described) as a park. be public the income of $1. his success. and the So of the City of New York.

wrote Mr. When he reached the office. he saw the Mercy Hospital ambulance pulling off the tracks. "He was always on who still recalls : a few of innumerable instances in these words To go back to city. A blind man. and when he came. Frick about a broom machine (giving him the name of the manufacturer) the send the possession of which would enable him to make a comfortable liv ing. Another time.Frick the when the Pittsburgh Man Bank for Savings closed its doors and he promptly telegraphed to his bank to advance hundreds of thousands of dollars to pay depositors in full. living in McKeesport. he received a five dollar bill. with iron tires on the wheels. the days of horse cars One day. he learned that their rent had not been paid. he found a poor family being forced from their home. A check for the amount was promptly sent to the landlord. but as an expres sion of appreciation. Frick. in walking along the street. Prick's nature. which was done. Perhaps in referring to this side of Mr. the look-out for a chance to help anyone in distress without being detected/' writes his private secretary as of that time. in coming to the he found himself without the necessary carfare and accepted : the loan of a nickel proffered by a workingman who was sitting beside him. he immediately asked his bookkeeper to telephone the hospital to have rubber tires substituted. which continued to be a home. finding the man was what he represented himself to be. "so that the children shall not be deprived of their f ' Christmas funds . and their belongings piled on the sidewalk. Mr. In coming from the club one day. took die greatest pains to look into the merits of the machine 354 . and bill to him. not by way of charity. and the furniture was replaced in the house. I should have first mentioned the long list of persons to whom he sent monthly checks in such a way as not to make them feel they were under any obligations to him for the money. Another thing that impressed me was his sympathy for the sick and afflicted. Upon making inquiry into the cause of the trouble. asking him to stop in the office.

acts of Proud of his thriving city. paying a good price for something for which he had no use. as it was not suitable for his own home. for they were many. Frick. the glory of God and the satisfaction of all concerned. Mr. I regret not being able to recall more of the kind and generous Mr. but a chance. he had one sent to this man and later had a most satisfactory letter from him. This he did.Benefactions and Bequests and receiving a satisfactory report. At a time before the Salvation Army came into its own. Peter 'sEpiscopal church. but he never failed to make a purchase. stone by he accom stone. to plished his purpose. telling how he was providing for his family. Frick could always be counted upon to aid any movement to make it appear as Penn hotel was prosperous as it really was. but Two elderly women. The * * as someone remarked at the time. one of its workers came into the office for a contribution which was not only cheerfully given. Frick always appre ciated the work done by the Salvation Army. and re-erecting it in a superior location. but by paying a hand some sum for the land and moving the edifice. kind in the world. who were obliged to make a living. but what always impressed me most was the spirit in which everything was given. who would have spurned the idea of charity. but the amount of the check was so large as to almost stagger the recipient. and when it was not receiving much sympathy and financial support." 355 . The William built largely with his money. which was the only thing they were able to do. but his most impressive contribution to the material splendor of Pittsburgh was the great 'TRICK BUILDING" and the "Union Arcade/' two of the most their striking and artistic structures of site which he deemed most suit able for the building bearing his name was occupied by the big St. not charity. and at times was put to it to know what to do with it as he soon found he had become a regular customer. appealed to him to take their fancy some of work. Mr.

never failing. he was simply. And he always dressed the part. though to make of him a notably combined scrutinizing eyes. handsome man. Not that he was shy. His shoulders were broad for his medium height. modest. tention of onlookers when he But his squarely moulded head and finely chiseled features. physical attractiveness of his boyhood ripened into a highly distinguished appearance in his later years. an exceptionally rugged constitution and. greatly to his annoyance. his chest was very deep and the lines of his torso were hardly less classical than those drawn of Hercules genital infirmities of his youth. 356 . when he had mastered for the time the con he grew to be a powerful man physically. in nately. by a student of the master Lycippus in the famous mar ble statue in the Vatican.XXV Personality PRICK'S most splendid inheritance from a long line of outdoor-bred ancestors was MR. illumed by a pair of twinkling. he was fully composed under all conditions. But one may well doubt that the great god matched him in nimbleness of movement. to draw the at The passed along a street or through a railway station. usually in dark blue cloth with a hairline stripe and without a suspicion of jewelry showing. he was quick as lightning.

the opportunity came to heed rare Ben Jonson's advice to "Recreate yourself. punctuated by frequent manifestations of impatience at unnecessary interruption of routine. Even while holding this favorite posture of apparent repose. soft and melodious and was never Whatever annoyance or resentment he ever felt appeared in the expression of those eyes. half close his eyes and engage in the silent meditation allotted for the day. which never failed which to elicit that "slow.' His habits were methodical. Invariably courteous ' ' His voice was low. only to flash into action at its close in putting the determination reached summarily into effect. his notably quick mind did not respond readily to wit. his minor manners were. and was beloved by his friends. his real delight lay in humor. When finally 357 . having finished the morning's dictation. he would thrust his hands into his still trousers' pockets." for the equally reticent General Grant became noted. he hardly ever laughed. which could become Very steely' very quickly. "literally exquisite. to a degree. beyond compare suaviter in modo. lean far back in his chair. without ' a trace of affectation' " . in familiar prover 1 he was. that is to say. understanding smile. fortiter in re. as the discerning and somewhat critical Professor Sargent of Harvard re marked once upon a bial phrase. nor even except at such times as when. time. go. The two men were much alike. sport!" Mr. the subtler the better. Paradoxically.Personality raised. he personified power under restraint. and he was never idle for a moment.

The necessity of obtaining outdoor exercise when he dropped desk work in New York presented a problem. although when "a fourth" was not available he seemed quite content with Solitaire. he first tried yachting and liked it so well that he had plans drawn for a novel creation of his own designing but. which became and remained his favorite indoor sport. Beginning with dominoes 1 when a boy. following the trend of the time. I did. always set eight hours ahead of the time I go to bed and I have trained both body and mind to relax. But hard work is the thing. they saw what their Chairman was doing they all followed suit gladly and enthusiastically. which he would play by the hour. During my first six years with the Steel company I reached my office every weekday morning between seven and eight and never left till six.Frick the Man Frick experienced much difficulty in learning how to a time what was the secret of his play. My alarm clock : is walked enough to keep fact. was familiar to him. if I fit and hadn't . euchre. I he replied sententiously "Work and sleep. penny ante and finally short whist from which. before beginning to build. So we got on very well/ ' was the When "Follow suit/ a term used in playing certain games at cards. Carnegie often remarked to me. he passed on to Bridge and Auction. Asked once upon success. 'You certainly It became actually robust. In do get work out of those fellows/ force of example. he stepped up to Authors when at school. too. then to high-low-jack.been pretty husky when assaulted I probably shouldn't have got off as well as I did. his 358 . Coming from inland.



He watched others closely. amused at first. Motoring he found delightfully exhilarating unless ham pered by road regulations. His real hobby was speed. the need was supplied by the outdoor sport which calls for more pensive deliberation than any other ever devised. came more and more 'jams' and greater necessity for hateful 'crawling along* until final ly automobiling. A very few lessons sufficed. presently he became sufficiently interested to "try a shot/' with the result that invariably attends a successful effort. after securing the most expertly daring chauffeur to be found in France. it was "too slow" and must be "very tedious" and seemed. which came as a reaction from years of patient drudgery and as a re vival of the impatience of an inherently eager disposition. rather "namby pamby for live men but he had always walked for ex 1 ' . From the moment the ball struck the tin. and bore dom did the rest. chiefly from a sense of duty. Nevertheless. which he missed entirely. following luncheon at a club. That settled it. practiced assiduously and 359 . terrific speed. Like many another. to which ultimately. in Mr. he paid little heed. he was a golfer. Roosevelt's phrase. he was tempted to follow a match. and his interest never after flagged. ercise. * * ' with the * multiplication of cars. and one afternoon. Golf held no appeal whatever to Mr. with his fifth stroke he luckily dropped a long putt and won the hole. as a pastime. but he persisted doggedly until. developed his own methods. was perforce abandoned. Paradoxically.Personality restless spirit revolted at enforced confinement.Frick. He tried another and a third.

at Sunningdale. became a very fair player. two adjacent to Pride's. he "joined the Club" and at the last was 'at home. uphill and downdale. and in quickness of stroke he was like a Duncan. flouted 'etiquette' or failed in courtesy. he held . I am sure you didn't. and where all stood aside when the good-natured warning out." he rejoined quickly. Elsewhere." 4 * 'and I don't like others to do so. ' ' ' three near Pittsburgh. Cloud in France. ' Prick's ' could be aroused only by a suspicion that his antagonist was ' ' 'letting up on him. would accept or give any odds proposed and was never satisfied without 'double or quits' on the last hole. rain ' or shine. particularly at his favorite Myopia. It was my mistake. 'Neither do I. He was always ' eager to play. England. I'm sorry I spoke. Wherever he played. "Look coming!" But he never broke a rule. His play was characterized by the same concentration that he applied to business. out his hand. joyed special privileges. hardly exceeded by a Travis. was passed forward. where he en . and La Boulie and St. do his best. Once he hinted as much. only 1 ' to hear the grave response: 1 am playing badly today. he could not overcome the urge of his temper ament he fairly raced around a course. al though by stern determination he finally schooled him self to a certain deliberateness on the greens. on five links about New York. ' ' I never did. especially in foursomes which he preferred for their wider opportunities in both com petition and betting. but I don't let up. 360 and stepping across the tee.Frick the Man . I know. His indignation Mr.

country place at Pocantico where he had Rockefeller to sell his ore properties to the Steel Corpo ration in 1901 Asked when he returned how the match . Frick from Murray Bay in 1914. I should couldn't beat him. " at 'Oh. I must get a game with Mr. There's nothing small about Taft. Rockefeller was most : polite. Eighty-two and eighty-three say. I guess he would. These links at Murray no means so difficult as you may judge from the fact are by Bay that I have been around once in 8x and once in 83 But I get much enjoyment out of them nevertheless. Mr. He said he felt sure I if and asked wasn't quite 'on he was not right?" say?" my game' today. to thank him on behalf of the trustees for a generous gift' ' ' ' to I Hampton Institute. he replied "Oh. And I used to wonder why 4 * !' I Pretty good. Mr. I Rockefeller. at the induced Mr. he always is. . came out.' And he same got his game some time later. Mr. He ' is ten years older than am and I may have a chance. least of to play/ any other game I have ever known you 361 . "And what did you c '1 said Yes' and added 1 never was/ That brought a good laugh but he was not to be outdone. I am eight years older than he is. 'I shouldn't say that. I ought to. I wonder if he would have mentioned the scores if they had been a hundred and two and a hundred and three. ex-President Taft added slyly: derive from hope that Myopia Links still give you the pleasure you used to them when I was at Beverly. Frick/ he said. Frick read that portion of the note aloud at lunch eon.Personality Writing to Mr.

however. such example: Sears Played with Helen at Tombstone Tournament with Miss Eleanor and Harold Vanderbilt and came in third best. with 'Auction in the afternoon a frequent accompaniment. Prick's stays at Pride's and trips abroad." was frequently recorded as specific entries indicating his as. prolonged multiplied his opportunities to engage in his favorite pastime. "Golf in the morning. in Winter year in and year out. that I couldn't make head nor tail of. Played Charles Winslow even and won two up and one to play. for many as six times a week in his daily memoranda. played on the table after luncheon. * 7 ' And yet beginning with 1914. So pages were filled in Summer and. as he had few close friends. Parker and was beaten. He loved to give small luncheons.Jbrick the Man satisfied. Went out in 49." The outbreak of war. i East yoth Street. from Dixville Notch to Palm Beach. and large dinners to 162 ' ' 'interesting' men . which also were enlivened by boyish zestfulness. more by fre quency than by diversity. less profusely. four up. the number of calls was amazing. to which he had transferred his office from downtown. Bogie beat me coming in. "So we were both pleased and even though he did pull a funny little alphabetical game on me. involving cessation of his annual Mr. marked. the first Winter in his new mansion at No. Played Mr. Played eighteen holes with Helen against Bryce Allan and Miss Holmes and won. with attractive received women included. Played Judge Moore six up and five to play.

Mr. Stopped at Baltimore and saw the Walters Collection. Will Hays called. in his Always box it. met Senator Warren Harding of Ohio. arranging the placing of guests and personally distributing their cards to avert possibility of error.) Mr. A few of his did not care for favorite organ selections were "Largo/' "The 1 Pilgrims' Chorus/' "William Tell/' "The Rosary' and Gounod's "Ave Maria. Frick seldom opened a modern novel in his late years. if he liked the opera and never if he he was almost equally fond of amus ing plays and hardly ever missed one that had been recommended by a person of like taste. Mr. drew out others but did not express opinion. the F. Grier." Odd by if items appear in the memoranda. he looks tial timber. In Pittsburgh (1916) attended Chamber of Commerce dinner. Grier bet (me?) $50. young farmers from Montana on their way to the war Thanksgiving Dinner. but took 3 63 . An ad mirable host. Dr. he attended to every detail. Contribution. Hereafter when I purchase anything from (naming a certain pic ture dealer) it will be entered in this diary on the day I buy it. Had at ten F. left Pride's for New York with Mr. F. playing cards. Very lifelike. Pritchett lunched with others and showed up Wilson's char acter. Although a "great reader" in his youth. Mr. If no memo is entered it is understood that everything left is on approval. He had refused it to take an overcoat but found one in the car and threw out of window to tease his daughter. like fine Presiden Movies taken of Mr. he will be elected.Personality rather than exclusively to business associates. jotted usually his secretary but occasionally by his daughter: At Sherry's (in 1912.000 to $400 that Roosevelt gets both Republican and Progressive nominations. Splendid chaps.

and oddly the NEW YORK WORLD. his most savage critic during the Homestead struggle and continuously an ad vocate of distasteful public policies. noting the conspicuous headlines and the topics of editorials. "This won't do/ all. : ' He had all of the daily newspapers brought to him but only glanced through them. But two widely diverse public journals he was never without: attention to financial pages Mr. but paying scant whose information he re garded as based upon gossip and untrustworthy." he said/ let Flinn do the worry ing. William Flinn. "this won't do at owns this paper and buy it." the 'Memoirs of Cellini/' the "Autobiog raphy of Benjamin Franklin/' biographies and quota tions which he made freely from the Bible and Shake speare. "in order. He was greatly annoyed * ' ' ' once by the appearance of a cartoon in the PITTSBURGH LEADER portraying himself. he was relieved when the secretary returned and reported that he ejaculated.Frick the ' Man " Say ings of Marcus pleasure from such books as the Aurelius. much to the edification of his surprised hearers. containing market reports. whose feelings also had been hurt. but when he happened upon a volume typified by William ' GeorgeJordan's 'Self Control Its Kinship and Majesty/ he would buy many copies and send them to his friends. to get the other side. go find who But realizing quickly that he had spoken impulsively. 'That's much better." 1 Mr. was arranging to purchase the paper." he re marked. the Republican leader." 3 64 . it is no business for me to get into anyway. Barren's NEWS BUREAU.

Abhorring notoriety. It is a great detriment to the newspaper itself to have a man who is supposed to be worth considerable money to have an interest in it. At another time. S. But he proved himself to be a competent editor at that. who had asked him to serve on a committee ap in memory of the pointed to erect in France a monument soldiers from New York City who had served in the war. The reporter wrote painstakingly a full column and sent it to his office. Replying to a sug gestion from President Ripley of the Atchison railway in 1916. FRICK This is confidential and not for publication unless names are omitted.Personality And this reflection fixed his policy. a financial writer whom both respected per : sisted in seeking their opinion of the situation and. without a word of comment. 365 . with the understanding that he should have the privilege of editing the copy. he never gave interviews for pub lication. A.$th. He wrote but two letters in his whole life for publi cation. Presently it came back. when the stock market was distinctly Mr. but once while in Pittsburgh he broke his rule and spoke freely to a reporter. I have made it a rule never to make an investment in a newspaper. Frick was conferring with the equally uncommunicative Mr. he received this card The U. (Signed) JAMES STILLMAN HENRY C. is a great and growing country. James Stillman in the National bearish and City Bank. One was addressed to the representative of Mayor Hylan. reduced to exactly ten lines. he wrote: I carefully note your valued favor of the 2. after waiting an hour.

arising from the requests from thousands of segregated communities for suitable sites. and these he set forth with such clarity and restraint in a communication.Frick the Mr. 366 . he sent his UNE. to the laudable spirit of the undertaking. Mr. of course. example such as this. prove a Might not such happenings. and it is for that reason I wish you to assure him that most reluctantlyJ feel obliged to decline the com from New York mission which he has so^graciously proffered me. It is altogether probable. s. would be followed inevitably by hundreds of other cities and towns. y I beg that you will express to His Honor the Mayor my sincere appreciation of his courtesy in asking me to serve as a member of the committee to superintend the erection of a monument on a battlefield of France to commemorate the valorous deeds of the soldiers City. There occur to my mind two general objections. Frick felt Man injustice if that he would do himself he should decline such a request without presenting his reasons for doing so. not. would take similar action in recognition of their brave sons who no less splendidly fought and died in the great common cause. J' 1918. but to the carrying out of the project itself. that a better illustra tion of his soundness of thought could hardly be found. set by the foremost municipality of the Union. moreover. which not only breathed his intense nationalism but outlined his broad conception of America's "one great compensation" for its sacrifices and voiced his earnest hope for great good to come out of it for his country. which published it as follows : letter to the TRIB j \* Yin. that the citizens of Great Britain and her colonies. I need hardly say that I am in full accord and sympathy with the admirable impulse which actuates His Honor in this matter. The first is one of An practicability. Whalen My dear TVT i New York. hoping that his views might bear some influence in the direction which he considered From both right and patriotic. a sense of duty. Italy and Portugal. ' : Dec.

solid as a rock in defence of national freedom. all. as a national army for their common for all country. until common The classes. to overshadow their obtain the best modest shafts with great monuments such as opulent cities like New York. really feel that we are more nearly 'one and insepa at the very moment when we were both racially and rable' than ever before. as a lives and properties of those of us who live My second point in what I am confident His Honor will accept most friendly remonstrance is this: The one great compen sation of this war for America has been tjie unifying of our country drifting dangerously apart. Chicago. in our own country. into peril brought sciously now I. for Wyoming and Wyoming New York. do anything that might tend in history to apportion the credit between even states. too. and Wisconsin for Texas one for New York fought Texas for Wisconsin and all for one a mighty Union. Indeed. who naturally would be desirous of pleasing all and treating all alike? Then. Let us hold to that. Pittsburgh. as I understand it. grateful or from my home city. above do nothing that might by to any possibility revive the prejudices which formerly prevailed who this of now. would not the natural rivalry be tween towns as to which should furnish the best monument and site be likely to engender bitterness unbecoming a nation which forth its efforts a best as unified force? And great put would it be fair to smaller and poorer communities. I am no less. for one.Personality source of infinite embarrassment to the authorities of France. have proved their patriotism. I as I am to the brave men from New York do not hesitate to say that. no small degree against the people imperial city. even in praiseworthy endeavor to prove our undying gratitude. grateful to those equally courageous who went from far-off Kansas and Utah to safeguard the on the seaboard. us together. and. Philadelphia and Pittsburgh would surely erect? All of our soldiers in this great war fought. most heartily approve a movement to commemorate upon the 3 67 sons of battlefields of France the splendid deeds of the splendid . Ought we who remained at home. all I must admit. and perhaps ought to be more. which may have suffered greater sacrifices proportionately. to say nothing of in numerable towns and villages? I cannot think so. and segregating ourselves uncon sectionally.

he was conscious. several who had already assented withdrew their accept ances and the project was abandoned. Many who had received like invitations politely declined. and conducted through a national agency in considera tion of both France and our other allies. FB. couched in terms. Neverthe less there can be no doubt that the educational advan tages conferred girls by his bounty upon thousands of boys. and with hearty good wishes. common with most men in like circumstances. if I had been thoroughly educated. C. that I find myself unable to accept the honor conferred upon me. was instantaneous. my my H. concise and well-defined expression. of my pen?" It was in this sense of regret. but my con so strong that it should be a national movement for our I am own sake. The effect of this communication. because in his early years he had trained his mind for all practical purposes so thoroughly that his letters reveal exceptional proficiency in clear. I might have accomplished something with almost of resentment. and viction is Man highest credit for only too glad to accord to Mayor Hylan the having originated the thought. "Now doesn't that just show that. Whalen. exclaimed gleefully. dear Mr. while disclaiming more than a mod of credit for the result. Again begging you to extend to His Honor assurances of deep appreciation. characteristic of the writer. which.ICK. so gracious that the Mayor could by no possibility take offense. unduly so. Frick est part who. to the great elation of Mr. . I remain. and young teachers was attributable in large meas ure to cognizance of his -368 own early handicap.Frick the America. faithfully yours.

few men either remember or use in bus iness or in life. not inspiration. living.. They need trained senses. and in individual cases explains the prejudice which you concede exists against colleges. but the friendships made. And it is be yond question that our schools and colleges rarely produce men with minds trained. a Remedy for Education. is that it is based on information. J. ready on the instant to be applied to any problem. the author of Mental Training. is not the education itself. His well-considered judgment of relative values of methods appeared in the following striking response to a query from Princeton : New The Daily Princetonian. but does not develop power.Personality "Don't tell the little girls fairy tales. Princeton. and I have long felt myself in agreement with William George Jordan. including that given in colleges. in the latter case. efficient. clear. it seems to me that the chief gain of a college education. holds that the weakness of our whole system of education. who. this is its greatest danger. to weak natures. as Jordan says. it is. clear thinking. the gain outweighs that which they might have obtained by spend ing the same time and effort in business is an open question. a business career Looking at the matter broadly. Some men are spoiled by college. In reply to your Mr. What our colleges give. 1916. in this and other writings. On the other hand. Gentlemen: as to York. others pass through college with gain. teach them real things/* was a constant admonition. constant mental feeding with out developing the basic mental powers all men need in their daily keen observation. The fact that the college system is being called into question is an indication of some inherent weakness in it. He claims that it stuffs the mind with undigested facts. my opinion on 'whether a man is benefited or handicapped for ' by a college education/' I would say that it de pends largely upon the man. 369 . my opinion again is that it depends upon the man. Robert Cresswell's letter of the loth inst. with power to concentrate. N. Whether. February i$th.

trained imagination. upon him an honorary degre came to Mr. e rapid reasoning. as physical exe practical development of develop the muscles of the body. but he took care to seek confirmation of the Board's stated reason by writing to President Hibben: Will you kindly send tne a complete financial statement of Prince ton University. Frick held prefixed "National" life member ship in sixty-seven clubs and associations. C. He recognized the propriety. As early as i8yz he joined the King Solomon Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Connellsville and won the . as they should. If the schools and colleg< did give this. in the future. no school. Frick from universities and colleges but h Many offers to confer declined invariably upon the ground that he did not fee that he had done anything to justify acceptance of th honor. the world would be transformed. H. and as. as I think I should become^ aware of its financial condition before I qualify as Trustee. If is Jordan is right. however. active. with those and "American" predominating. or college has for its ideal the dire< these mental powers.Frick the Man alert memories. cises Yours very truly. so that tl language. under soir better system. mental in efficiency of every phase. pression mind is as ready as the hand for every motion of which it is cap ble. they will. of bein^ chosen a Fellow in Perpetuity of the Metropolitan Mu seum of Art and greatly appreciated a unanimous tendej of a Life Trusteeship of Princeton in response to the pies that his business experience would be of value to th< university. In business life men gain these powers somewhat and som the measure of the how. FRICK. and the measure of their attainment individual success. At the time of his death Mr.



prescribed Scottish Rite and Commandery degrees before

when he became a life member of the Order of the

Knights of the Red Cross, of the Knights Templars and of the Knights of Malta.

Although he became a communicant of the Baptist Church at the age of eighteen, he was never a strict sec
tarian, later in life attending the Protestant Episcopal

Church, whose form of service appealed more strongly to his sense of dignity, harmony and beauty, and con
tributing generously to the support of both, as well as to the Lutheran Church of his parents. He was devout

rather than pious

apparently agreeing with Southwell

Bare communion with a good church can never man; if it could, we should have had no bad ones.

make a good

two undenominational Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations and
his gifts to the

uncounted sums to the Salvation Army.

Mr. Prick's deep tenderness for children was revealed constantly in his daily life. His attitude towards them

was more than


more than

affectionate; it was, in

the words of a gentle lady who had been watching the ex
pression of his eyes and the lightness of his touch when at rest with his grandchildren, 'positively reverential/


that he


averse to play! Far from


He was

always ready for a frolic and never hesitated, upon call, to "leap frog" or even to swish down the sliding board

and land, amid gales of delight, with 'an awful bump. But when all had tired and clambered upon his knees
and snuggled close to his
breast, there


was something

Frick the


akin to awe in his loving observance of their tousled heads, and he would sit moveless so long as they could

keep their eyes closed in pretense of sleep. This arousal of the unsuspected emotional side of his
nature undoubtedly sprang from the first grievous trag edy that entered his life. He could never wholly appease

the intense sorrow which nearly overwhelmed
the passing of his
six in 1891.



daughter Martha at the age of
later if the re

Asked timidly twenty years

port published at the time that her apparently living image dazzled his vision while he lay in his office dazed

by the anarchist's assault upon him, was true, he simply nodded affirmatively and bowedhishead, and unfailingly,

on the morning of August 5th of each year thereafter, he remarked quietly to his family, "If Martha had lived,
she would have been (so


years old today."


when he paid in advance the full amount of the deposits
of thousands of children in the bankrupt savings bank in Pittsburgh, an engraved portrait of Martha appeared

upon every check. That his firstborn
ample room was

baby held to the end first place in the shrine of his heart there can be no question, but

for those who followed

and to them

Martha and he was Frances, passionately devoted. And when word came on October i8th, 1919, that Henry Clay Frick,
also, notably his grandchildren, Adelaide,

born, he lost not a minute in writing and dis patching to the mother this pretty and gleeful letter:




Saturday 6 P.M.
1 8th, 1919 Seventieth Street

One East
Well done. Dear Frances!
Heartiest congratulations

You have your wish, and I have mine,

now that the youngster has come and proved a boy, I will con fess that I, too, am especially gratified and pleased. Not that a

granddaughter would not have been welcomed as heartily as be for we should have felt that you were multiplying our hap
piness by four instead of three but as Burns says 'A man's a man for a* that!" and a mother of three girls is justified in her wish for

a son.
I send a cordial welcome to the boy, who has thus early shown great discrimination in the selection of his parents to say noth ing of his grand parents.

Best wishes for your early convalescence.

Your Devoted

The next day but one,

before going to inspect the


he remarked to his wife, according to the Diary

saying how pretty the baby is; I want to know if he has a good head? Does he have it all back of his ears or is it above his ears? She replied: "When I come to think of it, his head is just

You were

like yours

He laughed and, upon returning from the hospital, as sured Mrs. F. that she hadn't said a word too much about the baby,



that he was a fine


chap and really had "a splendid head."

Returning from a business meeting in Pittsburgh, where he told an inquisitive reporter that the only "new busi

he had on hand, or should undertake, was on Long Island, and on November xnd he brought the four children together in their home, promising to the 4th, follow pay another visit in a few days. But on in honor of Senator James ing a luncheon which he gave A. Reed, the Missouri "Irreconcilable," he became ill
ness enterprise'



Frick the


of ptomaine poisoning and a cold, which brought on an
attack of his lifelong malady, inflammatory rheumatism threatening his heart, and on the yth, after participating

Company's directors in his house, he was put to bed, where he remained until the i^th, when he was permitted to come downstairs

in his last meeting of the Steel



my pictures/

This proved to be a fatal error. His pledge to visit his grandson was uppermost in his mind and he determined
to keep

regardless of the stern injunction of his


sician that under

no circumstances, should he leave the



the next day but one he ordered his car to go to Island. The horrified nurse quickly informed his

wife and daughter and the three united in pleading en deavor to dissuade him from undertaking the trip, but

he would not


Off he started, followed furtively

by his distracted daughter and nurse. The trip required an hour or more but he reached his son's house in happy

mood and good
home proud and

condition, remained for half an hour

petting and playing with his grandchildren, and returned

But complete exhaustion soon followed and an urgent

summons quickly brought the




restoratives but notified the family upon leaving that


would no longer attend a patient who had disobeyed his

Another physician was called in but he could not

gain the confidence of the sick man, and wife and daughter

renewed their fervid appeals to his predecessor to resume
charge of the case, but in vain.

Personality Mr. Frick showed signs of a gradual though


improvement during the succeeding eleven days and gave no cause for apprehension when, at five o'clock on the

morning of December znd,
"Please give

had frequently happened in the night, he summoned his nurse and said quietly:

me a

glass of water/'

The response was prompt and, taking and holding the glass without effort, Mr. Frick drank the water and,
thanking the nurse, resumed an easy position and said

"That will be


now I think I'll


go to sleep/

A few moments later, the nurse tiptoed into the room
and, hearing no sound, stepped noiselessly to the bedside and looked down upon a pallid but wholly tranquil countenance. Thus quietly and peacefully the spirit of

Henry Clay Frick passed into the haven of intrepid souls



ABBOTT, WILLIAM L., 103, 106-8, 153-4. ALDRICH, SEN. NELSON W., 194-8. ALEXANDER, JAMES W., 178-80.
ALLIES' Bazar, 316.

BRASHEAR, MRS. JOHN A., 350. BRIDGE, JAMES H., quoted, 77-8, 111-3,


OF IRON & STEBL WORKERS, 106, 108-19, I 33"4>
140, 148-54, 164, 171, 177.


FRANCE, 315.






147, 161-1.
a, 2.69-88.



CARNEGIE, ANDREW, 74-108, 117, 139,
148-168, 171, 173, 196, 358.

& SANTA F, 177, 18 1,

87, 93
97, 100-1,140.




BACHMAN, SIMON, sec Alexander Berkman. BAKER, GEORGE F., 109, 174, 316. BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILWAY, 51, 177. BARRON, CHARLES W., 175. BARUCH, BERNARD M., 319-11. BEAL, MR., 144. BEITLER, ANNA, (Wife of Henry Overholt), 5-6.

CARNEGIE STEEL Co., History of J. H. Bridge, 77-8, 111-3, :L 3CARNEGIE STEEL Co., LTD., 101-5,
133-4, *4-*> I 5 I
J 55






177,181. CHILDS, Miss ADELAIDE, see Mrs, H. C.

5, 176, 188.

135-9, 141, 144-



306,311. BOPB, HENRY B., 103.

CHILDS, MRS. ASA P., 88. CHILDS, Miss MARTHA H., 88. CHILDS, OTIS H., 103, 115.

CLARK, E. L., 100. CLARKSON, JAMES S., 157. CLAY, HENRY, n. CLEMSEN, MR., 116, 111, 133, 155. CLEVELAND, PRESIDENT GROVER, 146,
157, 178.



& Co., HENRY, 46.


DELPHIA, 178, 180.


F. B,, 315.

MITTEE, 107, 105-7, 143 -5.


A., 346-50,


CONNELLSVILLBCOKE, 50-!, 53,6l, 65, 71, CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, i. COOKS & Co., Failure of Jay, 46-7.
COREY, JAMES B., 41-3, 66. COREY, W. E., 175, 199. CORTELYOU, GEORGE B., 198. CORTISSOZ, ROYAL, 331-5. CUMMINS, SENATOR, 181. CURRY, HENRYM., 103, 105, 171, 116,148. CUYLER, T. DB WITT, 181. CYCLOPS MILL, 113.
DELPHIA, 178, 180.

FREE TRADE, 146-7. FREER MUSEUM, 334. FRENCH ARTISTS, Families of Disabled
3 i6.



36-7, 40-3, 48*51,




loi, 180, 185, 199, 103-4, 2.11,









EARL, E. T., 175.

n; Boyhood >

11-18; School

165, 171, 175.

171, 177.




-Interest days, 13-19; Starts to work, 19, in reading, 11, 70, 364; Games played, 2.2.; Attends Ottcrbein College, 14-1 5,


13; Goes to work in Pittsburgh, 14; Typhoid Fever, 17; Enters Ovcrholt
Distillery as bookkeeper, 17; Begin ning Business in Coke, 19-43; Frick




Co. organized, 36; Rcchristencd "H. C. Frick & Co.", 64; Reorganized as ''The H. C. Frick Coke Co/', 78; First loans from T. Mellon & Sons, 35, 3843 ; A Triumph of Faith and Courage, 44-64; Death of Grandmother, 58; In



flammatory Rheumatism, 58-64; Panic
of 1873, 44-66; Interlude, 67-75; p i rst holiday in Europe* 71-1; Meets Miss

YORK, 180. EQUITY SUIT against the C. by H.C. Frick, 143.
ESCH, JOHNJ., 181.

S. Co., Ltd.,

Adelaide Quids, 73; Marriage, 74;

FERGUSON, E. M., 64, 78-9, 87. FERGUSON, WALTON, 78-9, 87,

with Andrew Carnegie, 74; Enter the Carncgics > 76-92,; Coke Strike of 1887, 83-6; Resigns as Prcs.
First meeting



terest in

Coke Co., 85; Offers to sell his in Coke Co., 87; Takes his fam
Europe (1887), 88-9; Visits
in Scotland, 89; Re-

ily to



Andrew Carnegie

FINAL DRAMATIC BREAK between H. C. Frick and Andrew Carnegie,


Coke Co., 89; Coke strikes of 1889 and 1890, 90-1; "The Man'* in Steel, 93-105; Chair man of Carnegie Bros. & Co., 93; Ac
elected President of

P., 109.

quisition of Duquesne Steel Co., 100;



Company reorganized as Carnegie

Steel Co., Ltd., 101; Increases his in terest in steel, 103-5 i Chairman of Car

GATES, JOHN W., 193. GAYLEY, MR., 116, 111, 133, 155. GLADSTONE, MR. & MRS. LINCOLN,


negie Steel Co., Ltd., 105 ; Homestead Strike, 106-86; Birth of Son, Henry
Clay, Jr.,


Attempted Assassina Death of infant son, 141; Politics, 146-59; "TheLaird" and "the Man," 160-74; Victory's Cost and



Gain, 175-86; Visits Cluny Castle, 183; Mr. & Mrs. Carnegie visit Frick Home,
183; Oliver and Frick, 187-99; Moore Syndicate, 100-17; Receives his Resig nation, 118-16; Sale of Peter's Creek


land, 118-2.0;

Mr. Carnegie must apol

ogize, 119-10; Final Dramatic Break,

149, 151, 156-59.

117-36; Wins the Fight, 137-57; Iron clad agreement, 138-57; Brings Equity
Suit against Carnegie Steel Co., Ltd., 143; U.S. Steel Corporation, 158-68;

HEINDE, CAPT., 117, 119-10. HIGH, REV. J. C, n.


to New York, 169; Capital 169-88; Public Affairs, 189-311; Union Steel Company, 173; Director


in various

Railway Cos., 177, 181;

Equitable Life Assurance Soc., 178-80, 199; The Patriot, 313-30; An Art Col
lector, 331-43; Paintings purchased,


Benefactions and Bequests,

HOFFMAN, J. ODGEN, 103. HOMESTEAD, 106-86, 188, 194. HOWES & MACY, 46. HUGHES, CHARLES EVANS, 199, HYDE, JAMES H., 178-80, 199, HYLAN, MAYOR JOHN F., 365.


344-5 5 ; Personality, 3 5 6-75 ; Music and the Theatre, 363 ; Choice of books and


184, 101, 193.

newspapers, 364; Declines Honorary Degrees, 370; Made Fellow in Perpe
tuity of Metropolitan Museum, 370; Life Trusteeship of Princeton, 370;



Masonic Lodges, 370-1 Religion, 371


Last Illness, 374-5; Death, 375. FRICK, MRS. HENRY CLAY, (Miss



laide Childs), 73-4, 88, 140, 143, 169.



JR., Birth, 119,

Death, 141.

4, 10, 13, 31-5, 40,






FRICK, MRS. JOHN W., 4, 10-13, 35,38, 40. FRICK, Miss MARIA 6., n, 17, 30-1. FRICK, Swiss family of, i.

KLINE, CAPT., 117. KLOMAN BROTHERS, 113. KNIGHTS OF LABOR, 83, 108, 175-6.

FULLER, DR., 58-9.




C., 190-1, 307, 310-



189-90.. 181. 2. 317. 69-70.185. 195. P. 301-6. . 155. 316. SEN. SEN. MOORE BROTHERS. LABOR AND CAPITAL. C. 317-30.. LEAGUE OF NATIONS. MACRUM & CARLISLE. 60. 151.133. RICHARD. 133. (Widow of Martin Overholt). 193. 103. 133. NORRIS. HENRY W. C. PRESIDENT WILLIAM. 189. SHERIFF. 95 . xn. MEDILL. ABRAHAM. 71. NASH. LABOR. MORTON. THOMAS. (Mrs... A. MCLDOWNEY.. 171. AUGNIS. McKiNLEY. CATHERINE. 165. SEN. 303-5. NORRIE OPTIONS. JOSEPH. NEW YORK. J. 105. 317. &OVEJOY. 364. M. 178. 165. 111. 194. ANDREW W. Knights of. 150-3. 116. of. 317.. GATES. 190-1. 38. 188-99. 158-9. 141. OBSERVATORY AT WESTERN UNIVERSITY. 316-19. 147-9. LITERATURE. NASH. MATILDA. Frick). 133-4. 317. 2. 301-6.. 131-1. 38-43. MARKLE. 169-72. MORGAN SYNDICATE. 103.. McKiNLEY 2. MELLON. ROBERT M.. NATIONAL TUBE COMPANY. 156. NEW. 148-56. "LAIRD" AND THE "MAN. BILL. 46. THE.. 104-15. MOORE & SCHLEY. 370-1 .141. OLIVER. HUGH. 103. C. Consul General. 147. 117. 351. METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. MR.11-3. 87.Index KNOX & REED. COL. 103. Selection NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILWAY. MOORE SYNDICATE.. C. Co. P. "MAN" IN STEEL. MORGAN & Co. 4 6. 148. 113. NATIONAL GUARDS OF PENNSYLVANIA. 133.03. 59. 317. 113. 170. MR. CAPT. A. LINCOLN. MOUNT PLEASANT WATER Co.JOHNE. 180. 116-17. LEVI P. 316-17. JUDGE THOMAS. GEORGE. MASONIC LODGES. 1x8. 5. MORSE. THOMAS. 61. 15. 370. LEWIS CASS.. MOST. 149.. JUDGE W. 181. 186. NATIONAL CITY BANK OF 178. Frick's interest in. J. FRANCIS T. 143. 5. 69-73. O'DoNNELL. MELLON. LENOX LIBRARY. CHAIRMAN. CAPT. LAUDER. MYERS. in.. NORFOLK AND WESTERN RAILWAY. 158. 60.. WILLIS F. NORDRUM. 194. MORELAND. 104-15. S. 46. MR. 319. A. MARTIN. 137-8. McADOo. H. F. 171-5. 105. 135. 117. 4. 35. 314. Abraham NEWSPAPERS. 143. LA FOLLETTE. 66. 19. 2. 175 -6. 160-74. MORRISON. 314. 197. 158.. 105. NATIONAL BANK OF THE COMMONWEALTH. (ist wife of Daniel LANE. 5. 99. McCLEARY. MARTIN. 349- MELLON. 54.. SEN. 33-4.. 380 . 51. MELLON. MlLHOLLAND. 108. LYNCH.. McCooK.94. 155. 9. 59-60. 47. xxx-xz. 43. MENNONITES. MOORE. J. LIBERTY LOANS. no. H. NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY. Tinstman). J. COL. HARRY. i. MACKAY.. 136. OLIVER AND FRICK. WILLIAM G.. MORGAN & MORGAN. 177. WILLIAM. JOHN C.. THOMAS S. 4. LEISHMAN. MELLON & SONS. 149-56. AENEAS. 141. NEW YORK. MORGAN. CORNELIA. M. MARKLE.. 193. X73.181. 107. (ind wife of Dan iel Frick).. S. 2. MELLON NATIONAL BANK OF PITTSBURGH. J.05. SENATOR. 169-70.. LEDYARD. 93-105. NORTH CHICAGO ROLLING MILL Co. 3 161-8. 87. 187-99. MILLER. 364. 48.56.155. JOHN. n. 119-31.. 131. 83. 70. in. 54. JOHN G. 9. 101. McCoRMicK. MERCANTILE COMPANY OF 180. ANDREW." THE. 147..

ABRAHAM. PARDONS. (Son of Martin). 95. 5-6.38. REDMOND.155.9. BESSEMER & LAKE ERIE RAILROAD. 30-1. OVERHOLT & Co. PATTISON. (Wife of Chris tian S. 191-4. 76. H. 140-1. PEACOCK. ROCKEFELLER. 158-9. QUAKERS. 176. 2-03. 117. John S. H. i. MARIA S... LAWRENCE C. ALFRED. 118-13. PENKERT NIHILISTS. 16. 5. REED. 169.. Anna). 19. OVERHOLT. POTTER. 143-4REID.. 369-70. 103. 5-7... FREDERICK H. DR. 319. 355. SUPERINTENDENT. 31. MARTIN.176. 2. OVERHOLT. 4. 13.. PENN HOTEL. CHIEF JUSTICE. 5. C. OVERHOLT. OTTERBBIN COLLEGE. MOSES T. 5. OLIVER H. OVERHOLT. ALEXANDER R. PINKERTON. 31..58-^ OVERHOLT. i. 5-6. (Mrs.. 199. ROBERT E. 6-8. 35. ANNA. 116. 196-7. 13. 346. OVERHOLT. PAXSON. R. V. 14. RAILROAD. 9-11. 13.s *5 8 76. 3 5 OVERHOLT. OVERHOLT. PRIDE'S CROSSING.. RIPLEY. PHOEBE BRASHEAR CLUB. E. JUDGE JAMES H. 4- OVERHOLT. 40. JAMES A.. 317. . RESIGNATION. 12. RED CROSS. PINKERTON GUARDS.. JOSEPH. 193. 198. 6-9. in. OVERHOLT. ELIZABETH. 161-68. 40. COL. 356-75. 197. 189-311. 5.361. 19-31. PAYNE.. 198. his. 13.. 146-59. 176.. PITTSBURGH.. MARIA O. POLDI-PEZZOLI. OVERHOLT. JOHN A. (Mrs. PHIPPS. 36-7.. THE DAILY. Overholt). 309. 5. 7. 1 5 2. PAINTINGS PURCHASED BY H.7. 334. 64. PEPPER. REID. 103. PUBLIC AFFAIRS. 98. HENRY. 78.Index OLIVER IRON MINING Co. M.9-33. ROBERT A. 365. 173. PANIC OP 1873. 188-99. 13. Frick receives 118-16. SUSANNA. S. 178. ISAAC. 7. 13-4. iai. 14. E.. 35. 181. REV.345. JOHN D. PEARSON. PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. KATHBRINE. FRICK. 93l6 5> 170-1. *97 2-77. MARTIN S. AUGNIS. 371. P. 105-17. 373. BOARD OP. SENATOR.. ANNA BEITLER. 36-7. SHENANGO Frick). PALMER. 109-10.31-1.40. 119-10. O'MARA. PITTSBURGH STEAMSHIP Co. Ovcrholt). ABRAHAM. RIST. 2-81-2.. -5> *34* POWDERLY. Ovcrholt). PHIPPS. 4. 60. 157. 345. 103-5. HENRY. 100. OVERHOLT. FRICK. 36. OVERHOLT. REED. 48. OVERHOLT. HENRY. 8-9. (Wife of Abraham PRINCETONIAN. 116. 57-8- PYNE. 84-6. 10-13. PARK. 7. PATTERSON.. 6-7. PARK. 6.. DR. 136. PROTECTION. OVERHOLT. (Wife of Chris & LAKE ERIE OVERHOLT ESTATE. 17.. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. BENJAMIN. OVERHOLT. (Widow of Martin Overholt).. 114-16. 198. OVERHOLT. 115. 95.. 89. . n. MR. 2.. 2. 348. PITTSBURGH. 48.7. 337-43* 177. WHTTBLAW. C. PRINCE. i.7.. PERSONALITY OP H. SARAH. 143. HENRY S. CHRISTIAN 34. ELIZABETH S. PHILLIPS. WILLIAM P. C. 369-70. (Son of Henry and . WILLIAM G. 35 3 8 > tian Overholt). 44-66. R. 32. 17. OVERHOLT. 2. 4. GEORGE F. E. 97. OVERHOLT. D. 103. S. POLITICS. ROBERTS. 63. 199. RELIGION. WILLIAM. 30-1. SEN.. OVERHOLT. 105. 188. John W. 103. 118. 107. 146-7.T. 100. 303. READING RAILROAD Co. CHRISTIAN.. 344-5.. Gov. FRICK. 50. JOHN S. 111. 19. OVERHOLT. WILLIAM. QUAY. PBNN. 148-56.. 147-57. (Wife of Henry Ovcrholt).. 114-15. SEN.. JR..35.

2. 149. * J. 171. JOHN D. MRS. ELIZABETH. JOHN. WALKER. UNION STEEL COMPANY. UNION IRON MILLS Co. 116. VOIGHT. 319-11.. 113 UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD. Warfare on. UNITED WAR WORK. WAYNE. 138. WlCKERSHAM. (1889 113. WILL AND BEQUESTS. CHARLES M. 366-8. ABRAHAM. ..70. 105-6. JAMES H..16. 103.PRESIDENTWlLLIAMH... 311. JAMES. 9. J.. 57-8. ROOT. GENERAL. GEORGE W. 357. THE LITTLE. 301-4. lo-n. 173. 50. 38. 84-6. STAUFFER. SENATOR. 365. 143. JOHN. STANLEY.. JOHN. REV. 7.313. 301-6. 17. WILSON TARIFF^ 181. UNION ARCADE BUILDING. 133-4. 117. GEORGE R. WHIG PARTY. STANDARD OIL COMPANY. 317. n. D. WHALEN.. 315. 19-31. 319-11. 1956. 44-64. PETER'S EPISCOPAL 141-1. 196. RODGERS. SNOWDEN. SCHOOLMASTER.. 103. MR. 147. 87. UNION TRUST Co. 310-11. WILSON. MAJ. A.. 117.. REV. 133-4. i. 103. SYLVANUsO. MR. THAW. 196. 146. 151. 3 17. 130-1. STAUFFER. 371. R. 12. 130. 13-14. 57. 9-11. WEIGLEY. EHHU. SCHWAB. 173. WALTER. 3. 334.315.. CHURCH. COLLEGE OF. 18 1. 3 55. TRIUMPH OF FAITH AND COURAGE. TINSTMAN. PROF. 180. 3 1 1. 60. THORNTON. 134. WOOD. UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION.0.. 314. 304. 35. SALVATION ARMY... UNITED COAL & COKE Co.305-10. 99. 177. YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN. 316. ROOSEVELT.. WILLIAM H. TINSTMAN. WASHINGTON. 87.. 155-7. 196. 317. JACOB O. WHITNEY. 131. SIMPSON. 197. SCHOONMAKER. & l8 9) 9 " 1. 7. K. GROVER A. (Wife of Abraham Overholt). WHITNEY. 355. (Wife of Christian Ovcrholt).191. 351-3. 153-7. 306. PRESIDENT THEODORE. WEIHB. PRESIDENT WOODROW. 349.-GEN. STRIKES (1887) 83-6. 2. OF PITTSBURGH. 150. 141. 306. 301. PRESIDENT.359. 103. BERNARD. WANAMAKBR. WESTERN UNIVERSITY. LLOYD. 355192.31-1. WATSON. SEN. TARIFF BILL. 119. TAFT. D. CHAIRMAN. 34. 307-9... 105. ARTHUR. 159-61. in. 7. PITTSBURGH. 170. VANDERBILT. GENERAL LEONARD. 114. STAUFFER. 134. VARDAMAN. STILLMAN. ni-i. 349. TRUSTS. THOMAS A. PRESIDENT MARTIN. CAPT.361. GEORGE W.Index ROCKEFELLER. 177. 313-14.181. 316. ABRAHAM O. 303-4. SINGER. 131. ANDREW CARNEGIE. ST. SCHALLENBERGER. i. WESTERN UNION.. VAN BUREN. 163. 118.317. VANDEVORT. 196-7.. 47. SHERMAN LAW.. SCOTT.. WAR AGAINST GERMANY. 331. 147. WOOSTER. MARIA. JOHN W. TENNESSEE COAL & IRON Co.. 44. 89. ABRAHAM O. (Homestead) 106-86. WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD. 198-301. 135. SPRING HOUSE. WILLIAM. WILSON. 178. SUPERINTENDENT. 156. PITTS BURGH. 17. 371. JR. 46.. STONE. 31. 149. 382 ..317.. TINSTMAN. 181. 350. 318-11. 63. 14. 371* SARGENT. STAUFFER. 158-68.317.. 13. DECLARATION OF. YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSN.. SCOTCH AND IRISH SETTLERS. STANDARD MINES PROPERTY.309-IO. GEORGE. 181. 46. SWANK. 9. 7.2. ^j Z 4^- WALLACE COLLECTION. NEW.





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