The Negro and the Jew / Négritude et Judéité Author(s): Albert Memmi Source: African Arts, Vol. 1, No.

4 (Summer, 1968), pp. 26-29+96-101+122-123 Published by: UCLA James S. Coleman African Studies Center Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3334273 . Accessed: 05/09/2011 19:03
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"Le terme de jud. r6volutionnaire dans les annees 1940-50. et qu'elle reste un souci lancinant de tout intellectuel juif. a l'exclusion d'autres acceptions. LOSANGELES.NIGERIA COLLECTION. ou plus exactement que si je disposais de judaisme. Le concept de n6gritude. contribuer a preciser et a rajeunir un outil methodologique qui. m'aient encourag dans ma propre recherche. d'aborder avec de meilleures armes. il s'agissait. j'eus rapidement besoin d'un mot qui exprimat. celui-ci possedait trop de significations diverses pour pouvoir 6tre utilise avec une precision sans equivoque. est aujourd'hui bon pour le musbe de la littirature. a des notions d6passees par l'histoire. MUStE UNIVERSITt DE CALIFORNIE.pour se d&finir. un terme specifique: je proposai celui de juddite. MERIDIONAL. Mais une pr6cision et un rajeunissement salvateurs pourraient tre obtenus. une realit6 complexe et qui m'6chap- Suitepage 28 . Il me fallait donc adopter. Qu'on me permette de rappeler tr&sbrinvement qu'ayant d6cid6 de faire l'inventaire de moi-meme comme juif.it-6 invent6 et employ6 par Albert Memmi semble vouloir indiquer l'6quivalent juif de la negritude. apres avoir 6t6 tant lou6 pour sa f6conde commodite."l C'est 1l une sev"rit6 bien excessive pour un concept toujours commode.A DEUXVISAGES.3 II me parait necessaire d'y insister: ce fut donc d'abord sans prj~uger du contenu de ce fait d'etre juif. Y'6crivainet essayiste Arnold Mandel suggere que je me serais inspire de la notion de nigritude pour forger le terme de Il n'est pas impossible que l'effort des Noirs judeit4. WELLCOME EKOI. PEAUETBOIS SCULPTL. le fait d'dtre juif. je crois. Negritude et Jud eit e ALBERTMEMMI a Le~opoldSe'darSenghor "On ne sert pas la culture africaine quand on s'accroche. Les voies du Hassidisme. est quelquefois d6cri6 par les nouvelles generations noires. comme j'ai ete contraint de le faire pour le terme de judaisme. Je me suis aperqu avec 6tonnement et embarras qu'il n'existait pas. Je voudrais seulement ajouter ici que mon itineraire pourrait.et la cristallisation de leurs inquietudes et de leurs espoirs dans ce concept de n6gritude. au contraire. ETHNOGRAPHIQUE. et au besoin forger. judaicite et judaisme. MASQUE 46 CM. par une refonte et un eclatement de ce concept en trois autres. que j'ai 6ti amene a proposer et a d6finir." Dans son livre. Il n'est pas davantage dans mon propos de m'6tendre sur ces trois notions de jud6ite. d'un besoin methodologique. comme une hultre. j'ai trop 6th prioccup6 par cet 6veil contemporain des 26 peuples dominos. en retour. Et bien que la r6flexion sur 1'identit6 juive ait historiquement precodd ces tentatives. pour qu'il soit exclu que j'aie pu tre influence par telle ou telle de leurs d•couvertes sur euxmemes.

OF ETHNIC OF CALIFORNIA. however. the author and essayist. Judeitd. suggests that the word "Negritude" inspired me to coin the term Judeitte. WELLCOME EKOI. I was both surprised and perplexed to find that such a word did not exist. benefit from a youth-giving and salutary precision by being remolded and broken down into three categories as I have done with the expression "Judaism. however. like an oyster to its shell." In his book. so I invented the word. there was the word "Judaism. therefore. to adopt or coin a specific word. I soon required a word which would express (to the exclusion of all other uses) the fact of being a Jew.UNIVERSITY The the Negro and Jew ALBERTMEMMI To Le"opoldSe"dar Senghor "We do an injustice to African culture when we cling. To be more exact. I needed.2 It is possible that I may have been influenced in my own research on Judaism by the Blacks' search for their identity which resulted in the creation of the term Negritude. It was only in trying to explain the reality of the phenomContinued on page 29 27 . to concepts which history has rendered obsolete. the crystallization of their hopes and concerns. When I decided to take inventory of myself as a Jew. Judaicitd and Judaism.JANUS-FACED 18".SOUTHERN COLLECTION. SKIN COVERED. I do not wish to dwell at length on the three concepts I have proposed and defined-Judditd. a revolutionary one during the 1940-50's. The Jew's concern about or meditation on his own identity has historically preceded that of the black man and it remains the most important preoccupation of any Jewish intellectual. Better tools were necessary before I could grasp the complex reality which still escaped me. Arnold Mandel." "The word Judditd invented and used by Albert Memmi seems to be the Jewish equivalent of 'Negritude'. MUSEUM NIGERIA. I would only like to submit here that the results of my own intellectual discoveries could perhaps serve to modernize and more accurately define a methodological tool which is sometimes criticized by the new generation of blacks-after having received such profuse praise for its great usefulness. ARTS. Les Voies du Hassidisme. I have. MASK. CARVED WOOD. I believe it could. today belongs in a museum of literary works.3 I must state that. The concept of Negritude." but it had too many different meanings to be used in any one specific and unequivocal way. my first aim was to satisfy a methodological need. without lessening the importance of the meaning of this term."' This judgment is rather severe for a concept which remains useful. LOSANGELES. been too engrossed by the awakening of subjugated peoples not to have been influ- enced by one or another of their discoveries about themselves.

en fait. ou s'il doit comprendre un dynamisme 6volutif qui l'enrichit mais le transforme au cours de l'histoire. pour tenir compte de la dispersion de cette judaicith en multiples communautes a travers le monde. Par rapport i la judaicit6. chacune de ces judaicites locales (ex: la judaicite frangaise ou la judaicite am6ricaine). qui faisait tous les usages.plus ou moins consciente. meme au prix d'un appauvrissement apparent du vocabulaire. pour judaisme. qui regissent la vie collective des Juifs. qui participaient plus ou moins a cette ideologie. a mon sens. a la distinguer des autres dimensions. N'est-il pas 6vident qu'il valait mieux lui assigner un seul de ces sens. longtemps. objective et subjective. sa fiddlit' des valeurs juives qui ne seraient pas strictement religieuses. de meme.6Avec les pricautions que l'on doit garder devant une telle expression math6matique d'une r6alit6 v~cue si Suite page 96 . pour ne pas multiplier les concepts de travail. I1 n'etait pas besoin de refl. religieuses et morales. Et. les institutions qui organisent la vie collective des Juifs et qui d6coulent d'ailleurs en partie de ces valeurs mais qui. enfin.chir v6rifier terme combien ce de pour judaisme. il ne se trouve dans aucun dictionnaire. les individus et les groupes juifs. quitte a proposer d'autres termes pour les autres? Un peu d'ordre. serait exclusivement la maniere pour un Juif de l'tre. bt quelque degr#. la vivaient et l'actualisaient plus ou moins. se situant d'une certaine manibre dans le prolongement de cette tradition cuturelle lui donnent cependant une physionomie presque in6dite? C'est un problkme grave. Comme il me paraitrait absurde de considerer tout 't fait s6parement les valeurs juives qui n'existent 6videmment pas sans aucune liaison avec le groupe juif. de corn28 prendre sous la meme rubrique. C'est pouquoi nous avons pu parler. la juddit6 contient une r~f6rence plus ou moins affirm6e. l'id6ologie juive et ses oeuvres d'une part et. en somme la judaicite mondiale. je proposai donc le terme de judaicitd. mais je me suis davantage convaincu qu'il fallait les distinguer et en tenter des approximations aussi differentielles que possible. que la juddit6 est variable d'un individu &un autre. enfin (c) a distinguer entre elles ces diffbrentes dimensions et 'ales definir chacune separement. Au contraire. d'autre part. etait qu'il fallait pouvoir considerer separement.qui peuvent Atre plus ou moins pr6sents suivant la constellation particuli6re de chaque sujet. De m~me. Ainsi ne faudrait-il pas distinguer. qui excluerait les novateurs excessifs. en tout cas. Pour designer expressement le groupe juif. en tout cas. et (b) par suite. plus ou moins dlev& Et pour achever le triangle. de coefficient de fudditd. et dans un ensemble consacre plus particulierement a la sociologie de la connaissance. "le judaisme d'un tel"). et je m'en suis aperqu dbs que j'ai essay d'inventorier plus compl~tement la condition juive. De ce concept. s'il posshde une unit6 d~finitive. tantot la communaut6 (on parlait du "judaisme frangais") tant6t l'appartenance d'un individu juif a son groupe. la totalit6 demographique juive. et plus precisement encore avec l'volution des conjonctures socio-historiques qui ont constitu6 son destin particulier. ce n'est pas dans une perspective sociologique. et c'est ce que je veux dire surtout. j'ai cru bon. Judaicite designerait ainsi soit. les inventions des penseurs et essayistes juifs contemporains qui. Aujourd'huiencore. 1'appartenance t un groupe est toujours aussi. et en quelque sorte jalouse. tant6t la mesure de son attachement aux croyances traditionnelles ' et meme. contraignant et inefficace. que je pourrais pretendre a quelque existence rdellement separee de la judeite. ltait a la fois trop riche et trop vague. subjectivement et objectivement. il est clair que l'appartenance Aun groupe se r~duit rarement une simple solidarit6 micanique et purement n~gative devant le danger. depuis le sionisme. Nul doute qu'il ne faille mime pousser plus avant dans la pr~cision. Et. Il m'a sembl6. en effet. en tous cas. je laisse la discussion ouverte. Il fallait en outre lui donner un statut 1Mgal(ce que je propose en meme temps d'ailleurs). Le plus urgent. Tenant compte de la physionomie d6mographique particuli're du peuple juif il fallait en tout cas y distinguer au moins un sens large et un sens 6troit. nous avions d'autant plus besoin d'une grille a apposer sur une matiere tumultueusement confuse. ne pouvait Atre que salutaire. je dirai volontiers que le judaisme est l'ideologie et l'ensemble institutionnel de la judaicit . La juddite. et le plus immediatement evident. La maniere dont il se sent juif et dont il r6agit a la condition juive. avec mes collaborateurs. que je fus amend: (a) 'a rechercher une definition de la juddite aussi exclusive et adequate que possible. presque toujours. Je devais a ce propos faire uine autre petite dcouverte: je croyais vaguement d'abord que le mot existait dbja.5 Il s'ensuit. des traditions C'est un probleme grave de savoir quel est le domaine exact de l'hdritage juif. inevitables dans un domaine off un vecu toujours inquietant suscite les passions les plus intenses et les reflexions les plus variees. pour mieux en parler et mieux les /tudier. designe par ce mot de judaicit&. Or. pour le moment. elle est un degrd d'appartenance.pait encore. et j'admets fort bien qu'on me les conteste. Bien entendu. pour une recherche simplement soucieuse d'exactitude et d'objectivit&4Il signifiait tant6t l'ensemble des valeurs traditionnelles. A cet egard. et que j'avais surtout a lui affecter un sens univoque. (On disait. de savoir quel est le domaine exact de l'hdritage juif. les inspirent en retour. soit. la reconnaissance de ses valeurs. entre l'hdritage proprement religieux et les prescriptions 6thiques qui forment la philosophie morale des Juifs? Faut-il toujours nommer du mime mot de judaisme les renouvellements. d'en parcourir separ&ment toutes les dimensions. plus ou moins 4tendue. que le sens le plus adequat. dont 1l encore. aux valeurs traditionnelles juives. je ne suis pas stir d'avoir 6puise par ces trois definitions les trois dimensions de la realit6 juive. dans son intensit6 et m~me dans ses 16lments. J'ai dit qu'il m'a fallu forger ici un mot totalement nouveau pour exprimer un fait indiscutablement original. dans cet ensemble culturel. Mais l'essentiel est que l'on s'en tienne a ce sens d6mographique: la judaicit designe un ensemble de personnes juives. au moins pour le sp~cialiste. c'est seulement en essayant d'expliciter la realit6 de l'existence juive. devait tre celui de culturelles l'ensemble et religieuses. je propose une acception. De sorte que les divergences d'interpretation sur les champs recouverts par ces definitions. ne devraient pas cependant contredire au principe meme de ces distinctions. sinon la precision de terme.

e. I had a vague idea that this word already existed and that I need only attribute a single meaning to it. the concept of Juddit6 cannot have an isolated existence.. should be no reason for opposing the construction of such distinctions. I also made a small discovery. I would. it is necessary to define the term both in a broad and a narrow sense. and to the Jew's degree of attachment to traditional beliefs. in studying all dimensions of the problem separately. which. and more particularly. state that Judaism comprises the ideology and the institutional framework of the Judaicitd. that it would be better to assign only one of these meanings to Judaism and find different terms for the others? A little order. do not exist in a vacuum.7 In summing up. i. but I am more convinced than ever that they had to be separated. and (b) each local Jewish community. Does it have a clear-cut scope which makes it hostile to innovation? Should it embrace a dynamic and evolutionary course which. It is a grave problem." I suggest we retain this concept which I designate by the term. or Judaism. it is clear that membership in a group is rarely defined negatively by the act of mechanical solidarity in the face of danger. or Judditd. to the membership of an individual Jew in his group. or Judaicit& (b) the values of the group. to know the proper domain of the Jewish heritage. The existence of various interpretations of the subjects covered by these definitions. would also transform it over time? To keep from unduly multiplying my initial working concept. which embraced multiple meanings. This is why my collaborators and I were able to talk about a "coefficient of Judditd. It is. that to speak and write more accurately about Jewish ideology and its works. They must be seen in light of Jews as a group. therefore. and (c) distinguish and define each dimension separately. that the most adequate meaning for Judaism would be "the body of cultural and religious traditions. at least for the specialist. I am still not sure today that I have exhausted the three dimensions of the Jewish reality with these definitions.5 Above all. I have included under the same heading all institutions which organize Jewish collective life and which stem from and influence its values. in a broad sense. was not only too complex and vague.4 The term referred at once to the traditional. Bearing in mind the particular demographic physiognomy of the Jewish people. Out of this body of cultural values should we not distinguish the religious heritage per se from the ethical prescriptions which form the moral philosophy of the Jews? Must all the new works of contemporary Jewish philosophers and essayists come under the heading of "Judaism?"Though these men may be said to cling to the cultural tradition. In belonging to a group. So-andSo". the perspective of the sociology of knowledge. their findings are quite novel. Juddite nearly always refers to-though perhaps not in completely explicit and conscious terms-the traditional Jewish values. the American Judaicitd. it is necessary to consider the Jud~it6 of each subject separately. but leave it open for discussion. in order to take into account the fragmenting of this Judaicitd into multiple communities through the world (for example. the total number of Jews throughout the world. Contrary to the word Judaicitd. It did not take me long to realize that the expression. In making this selection. a given group of Jews geographically sitContinuedon page 98 29 . though realizing that in using a mathematical expression for a complex. in order to secure some idea of their specific natures. and about the Jews-as individuals and as a group-who share this ideology and in various degrees live up to it. however. I have already given a detailed account of these three concepts and the definitions below will serve as a matter of record: "ludaicite consists of the body of Jews. even at the expense of a seeming loss of vocabulary. Since the Zionist movement. it has even come to mean a Jew's loyalty to Jewish values which may not be strictly religious. essential that the demographic sense be preserved: Judaicite designates a group of Jews. inevitable for a grave historical phenomenon which has always provoked strong emotional reactions and divergent opinions." for example). On the contrary. therefore. if one pretends to adopt a sociological perspective. But the word was not to be found in any dictionary. Juddit6 measures both objectively and subjectively the degree to which the individual belongs to the group. that I was led to do the following: (a) seek a definition for which would be as specific and as Judeite as possible. however."'6We have even attempted to state the factors which enter into such a calculation. (c) the degree to which the Jew participates in his group and shares its values. I propose. then. I readily accept criticism.enon of the Jew. Of course. in light of the evolution of the socio-historical events which have shaped the particular destiny of the Jewish group. Judaicite. Judaism. (b) distinguish it from all other adequate dimensions. therefore. would exclusively describe the manner in which a Jew is a Jew. and more specifically. it is most important and urgent to consider the two facets separately. One must realize. hard-to-grasp reality we were treading on dangerous ground.). etc." It is a grave problem to know the proper domain of the Jewish heritage. I had to invent an entirely new word to express an indisputably original fact. It seemed to me. one must structure such a disturbing and confusing subject matter. although enriching it. the French Judaicitd. As the final element of the triangle. Judaicitd. I immediately felt that we should seek greater precision in meaning when I tried to take a more complete inventory of the Jewish situation. In order to designate specifically the Jewish group.) Is it not evident. It would appear just as absurd for me to consider altogether separately Jewish values. Judaicith would thus embrace the following: (a) total Jewish population-the worldwide Judaicitd. then. could not help but be salutory. it appeared necessary to clearly separate the following distinct elements: (a) the Jewish group. (The saying went: "The Judaism of Mr. I selected the word. subjectively and objectively-the way in which he feels Jewish and reacts to the condition of the Jew. one always expresses recognition of its values to a certain degree. that its status be "legalized. of course. Nevertheless. Judditd. I would like to state that Judditd varies in intensity and in composition from one individual to another. to any Jewish community (we speak of "French Judaism. in a narrow sense. but also too restricting and inefficient for objective and exacting research. As I previously stated. religious and moral values which govern the collective life of the Jews.

ou parallklement i lui. c'est-a-dired'une maniere de vivreet de traiterces valeurs.matur6e et definitions. la mime confusion par exchs de significations. avaient un tout autre style. les valeurs et l'organisationqui constituent et reglent la vie d'un groupejuif. tous les Noirs sont loin d'8tre socialement libres.religion.les hommes commencentat 96 . Aim6 C6saire.niable que la constitution en nations de larges pr~tendait exprimer et illustrer la condition du Noir.une conditionde dominance:d'oii des difficultesparticulieres a se saisir objectivement-des illusions sur soi.8 La notion de nigritude rdpondait en somme au m~me besoin: elle prenait acte de la sdparationdu Noir. politique pour le moins. mais 6galementdu refus de soi1'accusation meme. son appartenance et son insertiondans le monde non-juif. comde delimiteret de d6finirma personnalite me Juif: c'est-a-dire entreautrespar rapport a la personnalit6 collectivedu groupedontje faisaispartie. il est n6cessairede pouvoir au moins consid6rersepar6mentla judeitede chaquesujet. II est interessant de noterdejat que la situationse pr6sentait a moi de la meme maniereque pour un Noir. S.ne forgonspas exag6rement notre naivet6 moins la en ou fait.a trois tiroirsbien clos. dorinavent m~mes.le groupe juif vivait une conditionparticuliereet deformante. en avait surtout donn6 des approximations. les institutions et les oeuvresdes Noirs. au sens 6troit. D'autantqu'on parle 6galement"d'humanisme Ala "civilisanegre"et de contribution tion de l'universel" (Senghor). ou judaicit6.d'unepart. qui Tschomb6!" . Senghor de tenter d'en formuler des Et qu'une telle euphorie peut sembler pr. comprend que les Sin. (b) ses valeurs.soit. Et l'on ou les Ivoiriens.ses rdvolteset ses aspira. a traversles malaises et les colkresdes jeunes generationsdont je parlaisplus haut: a tant bavarderde n6gritudeet d'humanisme noir. (Par exemple: la judaicitefrangaiseou la judaicit6de New York.galais de leur maitres aussi mais la mbme densit6 destin. nees de des autres. unique il s'agit alors plut6t de d'en le sens".les definitions: "La judaicite est l'ensembledes personnesjuives: soit. Il s'agissait alorsplut6t de la judaicit6. et la participationde ce monde et chaque homme et de chaque groupe noir "a a ces valeurs. telles 1'ensemble qu'elles s'exprimentdans la vie. vecues et objectives. individusou commetels.et meme d'un rassemblement exhaustif. dans la r6alit6. ecrites ou orales. et l'ayant et6 1'assumer. lesquels les rapports peuples maitres entre la religion et la culture.ou juddeitd.la culturejuive au sens large: habitudescollectives.la maniere " la judaicit dont un Juif vit. plus gravement encore.Quoi qu'il en soit. fixees ou non. elle n'a pas disparu.te II est ind.Et-je l'ai assez dit a propos de la trilogie les Juifs-nous n'avons conceptuelleconcernant pas affaire.probablementdes valeurs. par exemple.un groupementjuif donn6. pour une libdration et une reconquete Atreoubli"s au profit des valeurs! Or. doutent qu'elle ait jamais exist6. les valeurs du monde noir.I1 s'agit bien des traditionsculturelleset religieuses.et telles qu'ellescontinuent 'a4tre actualis6espar les hommesvivants aujourd'hui. approfondir v6cue.secteurs du monde noir a fait reculer la n6gativith noire. tous les Noirs sont loin d'etre nationalement libres et.ou encore. II s'agissait de d&~crire. que certains Juifs. on ne sait s'il s'agit des hommesou des valeurs. l'quivalent de la judeit6. h quoi correspond "Festivaldes ArtsNegres".croyanceset institutionsdes Juifs. plus m'thodologique: a 1'ensemble des veut la hommes fois signifier n6gritude noirs. veulent pour y d~couvrir passionnelle insister sur la seule positivit6 des valeurs et des arts noirs. La preuve en est que la discussiona precis-mentport6 sur ce point. ainsi que des contre-mythes opposes l'accusation.)" "Le judaismeest l'ensembledes doctrines. ou mame avec sa complicitY: "Aujourd'hui.il m'apparut necessairede distinguerclairement. a ses valeursd'autrepart. n'en recle pas en mime temps tout le trouble et comme la fondation de l'Etat d'Israel a si heureusement toutes les difficultis. et se proposait comme un drapeau.au moinspar sa representativit6.pourmemoire."Notre groupes structures souci a de cette nigritude. Or. mais essentiellement po~tique." "Lajudeiteest le fait et la maniered'etreJuif. ils veulent dire apparemment qu'il s'agit cette fois d'un rassemblement d'hommes. mais non des hommesen tant que tels. et psychologiques biologiquesqui font un Juif. de la Rencontrede Dakarla Lorsqueles organisateurs les "Etats Generauxde la Negritude" comme presentent (Alioune Diop). de cette condition 6vidementa celle des non comparable objectiveanormale. de chez leur destin. aujourd'hui. nous avons meme essay6 de priciser des criteresde calcul de ce coefficient. Apr~s le colonisateur. puisque signis par les inventeurs ment oublieux. si l'on admet qu'uneculturene se resume pas dans les arts.En voici seulement. Et il suffit de parcourir quelques estomp6 la n6gativit6 juive. et les d6fenseurs encore actuels.N gritude et Judeite suite de la page 28 riche et si fluente.lorsqu'ilajoute.LorsqueSenghord6finitla n6gritudecomme: des valeurs culturellesdu monde noir. autre Lorsqu'un organisateurdeclare qu'il faut "defendre et illustrerla negritude". qui fut. disent-ellesavec indignation. II est vrai aussi que si un langage magnifique. 1'inventeurdu On ne veut retenir d6sormais de la n6gritude que son terme. geographiquement localise. ce qui 6tait confusementdistinct: (a) le groupe juif." II Venonsen maintenanta ce parallle avec la negritude.en somme.'V9 en sommea ce que j'ai elle correspond propos6d'appelerstrictementjudaisme. Mais n'est-ilpas d'autantplus de disposerd'outilsadequats"a chaqueperspecn6cessaire tive? A chaque manipulationde l'existencede l'homme noir? On le voit clairement. "nous vivons l'Are des Mais alors. dont chacunrec&Ale un contenu bien d6limite. trop faciletextes indiscutables.Or. appartenait 5 L. dans aspect affimatif et mime glorieux. Bien entendu. h la fois ses richesseset ses carences. dctaill6 de ces trois J'ai donn6 ailleursun commentaire notions. des N~gres exde soi.et (c) le degr6 de participation du Juif ' son groupe.la totalite des Juifs 'atraversle monde. Admettonsau moins qu'il y a ici oscillationentre les hommeset la culture. de la n6gritude. il aurait dtonnant qu'une telle notion. I1 l'oppression du monde noir a recul6. tions. dans les nouvelles nations noires.7 En resume. t ma connaissance. sociologiques. ploitent des Negres!". confusement.cette le titre officielde mieux d'ailleurs fois. juridictionet arts. en tout cas. ou judaisme.philosophie. nees aussi. "tla fois. bien que cette appellationellememe soit bien restrictive.l'ensemble des caracteristiques. la r~summait commodiment d'un mot. au sens large.

On ne peut que sugg6rer les questions: comment caracteriserdorenavant le contenu de la n6gritude. Mais. la condition noire et la condition juive.quelque peu d6sinvolte.caduque. d'avoir ajoute un argument"a cette hypoth6se d'une certaine similitude entre la plupart des conditions de dominance.en passant. pour tous ceux dont la n6gritudedemeure plus un fardeau qu'une source de fPlicites. d~s maintenant.S'il 6tait entendu. L'Afrique chant le plus beau que . 6thiques ou esth6tiques. accessoirement. lorsqu'elle sera libre!" En quoi il n'a probablement pas tout Afait tort. comme je le propose. l'crivain noir am6ricain Leroi Jones en arrive 'a contester l'existence d'une quelconque culture noire: "La culture noire n'existepas". a l'instardu coefficientde jud6ite? On verra peut-etre. I1 est difficile't un non-Noirde s'immiscerdans l'un des conflitsinternesles plus gravesqui puissent agiter un Noir actuel.c'est-h-dire A strictement parler. de se r6f6rer ~ des normes religieuses.elle devient moins pr6occupante des valeursculturellesnoires. La nigritd serait l'ensemble des personnes. en effet.Le haut-commissaire dahomeenne dit finalement pas autre chose: "la negritude sera liberatriceou ne sera pas". elle ne sauraitetre affect6e du signe moins. et de d6finir s6par~ment. entre plusieurs plans de la r6alitd noire. Voilk l'originede l'insatisfactiontrouble que ressentirentde nombreuxparticipants'a la rencontre de Dakar: il y avait lia l'esquisse d'une autre version du conflit entre peuples nantis et peuples dmunis. noirs. le nigrisme. ment ne serait-ilpas aussi catastrophiquede refuser d'un seul coup toutes les valeursnoires. mais de distinguer entre la tradition et la culture. qui ne voit qu'il s'agit 1i de deux plans diff~rents. Et si je me permets d'ouvrirla bouche dans une telle discussion. la manibre dont chaque individu noir aborde ces valeurs. La n6gritude. donc. la manibre dont il se situe dans sa communauth. Et puis-je signaler. contradictoirememe. de l'acceptation intigrale ou du refus absolu. par delt les similitudes. tant6t cette religion elle-m me propos."les tam-tams de la ont des rumeursde chaudn6gritudeeosaire-senghorienne rons fe1es". alors il faut denoncer ces pseudo-valeurs: "Culture tourn6e vers le passe6". Et l'on comprend alors que les organisateursaient pr6fer6 ne pas inviter certains: les Africainsdu Sud. puisse en inspirer une similaire: il faudraitpeut-etre&clater le concept de negritude. Si l'affirmation doit voiler la negativit6des miseresde l'hommenoir.m me dans les d6bats les plus passionnels.Ni d'ailleurscelle de chaque Noir avec celle de tous les Noirs. elle peut etre insuffisante. ce qui serait absurde. le plus important Amon sens est ce mouvement de distinction.dans ces quelques pages. qui seul permettra de faire 4clater une unit6 fallacieuse et 6touffante. ce que je propose d'appeler: la nrgritd.et de chaque contenu.si elles existent. Quelle sera a chaque fois la part de la n6gativit6 et celle de la positivit6? Peut-on arriver a d6crire. par appartenance a ses valeurs. 6galement. D'oii la r6volte des jeunes gens contre cette totalisation euphorique. ou dans une attitude fonctionnaliste Al'6gard des valeurs. serait r6serv6ea la maniere de se a un groupe d'homsentir et d'etre noir. relativement fix6es.c'est simplement. pos du n6grisme. Une telle variabilith dans la r6f6rence permet de d6passer ce fauxproblbme du tout ou rien. "un pass6 petrifi6". La n6gritude. les diff6rencesentre les conditions et les traditions sont d'une extreme importance. . avec leurs diff6rents problkmes socio-politiques.ce n'est pas seulement parce que je crois a la vertu d'une certainerationalit6.ou plus exactement. et influences dispers6esuivantla g6ographieet les diff6rentes subies. a cernerun coefficientde negritude. pour la raisonmajeureque.e Et qu'il est 6thiques qui l'accompagnentordinairement? peut-8tretemps d'y oprer 6galementquelque distinction? Bien entendu. certes passionnants. sinon insultante. (Ce ne fut pas un hasard de 1'histoire culturelle et 97 Je n'ai 6videmmentpas l'ambition. qui relkvent autant de l'6pist6mologieque de la sociologie de la connaissance. des diff6rentes communaut6s noires. et doit tre bien aperque comme telle. Et.de chaque n6gritude. parce qu'il ne m'a pas semble sans intlret de comparer.L'oppressiondu Juif ne coincide ni avec celle du Noir. de vouloir combler des besoins m6thodologiques complexes. ces parallklesne supprimentnullement la sp6cificit6de chaque terminologie. Le nugrisme serait l'ensemble des valeurs traditionnelles et culturelles des peuples noirs. s'y conforme ou s'y r6volte? N'est-il pas indispensable de nommer.et 'ala limite.La fin du refus de soi est certainement Mais inversepr6matur6e pour un Noir encoreaujourd'hui. que la negritude n'est que le degr6 de participationde chaque Noir h la personnalit6 collective du groupe. tous les deux noirs cette fois. mes et parfid61it6 III pourquoi j'ai propos4 non de parler de la n~gativit6 du judaisme.je le r6pete. enfin. les vit et les conteste.sur ce point. ou de l'Islam. et enfin.on congoitque ce sera une notion essentiellementdynamique. est largement n6gative encore. trbsli~s certes.c'est aux Noirs a faire leurs propresinventaires. groupes et peuples. ou maintenant du n6grisme. mais qu'il faut bien se garder de confondre? Qu'il est n6cessaire de distinguer. pass6es. sinon elle devient mystificatrice.pass6es ou en train de s'6difier.que si la dialectique du de n6gatif-positifest d'une 6normeimportance l'interieur a a prochaque n6gritude. n6 de la meme confusion.que l'on retrouvele meme besoin. entre ces valeurs culturelles. ou de les refuser. C'est . pr6sentes ou A venir.dans le domaine islamique. puisque le meme terme d'Islam signifie tant6t par l'ensemble des croyants en la religion et les valeurs Mahomet. ou meme les Guin6ensou les Cubains: ce sont 1l des gens qui se seraientprobablement obstines ' rappelerla n6gativit6encore actuelle de la conditionnoire. mal adapt6e aux besoins nouveaux.parce que la condition noire reste On en apergoit tout le danger lorsqu'onlit mis6rable?10 dans la d6claration du meme Haut-Commissaire dahom6en que l'Afriqueauraitbesoin "dumarteaude 1'ouvrier avant le ciseau du sculpteur ne chantera son . armes de ces sch6maset de ces outils communs.et 'a plusieurs variables. Et. Quoi qu'il en soit de ces problhmes. comme j'ai dtdobligg de faire dclatercelui de judaisme. De sorte qu'il soit possible de se placer dans une perspective de fid6lit6 plus ou moins int6grale au pass6. par exemple. une culture ne saurait etre n6gative. ou pour le moins de vouloir les d6passer au nom d'une re-cr~ation permanente de rbgles et d'oeuvres plus r6solument adaptbes aux besoins de l'homme contemporain. Dans son Aprerevolte contre toute la condition noire. qui m'a beaucoup aid6 dans un cas. et leur tentation d'une condamnationaussi de la positivit6 des valeursnoires globale.I1 me suffiraitd'avoirpu indiquer une direction de recherches et. ni avec celle des colonis6s. avec l'espoir qu'une proposition m6thodologique. la ndgritude.

Chretiens. delineate and define my personality as a Jew. refdrence 'ala couleur de la peau? Depuis quelques annees. c'est-a-dire d'y consentir ou de s'y refuser. heureusement. on the whole. la plupart des leaders noirs insistent sur la communautd gdographique originelle de tous les Noirs. correspond non tellement h une communautd de race. 'a une veritable convergence de toute la nigrit. A la veille de sa mort. Pour nous. Et pour tout cela. Malcolm X. contraint de se nier totalement.tre enfin que le concept meme de negrisme serat-il jug6 tout a fait hasardeux. qui crois 'aun dynamisme de tous les groupes humains et.voir page 123 The Negro and The Jew continuedfrom page 29 uated (for example. ce qui ambnera peutetre Y6clatement d6finitff de la negrit6.e. religion. un jour. qui est une condition d'oppression. It was a concept which proposed to be the standard bearer for a movement of self-liberation and self-realization. Pour cela. written or oral. le chef dissident des Black Muslims americains songeait. The Jewish group was subjected to a particular condition-a condition of oppression. the Judaicitd of France or of New York). Mais. ou devenir un projet politique. pour faire partie d'une publication collective. et pour le moins d'un mot sans &quivoque pour la d6signer. Catholiques et Protestants. chez la plupart des colonists. Ce sont les concepts qui me paraissent indispensables." "Judaism is the group of Jewish doctrines. et il faut qu'il ait le droit de garder ses distances vis-h-vis de son groupe. cela leur fut assurement b6n6fique. responded to the same need for definition. ainsi que sa ddcision de les soumettre au Congres des Africanistes(II'm session. et qu'on en choisisse d'autres. Illusions exist. dicembre 1967). qui font souvent aussi un racisme r6actionnel. l'Afrique. mondiale vers le foyer africain. sans tre 6touffe par sa tradition ou son groupe. ou plus exactement d'y consentir ou de s'y refuser d'une maniere variable.sociale des Chr6tiens. avec solidarit6 pseudo-ethnique. Peut. a un dynamisme ineluctable de tous les concepts. que les termes que je propose ici soient jug6s peu 616gants." "Juddit4 is the fact and manner of being a Jew-the objective sociological. . je le ripete. exclusivement jusqu'a'la constitution de tous les Noirs en nations ind6pendantes." II Now let us construct the parallel between Negritude and Judditd. du moment qu'ils parlent de cette communaut6 culturelle. qui se fondra peutetre alors dans l'humanit6. il faut lui foumrnir les outils ad6quats. de quelque fagon qu'on les exprime. corrdlativement.1 Je n'exclus meme pas que ces concepts n'aient qu'une utilisation temporaire. un reclassement de cette terminologie s'av6rerait encore n6cessaire. the way in which a Jew lives." dont parle Senghor? Sinon principalement. il faut qu'il puisse distinguer entre cette tradition et la manibre de la vivre. From such a situation arise difficulties which must be objectively analyzed. beliefs and institutions-standardized or not. in part the product of the accusations of others but also of the rejection of self and the invention of other myths to counteract the accusations. Et si.le President Leopold Sedar Senghor a bien voulu me faire savoir l'intiret qu'il prenaita mes suggestionsdu renouvellement de la notion de n6gritude par son dventual dclatement. delineation and description: the term provided a recognition of the black man's uniqueness. Ce texte a dtd dcritpendant rl'dt6 1966. de toutes les conditions. que serait cet "humanisme noir. Judaism also comprises Jewish culture in a broad sense-common customs. for example. pour d6passer ou enrichir cette rdf~rence ethnique trop precise et trop 'troite.) II faut que le Noir garde le droit de contester sa tradition. Paris. ce n'est pas moi qui m'en 6tonnerais ou la regretterais. Au moment ol je remettais ce livre a l'dditeur.8 The concept of Negritude. dont on ne sait trop si elle doit rester un mythe pass'iste et po6tique. laws and art. Chez Aim6 C6saire. my relationship to the collective personality of the group to which I belong. summing it up in one convenient word. sous le pretexte mythique de la race. ou gene dans sa revolte. Je n'exclus pas. On trouve la meme reponse globale. c'est encore l'affaire des Noirs de cerner et de pr6ciser leurs relations avec 1'Afrique r6elle ou mythique et le contenu exact de d6bat. My problem was to describe. 1'Afrique mere fournit une extraordinaire matrice de roves communs. fondamentalement et malgr6 les apparences. En tout cas. semble-t-il. Et donc. II faut qu'il puisse s'affirmersuffisamment. i. mais 'a une communaute de condition. psychological and biological characteristics which make a person a Jew. It is interesting to note that my situation as a 98 Jew strikes me as being similar to that of the Blacks. sinon inutile. Notes. poete et antillais. imagin6e ou r6ellement vecue. his membership in the Judaicitd and his place in the non-Jewish world. is of an altogether different style. These illusions are also born in part -and this is a more serious problem-of an objective and atypical condition which far differs from that of a people who are masters of their own destiny and for whom the relationship between religion and culture.. Peut-on parler d'une communaute culturelle des Noirs du monde entier? Aujourd'hui que les Noirs sont partag6s entre Musulmans. surenchbre de soi et refus ethnique de colonisateur. a paraitre aux Editions Anthropos. et meme quelques Juifs. et meme peut-etre a leur N mort periodique et a leur necessaire remplacement. et toujours. Par exemple. s'ils ont dispos6 assez t6t du concept de chr6tient6 &c6t6 de celui de christianisme. Et parce que la negrit6. Fetichistes. Dakar. sur la Sociologie de la Connaissance. il faut qu'ils disposent d'un concept. enfin. It is the set values and the organization which constitute and regulate the life of a Jewish group. philosophy. et probablement provisoire.12 La n6grit6 n'est que la r6ponse ethnique des Noirs a l'accusation ethnique des Blancs.

S. They wish to retainonly the affirmative side of Negritude. But if it is true that oppressionof the blacks has diminished. We are not dealing with three tightly closed drawers whose contents must not be mingled: I made this point forcefullyenough when I spoke of the conceptual trilogy concerningthe Jew." "Today we live in the era of the Tshombes. and it must be recognizedas such or it will create rather than clarify mysteries. Aim6 Cesaire. when the organizersof the Dakar conference spoke of themselvesas "TheGeneralStates of Negritude" (Alioune Diop) they apparentlyused the word Negritude to mean "an assembly of men. Thus.for example. for a black man to end his self-rejection. These peoples would probably have obstinately insisted on the negative aspects of the black man's conditiontoday. then these pseudo-values must be denounced: "a culturelookingto the past. The dissatisfactionwhich numerous participants experienced at the Dakar festival stemmed from this kind of attitude. if we agree that culture is not exclusivelysummedup in the arts. If to affirmthe positivenessof black values veils the negative counterpart. his revolts and his aspirationsshould reflect at the same time the complex problemsof definition.is still largely a negative concept. the way of living and coping with one's values. to possess adequate tools to uncover each perspective-to uncover each operationof the black man'sexistence? We can. simply because the condition of the black man remainsmiserable? 'o We realize the impending danger when we read the declarationof the High Commissioner from Dahomey who states that Africa will need "the hammerof the laborersbefore the chisel of the sculptor . Let us at least admit that there is here an ambiguity between men and culture. This situationmaterialized in some cases with the complicity of the colonizers and in others after they had left. however. be they past." The appearanceof nations in large sectors of the black world has undeniably diminished the negative feelings towards the black man.it has not altogether disappeared. The use of methodology. one understands why the organizerspreferred simply not to invite certain blacks: the South Africans. Senghorwho attemptedto define the term more vigorously. Leroi Jones.""a petrifiedpast. The Festival displayed anotherversion of the conflict between rich and poor peoples. . institutions and achievements. approximate poetic language. to my knowledge. However." It is a serious step for a non-blackto interfere in one of the most stirringand grave internal conflictsthat face a black man today. It is vital to begin differentiatingimmediately among: cultural values of the differentblack communities.. levels which must not be confused. but this time both were black. When anotherof the organizersdeclaredthat one must "defend Negritude and render it illustrious."All blacks do not live in free nations.today. although it might be necessary to shatter the concept of Negritude as I had to do for Judaism. What corresponds better to this idea than the officialtitle of the gathering.the result of a vocabularycovering a myriad of meanings. It is simply because.the American Negro writer. in a more or less confused fashion."it was not understood whether he meant men or values-probably values this time.It would be premature. however.A brief perusal of authoritativetexts signed by the inventorsand actual defenders of the term Negritude uncoversthe same intense emotionalism and confusion. He defined Negritude as: "The body of cultural values of the Blacks as they find expressionin their This parallels my lives. does mean all these things-the group of black men as a whole.which would be the equivalent of the word Judaicitd. their values. "Negritude will either be a liberatingforce or it will be nothing." The High Commissioner from Dahomey makes his final statement. it seems interestingto compare the conditions of the Blackswith that of the Jews. and the participationof each man and each black group in his world and in its values. contests the existence of any black culture: "Thereis no black culture. "that values are makingpeople forget about men.e. and in the new black nations all blacks are far from being socially free. Furthermore.or even the Guineansor the Cubans. who are now masters of at least their political destinies. If I allow myself to speak up it is not even in only because I believe in the virtuesof rationalism the most heated debates."The Festival of Negro Arts?"This appellationis itself quite limited. Is it not all the more necessary.But would it not also be catastrophicto reject in one clean sweep all black values. We can easily understand and glorious why.if interrelated. just as the founding of the State of Israel has fortunately reduced the negative feelings towards the Jew-so much so that certain very forgetful Jews doubt that they ever existed. Africa will sing her most beautiful song only when she will be free!" He may not be entirely wrong."they exclaim with indignation. therefore." "The tom-toms of the Cesaire-Senghor variety of Negritude rumble like cracked cauldrons.was the inventor of the word Negritude.Negritude. when Senghorstates. may be able to provide similar help for the concept of Negritude. insist only on the positive aspects of black art and values. for the organizers spoke of "Negro humanism"and its contributionto the "civilizationof the universal"(Senghor)."he furnishes the equivalent of Judditd. The inhabitants of Senegal and the Ivory Coast."9 strict definition of Judaism: a word which expresses the cultural and religious traditions which men continue to espouse today-and not the men themselvesor the groups to which they belong. presentor 99 . clearly see why the younger generation of whom I spoke above experiences such anxiety and anger. The young people who revolted against this wholesale euphoriatried to condemnit as totally as those they condemned tried to praise it. The proof is that discussiondid indeed center aroundthis usage of Negritude.and seem prematureand somewhat offensive to all those for whom Negritude remainsmore of a burden than a source of happiness. let me repeat. his deficiencies. which greatlyhelped me to clarifythe concept of Judaism. "There is so much talk about Negritude and black humanism.It is not surprisingthat a concept which endeavoredto express and illustrate the situation of the black man-his riches.It was L. Negritude. who. but it is a question of two completely different. "Ourone thought has been to accept this Negritude and having lived it to make it meaningful. whether they belong to the past or are in the process of creation. . Let us not constructour methodologytoo naively.the black man's misery.i. This would be especially true of the Negro culture." In his bitter revolt against the black condition. Such a euphoricattitude may show a lack of concern. sought above all to suggest an definitionin a magnificent." and a completely representative one at that. But the fact remainsthat today "Negroesare exploitingNegroes. therefore.

Strictly speaking. lessen the specificity of each term and of its contents.200 Giannopoulous Khartoum AddisAbaba$7.future. In my opinion.the way in which each black approachesthese values. and his loyalty to the group'svalues. CESAIRE. of course.20..' LINDFORS by BERNTH J. If my proposal is accepted. K. just as it becomes possible to want to go beyond them out of a desire to re-create rules and achievements to better adapt them to modern man. a given culture cannot be negative. AFRICAN LITERATURE TODAY A Journalof Explanatory Criticism D. Would it not also be timely to differentiate between these meanings? The parallels I have drawn between the conditions of Negritude and Judaite do not.London. Subscriptions $3. E. I have distinguished instead between tradition and culture. and finally how he reacts to his community-conformsto it or rejectsit. 1 Malet or yourbookseller BOOKS EDUCATIONAL HEINEMANN I add in passing that the same need. He needs to be able to affirm himself without being smothered either by tradition or by his group. Negritude or Islam: an absurdity.their differentsocio-political problems. This is what kept me from speaking of the negativity of Judaism. I can only suggest how to differentiate the contents of the word Negritude. and diluted by the different influences it has been subject to. of constructing distinctions.and at the same time. DATHORNE Andthere are reviewson books by andEQUIANO NWAPA. i. Is it not urgentto name and define separatelythe Negritd. the blacks must conduct their own inventories. The same term. Such a distinction makes it possible to see oneself in the perspective of one's fidelity to the past or to adopt a functionalist attitude with respect to values. the concept would be an essentially dynamic one. of total acceptance or absolute rejection. BookOxford or DillonsUniversity WC1. The oppression of the individual black is not the same as that of the group of blacks. The oppression of the Jew is not the same as that of the black man or of that of the colonized.It is sufficientto have indicateda direction for future research. shop. and the decision proved to be a beneficial one to them. Blantyre 27s. to have contributed an argumentto the hypothesis that there is a certain similaritybetween most conditionsof oppression. Street. the way he lives up to them and contests them.the Ndgrisme. To do so. to your university bookshop or Times Bookshop. refers variously to those who believe in the religion of Mohammed.N. but it can never carry a minus sign. the most important step towards resolving these heady problems is a task of clarification. AMADI. born of a similar confusion. it can be insufficient. to the religion itself and the ethical values which generally accompany it.they belong as much to the realm of epistomologyas they do to that of the sociology of knowledge. R. Subscriptions outside Africa27s to Blackwells. CLARK 'Twohands a man has': The poetry of J. Nor must his spirit of rebelliousness be quelled. (c) Negritudewould be strictlyused to definethe way in which a personwho is black feels he is black: his sense of belonging to a group of men.) The black man must retain the right to question his tradition just as he must have the right to keep his distance with respect to his group. 24s. P. Only this approach will provide for the splitting up of a single erroneous and stifling term into the several component parts of the black man's condition. It also becomes possible to adopt or reject relatively religious. Sudan Bookshop. He needs to be able to reject parts of himself without being obliged 100 . (Christians did not accidentally replace the concept of Christianism early in their history with the term Christianity. Armed with these common tools and schemes. NGUGI. or more exactly. The existence of variation in the point of reference makes it possible to overcome the "problem"of all or nothing. ?1.30. P. obsolete. exists in the Islamic world.2. he needs to be able to isolate the tradition itself from the way of life organized around it. Clark by JOHN POVEY OKIGBO CHRISTOPHER 'OkigboUnderstood':A Study of two poems by 0. or take whatever part he wants of it. of each sense of Negritude. ill adapted to new needs. ethical or aesthetic norms. black cultural values. which is the same thing as saying that he needs to be free to accept or reject it.and the Negritude? (a) Nigritdewould comprise the body of black groupsand peoples. JONES ELDRED Editor: Issue no. primarily because the differences between the conditions and the traditions of the two situations are extremely important. OBIECHINA writeson Culturalnationalism in modern creative literature in Africa: sh24. What would be the role each time of the positive and negative aspects? Can one describe and at the same time calculate a coefficient of Negritude patterned after the coefficient of Judeit•? We will also see that the negative-positive dialectic which was so important to each type of Negritude becomes a subject of lesser concern when we speak of Negrisme.e. subject to several variables. 1 contains articles on CHINUA ACHEBE 'The palm oil with which Achebe's words are eaten. even contradictory and dispersed geographically.40. III I do not pretend to satisfy complex methodological needs within these few pages. (b) Ndgrisme would consist of all the traditionaland culturalvalues of the black people. and Negritude is defined only as the degree of participation of each black in the collective personality of the group. Islam.

The woman sitting on the left of the writer was weeping bitterly and the one on the right turned to her and said. and bemoaning her fate. As the injured wife began weeping. the Ghanaian dances they perform and the customs about marriage and family relations which they dramatize are all true U facets of Ghanaian culture. the plays portray aspects of Ghanaian culture." They seem to provide the only means of selfcriticism whose message is easily understood by all sections of Ghanaian population. President Liopold Sedar Senghor kindly expressed an interest in my suggestion that the term negritude be redefined and eventually split into several terms. just a short time before his death. This text was written during the summer of 1966 to be printed in a series on the Sociology of Knowledge published by the Editions Anthropos. it is still up to the Blacks themselves to specify what their relationship is to the real or mythical Africa. If one day it becomes necessary to reclassify the terminology I will not be astonished. The ear-catching Ghanaian songs which the comedians sing. and ridicule them with the intent of suggesting their re-examination and possible modification. the word Negrit6e because of its specific nature may disappear." The remark from her friend made her weep all the more! The plays obviously provide their audiences with entertainment and recreation. they need a precise word to designate the concept. hidden by the mythical question of race. She is emboldened in her emotional response to the play by the pity which the echo of her experience rouses from the audience. the dissenting leader of the Black Muslims in the United States. Just before I submitted the manuscript to the Editors. And Africa. Christians. a veritable converging of the worldwide Negrite upon the African homeland. Some aspects of everyday life are mirrored on the stage so that the audience can be outside observers and at the same time mental participants in the unfolding drama. however they be named. in constituting their own independent nations. The comedians dramatize and exaggerate on the stage indigenous or acquired ideas. But. This means that I also believe in the dynamic nature of concepts. They feed into the plays the particular emotions and feelings they are experiencing. The plays serve as an effective instrument of "sellcriticism. Critics may find my terms awkward and propose others themselves. themselves. see page 123 COMICPLAYIN GHANA continued from page 34 had sustained injuries in a lorry accident. racist by reaction.to totally deny his heritage. Aristotle contends that tragedy enables members of the audience to release repressed emotions and the excess of passions. manners. They seemed not to know whether Africa should remain a poetic myth linked to the past or become a political program. even to their periodic U death and replacement." Despite the appearances. singing. Protestants. Similarly. strike me as being indisputable.1' I will not deny that these concepts may be but temporarily useful. Members of the audience are presented with echoes of their own bitter or happy relationships and experiences or of those of their friends. the Mother. The concept even of Ndgrisme may finally be rejected itself as arbitrary and useless. on the other hand. but they have other social functions. When all black peoples succeed. They attend to find some sort of internal tranquilizer which the Comic Plays provide. the rich Kente cloth which they wear. conditions of oppression. and Jews? Does this term do more than refer to a skin color? For the last few years most black leaders have emphasized the unique geographical grouping of all black peoples. Malcolm X. This was to have been submitted to the Congress of Africanists (Second Session) in Dakar. seemed to be envisaging. They get the opportunity to purge themselves of the grief which their sad experiences caused them or to relive their happy experiences. Finally. she had bandages all over her body and was unable to walk. Paris. What has become today of Senghor's "black humanism" in a world where Blacks number among the Moslems. I do not exclude the possibility at all. many members of the audience literally queued up to present her with money. Animists. to try to go beyond or enrich an ethnic reference which had become too specific and too restricting. To do all this we must furnish him with adequate tools. the concept of N6gritd identifies fundamentally not a racial group but a group which suffers the same conditions. The emotional involvement of the audience in the Comic Plays throws light on one of these. The writer was sitting on a seat between two women. It is "self-criticism" in that the comedians are themselves Ghanaians who criticise in the plays some aspects of Ghanaian life. Notes. nor will I regret the move: I believe in the dynamism of all human groups and of all human conditions. The plays have an emotional effect on their audience similar to the theory of catharsis discussed by Aristotle in his Poetics. The concepts. from a villager in the remotest corner of the country to the undergraduate and professor at the university. She had to crawl on her knees towards her husband. I repeat. It is possible to speak of a worldwide community of black culture. He started driving the injured wife away. the Comic Plays give the audience a chance to release their emotions and accumulated tensions. 101 . for example. French West Indian poet.12 Negritd is nothing more than the ethnic response of the Blacks to the ethnic accusations of the White. is an extraordinarily fertile subject of inspiration for the similar dreams of Aim6 Cesaire. "Compare this with your case and console yourself. maintaining a pseudo-ethnic solidarity among themselves by continually feeding their self-esteem and by rejecting the colonizer on racist grounds. The moment they begin speaking of a common community of culture. as well as to specify the factors which influence their condition. and habits of Ghanaians. whether it be real or imaginary. telling another woman who was with him that he did not know the mad woman crawling towards him. Africa. A woman who witnesses an incident in a play similar to her own agonizing experience bursts into tears and releases the painful feelings accumulated as a result of that experience. melting unidentifiably into the more general word "humanity. We can find the same global response -probably a temporary one also-among most colonized peoples who become. in December 1967.

Almquist and Wiksells. Crowley. 30. 7. je me permets de . 14. 155. 3. "A New Classification Elements of the Tar-Baby Story on the Basis of 267 Versions. 1962. is the name of one of the ancestors of Oturkpo. 74. Herskovits and Herskovits. and 189. 4. 9. for igweeho. mai-juin. put forwardthe well-worntheory that the economicfuin business ture of the countrylay in Africanparticipation and industry. 87. 1951. Vol.its editor and lead writer." archaic for adagba.Folk Tales from Angola. 20-21. 3. 1950. gun. cit. The name is used as an exclamation. Onugbo MlOko7. 28. payment should be made to The Regents of the University of California. 1958. 40. African Arts. 88. archaic at Oturkpo. 2. Espinosa. 135. 1. and an expanded form of the first line might be: Eleelele! Ene nee mum oo. Boukman. A psychologicalchange is implied here. 23. 4. all subsequent references to Dahomey are taken from Dahomean Narrative.notes Line 1. For those who have access to the exhibit catalogue. 120. University of California. Autumn 1967. 120. The first two sets have been selling so well that we are already preparing two more sets. 178. Igala proverb."is probably understood. 103. 422-423. KimonFriar and John MalcolmBrinnin. Igala word. pp. pp. "cause". 0 and ended "Theseobstructivetheoristsmust go." Memoirsof the American Folklore Society. 45. "Only those companies which were prepared to have Africanson their boards. 169. stick. Thanks are due Appleton-Century-Crofts. for his enlightening summaryof currentliteraryapproachesto symbolism. psychological state. 17. directionof an activity. "Myth and Metaphysics. 40. H. 1966. D." Partisans. go away. American and British. cinem for cinanoo. 27. Has many musical forms. Nous regrettons qu'en dcpit de nos promesses roeuvre d'Okechukwu Odita n'a pas pu tre publide ici. title of Oko (see line 5). Edmund Wilson. 232-5. 129." 34. Sur les relations entre jud6it6 et culture juive. Kpitii is kputuu.75 sales tax per set. Evanston. Creativity in BahamianFolklore.1965.g. of the Fundamental 3. 172. the traditionalancient home of the Idoma people. 124.1964.Paris. 54. 8.threatened further disclosures. 9. Oli. lines 12. The traditionalpraiseof Oko. Professor Hugh Staples. the usual form in reported speech. 111. "tree." Kola (Igala) is kela (Idoma). 1943. igweelo. 11. p. 23. 100. 1966.oristsMust Go."A propos du Festival des Arts Negres de Dakar. 166. 4861. See also his article in African Arts/Arts d'Afrique. There were such companies:companies which were prepared to have Africanson their boards. and it is hoped that additional sets can be made available in the future. 72. Ene. 133/ 134. Abrahamsson. also a bird.Calmann-Levy. II. There is a strong suggestionhere of excessive ambition. Beacon Press. "Two Themes on the Origin of Death in West Africa. 186. 151. 5. All othersmust pack up and go. Heli Chatelain. I Could Talk Old-Story Good. a better example of 75.op.00 postage prepaid. and 183/184. 105. We hope to feature this able young artist in a future number of our journal. Agabi Idoma. The second set includes items 3. Arnold Mandel. notes 1. Igala ideophonic adverb. No. 21. Langer. 163. to my former colleague. 21. 31-37. Umbundu. 54. not yet satisfactorilytranslated.New York. 1894. 43. sorrow. such as the killing of a fierce animal or an enemy. 181. change place. Merriam. p.. Each set consists of 25 slides and sells for $16. La plupart de ses tableaux ont etd ditruits lors des perturbations recentes au Nigeria. LVI.ela. p. ethnog. Stud. Surely one would not kill an elephant and go off and leave it without furtherado. the name of a bird which appears in the evening and whose characteristiccall is "okoe!"Oko. Uppsala. 144. Boston and New York. Herskovits. Evanston. A Cross-CulturalAnalysis. Lists of the pieces included can be had free of charge from the Museum. Most of his paintings have been lost during the recent violent events in Nigeria. Folklore Series. nyee. Onugbo.eds. 126. No. and Frances S. Les voies du Hassidisme. Alex's Castle. 33. companieswhich were preparedto train Africansfor responsible posts. quoting Suzanne K. "Who knows how much they are paid to keep this countrybackwardwhile they line their private pockets?Why don't they take their ill-gotten gains away with them and allow the countryto take the path to economicsalvation. 148. Arnold Mandel a la plume moins heureuse quand il poursuit: "[la judeit6 semble] indiquerune teneur juive abstraction faite de la spiritualit6 et de la culture juive". "trouble.only those companies which were preparedto invite Africancapital. Merlin Ennis. 122 NMgritude et Judeite. Symbolism in African Verbal Art. California residents add $. Boston. cit. The Origin of Death: Studies in African Mythology." Man. 122. 128.Houghton Mifflin. 32. 44. 21. 25.They wished to run the country on theoreticalideas which would keep hopelesslyimpractical this country tied to the apron strings of the imperialist powers for ever. Alan P. p. The Anthropology of Music. 59. Berkeley and Los Angeles. "Folk-Talesof Angola. is offering the first two sets of 2 X 2" color slides based on its recent exhibition. Upsal. Nous esperons pouvoir vous montrer l'oeuvre de ce jeune artiste dans un prochain numdro de notre revue. 1." 5. University of CaliforniaPress. 2. e. exclamationof pain and dismay. notes 1. 1951.hand in hand with those who are preparedto help us?" Morganended with his favourite snippets of Shakespeare. 10. the acclamationof a brave deed. Aurelio M. p. 82. 52. Denise Paulme. 17. the first set includes items 1.only those companieswhich were preparedto train Africans for responsibleposts were to be toleratedin the country. African Arts. 26. "elephant. Why were they not being allowed to bring the blessingsof developmentto the country?There was a conspiracyof so-called academics and so-called top civil servants. Kpa (Igala) is nmo (Idoma). Traditionaltitles of Oko.of whom it is said in the formal genealogy that he killed fourteen lions and fifteen leopards and when he heard news of war he would not sleep in a house. 226. Herskovitsand Herskovits. Ajeega. 55. tela from tu. We regret that the article on the work of Okechukwu Odita did not appear as promised. "mother. 76. 50. 86. 117. Northwestern University Press. 127. But today there was a new twist. Scribner's. 31. "kill. Northwestern. p. Berkeley. ogwu. accompaniedby the ceremonial cleansing (eogwoona) of the spirit of the dead animal or man from the face of the hunteror victor. Daniel J. pp." The Lowie Museum of Anthropology." in Modern Poetry. op. 6." So far this was a tediously familiartheme in the Echo'spages. current in Southern Idoma.. 42. Eleelele. Dahomean Narrative. 140. March 1967." Journalof AmericanFolklore. or astonishment. Melville J. p. condition. MontyMorgan. New York. Inyi.

It is this facet which is the source of the negative aspects of the word. someone who adheres consistently to traditional beliefs and tenets and who is willing to accept the practical consequences of them. Blacks are quite shocked when they hear Whites. still remained. positive ou n6gative. 50 62 75. j'aurais choisi la racine latine et propose nigritb.peut cependant entrer dans les categories proposees: ce serait decider de se limiter a ne parler que des individus ' juifs ayant un coefficientde judeit6 gal 1? 8. 7. This is why I find it regrettable that such distinguished authors as G. 123 . insistait exag&r& ment t leur grb sur la n6gativith de la n6gritude. par rapport a la culture et A la tradition juives. 5. p. Mais puisque n6gritude existait ddjt. "Negritude et Humanisme. Friedmann and R. y aurait une rbsonance lhgbrement pbjorative. Misrahi continue to confuse jud6ite' with judaicit6. Sartre had aimed mainly at denouncing the oppression from which the blacks suffered. 10. C'est ce qui est arriv6 t Sartre. Je voudrais exprimer ici ma vive reconnaissance au Professeur Maurice de Gandillac qui a bien voulu reassurermes pas dans cette double d6marche linguistique et conceptuelle. Paris. En somme. 1966. et qui coincide exactement avec les croyances et la pensee traditionnelles et qui en respecte integralement les consequences pratiques. I would like to express my thanks to Professor Maurice de Gandillacwho has encouragedme in this effort. Orphie Noir.1965. 117 Photography:William Doherty Photography: Rebecca Holmes Photography:John McGaughey Photography:William Doherty errata The Incwala in Swaziland. See "Recherches sur la jud6ite. Les voies du Hassidisme. the married) and the unmarried girls. et la racine frangais nigr. Sartre dans ses Reflextions sur la question juive probablement parce qu'il 6tait entour6 d'amis et de collaborateurs juifs." in Partisans. 11 avait un sens pdjoratif. J. lequel aurait toujours 6t6 identique A lui-m me. Jewish writers. 12. 120. I have said that it was not my intention here to present an exhaustive study of the word jud6ite. Au surplus. wanted to emphasize the relationship between negritude and non-blacks. In their writings. 6. tended to avoid using the term. Misrahi. Definition imprim&e la plus recente dans Libertd I. bien que d'une signification plus restreinte: il signifiait tant6t un groupe juif (ex: "la juiverie de Marrakech"). 6. 12. the marriageable (and not as printed. I1 indigna de nombreux Noirs qui pourtant l'admiraient et lui 6taient reconnaissants de les aider Ase d6finir. Autre paralldle encore avec la condition juive. 3. P. between the Latin root. 226." 9. It meant variously. 1 &tait aussi ambigii que celui de judaisme. J'ai dit qu'il n'6tait pas dans mon propos de m'tendre ici sur ce concept de jud6it6. The debates at the Festival of Dakar altered nothing. therefore. et en fait normative et non scientifique. I1 me suggbre de le remplacer par nigbrisme. Its meaning was just as ambiguous as that of the word Judaism." in Revue Franpaise de Sociologie. had a slightly pejorative echo. the way in which an individual Jew lived. sinon l'aura pejorative. puis-ie signaler que meme cette position extreme. positivement et negativement. Boukman. Pauvert. janvier-mars. Dans l'un de ses meilleurs essais. Mais c'est alors parler au nom juif ideal et d'un judaisme ideal et s'interdire tout examen concret du Juif vivant. c'est-A-direentre la racine latine nigr. and not the word. This kind of thing ignores the living Jew and centers on the ideal Jew and an ideal judaism. tant6t la maniere d'etre juif. 43 46.Paris. and the French root. P. Anotherparallel with the condition of the Jew. avec ses 6quivoques et ses insuffisantes. 1965. 85-86. 98. He suggested I replace the word with nigdrism. and indeed any scholar anxious to avoid any moral judgment. 83. C'est cette dimension qui a particulibrementfrapp6 J. "Orph&eNoir. 2. Voir en particulier "Recherches sur la judeit6. 91-93. 9. See my Portrait du Colonise. nigritude. acknowledgements page 14-15. collection "Libert6s"). a group of Jews (the "Jewry of Marrakech"). The word. j'avais le choix entre negritd et nigritd. Jewry. qui signifient dans leurs 6crits tant6t le groupe juif." Revue Frangaise de Sociologie. il y avait encore celui de juiverie. Arnold Mandel is less penetrating when he says that [jud6it6 seems] to be a term which neglects the spiritual and cultural heritage of the Jews. S'il n'avait dbpendu que de moi. One of my friends from the Antilles mentioned that the term negrisme which exists in the local dialect." Editions du Seuil. par exemple G. voir mon Portrait du Colonisd (re-edition. janvier-mars. Mais Sartre voulait surtout denouncer l'oppression dont souffraient les Noirs. tant6t une maniere d'etre de l'individu juif. it is true. Calmann-Levy. re-6dition 1966. qui existerait dbji dans le parler antillais. Before doing so it would have been necessary to consider the term in reference to nonJews. plus une dimension normative et d6plaisante. at least orally. 5. Friedmann et R. 10. All these meanings are contained in the word judaism. This is what happened to Sartre. 4. tant6t une maniere d'atre d'un groupe juif. le terme de juiverie 6tait un doublet de celui de judaisme. 11." cet auteur. J. 11 aurait fallu egalement y considerer la rnference aux non-juifs. I1 est enfin " permis de se refuser absolument une quelconque distinction dans la r6alit6 juive et d'affirmerpar exemple qu'on ne saurait meme concevoir une judaicite qui n'adhdre pas totalement au judaisme. 11. even their friends. sans toutefois omettre toute riference a une culture noire. the picture of Royal Women shows two groups.. One may argue that a judaicite'is inconceivable which does not adhere to judaism-an unchanging phenomenon. ainsi qu'a la deuxieme partie de La Lib6ration du Juif (Gallimard 1966). Following the same reasoning I had the choice between nigritc and nigritd. D. i. et n'avait pas Ase prboccupertellement du contenu positif de la judbit6 ou de la n6gritude. et qu'un juif "veritable"est celui qui est solidaire a 100%de son groupe. auquel il n'ajoutaitrien. expounding this thesis.1965. In one of his best essays. We sincerely regret that there is a misspelling in the name of King Sobhuza II of Swaziland in the caption on page 56. 26-7. "APropos du Festival des Arts Negres de Dakar. therefore. A "real"Jew. and the way a group of Jews lived. Pour tout cela.would be someone who supportshis group one hundred per cent. D'ailleurs les Noirs sont parfaitement scandalises lorsqu'ils rencontrent cette these chez des Blancs meme lorsqu'ils sont leurs siirs amis. surtout n6gative. A definition which was recently published in Libertd 1: "Negritude et Humanisme. collections "Libertes. et qu'il ne precisait gubre. qu'il faudrait lire ses Rdflexionssur la question juive." Editions du Seuil 1966. Pauvert. 1966. He. Les interventions du Festival de Dakar n'y changent rien. sinon dans la langue &rite. p. On y verrait que l'une des dimensions de la judeit6 est assurement la determinationrelative. 1966. Arnold Mandel. which has the additional merit of eliminating the pejorative sense. Il 6tait done amend t insister sur la partie relationnelle de la n~gritude avec les Non-Noirs. mai-juin. The question particularlypreoccupied J. 7. I preferred to follow suit. De m~me. But its sense was vaguely pejorative. 1968. qui est fort importantepuisqu'elle est a la source de son aspect negatif. Il parlait comme Blanc et comme non-Juif. Spring. The Negro and The Jew. But since the word negritude existed already. nigr." See the final chapters of my Portrait d'un Juif (Gallimard 1962) as well as part two of La Libdration du Juif (Gallimard 1966) for an exposition of the relations between the juddite and Jewish culture. qui croyaient n'avoir plus guere d'attaches positives avec le groupe juif.renvoyer aux derniers chapitres de mon Portrait d'un Juif (Gallimard 1962). he exaggerated in their opinion the negative aspects of the word negritude. J. C'est 6galement ainsi. qui le faisait l6gitimement 6viter par les publicistes juifs et par tout savant soucieux d'6carter de son vocabulaire toute dimension normative. notes 1. Sartre in his Rdflexions sur la question Juive. the terms refer at times to the Jewish group and at times to the manner in which one is Jewish. J. 4. je crois. Ainsi l'un de mes amis antillais me dit que le terme de n~grisme. 3. et non nigritude. ndgr. continuent A confondre jud6it6 et judaicit6. C'est pourquoi je ne puis que regretter que des auteurs fort estimables. Ses diff rents sens 6taient dija contenus dans le terme de judaisme. In addition. 8. j'ai pr~f6r6 m'y rapporter.e.. Pour tout dire.

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