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www.iop.org/journals/physed

J Oliver Linton

Old Mill Cottage, Crook, Kendal LA8 8LD, UK E-mail: jolinton@btinternet.com

Abstract In any conventional aircraft the wings provide the lift and the engines provide the thrust. In a bird, however, the wings have to provide the thrust as well as the lift. In this article we shall use the ideas presented in the rst article of this series to develop a simple theory to explain how this comes about, and use it to predict some important characteristics of the ight of birds, including their wingbeat patterns and their minimum power requirements. S This article has associated online supplementary data les.

It is apparent to anyone with eyes that large birds ap their wings more slowly than small birds. An obvious question to ask is what, if any, relations exist between the wingspan B , wingbeat frequency f , wingtip amplitude (measured peak-to-peak) A0 , and airspeed v ? A recent paper by Taylor et al [1] suggests that, for a wide variety of animals (including sh as well as birds and insects), efcient cruising locomotion requires that a certain dimensionless number = A0 f /v (1) be in the range 0.20.4, and for birds in cruising ight it is almost always nearly equal to 0.2. (This number is called the Strouhal number after the Czech physicist Vincenc Strouhal (18501922).) To keep things really simple, let us assume that the wing moves up and down at a constant speed u , where

with a maximum zigzag angle given by (see gure 1) 2 A0 f (3) tan( ) = . v We have seen that the quantity A0 f /v is the Strouhal number , so we can write tan( ) = 2. (4)

u = 2 A0 f .

(2)

If the wing is moving forwards with a velocity v , the wingtip will be moving either up or down

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PHYSICS EDUCATION 42 (4)

If = 0.2, , the Strouhal angle, is 22 . What effect does this have on the ow of air over the wing and on the birds ability to y? If a bird were to ap its wings in the vertical plane, up and down, keeping the wing chord horizontal all the time, the angle of attack (i.e. the angle at which the wing hits the oncoming air) would be 22 on the downstroke and 22 on the

2007 IOP Publishing Ltd

0031-9120/07/040358+07$30.00

FL F 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 coefficient of lift

FID

16 18

20

upstroke. Now, conventional aerodynamic theory tells us that lift is only obtained with angles of attack which are less than about 15 . At higher angles of attack, the air ow over the top of the wing detaches and the wing stalls. It follows that our hypothetical bird is going to stall its wing on the downstroke and, if anything, generate negative lift on the upstroke. This bird is going to y like a brick! Obviously something needs explaining here.

Figure 3. The relation between coefficient of lift and angle of attack for a typical birds wing.

Basic aerodynamics

When a wing moves forward through still air, the air exerts a force on the wing. At a certain position for any wing, when the wing is approximately parallel to the air stream, no lift is generated; the force is entirely drag. This is known as parasitic drag, and other parts of the birds body will also make their own contribution to the total parasitic drag. For the moment we shall ignore this force. The line down the centre of the wing in this position is known as the line of zero lift. (Note that I am using this line as my datum line, not the more conventional wing chord. This avoids having to introduce a coefcient of lift at zero angle of attack.) Now, if the wing is inclined to the air stream at an angle of attack (measured with respect to the line of zero lift), a large force appears on the wing, F . This force is resolved into two components: the lift FL (which is at right angles to the ow of air) and the drag (known as induced drag) FID . Notice that, for a well-designed wing, the force F is not at right angles to the wing but is inclined forwards with respect to the wing chord. This is crucial to understanding how a apping wing generates forward thrust. In fact, as was shown in the rst paper, the angle between F and FL , which

July 2007

is the reciprocal of the lift/drag ratio, is equal to /2 (see gure 2). It is usual to express the lift FL in terms of a dimensionless constant called the aerodynamic coefcient of lift, CL , by dividing the force FL by S v [2]. This takes into account the the term 1 2 W area SW of the wing, the density of the air (equal to 1.3 kg m3 at sea level) and the velocity of the wing through the air, v . Hence

FL = 1 C S v 2 . 2 L W

(5)

Note that although I have called CL a constant, it varies critically with angle of attack. Within the laminar region up to about, say, 15 , CL is roughly proportional to . Beyond 15 the wing stalls and the lift drops rapidly. A graph of CL against looks something like gure 3, though the precise details will depend crucially on the shape and construction of the wing. Using the arguments developed in my previous article on xed and rotating wings, we deduced that

CL =

2 , (1 + 2/ A)

(6)

where A is the aspect ratio of the wing. Most birds have aspect ratios in the region of 5 or 6, so we shall simplify our equations a bit by writing

CL kL ,

(7)

PHYSICS EDUCATION

359

J Oliver Linton

downstroke

upstroke

Generating thrust

When a bird in cruising ight aps its wings, the ow of air over the wing is no longer horizontal. On the downstroke, the relative velocity between the air and the wing is inclined upwards from below, while on the upstroke, the velocity of the air is angled from above. Now, assuming for the moment that the wing is symmetrical and has zero angle of attack, it can be seen from gure 4 that, on both the downstroke and on the upstroke, the force of lift on the wing (which is, by denition, at right angles to the ow of air) is inclined forwards and has a signicant forward component. This is the origin of the thrust produced by a apping wing. (It is equally clear that, on average, this wing will generate no lift, but that is because the angle of attack is zero. I have, for simplicity, omitted the induced drag here. We shall consider the drag forces later. All that we require is that there shall be a net forward component of the lift.) Now what is the answer to the objection that, if the Strouhal angle is 22 or more, the wing will stall on the downstroke? We must remember that a birds wing rotates about the shoulder and that the Strouhal angle is measured at the wingtip. The angle of attack will therefore vary along the wing from zero at the shoulder to a maximum of 22 at the tip. Most of the wing is still within the acceptable range of attack angles. The problem does, however, indicate that a vigorously apping wing is probably going to generate less lift and less thrust than the theory would suggest. We can now visualize the lift forces acting on a birds wing during the downstroke (gure 5). As we move from the shoulder to the wing, the lift increases in size and inclines further and

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PHYSICS EDUCATION

further forward. Since the angle of attack at the wingtip is equal to the Strouhal angle, the angle of attack at a distance r from the wing root is

2 A0 f r , v b

(8)

where b is the semi-span of the wing. In order to calculate the total forward thrust, we are going to have to integrate along the length of the wing from 0 to b for each wing. We must also remember that the resultant of the lift and drag forces inclines forward at an angle of /2, not . Hence thrust = 2

0

1 C cv 2 2 L

dr /2,

(9)

July 2007

The physics of ight: II where c is the mean wing chord. Substituting CL = kL gives

b

thrust =

1 k 2 cv 2 dr 2 L 0 b 2 2 A2 0 f k L c r 2 dr . b2 0

(10)

Because the angles are added together, the two parts can be integrated separately. Moreover, since the component due to the apping reverses its sign on the upstroke (indicated by the sign), this component cancels out, leaving the mean lift on the wing unchanged at

2 k S A2 thrust = 1 0f 3 L W

k SW v 2 . lift = 1 2 L

(11)

(14)

Let us see what formula (12) predicts. A wood pigeon has a body mass of 0.5 kg, a wing span of 0.75 m and a total wing area of 0.08 m2 . It cruises at 15 m s1 and aps its wings six times every second. (These data are taken from Pennycuick [2].) We shall take kL to be equal to 5 and assume that the Strouhal number is 0.2. Using these gures, the thrust generated by the pigeon is 1.6 N, which is one third of the weight of the animal, a surprisingly large gure. As we have noted above, this result must be taken with a pinch of salt. The integral suggested above takes no account of the planform shape of the wing, nor does it allow for the possible loss of lift, and hence thrust, at the wingtips. In fact, since both the magnitude and the inclination of the lift force are greatest at the wingtips, any loss here is going to have a signicant affect on the thrust generated. More will be said about this later.

Generating lift

Of course, in order to y straight and level, the wing must also produce a net lift. It does this by using a positive angle of attack, . On the downstroke, this angle is added to the term, which governs the size of the lift force, but it does not change its angle with respect to the vertical. Also, since the vertical component of the lift force depends on the cosine of , we shall ignore this factor as is small. The expression we need to integrate is therefore lift = 2

0

b

1 k 2 L

( + ) cv 2 dr ( + ) dr .

(13)

= kL cv 2

0 July 2007

Likewise, when performing a similar calculation for the thrust, it is the lift component which reverses in sign, leaving the thrust largely unchanged. There is, however, the problem of whether or not the wing generates negative lift on the upstroke. Mathematically we have tacitly assumed that the relation between the coefcient of lift and the angle of attack (6) works both for angles in excess of 15 and for negative angles as well. This is simply not the case. It is true that immense amounts of lift (and thrust) are generated on the downstroke, but it is inevitable that, on the upstroke, the highly cambered wing of a typical bird is going to stall, and the forces generated, both thrust and theprobably negativelift, are going to be greatly reduced. When a large bird such as a heron with relatively slow wingbeats ies closely past, you can actually hear the powerful thrust of the downbeat, but the upstroke is relatively quiet. Many large birds partially fold their wings during the upstroke, reducing both the area of the wing and, even more importantly, the vertical speed of the wingtip. I have also observed crows using an asymmetrical wingbeat: a long powerful downstroke followed by a quick upstroke. This is further evidence that, in many situations, the forces during the upstroke are considerably smaller than those involved in the downstroke. I have also noticed that many soaring birds like gulls and birds of prey do not simply ap their wings up and down but use an elliptical motion which carries the wing backwards during the downstroke and forwards during the upstroke. This changes little on the downstroke but signicantly decreases the (negative) angle of attack on the upstroke, possibly even reducing it to zero. But perhaps the most important fact to be borne in mind is that, unlike the wing we are considering in our model, a birds wing is not rigid. On the downstroke, the pressure of the air underneath the wingtips (where the angle of attack is greatest) bends the trailing edge of the primary

PHYSICS EDUCATION

361

J Oliver Linton feathers upwards, preventing a stall, while on the upstroke, any excess pressure on the top of the wing exes the trailing edge downwards, ensuring that the angle of attack never goes much below zero. The upshot of this discussion is that, in many cases, we can probably assume that, for vigorous apping, the formulae we have derived work reasonably well for the downstroke but that a bird typically gains neither lift nor thrust during the upstroke. The mean thrust and lift will therefore be approximately halved, i.e., mean thrust = 1 k S 2 v 2 6 L W mean lift = 1 k SW v 2 . 4 L (15) (16) Another interesting parameter which we can now derive is the ap angle, . This is the total angle through which the birds wing moves from top to bottom. It is easy to see that

v A0 = = b fb

6 Mg RG . kL SW f b

(19)

Cruising ight

In cruising ight at a constant level speed, the mean thrust must be equal to the total drag on the bird. This can be estimated in a very simple way. When a pigeon stops apping its wings and glides, it loses about 1 m in height for every 8 m travelled horizontally; in other words, it has a glide ratio ( RG ) of about 0.125. It is easy to see that this must also be the ratio between the total drag on the bird and its weight. So, if the bird weighs 5 N, the total drag while cruising will be around 0.625 N. (Note that this method of calculating the total drag includes both parasitic and induced drag.) Equation (15) allows us to calculate the expected Strouhal number. For a pigeon it works out to be 0.18. While not quite as close to the observed value of 0.2 as I would wish, the agreement is sufciently close to suggest that the analysis presented above is not a million miles from the mark. The error is at least on the right side of the line, as it is much easier to think of reasons why the bird will in practice have to ap its wings more vigorously than the theory predicts rather than less. For a bird in level cruising ight, equations (15) and (16) can be rearranged in terms of the birds mass as follows: Strouhal number: = angle of attack: =

362

A crucial test of the theory presented here will be to see if this expression generates plausible ap angles, e.g. less than 180 ! Figure 6 shows the predicted Strouhal numbers and ap angles for a number of different species. I have had to estimate the glide ratios for the different species as this important characteristic does not seem to have been measured by any of the researchers whose works I have consulted. The birds are in decreasing order of mass. As previously noted, the predicted Strouhal numbers are marginally lower than we would expect, but it is interesting to note that the number is indeed largely independent of the mass of the bird (a swan is three orders of magnitude heavier than a hummingbird). Gratifyingly, the predicted ap angles are eminently plausible (albeit slightly lower than one might expect). Indeed they are remarkably consistent, with only the crow, the pigeons and the blackbird having to exert themselves more than the average.

Power considerations

Finally, how much power does it take to y? The work done in pushing the bird through the air is simply the thrust speed, i.e., power = 1 k S , 2 v 3 6 L W or, more easily still in terms of the glide ratio, power = Mg RG v. (21) (20)

6 Mg RG kL SW v 2 4 Mg . kL SW v 2

(17)

(18)

For a pigeon this works out to be 9.4 W. (Note that this latter expression is only valid for cruising speeds and typically represents the minimum power needed to stay airborne.) Figure 7 shows the power requirements of various species expressed in terms of body mass. An Excel spreadsheet containing the data used to generate gures 6 and 7 is available as a

July 2007

PHYSICS EDUCATION

predicted Strouhal number (red) and flap angle (blue) Mute swan Cormorant Grey heron Eider Command buzzard Herring gull Red kite Wigeon Hooded crow Wood pigeon Rock dove Sparrowhawk Blackbird Starling Chaffinch Hummingbird Strouhal no. flap angle (deg) 0.00 0 0.05 20 0.10 40 0.15 60 0.20 80 0.25 100

Figure 6. Predicted Strouhal numbers and flap angles for a variety of species of bird.

specific power requirements Mute swan Cormorant Gray heron Eider Command buzzard Herring gull Red kite Wigeon Hooded crow Wood pigeon Rock dove Sparrowhawk Blackbird Starling Chaffinch Hummingbird 0 4 8 12 specific power (W kg1) 16 20

Figure 7. Predicted specific power requirements for a variety of birds in cruising flight.

July 2007

It is interesting to see that, because of their streamlined shapes and low glide ratios, birds

PHYSICS EDUCATION

363

J Oliver Linton like gulls and hawks have relatively small power requirements. For comparison, it is worth noting that a human being of typical mass 80 kg can produce a maximum continuous power output of about 200 W, i.e. a specic power output of 2.5 W kg1 . In 1979 an extremely t amateur cyclist, Bryan Allen, managed to y across the channel in an extraordinary ying machine called the Gossamer Albatross. A pigeon can produce seven times as much specic power. semi-quantitative predictions which are at least consistent with everyday observations of birds in ight.

Received 18 September 2006, in nal form 30 October 2006 doi:10.1088/0031-9120/42/4/004

References

[1] Taylor G K, Nudds R L and Thomas A L R 2003 Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efciency Nature 425 70711 [2] Pennycuick C J 2001 Speeds and wingbeat frequencies of migrating birds compared with calculated benchmarks J. Exp. Biol. 204 328394 [3] Pennycuick C J 1968 Power requirements for horizontal ight in the pigeon Columba livia J. Exp. Biol. 49 52755 [4] Rayner J M V 1979 A new approach to animal ight mechanics J. Exp. Biol. 80 1754

Oliver Linton has been a physics teacher for thirty years but is now retired from his former post as Head of Physics at Wolverhampton Grammar School. As his hobbies include ying model aeroplanes and bird watching, it is natural that much of his spare time has been devoted to researching and thinking about the ight of birds.

Conclusions

The aerodynamics of apping ight has, naturally, received a lot of attention over the years. Pennycuick [3] published the rst comprehensive analysis in the 1960s using a quasi-steady analysis similar to the one developed above. Since then, Rayner [4] and others have developed more sophisticated, unsteady analyses based on the dynamics of vortex rings, and it is now possible to carry out very sophisticated computer calculations on apping wings. It is not my intention to compete with these illustrious names but merely to show how the application of simple A-level physics can provide a basic understanding of how apping generates thrust and to make

364

PHYSICS EDUCATION

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