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Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 13: SEDIMENTARY ROCKS I 13.

Sedimentary rocks are the most common type of rock at the Earths surface, but they actually only comprise about _______ of the Earths crust altogether. A. 5% B. 10% C. 25% D. 50% E. 75% 13. How much of the Earths crust is made up of sedimentary rocks? A. 95% B. 75% C. 50% D. 25% E. 5% 13. Which of the following statements about sedimentary rocks is TRUE? A. sedimentary rocks only make up about 5% of the crust B. sedimentary rocks are the type of rock we see most often at the Earths surface C. diagenesis during burial turns loose sediment into sedimentary rock D. the process of turning loose sediment into rock is called lithification E. all of the above 13. A short break in time during sediment deposition, or a small change in the sedimentary facies, results in the creation of a/an: A. unconformity B. angular unconformity C. bedding plane D. disconformity E. nonconformity 13. In sedimentary rock types, the term clastic means the same thing as: A. chemical B. biochemical C. biogenic D. detrital E. lithic 13. Which type of sediment consists of broken down particles of rocks produced by weathering and erosion? A. clastic B. detrital C. lithic fragments D. all of the above E. none of the above 13. Detrital sedimentary rocks contain small particles of sediment called (1) ______. If these particles are broken down pieces of rocks, they are called (2) _______. A. (1) detritus (2) pebbles B. (1) detritus (2) grains C. (1) clasts (2) detritus D. (1) clasts (2) lithic fragments E. (1) regolith (2) clastic fragments 13. Match the sedimentary rock type shale with the corresponding grain size below: A. clay B. silt

C. sand D. pebble E. boulder 13. Match the sedimentary rock type arkose with the corresponding grain size below: A. clay B. silt C. sand D. pebble E. boulder 13. Match the sedimentary rock type conglomerate with the corresponding grain size below: A. clay B. silt C. sand D. pebble E. none of the above 13. Match up the sediment type with the corresponding correct rock name: A. sand - conglomerate B. silt - mudstone C. clay - arkose D. sand - greywacke E. mud - chert 13. Sand produces sandstone and silt produces siltstone. What does clay produce? A. claystone B. conglomerate C. arkose D. graywacke E. shale 13. A good way to tell if a detrital sedimentary rock has silt in it is: A. by putting hydrochloric acid on it to see if it fizzes B. by licking it C. by chewing it vigorously D. by rubbing it gently across your teeth E. by seeing if it sticks to your tongue 13. Which of the following pairs of words about sedimentary rocks belong together? A. detrital and evaporites B. chemical and pebbles C. biochemical and coal D. chemical and chalk E. detrital and sandstone 13. Which of the following pairs of words about sedimentary rocks do NOT belong together? A. bedding and stratification B. clay and mud C. chemical and sandstone D. conglomerate and breccia E. detrital and clastic 13. Sediment particles in quartz sandstone that formed in a desert are typically: A. poorly sorted and angular B. poorly sorted and well rounded C. well sorted and angular D. well sorted and well rounded E. made of feldspar 13. A typical feature of the sediment particles in glacially-produced tillite is that they:

A. B. C. D. E.

are poorly sorted and angular are poorly sorted and well rounded are well sorted and angular are well sorted and well rounded are typically found in the region of the Great Lakes

13. Into what category of sedimentary rocks does the type of rock fall that forms by the evaporation of water and consequent precipitation of minerals like halite? A. gypsum B. detrital C. clastic D. chemical E. biochemical 13. Which of the following is NOT a mineral commonly produced by evaporation of seawater? A. halite B. limestone C. gypsum D. calcite E. all of the above are minerals that can form by evaporation 13. What type of sedimentary rocks formed when the Mediterranean Sea evaporated during the Pliocene epoch? A. detrital B. chemical C. biochemical D. biogenic E. clastic 13. Which of the following terms or products are NOT associated with the evaporation of seawater? A. halite B. evaporites C. gypsum D. calcite E. apatite 13. The remains of sea organisms with shells made of silica accumulate on ocean bottoms as biogenic sediment that eventually forms a type of rock called: A. rock salt B. limestone C. chert D. phosphorites E. peat 13. The two possible forms of sediment production that allow limestone to form are: A. biochemical and biogenic B. biogenic and detrital C. bioclastic and detrital D. detrital and chemical E. biogenic and clastic 13. Living creatures can be involved in the production of sedimentary rocks by two different processes: biochemical and biogenic. Which of the following can form ONLY through a biochemical process? A. phosphorites B. chalk C. chert D. coquina E. limestone 13. Which of the following rocks cannot possibly have formed as a biogenic sedimentary rock? A. limestone B. chalk C. chert

D. rock salt E. coal 13. Which of the following correctly describes the process that occurs during lithification? A. partial melting B. diagenesis C. metamorphism D. migmatite development E. metasomatism