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EMISSION FROM DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES – AN OVERVIEW

ED(Engine Development) RDSO & A.K.Kathpal Director (Engine Development) RDSO D.K.Saraf

Synopsis The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in a Diesel engine results in the production of pollutants namely NOx, SO2, HC, CO, CO2 and Particulates. Due to harmful effects of above pollutants on health and environment, norms have been prescribed world over to regulate emissions from all sectors, including transport sector. In India too, the environmental impact of emissions has come under legislative, judicial and public scrutiny. Limits for the exhaust from various sources have already been laid down. However, for locomotive diesel engines, no legislation norms are presently in vogue in India. The article compares the overall Emissions from Rail transport and Road transport for transporting the same freight in Net Tonne / number of passengers. The comparison has been made for the emissions from Tier - 1 EPA standard compliant ALCO design locomotive, UIC-II 624 compliant ALCO design locomotive and the new GM design locomotives with emissions from Euro-I standard compliant road vehicles. Since the electric locomotives mainly use the power generated from thermal power plants, the paper also compares the indirect emissions with the use of electric locomotives and the direct emissions from diesel locomotives. Separate comparison has been made considering the emissions from thermal power points complying with the CPCB regulations and the average emissions from the thermal power points in the country. The article also discusses the action plan of Indian Railways to reduce the Emissions from their diesel locomotives in a phased manner so as to achieve the limits laid down in International standards. INTRODUCTION Air Pollution results in damage to the environment, human health, and quality of life. It also results in changing the Earth's atmosphere as it lets in more harmful radiation from the Sun. At the same time, our polluted atmosphere prevents the heat from escaping back into space and leads to a rise in global average temperatures. Scientists predict that the temperature increase, referred to as global warming, will affect world food supply, alter sea level, make weather more extreme, and increase the spread of tropical diseases. Most air pollution comes from one human activity: burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil to power industrial processes and transport sector. In the present scenario, mobility is one of the most important requirements of human kind. Unfortunately, in the long run the benefits offered by the transport system are getting offset to a great extent by hazardous pollutants emitted by them. The metropolis world-over are on the brink of major environmental crisis due to increasing air pollution caused by the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, which result in the production of pollutants namely NOx, SO2, HC, CO, CO2 and Particulates. There is growing awareness of the harmful effects of pollutants emitted from Internal Combustion engines on health and environment, and, therefore, norms have been prescribed world over to regulate emissions from all sectors, including transport sector. In India also, the environmental effect of emissions has come under legislative, judicial and public scrutiny. Limits for the exhaust from automobiles have already been laid down. As per directives of Supreme Court, Euro-II norms are in force for the automobiles in the National Capital Region. NGOs are demanding imposing of these limits in other parts of the country as well.

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For locomotive diesel engines, no legislation norms are presently in vogue in the country. However, it is expected that emissions from Railway locomotives will also be subjected to limits in the near future inline with International trends. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES EMISSIONS The maximum work in the world in the field of measurements, control and legislation for the emissions from Diesel locomotives has been done by United States of America (USA). This is so because 80% volume of Railway transport is carried by Diesel locomotives (virtually 100% in case of freight) in USA as against 15% in Europe. In European Union, European Rail Road Institute has done lot of work to finalise emission testing procedures and testing cycles for emissions from diesel locomotives. However, at present there is no legislation in Europe to regulate the locomotive emissions. Emission norms in USA The Clean Air Act of USA, as amended in 1990, mandated that Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish emission regulations for a variety of previously unregulated non-road mobile sources. A specific mandate was given to adopt emission standards for locomotives and locomotive engines. The emission standards and associated regulatory requirements were promulgated in USA for control of emissions from locomotive engines. These rules issued on April 16, 1998 have been made part of Federal register / Volume 63, number 73. The above rule in the Federal Register contains three sets of standards i.e. Tier 0, Tier 1 and Tier 2, with the applicability of each dependent on the date of original manufacture of locomotive. Tier 0 standards apply to the locomotives manufactured on, or after, Jan. 1, 1973 and before Jan. 1, 2002. Similarly, Tier 1 standards apply to locomotives manufactured on or after Jan. 1, 2002 and before Jan. 1, 2005; and Tier 2 standards apply to locomotives manufactured on or after 2005. These standards apply when the locomotive is manufactured, re-manufactured or imported. The emission limits prescribed in these standards in gm/bhp-hr are as under : Tier 0 1 2 Line 1.00 0.55 0.30 HC Switch 2.10 1.20 0.60 CO Switch 8.0 2.5 2.4 NOx Switch 14.0 11.0 8.1 PM Switch 0.72 0.54 0.24

Line 5.0 2.2 1.5

Line 9.5 7.4 5.5

Line 0.60 0.45 0.20

As can be seen from above, the standards require compliance over two defined duty cycles i.e. Line-haul and Switch operation. These duty cycles represent the percent of time locomotives typically spend in each throttle notch, including idle and dynamic brake modes. While the line-haul duty cycle is weighted towards operation in the higher power notches, the switch cycle lays more emphasis on idle and low power notch emissions. (The switch cycle is applicable to shunting locomotives while line pertains to main line locomotives). In addition to the emission standards for gaseous and particulate matter, EPA has also laid down smoke opacity standards. The limits for steady-state, 30 second peak and 3 second peak prescribed in the standards are as under. Tier 0 1 2 Smoke opacity (%) – Normalised Steady-state 30 second peak 3 second peak 30 40 50 25 40 50 20 40 50

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Since the passenger railroads face a variety of challenges, both fiscally and otherwise in complying with the re-manufacturing aspects of the rule, EPA has agreed to delay the effective date of Tier 0 requirements for passenger locomotives until Jan. 1, 2007. Emission norms in Europe European Rail Road Institute (ERRI) issued UIC leaflet 624 in April 2002. The regulations specified in the above leaflet are applicable to all the new engines used, from the date the leaflet is published, in new tractive units or existing tractive units being reengined with the exception of engines for special locomotives. The limiting values prescribed by UIC in leaflet 624-0 are specific weighted values over three modes. The modes and weighing factors are as per ISO Standard 8178-4, Cycle F (applicable to locomotives). The speeds and weighing factors specified at different modes are as under: Mode 1 2 3 Speed Rated 60 to 75 % of rated Idle Weighing factors 0.25 0.15 0.6

The above standards are in two parts – UIC I and UIC II. UIC I standards are applicable upto 31.12.2002 and from 1.1.2003, UIC II standards are applicable. In the UIC II standards, different limits have been laid down for the engines having the power less/equal to 560 kW and greater than 560 kW. The limiting values specified in UIC II for HC, CO, NOx and particulates in gm/kW-hr are as under : Engine power ≤ 560 kW > 560 kW HC 0.6 0.8 CO 2.5 3 NOx 6 9.5 for n > 1000 rpm 9.9 for n ≤ 1000 rpm

Particulates
0.25 0.25*

* - A value of 0.5 gm/kw-hr acceptable in exceptional cases upto 31.12.2004

EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES OF INDIAN RAILWAYS Emissions from ALCO Locomotives Since NOx emissions are most problematic for diesel engines, the first effort made by Indian Railways in November 1996 was to measure only the NOx emissions on the fuel efficient 6-cylinder engine on RDSO engine test bed using the Thermo Electric make equipment (based on Chemiluminescent detector principle). The measurements and calculations gave the NOx value of 11.09 gm./kW-hr. For the measurements on 12 and 16 Cyl. Engine, a portable emission measuring equipment was used in November 2000. They give some idea of the range in which the emission from the locomotives fall. The equipment is also useful in determining the comparative performance of engines from the point of view of emissions. Since the portable equipment are not capable of measuring particulates, only gaseous emission measurements were carried out. Emission measurements were made with different engine configurations. For converting the ppm values to gm/bhp-hr., the calculation procedure and duty cycle prescribed in EPA standard was followed. The results of measurements and calculations have been compared with the limiting values specified in EPA Tier-1 standards and applicable in USA on date. The results in gm/bhp-hr. are as under :

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EPA Std. Values calculated by EPA procedure (Tier-1) for line-haul (gm/bhp-hr.) 3100 HP 2600 HP 2300 HP NOx 7.4 10.44 12.94 16.28 HC 0.55 0.02 0.03 0.03 CO 2.2 2.80 2.77 1.29 Emissions from new technology locos : The results of Emissions and Particulates measurements of a typical 16 cylinder 710 G3B engine carried out by M/s. General Motors Corporation, USA on 10 th Oct. 2001 on their engine test bed have been analysed and the overall results for Line-haul cycle are summarized and compared with EPA standards hereunder: Parameters EPA standards (Tier-0) 9.5 1.0 5.0 0.6 EPA standards (Tier-1) 7.4 0.55 2.2 0.45 GM locomotive values by EPA procedure for line-haul 5.83 0.31 0.42 0.29
All values in gm/bhp-hr.

Parameters

NOx HC CO Particulates

COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS FROM ROAD VEHICLES AND LOCOMOTIVES Since last few decades, there is a continuous marked shift in the usage of transport sector from rail to road transport. This has already caused serious damage to our environment by way of multifold increase in gaseous pollution levels. The magnitude of problem will be clear from the discussions in succeeding paragraphs, where the emissions from the road and rail transport have been compared from the point of view of emissions, while carrying the same load in tonnes / number of passengers. The exercise has been done separately for freight and passenger transport. A. For Freight transport: Emissions from conventional ALCO design and new GM design locomotives: Since Indian Railways have planned to modify their locomotives so as to comply with EPA and UIC standards, the calculations of emissions and payload carried by ALCO design 3100 HP locomotives have been made with EPA Tier-1 compliant locomotive and UIC-II 624 compliant locomotive. For the new 4000 HP GM design locomotive, actual emissions have been considered, since it already complies with the EPA and UIC standards. The calculations are made hereunder: • • A 3100 HP ALCO design locomotive and 4000 HP new design GM locomotive can haul a train of 4700 gross tonnes and 7800 gross tonnes respectively on a level track at a speed of 60 kmph. Even though new design GM locomotive can haul 7800 gross tonnes of load, only 4700 gross tonnes is permissible to be carried on the Indian Railways system in view of operational constraints. Hence, for this locomotive also, only 3100 HP has been considered while calculating the emissions in gm/hr. The load of 4700 gross tonnes corresponds to payload of 3400 tonnes approximately.

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The emissions from the Tier - 1 EPA std. compliant 3100 HP ALCO design locomotive, UIC-II 624 compliant ALCO design 3100 HP locomotive, actual emissions from ALCO design 3100 HP locomotive and actual emissions from the 4000 HP new design GM locomotive (only 3100 HP considered) in gm/hr are worked out as under: Locomotive engine Tier - 1 EPA std. compliant 3100 HP ALCO UIC-II 624 compliant 3100 HP ALCO 3100 HP ALCO Actual emissions 4000 HP new design GM Actual emissions Hydrocarbons 1,705 1,829 62 961 Carbon Monoxide 6,820 6,944 8,680 1,302 Oxides of Nitrogen 22,940 21,948 32,364 18,073 Particulate Matter 1,395 589 Not known 899

Emissions from Road Vehicles: For comparison of emissions from Road Vehicles and locomotives, emissions from equivalent number of trucks required to carry the same load i.e. 3400 tonnes have been considered hereunder: • • • • A Tata Truck Model LPT-1613 turbo having 125 HP engine can haul a load of 16 gross tonnes on a level road at a speed of 60 kmph. The above truck can carry a payload of 10 tonnes. Thus, 340 trucks are required to carry a payload of 3400 tonnes approximately, which correspond to payload carried by ALCO / GM locomotives. Permitted emissions from a truck in gm/bhp-hr as per Euro-I standards are as under: Unit gm/bhp-hr • Hydrocarbons 0.821 Carbon Monoxide 3.357 Oxides of Nitrogen 5.968 Particulate Matter 0.269

From the above values, the emissions from one truck and 340 trucks (equivalent to 58 BOXN load carried by 3100 HP and 4000 HP locomotives) in gm/hr. are worked out as under: No. of trucks 1 340 Hydrocarbons 102.6 34,884 Carbon Monoxide 419.6 1,42,664 Oxides of Nitrogen 746 2,53,640 Particulate Matter 33.6 11,424

Comparison of Emissions from locomotives and Road Vehicles:

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The values of individual constituents of emissions worked out above are compared in chart hereunder:
300,000

Emissions in gm/hr

250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0
Emissions from 340 Trucks Tier-1 EP A std. compliant 3100 HP A LCO UIC-II 624 compliant 3100 HP ALCO 3100 HP 4000 HP new ALCO - Actual design GM emissions A ctual emissions

Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide Oxides of Nitrogen

12,000 Emissions in gm/hr 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
Emissions from 340 Trucks Tier-1 EP A std. UIC-II 624 4000 HP new compliant 3100 HP compliant 3100 HP design GM - Actual ALCO ALCO emissions

Particulate Matter

B.

For Passenger transport: Emissions from conventional ALCO design and new GM design locomotives: As in case of freight transport, the calculations for emissions and number of passengers carried by EPA Tier-1 compliant 3100 HP ALCO design locomotive, UIC-II 624 compliant ALCO design 3100 HP locomotive and new 4000 HP GM design locomotive for passenger transport are as under: • • A 3100 HP ALCO design locomotive can haul a train of 24 coaches on a level track at a speed of 90 kmph. A 4000 HP new design GM locomotive can haul a much longer train but because of operational constraints, Indian Railways do not run a train length of more than 24 coaches. Hence, for this locomotive also, only 3100 HP has been considered while calculating the emissions in gm/hr. Each coach has a capacity to carry 100 passengers. Thus, 24 coaches have the seating capacity for 2400 passengers. The emissions from Tier - 1 EPA std. compliant 3100 HP locomotive engine, UIC-II 624 compliant ALCO design 3100 HP locomotive and actual emissions from new design GM locomotive of Indian Railways, in gm/hr. as well as in gm/bhp-hr. are same as calculated above in case of freight locomotives. Emissions from Road Vehicles: For comparison of emissions from Road Vehicles and locomotives, emissions from equivalent number of buses required to carry the same number of passengers have been calculated hereunder:

• • •

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• • •

A Tata Bus Model LP - 151052 having 110 HP engine has a seating capacity for 50 persons. Thus, about 48 buses are required to carry 2400 persons, which are carried by the Indian Railway locomotive. Permitted emissions from a bus in gm/bhp-hr as per Euro - I standards are as under:

Unit gm/bhp-hr •

Hydrocarbons 0.821

Carbon Monoxide 3.357

Oxides of Nitrogen 5.968

Particulate Matter 0.269

From the above values, the emissions from one bus and 48 buses (equivalent to one 3100 HP locomotive) in gm/hr. are worked out as under: No. of buses 1 48 Hydrocarbons 90.31 4,334 Carbon Monoxide 369.27 17,724 Oxides of Nitrogen 656.48 31,511 Particulate Matter 29.59 1,420

Comparison of Emissions from locomotives and Road Vehicles: The values of individual constituents of emissions worked out above are compared in the chart hereunder:

35,000 30,000

Emissions in gm/hr

25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0
Em issions from 48 Buses Tier-1 EPA std. com pliant 3100 HP ALCO UIC-II 624 3100 HP ALCO 4000 HP new com pliant 3100 Actual em issions design GM HP ALCO Actual em issions

Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide Oxides of Nitrogen

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1,600

Emissions in gm/hr

1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0
Em issions from48 Buses Tier-1 EPA std. com pliant 3100 HP ALCO UIC-II 624 com pliant 3100 HP ALCO 4000 HP new design GM - Actual em issions

Particulate Matter

COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES AND INDIRECT EMISSIONS WITH THE USE OF ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES It is a common notion in the mind of general public that electric traction is totally pollution free in comparison to diesel traction. In fact, whenever new rail lines are electrified, media also propagates this notion. This notion is, however, misleading and deceptive since the thermal power plants supplying electrical energy to operate these electric locomotives produce heavy emissions. An effort has been made to compare the indirect emissions with the use of electric traction. Since electric generation from thermal power plants forms the major share out of the total electric generation in the country, the above comparison has been made in reference to thermal power plants only. While the major pollutants from diesel locomotives include only NOx and particulate emissions, the major pollutants from thermal power plants include suspended particulate matter (SPM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ash. Particulate matter from Thermal Power Plants For Thermal Power Plants, the following regulations have been issued vide para 63a and 63b of Environmental Standards issued by Central Pollution Control Board (Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India). Generation capacity 210 MW or more Less than 210 MW Pollutant Particulate matter Particulate matter Emission limit 150 mg/Nm3 350 mg/Nm3

(i) (ii)

To compare the above emissions from thermal power plants supplying electricity to Power grids for use by Electric locomotives with the emissions from diesel locomotives, the above limiting values in mg/Nm3 need to be converted to gm/bhp-hr. These calculations are made hereunder : Flow rate of flue gases from a typical coal based power plant having generation capacity of 210 MW Particulate matter in gm/bhp-hr from the 0.7457 thermal power plant complying with the 1000 above CPCB Environmental Standards : 247.7 Nm3 / second

:

247.7 * 150 * 3600 * 1000 * 210 *

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(taking 1 bhp = 0.7457 kW) Power transmission losses Effective Particulate matter emissions in gm/bhp-hr at the use point i.e. Electric loco : :

i.e. 8%

0.47 gm/bhp-hr

0.47 * 1.08 i.e. 0.51 gm/bhp-hr

However, the average actual particulates from the thermal power plants in the country are 2.6 gm/kW-hr, which works out to 1.94 gm/bhp-hr. Sulphur dioxide from Thermal Power Plants Even though, no limits have been laid down in the Environmental Standards issued by CPCB for SO2, they have been calculated for comparing the values with diesel emissions hereunder : Coal required to be burnt to produce 210 MW % Sulphur content in coal (by mass) Ratio of atomic weight of SO2 to sulphur : : : 147 tonnes / hr 0.3% 32 + 16 * 2 32 i.e. 2 SO2 emissions (taking 1 bhp = 0.7457 kW) : 147 * 10,00,000 * 0.3 * 2 * 0.7457 100 * 210 * 1000 i.e. 3.13 gm/bhp-hr Power transmission losses Effective SO2 emissions in gm/bhp-hr at the point of use i.e. Electric loco Sulphur dioxide from Locomotives Since no limits have been laid down for sulphur dioxide emissions from diesel locomotives, they have not been calculated in the foregoing paras. For comparing with the thermal power plant SO2 emissions, the SO2 emissions from diesel locomotives are calculated hereunder : HSD oil required to produce 3100 HP % Sulphur content in HSD oil as per amendment 2 to IS1460:1995 (by mass) Ratio of atomic weight of SO2 to sulphur SO2 emissions : : : : 483 Kg / hr 0.25% 2 483 * 1,000 * 0.25 * 2 100 * 3100 i.e. 0.78 gm/bhp-hr The above indirect particulate and SO2 emissions with the use of electric locomotives in gm/bhp-hr are compared with the values in diesel locomotives hereunder : Thermal power plants Railway % reduction : : 8% 3.13 * 1.08 i.e. 3.38 gm/bhp-hr

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locomotive engines Particulate Emissions SO2 Emissions 0.51 (As per CPCB regulations) 1.94 (Average actual) 3.38 0.45 for EPA tier-I 0.19 for UIC-II 624 0.78

in Railway engines 11.76% 62.74% 76.92%

FUTURE ACTION PLAN OF INDIAN RAILWAYS Even though there is presently no legislation in the country for limiting the emissions from locomotive, Indian Railways are taking initiative in setting up the facilities at RDSO for measuring the emissions from their locomotives as per International Standards. The following is the detailed action plan of Indian Railways to measure the emissions and reduce them to the limits laid down in International Standards :

(a)

The test beds of Engine Development Directorate of RDSO are shortly going to be equipped with the dedicated Mass emission measuring equipment capable of measurements as per International Standards. The work of measurement of emissions as per International Standards followed by their reduction to the levels specified in EPA and UIC standards will start in full swing thereafter. Since change in the design of engine components and improvement in the fuel and lube oil specifications can contribute in reduction of emissions, discussions have been held with most of the suppliers of major engine components as well as fuel / lube oil and they all have agreed to associate with Indian Railways and provide technical support so as to achieve the objective of meeting International Emission standards. In the second phase, Indian Railways plan to set up emission measurement facilities for measurement of in-use emissions at the testing stage itself in 3-4 Diesel Sheds/ Workshops in the country. The facilities similar to the one available at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI), Texas, USA and in line with the requirements specified in EPA standards are plan to be created.

(b)

(c)

CONCLUSIONS (a) Although the new technology GM locomotive engine emissions are much below the limits laid in EPA and UIC standards, the ALCO locomotive engines are inferior only in respect of NOx. Since HC and CO values in the ALCO engines are much lower than the limits laid in EPA and UIC standards, it should not be difficult to achieve the limits specified in International Standards. The comparison of emissions from Automobiles and Railroad engines clearly shows that rail transport results in considerably cleaner environment in comparison to road transport. The advantages of rail transport are more pronounced in case of freight movement in comparison to passenger movement. This is because rail travel is generally used by passengers for long distance travel and hence offers the facility of toilets and more floor space per person. The comparison of particulates and sulphur dioxide emissions from thermal power plants and Railroad diesel engines per bhp-hr clearly shows that diesel

(b)

(c)

(d)

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locomotives are more environmental friendly as compared to electric locomotives, which use major chunk of power from Thermal Power Plants. The rationale of going in for railway track electrification in an electrical energy retraced country, therefore, requires careful rethinking.

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