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** Influence lines Influence lines are important in the
**

design of structures that resist large live

loads.

In our work up to this point, we have

discussed analysis techniques for

structures subjected to dead or fixed

loads.

Influence Lines

We learned that shear and moment

diagrams are important in determining

the maximum internal force in a

structure.

If a structure is subjected to a live or

moving load, the variation in shear and

moment is best described using influence influence

lines lines.

Influence Lines

Definition of an influence line influence line:

An influence line influence line represents the variation An influence line influence line represents the variation

of the reaction, shear, moment, or

deflection at a specific point in a member

as a concentrated force moves over the

member.

Influence Lines

Once the influence line influence line is drawn, the

location of the live load which will cause

the greatest influence on the structure g

can be found very quickly.

Therefore, influence lines influence lines are important

in the design of a structure where the

loads move along the span (bridges,

cranes, conveyors, etc.).

Influence Lines

Although the procedure for constructing an

influence line influence line is rather simple, it is important

to remember the difference between

constructing an influence line and constructing g f g

a shear or moment diagram.

Influence lines Influence lines represent the effect of a

moving load only at a specified point on a

member, whereas shear and moment diagrams

represent the effect of fixed loads at all

points along the member.

Influence Lines

Tabular Procedure for determining the

influence line influence line at a point P for any

function (reaction, shear, or moment).

1. Place a unit load (a load whose magnitude is equal to

one) at a point, x, along the member.

2. Use the equations of equilibrium to find the value

of the function (reaction, shear, or moment) at a

specific point P due the concentrated load at x.

CIVL 3121 Influence Lines - Introduction 1/7

Influence Lines

Tabular Procedure for determining the

influence line influence line at a point P for any

function (reaction, shear, or moment).

3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for various values of x over

the whole beam.

4. Plot the values of the reaction, shear, or moment

for the member.

Influence Lines

Influence-Line Equations Procedure

for determining the influence line influence line at a

point P for any function (reaction,

shear or moment) shear, or moment).

1. Place a unit load (a load whose magnitude is equal

to one) at a point, x, along the member.

2. Use the equations of equilibrium to find the value

of the reaction, shear, or moment at a specific

point P due the concentrated load as a function

of x.

Influence Lines

Influence-Line Equations Procedure

for determining the influence line influence line at a

point P for any function (reaction,

shear or moment) shear, or moment).

3. Plot the values of the reaction, shear, or moment

for the member.

Influence Lines

Example: Let’s draw an influence line influence line for the

reaction, shear, and moment for both points A and B

using the tabular method.

A

B

5 m 5 m

Influence Lines

Example: First, let’s construct the influence line influence line for

the vertical reaction at point A

M

A

1

x = 0

A

y

0 1

y y

F A = = ÷

¿

A

y

= 1

Influence Lines

Example: First, let’s construct the influence line influence line for

the vertical reaction at point A

M

A x = 5 m

1

A

y

0 1

y y

F A = = ÷

¿

A

y

= 1

CIVL 3121 Influence Lines - Introduction 2/7

Influence Lines

Example: First, let’s construct the influence line influence line for

the vertical reaction at point A

M

A

1

x = 10 m

A

y

0 1

y y

F A = = ÷

¿

A

y

= 1

Influence Lines

Example: First, let’s construct the influence line influence line for

the vertical reaction at point A

A

B

A

y

x

5 m 5 m

1

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

bending moment at point A

M

A

1

x = 0

A

y

0 1(0 )

A A

M M m = = ÷ ÷

¿

M

A

= 0

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

bending moment at point A

M

A

1

x = 3 m

A

y

0 1(3 )

A A

M M m = = ÷ ÷

¿

M

A

= -3 m

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

bending moment at point A

M

A

1

x = 6 m

A

y

0 1(6 )

A A

M M m = = ÷ ÷

¿

M

A

= -6 m

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

bending moment at point A

M

A

1

x = 10 m

A

y

0 1(10 )

A A

M M m = = ÷ ÷

¿

M

A

= -10 m

CIVL 3121 Influence Lines - Introduction 3/7

Influence Lines

A

B

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

bending moment at point A

M

A

x

5 m 5 m

-10 m

-3 m

-6 m

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the shear

at point B

M

A

1

x

A

y

0 1

y y

F A = = ÷

¿

A

y

= 1

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the shear

at point B

1

x < 5

M

A

x

0 1 1

y B

F V = = ÷ ÷ +

¿

V

B

= 0

V

B B

5 m

1

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the shear

at point B

x > 5

M

A

V

B

0 1

y B

F V = = ÷ +

¿

V

B

= 1

B

5 m

1

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the shear

at point B

A

B

V

B

x

5 m 5 m

1

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

bending moment at point B

M

A

1

x

1

= = ÷ ÷

¿

0 1

A A

M M x M

A

= -x

CIVL 3121 Influence Lines - Introduction 4/7

Influence Lines

Example: First, let’s construct the influence line influence line for

the bending moment at point B

1

x < 5

x

M

B

0 5 (5 )

cut B

M M x x = = + ÷ + ÷

¿

M

B

= 0

B

5 m

1

x

Influence Lines

Example: First, let’s construct the influence line influence line for

the bending moment at point B

x > 5

M

B

0 5

cut B

M M x = = + ÷

¿

M

B

= 5 - x

B

5 m

1

x

Influence Lines

A

B

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

bending moment at point B

M

B

x

(m)

5 m 5 m

-5 m

M

B

= 0 M

B

= 5 - x

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

reaction at B

5 ft

A

B

A

5 ft

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

shear at C

C

9 ft

A B A

3 ft

C

Influence Lines

Example: Construct the influence line influence line for the

moment at C

5 ft

A

5 ft 5 ft

B

C

CIVL 3121 Influence Lines - Introduction 5/7

Influence Lines

Since beams or girders are usually major load–

carrying members in large structures, it is

important to draw influence lines for reaction,

shear, and moment at specified points. , m m p f p .

Once an influence line has been drawn, it is

possible to locate the live loads on the beam so

that the maximum value of the reaction, shear,

or moment is produced.

This is very important in the design procedure.

Influence Lines

Concentrated Force - Since we use a unit force

(a dimensionless load), the value of the function

(reaction, shear, or moment) can be found by

multiplying the ordinate of the influence line at multiplying the ordinate of the influence line at

the position x by the magnitude of the actual

force P.

Influence Lines

Uniform Force - consider the portion of

the beam Ax

x

Ax

x

w = w(x)

Influence Lines

Let’s examine the interval Ax

A

w(x)

dF = wAx

( ) dF y w x y × = A

x

Ax

x

Ax

y

( ) w x y w ydx A =

} }

ydx

}

is the area under the influence line

Influence Lines

Example: The beam below is subject to a dead load of 1.5 kN/m

and a single live load of 10 kN. Determine the maximum negative

moment created by these loads at point A and the maximum

positive shear at point B.

A

10 m 5 m

B C

Influence Lines

Example: Determine the maximum positive moment that can be

developed at point C on the beam shown below due to a single

concentrated live load of 8 k, a uniform live load of 3 k/ft, and a

beam weight (dead load) of 1 k/ft.

4 ft

A

4 ft 4 ft

B

C

CIVL 3121 Influence Lines - Introduction 6/7

End of Influence Lines – Part 1

Any questions?

CIVL 3121 Influence Lines - Introduction 7/7

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