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Hands-On Relay Testing Session Differential (87) Element Settings

Exercise Objectives
After completing this exercise, you should be able to do the following: • • • • Identify differential settings and protection requirements. Define settings recommendations for transformer differential protection. Calculate effective settings for system examples. Validate relay settings.

In this exercise, the instructor will introduce the SEL-387A Current Differential and Overcurrent Relay differential protection settings and demonstrate how to calculate these settings. You will then perform your own calculations and enter protection settings into ACSELERATOR QuickSet® SEL-5030 Software. After sending your settings to the relay, you will validate the settings and verify the proper assertion of the elements.

Student Resources and References
The following files are available with this exercise: • • • • SEL Presentation 1081, “SEL-387A Relay: Two-Winding Current Differential and Overcurrent Relay” (1081_SEL387A_EP_20120710.pdf) Transformer nameplate (I-44_Nameplate.pdf) Three-line ac diagram (I-44_ThreeLine.pdf) SEL Technical Paper 6261, “Considerations for Using Harmonic Blocking and Harmonic Restraint Techniques on Transformer Differential Relays” (6261_ConsiderUsingHarmonic_KB_20061019.pdf) SEL Technical Paper 6451, “Percentage Restrained Differential, Percentage of What?” (6451_PercentageRestrained_MT_20110614.pdf)

You can also refer to the SEL-387A Instruction Manual (available at for further information about protection and logic functions.

SEL-387A Phase Differential Protection
The SEL-387A phase differential (87) element can protect your system with optional dual-slope percentage current differential detection. Percentage differential protection is more sensitive and secure than traditional differential protection; the dual-slope characteristic compensates for current transformer (CT) ratio mismatches, CT ratio errors, CT saturation, and errors due to tap changing.

Differential (87) Element Settings

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harmonic restraint. Tripping occurs if the operate quantity is greater than the curve value for that particular restraint quantity. With careful selection of these settings. percentage differential characteristic or as a dual-slope. For added security during transformer energization. while fifth-harmonic blocking provides security for overexcitation conditions. The unrestrained elements detect very high differential current that clearly indicates an internal fault. The four settings that define the characteristic are as follows: • • • • O87P is the minimum IOP level required for operation. A minimum pickup level for the operate quantity must also be satisfied. beginning at the origin and intersecting O87P at IRT = O87P • (100/SLP1). The SEL-387A also has three unrestrained differential elements: 87U1. providing stability during transformer inrush conditions. Differential (87) Element Settings Page 2 of 9 20120723 . SLP1 is the initial slope. and 87R3. 87R2. These elements employ operate (IOP) and restraint (IRT) quantities that the relay calculates from the winding input currents. Differential Element Characteristics Figure 1 shows the relay characteristic. SLP2 is the second slope. Even-numbered harmonics (second and fourth) provide security during energization. or both. 87U2. and 87U3. intersecting where SLP2 begins. You can set the characteristic as either a single-slope. IRS1 is the limit of IRT for SLP1 operation. Slope 2 is used in place of Slope 1 for 10 cycles. IOP Operating Region Slope 2 (SLP2) Slope 1 (SLP1) 60% 25% Restraining Region IRT 087P = 0. you can closely duplicate the characteristics of existing differential relays that have been in use for many years. which must be greater than or equal to SLP1.3 IRS1 = 3 Figure 1 Percentage Restraint Differential Characteristic The SEL-387A has three percentage differential elements: 87R1. variable-percentage differential characteristic. These elements compare the IOP quantity to a setting value (U87P)—typically about 10 times TAP—and trip if this level is exceeded.Protection Schemes The SEL-387A allows you to choose transformer differential protection with harmonic blocking.

Write your answers in the space provided. 14. Transformer Differential For transformer current differential applications similar to the one illustrated in Figure 2. 205 206 203 204 201 202 SEL-387A ICW2 IBW2 IAW2 211 212 209 210 207 208 Transformer Data Rated 50 MVA Rated high side. IBW2.4 kV ICW1 IBW1 IAW1 Figure 2 Transformer Percentage Differential Protection Scheme Connections Figure 2 defines the required connections for a basic transformer differential protection scheme. Hands-On Activity 1: Enter Transformer Differential Element Settings In this hands-on activity.4 kV (wye) High-side bushing CT ratio (wye connected) Low-side bushing CT ratio (wye connected) Neutral bushing CT ratio Differential (87) Element Settings Page 3 of 9 20120723 . harmonic blocking.The unrestrained elements respond only to the fundamental frequency component of the differential current and are not affected by the percentage restraint. you will calculate and enter transformer differential protection settings using the real-world data and recommendations given below each setting. and ICW1. The CTs located at the low-side terminals of the power transformer are connected to relay inputs IAW2. IBW1. or harmonic restraint functions. H1 H3 200:5 A B C H2 H1 H2 H3 X3 X0 X1 X2 X3 X0 X1 X2 2000:5 50 MVA 151 kV 14. and ICW2. 161 kV (DAB) Rated low side. The CTs located at the high side of the power transformer are connected to relay inputs IAW1. the SEL-387A offers differential protection that can correctly compensate for the ratio and phase shift of the power transformer.

Set to approximately 50 percent of the O87P setting. SLP1 = __________________ To determine the maximum error for setting the percentage of the differential element. use the relay default setting O87P = 0.3 to 0. Set longer than the maximum clearing time for external faults. consider the following: • • • • • Relay tap mismatch (this can be 0 with the proper CT ratio selection). Step 3 Determine and enter the Restraint Slope 1 Percentage. E87 = _________________ The relay automatically calculates the Tap 1 and Tap 2 settings based on the transformer MVA data obtained from the transformer nameplate. Magnetizing inrush (up to 5 percent). For this example. and autotransformers are typically 10 percent.3. If the MVA setting is set to OFF. Protective relay error (up to 5 percent). The following equations are used to calculate the Winding 1 and Winding 2 tap settings and the CT primary currents: Ipri = MVA •1000 kV • 3 TAP = Ipri CTR Ipri • 3 CTR For delta-connected CTs. enable differential protection. Differential (87) Element Settings Page 4 of 9 20120723 . you must calculate the Tap 1 and Tap 2 settings. CT ratio error (3 to 5 percent).Step 1 In the Transformer Differential Elements settings.5. O87P = __________________ Set high enough to avoid operation because of steady-state CT errors and transformer magnetizing current. The typical O87P range is 0. Power transformer ratio (nominal tap to minimum tap). No-load taps can be up to 5 percent. TAP = Step 2 Determine and enter the Restrained Element Operating Current PU in multiples of tap.

Step 5 Determine and enter the Restraint Current Slope 1 Limit.Step 4 Determine and enter the Restraint Slope 2 Percentage. U87P = __________________ The instantaneous unrestrained current element is intended to react quickly to very heavy current levels that clearly indicate an internal fault. is 3. The typical setting range is from 8.0. Differential (87) Element Settings Page 5 of 9 20120723 . Step 8 Determine and enter the Fourth-Harmonic Blocking Percentage. The typical setting range is 12 to 15 percent. PCT4 = __________________ Relays typically use even harmonics to detect inrush conditions and to prevent misoperations resulting from inrush. followed by the fourth harmonic. set PCT5 to OFF. Step 6 Determine and enter the Unrestrained Element Current PU in multiples of tap. The largest even-harmonic current component is usually the second harmonic. Step 9 Determine and enter the Fifth-Harmonic Blocking Percentage. PCT5 = _________________ Fourier analysis of transformer currents during overexcitation indicates that a 35 percent fifth-harmonic setting is adequate to block the percentage differential element.0 to 10. A setting of 15 percent usually provides a margin for security. Use fourth-harmonic blocking to provide additional security against inrush conditions. To disable fifth-harmonic blocking. set PCT4 to less than PCT2.0. expressed as a percentage of winding current. PCT2 = __________________ Transformer simulations show that magnetizing inrush current usually yields more than 30 percent of IF2/IF1 (compensated second-harmonic differential current/compensated fundamental differential current) in the first cycle of the inrush. IRS1 = __________________ The suggested IRS1 setting. SLP2 = __________________ Set Slope 2 in the range of 50 to 70 percent to avoid problems with CT saturation for high fault currents. Step 7 Determine and enter the Second-Harmonic Blocking Percentage.

Enable Harmonic Restraint and/or Harmonic Blocking accordingly. a parallel blocking decision process occurs with specific harmonic magnitudes in the IOP quantities. The factory default is DCRB = N. Elements DCBL1. The SEL-387A can detect the dc offset and use it in the blocking (not restraint) logic. HRSTR = __________________ Restrained elements (87R1. DCRB = ___________________ Some magnetizing inrush cases contain very little harmonic content but a dc offset. Consider triggering an event report if the transformer excitation current exceeds the fifth-harmonic threshold. DCBL2. TH5D is hidden. IHBL = __________________ While the restrained differential elements are making decisions.1 corresponds to 10 percent of the fundamental current.and fourth-harmonic content in the input currents for the harmonic restraint elements (87HR1. This characteristic is modified by increasing the restraint current as a function of the second. This alarm indicates that the rated transformer excitation current has been exceeded. but a high dc offset. TH5P = __________________ Use the presence of the fifth-harmonic differential current to assert an alarm output during startup. A setting of Y defeats common harmonic blocking. 87HR2. and 87HR3). any differential element will prevent tripping of any restrained differential element. Differential (87) Element Settings Page 6 of 9 20120723 . Set HRSTR to Y to activate the harmonic restraint element 87HR. Step 13 Determine whether your application requires harmonic restraint and/or harmonic blocking features. 87R2. When TH5P = OFF. The measurement principle is that of waveshape recognition. Step 11 Determine and enter the Fifth-Harmonic Alarm Delay. distinguishing between the time constants for inrush current that typically are longer than the time constants for an internal fault. which sets the threshold of the dc ratio blocking function. At full load. and DCBL3 are combined to form Relay Word bit DCBL. TH5D = __________________ The TH5D delay setting prevents the relay from indicating the transient presence of fifth-harmonic currents. and 87R3) determine whether the IOP quantity is greater than the restraint quantity. Step 12 Determine the need for the dc ratio blocking setting. When IHBL is set to N.Step 10 Determine and enter the Fifth-Harmonic Alarm Threshold. a TH5P setting of 0. The dc ratio blocking feature applies to inrush cases with little harmonic content.

Figure 3 Example Transformer Winding Connection Diagram Figure 4 illustrates the location of the CT for a transformer phase differential protection scheme. Figure 3 is the step-up transformer winding connection diagram. Step 15 When you are finished. Relay Word bits 87R and 87U are assigned to the trip TR3 equation. This results in a phase shift in current and voltages for each of the windings. Figure 4 Transformer Phase Differential CT Location Differential (87) Element Settings Page 7 of 9 20120723 . you will validate the Winding 1 compensation setting. IBW1. W1CTC. The IAW2. IBW2. your settings will be verified in a class discussion. The example transformer low-voltage winding is connected in wye. Hands-On Activity 2: Validate Transformer Differential Element In this hands-on activity.Step 14 Verify the trip logic. and the high-voltage winding is connected in delta. the high-voltage-side winding currents and voltages lead the lowvoltage-side winding currents and voltages by 30 degrees. The factory default setting OUT103 is assigned to TRIP3. The IAW1. and ICW2 relay inputs measure the load current on the transformer low side. Validation Test Functional Description In this transformer-connected example. and ICW1 relay inputs measure the load current on the transformer high side. by injecting currents into the relay that simulate full load.

Step 2 Clear the Sequential Events Recorder (SER) entries by communicating directly with the relay as follows: • Select Communications > Terminal. Step 3 After the instructor uses the SEL-AMS to inject current into the relay.00 ICW2 = 2000 at –90. The differential element is stable (IOP values are very small. There are no targets or SER entries related to the phase differential element.01 at 150. verify the following: • • • The relay is correctly measuring the primary values of the currents and voltages.For 1.0 per unit (pu) of load flowing through.3 at –120 ICW1 = 179.00 IBW1 = 179.01 at 30. The instructor will inject current and voltage as defined in Table 1.3 at 0.00 5. and then issue the SER C command.48 at –120. Differential (87) Element Settings Page 8 of 9 20120723 .48 at 120.0 pu of load flowing through the transformer. Simulation State 1 is 1 minute IAW1 IBW1 ICW1 IAW2 IBW2 ICW2 4.48 at 0. Establish relay communications. the primary currents measured by the relay inputs are as follows: IAW1 = 179. OR • Select Tools > HMI > HMI to access the human-machine interface (HMI) menu in ACSELERATOR QuickSet.0 5. 1.00 5.0 pu Load.00 Step 1 Reset the relay targets by pushing the {TARGET RESET} pushbutton on the relay front panel.0).3 at 120 IAW2 = 2000 at 150.00 Validate Transformer Phase Differential Settings The instructor will use the SEL-AMS (Adaptive Multichannel Source) to inject secondary quantities into the relay terminals to simulate 1.01 at –90.00 4.00 IBW2 = 2000 at 30. and IRT values are close to 2. Table 1 Simulated Load for Single-State Test. A single-state test will be performed.00 4.

00 4.48 at 120.00 5.37 IOP1F2 0.00 5.38 IOP2F2 0.00 IOP3 0. Table 2 Simulated Load for a Single-State Test. or select Meter Differential from the ACSELERATOR QuickSet HMI menu options. SEL-387A IOP1 0.37 IRT3 2.01 at –60.37 IRT2 2. Step 3 After the instructor uses the SEL-AMS to inject current into the relay. You can perform this task by using either the SER C serial port command or the ACSELERATOR QuickSet HMI. Step 2 Clear the SER entries.00 IOP3F4 0.00 4.37 IRT1 2.37 IOP3F2 0.01 at 60. Verify that (IOP/IRT) • 100 = the SLP1 setting ± 5 percent.48 at –120.Hands-On Activity 3: Validate Percentage of Slope The instructor will use the SEL-AMS to inject secondary quantities into the relay terminals to simulate a fault internal to the transformer or within the zone of the transformer differential protection. Slowly Increase IW2 Until 87R Asserts IAW1 IBW1 ICW1 IAW2 IBW2 ICW2 4.01 at 180.26 IOP2F5 0.26 IOP1F5 0. The instructor will inject current and voltage as defined in Table 2.00 Operate (pu) Restraint (pu) 2nd Harmonic (%) 4th Harmonic (%) 5th Harmonic (%) Differential (87) Element Settings Page 9 of 9 20120723 . IW1 = 1.26 IOP2 0.00 IOP3F5 0.26 IOP2F4 0.00 5.00 Step 1 Reset the relay targets by pushing the {TARGET RESET} pushbutton on the relay front panel.0 pu Load. do the following: • • Issue the MET DIF serial command.00 IOP1F4 0.48 at 0. Use the SEL-5401 Test System Software front-panel function.