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ArterialArterial SupplySupply Oral Biology Alex Forrest Associate Professor of Forensic Odontology Forensic Science
ArterialArterial SupplySupply
Oral Biology
Alex Forrest
Associate Professor of Forensic Odontology
Forensic Science Research & Innovation Centre, Griffith University
Consultant Forensic Odontologist,
Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services,
39 Kessels Rd, Coopers Plains, Queensland, Australia 4108
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LearningLearning GoalsGoals On completion of this topic you should be able to describe the general
LearningLearning GoalsGoals
On completion of this topic you should be able to describe
the general plan of the blood supply and drainage of the
head and neck.
You should be able to describe the major branches of the
aortic arch.
LearningLearning GoalsGoals You should be able to describe and discuss the carotid system of arteries,
LearningLearning GoalsGoals
You should be able to describe and discuss the carotid
system of arteries, including the external carotid and its
major branches on the face, and the internal carotid, the
vertebral artery and the cerebral blood supply.
You should be able to discuss the communications between
them and their significance to the cerebral circulation.
You should also be able to discuss the major important
branches of the maxillary artery.
SomeSome QuestionsQuestions …… The head uses 14% of the total blood supply. Is its mass
SomeSome QuestionsQuestions ……
The head uses 14% of the total blood supply. Is its mass in
proportion to this?
How do we prevent crushing of the vessels when the neck
is moved?
How do we cope with heat loss through radiation?
AorticAortic ArchArch The aorta gives off branches very soon after leaving the heart, and these
AorticAortic ArchArch
The aorta gives off branches very soon after leaving the
heart, and these include branches that supply the heart
itself, as well as large and important branches to the head
and neck and to the upper limbs.
AorticAortic ArchArch The first major branch given off the aorta is the brachiocephalic artery, which
AorticAortic ArchArch
The first major branch
given off the aorta is the
brachiocephalic artery,
which runs to the right side.
It is called the
brachiocephalic artery
because it provides the
blood supply to the right
upper limb (brachial) and
two major branches to the
head on the right side
(cephalic).
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London, 35 th
Edition, 1973. p 625.
AorticAortic ArchArch The picture is a little different on the left side because the arch
AorticAortic ArchArch
The picture is a little
different on the left side
because the arch of the
aorta continues over on this
side, and there is no need
for a brachiocephalic artery.
Instead, the left common
carotid artery and left
subclavian artery are given
off directly as branches of
the aortic arch.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 625.
AorticAortic ArchArch The left vertebral artery is still given off as a branch of the
AorticAortic ArchArch
The left vertebral artery is
still given off as a branch
of the left subclavian
however.
The subclavian is also
called the innominate (or
unnamed) artery in older
text books.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 625.
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery The vertebral artery is important to us, because it is one of the
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
The vertebral artery is important to us, because it is one of
the great tributaries of the cranial blood supply.
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery It is a branch of the subclavian artery on both sides of the
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
It is a branch of the subclavian
artery on both sides of the
body.
It passes upwards after it
branches off, and ascends up
to the foramen magnum of the
skull by passing through the
transverse foramina of all the
cervical vertebrae except for
the most inferior one, C7.
http://www.chiro.org/links/graphics/vertebral_artery.jpg
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery In this position, it is so deep that it is protected from all
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
In this position, it is so deep
that it is protected from all
but the most terminal sorts
of trauma.
This protection is enhanced
by the bone of the vertebrae,
which also ensure that this
blood supply to the brain is
protected against crushing
during movements of the
neck.
Modified from: Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, Baltimore,
Williams & Wilkins, 6th Ed. 1972, Diagram 505.2
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery Because the artery lies deeply in the neck, it would otherwise be difficult
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
Because the artery lies
deeply in the neck, it would
otherwise be difficult to
prevent the large masses of
muscle in the neck causing
compression during rotation
of the head.
http://www.chiro.org/links/graphics/vertebral_artery.jpg
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery Once it has passed through the foramen magnum, it lies on the basal
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
Once it has passed through
the foramen magnum, it lies
on the basal part of the
occipital bone, and there it
joins with the vertebral artery
from the opposite side to
form the basilar artery, so
named because it lies on the
basilar part of the occipital
bone, or the basiocciput.
Vertebral
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 637.
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery You should be familiar with one intracranial branch of the basilar artery, the
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
You should be familiar with
one intracranial branch of the
basilar artery, the superior
cerebellar artery, which
supplies blood to the dorsal
cerebellum, pons and
midbrain.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 637.
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery This vessel is sometimes implicated in the genesis of trigeminal neuralgia related to
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
This vessel is sometimes
implicated in the genesis of
trigeminal neuralgia related
to microvascular
compression, although other
arteries or veins may also be
implicated.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 637.
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery You should ask yourself at this point what you think might happen if
VertebralVertebral ArteryArtery
You should ask yourself at this point what you think might
happen if the vertebral artery got blocked for any reason.
Do you think there might be significant adverse
consequences?
What design features in the cerebral blood supply could
possibly be implemented to avert this danger?
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries We have seen that the two common carotid arteries arise from different sources
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries
We have seen that the two common carotid arteries arise
from different sources on different sides of the body.
On the right side it arises as a branch of the
brachiocephalic artery.
On the left side, the common carotid artery branches
directly from the arch of the aorta.
Apart from this, the common carotid arteries and their
branches follow the same course on both right and left
sides.
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries The common carotid artery runs upwards in the neck until it reaches the
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries
The common carotid
artery runs upwards in
the neck until it
reaches the level of the
top of the larynx, where
it divides into two
branches, the external
and internal carotid
arteries.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 625.
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries It lies deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, so it cannot be palpated for
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries
It lies deep to the
sternocleidomastoid
muscle, so it cannot be
palpated for much of its
course, but you can feel
the carotid pulse with your
finger at the point where
the artery divides, just in
front of the anterior border
of the sternocleidomastoid
muscle.
http://anatome.ncl.ac.uk/tutorials/brain1/text/page1.html
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries The artery is wrapped in a strong layer of fibrous connective tissue fascia
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries
The artery is wrapped in a
strong layer of fibrous
connective tissue fascia
together with the internal
jugular vein and the vagus
nerve (X).
This is called the carotid
sheath, and it continues to
follow the internal carotid
branch up towards the
base of the skull.
Diagram of unknown origin
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries At the point at which the common carotid gives rise to the internal
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries
At the point at which
the common carotid
gives rise to the
internal carotid artery,
there is a dilation called
the carotid sinus, which
contains sensors
important in monitoring
and controlling blood
pressure.
Modified from: Van De Graff, K. Human Anatomy, Iowa,
Wm. C. Brown, 2nd Ed., 1988. p. 516
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries Apart from the external and internal carotid arteries, there are no important branches
CarotidCarotid ArteriesArteries
Apart from the external and internal carotid arteries, there
are no important branches of the common carotid artery
about which you need be concerned.
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery The external carotid artery provides the majority of the arterial blood
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
The external carotid artery provides the majority of the
arterial blood supply for the face and scalp. Its blood runs
into a network of vessels that supply a large capillary
plexus.
Over the face in particular, several of its branches
contribute to this plexus, so that damage to one of them
does not deprive any major part of the plexus of a blood
supply.
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery Thus, redundancy is built into the system to ensure that damage to
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
Thus, redundancy is built into the system to ensure that
damage to a single vessel is unlikely to lead to wholesale
tissue destruction.
This brings advantages in surgery, and when a patient
suffers traumatic damage to the facial tissues, and the
excellent blood supply tends to result in rapid healing and
reduces the incidence of infection.
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery The external carotid gives off a number of branches. Some of these
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
The external carotid gives off a number of branches. Some
of these run posteriorly to supply the tissues of the back of
the head and the neck, while others branch anteriorly to
supply the front of the neck and the face. The ascending
pharyngeal branch runs more or less vertically.
Modified from: Van De Graff, K. Human Anatomy, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown, 2nd Ed., 1988.
Modified from: Van De Graff, K. Human Anatomy, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown, 2nd Ed., 1988. p. 516
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery In ascending order, the branches of the external carotid artery are:
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
In ascending order, the branches of the external carotid
artery are:
Superior Thyroid Artery
Ascending Pharyngeal Artery
Lingual Artery
Facial Artery
Occipital Artery
Posterior Auricular Artery
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery The external carotid artery terminates by dividing into its two terminal
ExternalExternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
The external carotid
artery terminates by
dividing into its two
terminal branches,
the Maxillary Artery
and the Superficial
Temporal Artery.
http://www.khayma.com/roqia/VANE.HTM
LingualLingual ArteryArtery The lingual artery comes off the anterior aspect of the external carotid artery
LingualLingual ArteryArtery
The lingual artery comes
off the anterior aspect of
the external carotid artery
and it is the main source
of blood supply to the
tongue, the floor of the
mouth, and the gums on
the lingual side of the
anterior teeth.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 624.
LingualLingual ArteryArtery After leaving the external carotid, it runs forwards and upwards for a short
LingualLingual ArteryArtery
After leaving the
external carotid, it runs
forwards and upwards
for a short distance,
and then throws a
characteristic loop
down towards the
hyoid bone before it
ascends into the
tongue.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 624.
LingualLingual ArteryArtery It runs deeply into the tongue, deep to the hyoglossus muscle, and therefore
LingualLingual ArteryArtery
It runs deeply into
the tongue, deep
to the hyoglossus
muscle, and
therefore towards
the central part.
Jamieson, EB. Illustrations of Regional Anatomy, Section II. Edinburgh, E
& S Livingstone, 8th Ed. P.78.
It is very unlikely that you will accidentally damage the lingual
artery even if you slip with a drill or a sharp instrument, because
it is so deep!
LingualLingual ArteryArtery During its course, however, it gives off an important branch. This is the
LingualLingual ArteryArtery
During its course,
however, it gives
off an important
branch.
This is the
sublingual artery,
and it runs
forwards to supply
the floor of the
mouth and the
sublingual salivary
gland.
Jamieson, EB. Illustrations of Regional Anatomy, Section II. Edinburgh, E
& S Livingstone, 8th Ed. P.78.
LingualLingual ArteryArtery The lingual artery and its branches are tortuous in appearance to allow them
LingualLingual ArteryArtery
The lingual artery and its branches are tortuous in
appearance to allow them to stretch to accommodate
all the possible movements of the floor of the mouth
and the tongue.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery The facial artery is also an anterior branch of the external carotid, and
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
The facial artery is also
an anterior branch of
the external carotid,
and it arises
immediately superior to
the lingual artery, and
sometimes, both the
lingual and facial
arteries arise from a
common trunk.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 624.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery It arches up and runs deep to the body of the mandible to
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
It arches up and runs
deep to the body of the
mandible to form a loop
which lies in between
the submandibular
salivary gland and the
bone.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 624.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery Here, it can sometimes be seen during the surgical removal of a lower
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
Here, it can sometimes
be seen during the
surgical removal of a
lower wisdom tooth
when the mylohyoid
muscle has been
detached posteriorly. It
is also accessible to
surgical damage in this
location.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 624.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery It completes the loop and reappears at the lower border of the mandible,
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
It completes the loop
and reappears at the
lower border of the
mandible, and it
crosses over this at the
anterior margin of the
masseter muscle. Here
you can feel the facial
pulse - the pulse of the
facial artery as you
gently compress it
against the underlying
mandibular bone.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 624.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery In this location, it gives off an important branch, the submental artery. The
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
In this location, it gives
off an important branch,
the submental artery.
The submental artery
runs forward below the
mandible, lying on the
inferior surface of the
mylohyoid muscle, and
crosses over the chin to
anastomose with the
inferior labial and
mental arteries.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 624.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery Here it forms a plexus with tributaries from all three of these arteries,
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
Here it forms a plexus with tributaries from all three of these
arteries, and from those of the opposite side, to supply the
lower lip and the chin.
Before it reaches the chin, it also anastomoses with the
sublingual artery and the mylohyoid artery to form a plexus
supplying the floor of the mouth and the anterior lingual
gingivae.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery The facial artery now ascends obliquely across the face towards the medial angle
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
The facial artery now
ascends obliquely across
the face towards the
medial angle of the eye.
As it passes the lower
and upper lips, it gives
off the inferior and
superior labial branches.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 627.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery The inferior labial artery anastomoses with the artery on the opposite side, and
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
The inferior labial artery
anastomoses with the
artery on the opposite
side, and supplies the
lower lip, also
anastomosing with the
mental artery, and
therefore also with the
plexus of the chin.
The superior labial artery
does a similar thing in
the upper lip.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 627.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery After it gives off the superior labial artery, the facial artery changes its
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
After it gives off the
superior labial artery, the
facial artery changes its
name to become the
angular artery, and runs
up to the medial corner
of the eye, giving off
some lateral nasal
branches as it does so
and contributing further
to the facial plexus of
blood vessels.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 627.
FacialFacial ArteryArtery When it reaches the corner of the eye, it anastomoses with a branch
FacialFacial ArteryArtery
When it reaches the
corner of the eye, it
anastomoses with a
branch of the ophthalmic
artery to connect the
facial circulation with the
orbital circulation.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 627.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery The maxillary artery is one of the two terminal branches of the external
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
The maxillary artery is one of the two terminal branches of
the external carotid.
The other one is the superficial temporal artery, but apart
from its transverse facial branch which we will mention in
the section on clinically important anastomoses, we shall not
mention it further in this course.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery The maxillary artery is important to us because branches from it supply the
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
The maxillary artery is important to us because branches
from it supply the upper and lower teeth, the palate, cheek
and gingivae, and other important oral and facial structures.
Surgically, it is one of the most important arteries in the face
because it gives off the middle meningeal artery, an artery of
great importance in the supply of the meninges of the cranial
cavity.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery While there are many branches of this artery, we need be concerned in
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
While there are many branches of this artery, we need be
concerned in this course with only a few:
Middle Meningeal Artery
Inferior Alveolar Artery
Buccal Artery
Superior Dental Arteries
Palatine Artery
Infraorbital Artery
Arteries to Muscles of Mastication
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery The maxillary artery arises from the external carotid while it is still deep
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
The maxillary artery
arises from the external
carotid while it is still deep
in the substance of the
parotid gland. It runs
more or less obliquely
across the face to reach
the pterygopalatine fossa,
where it gives of branches
that run with the
corresponding nerves of
the maxillary division of
the trigeminal nerve.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 629.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery The middle meningeal artery supplies most of the dura mater in the cranium.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
The middle meningeal
artery supplies most of
the dura mater in the
cranium. It must therefore
enter the cranial cavity,
and it does this by
passing through foramen
spinosum.
Modified from: Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, Baltimore,
Williams & Wilkins, 6th Ed. 1972, Diagram 556
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery The accessory meningeal artery also enters the cranial cavity, and it does this
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
The accessory meningeal
artery also enters the
cranial cavity, and it does
this by passing through
foramen ovale.
Modified from: Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, Baltimore,
Williams & Wilkins, 6th Ed. 1972, Diagram 556
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery You should be aware of the relationship between this vessel and the auriculotemporal
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
You should be aware of
the relationship between
this vessel and the
auriculotemporal branch
of the mandibular division
of trigeminal nerve, which
splits around it.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 1008.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery The inferior alveolar artery lies slightly posterior to, but follows the same course
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
The inferior alveolar artery
lies slightly posterior to,
but follows the same
course as, the inferior
dental nerve, to enter the
mandibular foramen in the
mandible.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 1008.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery Once in the mandibular canal, it has the same branches as the corresponding
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
Once in the
mandibular canal,
it has the same
branches as the
corresponding
nerve.
From Shigeru Tajiri, An Atlas of Anatomy of the Head and Neck,
Aproman 1998
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery The buccal artery follows the same course as the buccal branch of the
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
The buccal artery follows
the same course as the
buccal branch of the
mandibular division of the
trigeminal nerve.
It supplies tissue in the
region of the cheek and
anastomoses with the
facial artery and the
infraorbital artery, thus
contributing to the facial
plexus.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 629.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery Once the maxillary artery reaches the pterygopalatine fossa, its branches follow the
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
Once the maxillary artery
reaches the
pterygopalatine fossa, its
branches follow the
various branches of the
maxillary division of the
trigeminal nerve, and are
given the same names.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 629.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery From Shigeru Tajiri, An Atlas of Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Aproman
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
From Shigeru Tajiri, An Atlas of Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Aproman 1998
Inferior dental artery, vein and nerve.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery Thus, we have a posterior superior dental artery, a palatine artery which divides
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
Thus, we have a posterior superior dental artery, a palatine
artery which divides into a few lesser palatine arteries
which supply part of the soft palate (along with the lingual
artery) and a greater palatine artery which supplies the
palatal tissues and the palatal gingivae of the upper teeth,
a sphenopalatine artery which follows the sphenopalatine
nerve, and the infraorbital artery, which gives rise to middle
and anterior superior dental arteries and anastomoses
with the facial plexus.
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery Jamieson, EB. Illustrations of Regional Anatomy, Section II. Edinburgh, E & S
MaxillaryMaxillary ArteryArtery
Jamieson, EB.
Illustrations of Regional
Anatomy, Section II.
Edinburgh, E & S
Livingstone, 8th Ed.
p.86.
The greater palatine artery.
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery The internal carotid artery ascends into the cranium in the carotid
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
The internal carotid
artery ascends into
the cranium in the
carotid sheath with
the internal jugular
vein and the vagus
nerve.
There are no
important branches
of this vessel in the
neck.
Jamieson, EB. Illustrations of Regional Anatomy, Section II. Edinburgh, E
& S Livingstone, 8th Ed. P.77.
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery Once the vessel reaches the base of the skull, it enters the
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
Once the vessel
reaches the base of the
skull, it enters the
cranium by passing
through the carotid
canal in the temporal
bone.
Modified from: Jamieson, EB. Illustrations of Regional Anatomy,
Section II. Edinburgh, E & S Livingstone, 8th Ed. p.97.
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery The carotid canal follows an S-shaped course in the petrous temporal,
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
The carotid canal
follows an S-shaped
course in the petrous
temporal, which brings
the artery into the
cranial cavity above
the cartilage plug that
blocks the foramen
lacerum.
Modified from: Jamieson, EB. Illustrations of Regional Anatomy,
Section II. Edinburgh, E & S Livingstone, 8th Ed. p.97.
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London, 35th Edition, 1973. p 288. It
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London, 35th Edition, 1973. p 288.
It turns sharply upwards, often leaving a small groove in
the body of the sphenoid bone at this point.
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London, 35th Edition, 1973. p 697. As
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London, 35th Edition, 1973. p 697.
As it ascends, it lies inside the cavity of the cavernous
sinus, and is separated from the blood in the sinus by a
layer of endothelial cells.
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery It emerges from the superior wall of the cavernous sinus and branches
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
It emerges from the superior wall of the cavernous sinus and
branches into its terminal branches, the anterior cerebral
artery and the middle cerebral artery, both branches of the
structure known as the Circle of Willis.
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery While the internal carotid artery has several branches in the cranium, we
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
While the internal carotid artery has several
branches in the cranium, we will consider only a
few of them:
The Ophthalmic Artery
The Anterior Cerebral Artery
The Middle Cerebral Artery
The Posterior Communicating Artery
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery The ophthalmic artery enters the orbit through the optic canal and
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
The ophthalmic artery
enters the orbit through
the optic canal and
supplies blood to the
retina of the eye, and to
most of the structures in
and around the orbit.
http://www.bartleby.com/107/illus514.html
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery Its importance to us is that it anastomoses with the angular artery
InternalInternal CarotidCarotid ArteryArtery
Its importance to us is that it anastomoses with the angular
artery at the medial corner of the eye, and with scalp vessels
via its supraorbital and supratrochlear and other branches,
and thus establishes direct communication with the branches
of the external carotid artery.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis We have now recognized that four major arteries enter the cranium. These
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
We have now recognized that four major arteries enter the
cranium. These comprise the two internal carotid arteries,
and the two vertebral arteries. We also know that the
vertebral arteries unite on the basal part of the occipital
bone to form the basilar artery. It is from these tributaries
that the cerebral blood supply is derived.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis First, let’s consider the basilar artery. It lies on the basiocciput, so
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
First, let’s consider the basilar artery.
It lies on the basiocciput, so it’s close to the posterior cranial
fossa. It therefore makes sense that this artery would supply
structures that lay posterior in the cranial vault, and this is
indeed the case.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis The basilar artery gives off two major branches, one to the left
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
The basilar artery gives off
two major branches, one
to the left and another to
the right, called the
posterior cerebral arteries.
These give off several
branches which need not
be known in this course,
and basically supplies the
posterior and middle
cerebral structures.
http://www.csuchico.edu/~pmccaff/syllabi/SPPA362/362unit11.html
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis The internal carotid arteries come to lie more anteriorly in the calvaria.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
The internal carotid
arteries come to lie more
anteriorly in the calvaria.
Each gives off two
terminal branches called
the middle cerebral
artery and the anterior
cerebral artery.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 637.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis The anterior cerebral artery runs forwards to supply tissues in the region
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
The anterior cerebral
artery runs forwards to
supply tissues in the
region of the anterior
cranial fossa, while the
middle cerebral artery
supplies structures more
closely related to the
middle cranial fossa.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 637.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis No branches of any of these arteries need be known except for
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
No branches of any of these arteries need be known except
for those that now allow us to complete the circle to ensure
redundancy of blood supply to all the cerebral structures.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis The two anterior cerebral arteries are united to establish the anterior communication
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
The two anterior cerebral
arteries are united to
establish the anterior
communication by the
anterior communicating
artery.
http://www.csuchico.edu/~pmccaff/syllabi/SPPA362/362unit11.html
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis The posterior communicating arteries branch from the internal carotid arteries and run
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
The posterior
communicating arteries
branch from the internal
carotid arteries and run
backwards to unite them
with the posterior
cerebral artery.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London,
35th Edition, 1973. p 637.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis This completes the circle, which was first described by an anatomist called
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
This completes the
circle, which was
first described by
an anatomist called
Willis, and now
bears his name.
Modified from Grays Anatomy, Longman, London, 35th Edition, 1973. p 638.
Copyright © A. Forrest 2007.
Copyright © A. Forrest 2007.
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis The circular arrangement of blood distribution from these major tributaries forms an
CircleCircle ofof WillisWillis
The circular arrangement of blood distribution from these
major tributaries forms an insurance policy against blockage
or damage to individual vessels.
The circle continues to source adequate blood to ensure
continued distribution to the cerebral and cerebellar structures,
even with some compromise to the source vessels.
While it cannot prevent all damage to the brain, this powerful
arrangement can certainly ensure continuity of blood supply in
the face of significant damage.
LearningLearning GoalsGoals On completion of this topic you should be able to describe the general
LearningLearning GoalsGoals
On completion of this topic you should be able to describe
the general plan of the blood supply and drainage of the
head and neck.
You should be able to describe the major branches of the
aortic arch.
LearningLearning GoalsGoals Specifically, you should be able to describe and discuss the carotid system of
LearningLearning GoalsGoals
Specifically, you should be able to describe and discuss the
carotid system of arteries, including the external carotid and
its major branches on the face, and the internal carotid, the
vertebral artery and the cerebral blood supply.
You should also be able to discuss the major important
branches of the maxillary artery.
The End
The End