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# AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

## GL(1,AQ ) - TATE'S THESIS

NAVA CHITRIK

Referenced heavily from Tate's thesis and from Goldfeld and Hundley (2011), Automorphic Representations and L-Functions for the General Linear Group, Cambridge University Press

Contents
Automorphic Forms for GL(1,AQ ) Dirichlet L-Functions Integration and Poisson Summation on 1 4

A -Function

4 5 7 9

## The Functional Equation of the Riemann

The Zeta-Integral and its Functional Equation The Local Zeta Integral The L-Function and its -Factors

14

## Automorphic Forms for GL(1,AQ )

Automorphic forms for GL(1,AQ ) are a special type of function on

Q\A.

They

will turn out to be no more than the classical objects, the Dirichlet characters. First we will make some denitions for automorphic forms which are capable of generalization to

n>1

## then we will show that the one dimensional automorphic

forms are associated to a unique Dirichlet character. In this way, we present Tate's thesis as the bottom rung in the theory of Automorphic forms. Many of the techniques encountered here will be used again in the theory of Automorphic forms for GL(2, A).

## Denition 1. (Unitary Hecke Character) A unitary Hecke character of the ideles

is a homomorphism,

: A Q C such

that

| (x)| = 1

and

(q ) = 1

whenever

q Q.

homomorphism

1 : Q \A Q S .
1

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

## Denition 2. (Moderate Growth) A function

moderate growth if for each adele

## on the adeles is said to have there are constants such that

g = {g , g2 , ...},

## ({tg , g2 , ...}) < C (1 + |t| )M

for all

t R.
be a xed unitary Hecke character. An

## Denition 3. (Automorphic form) Let

automorphic form is a function

: Q \ AQ C
satisfying:

(1) (2)

(zg ) = (z )(g ) z, g AQ
has moderate growth (this is automatic)

While the above denition seems a bit silly- it implies that automorphic forms are simply scaled unitary Hecke characters - this denition is only to mimic the denitions for higher dimension when these functions can be more complicated.

mod q ).

: (Z/q Z)
and

we can lift

to all of

by

(n) = ( n)

where

nn ( mod q )

(n) = 0

if

(q, n) = 1.

## Denition 5. (Idelic lift of a Dirichlet character). Let

We will associate a unitary Hecke character the idelic lift of

be a character mod pf

idelic : Q \AQ

which is called

as follows:

idelic (g ) =
p

p (gp )

where

(g ) =

sign(g ) 1

if (1) = 1 if (1) = 1

and

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

(v )m v (gv ) = (j )1

if v = p where gv v m Z v if v = p where gv = pk (j + pf Zp )
which a character of a nite

## This is a unitary Hecke character: unitary since

group must lie on the unit circle. The other properties can be checked easily. More generally, any Dirichlet character factors into characters mod case we dene

pf ,

and in this

idelic as

Theorem 6.

## Every automorphic form for GL(1,AQ ) is uniquely of the form

(g ) = c idelic (g ) |g |it

where c C, t R and idelic is the idelic lift of a Dirichlet character as dened above. Proof.
As we noted in the denition,

and

is a

## Q v so we need to classify the individual multiplicative characters

of each local

eld. Also from continuity, for all but nitely many primes, the factors must satisfy

v (v ) = 1.
Characters of

|r|it

or

|r|it sign(r)

Q p

is

(u) = 1 Q p:

whenever

is a unit, i.e.

Z p . Then

form on

u pn ,

## this implies that

(u p ) = (p) (p).This

(Z p ) 1.

such that

(1 + pk Zp ) 1

## since by continuity, the kernel of

must contain an

open subgroup of this form. We call such a character ramied with conductor Now, for an arbitrary eld element addition to specifying simpler, on

pk .
in

u pn ,

we have that

## (u pn ) = (u) (p)n ,so

(p) we must also specify how acts on the group Z p , or even Z/pk Z.
So

k Z p /(1 + p Zp )

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

character mod

pk .

(p)

(u)

is odd, i.e.

(u) = (u)

e.g.

To make the

## is ramied if it doesn't factor through the absolute

We have left out some tedious calculation but it follows that You may wonder where the sign(g ) has gone. other components, indeed we have that

## This parity disappears into the

(1) = (1)(1).

Dirichlet L-Functions
Denition 7. (The L-function of an Automorphic form) Since any automorphic
form

L(s, ) =
p

(p) ps

(g ) = 1,
1

we get that

L(s, ) = (s) =
p

1 ps

=
n=1

ns

(s) > 1

## The so-called analytic continuation

via functional equation was solved in the 1800's by means of theta functions and other complicated mechanisms. In his thesis, Tate presented an elegant way to get these continuations using adelic integrals. remainder of these notes. This process will be described in the

## Integration and Poisson Summation on A

We need a couple of denitions. The adelic Bruhat-Schwartz space is the space of linear combinations of factorizable functions, where each factor is locally constant and compactly supported (nite places), or Schwartz (innite places), and which is the characteristic function

1Zp

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

integral of a function in such a space by using linearity and taking the product of the integral, for purely factorizable functions, i.e. if

( x ) =

p (xp )

then

(x)d x =
A Q p S

Q v

v (xv )d xv

d x =
where the

dx
x

dxv d x = 1

1 1p1

dxp |xp |p

at a nite place

## are derived from the metric, e.g.

(a + pn Zp ) = pn .

## This gives that

Zp

dxp = 1

and

Z p

Theorem 9.

h(x) =
Q

1 |x|

h x

Proof.

omitted

(The Fourier transform is taken with respect to a self-dual Haar measure i.e. formula

(x) = f (x) f

holds)

## The Functional Equation of the Riemann -Function

Example 10. In this example, we will compute the functional equation of the
Riemann

-function

(g ) = eg
p<

1Zp
1.

g ), (g ) = (

and

= (0) = (0)

(g )|g |s d x =
A Q
Now, since

ex |x|s1 dx
p< Zp \{0}

|gp |s d gp = ()

Zp \{0} =
n=0

pn Z p

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

|gp |s d gp =
Zp \{0}
So that

pns d x =
pn Z p

n=0

1 1 ps

() = 2
0

ex xs

1

## we can rewrite (*) as

() =
Q

(x)|x|s d x =
Q \A Q

Q \A Q

(x)|x| d x +
s

(x)|x|s d x
Q \A Q

|x|1

|x|1

Now we'll apply Poisson summation to the rst of these two integrals

(x)|x|s d x
Q \A

Q \A Q

Q \A Q

|x|1

|x|1

Q \A Q

|x|s1 d x + 1
0

(|x|s |x|s1 )d x
p Z p

|x|1

|x|1

Q \A Q

(x) |x|

1s

d x+

(xs xs1 ) dx x

d x

|x|1

Q \A Q

(x) |x|s1 d x +

1 s

1 s1

|x|1

() =
Q \A Q

|x|1

, s 1 s.

Q \A Q = (0, )
p

Z p

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ ) s 2

- TATE'S THESIS

## Therefore, since (*) was also equal to

s/2

(s)

we have that

s/2

1s s (s) = 2 2

1s 2

(1 s)

You may have noticed a couple of thing about the above calculations. One major observation is that to get the functional equation we didn't even need to use the fact that on a

so that there is some reason to suspect that we will not need to rely =
function

particular

## and the theory will have to explain the independence.

The remainder of these notes will be devoted to generalizing this process to obtain functional equations for more general Dirichlet L-functions.

## be a unitary Hecke character. We dene the global zeta-integral

Z (s, , ) =
A Q
This denition is by analogy with the Mellin Transform of real functions which is useful in classical analytic number theory.

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Theorem 12.

## (Functional equation of the global Zeta integral)

, Z (s, , ) = Z (1 s, )

Proof.

We compute:

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

Z (s, , ) =
A Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x

=
Q \A Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

by strong approximation

Q \A Q =
Q \A Q

## and the fact that

||s () = 1

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

for

|x| 1 +

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

for

|x| 1

= I + II

We we will now use Poisson summation on the rst integral. We rewrite the Poisson summation formula as

(x) =
Q Q

Then integral

II

turns into:

II =
Q \A |x|1 Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

=
Q \A |x|1 Q

(x)|x| d x + (0)
s
|x|1 Q

(x)|x|s1 d x
|x|1 Q \A Q

Q \A

=
Q \A |x|1 Q

Q
Q \A |x|1 Q

(x)|x| d x + (0)
s
|x|1 Q \A Q

(x)|x|s1 d x

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

(0.1)

Z (s, , ) = I + II =
Q \A |x|1 Q

## (x) (x)|x|1s (x) (x)|x|s d x (x)|x| d x + (0)

s
|x|1 Q \A Q |x|1 Q \A Q

(x)|x|s1 d x

(0)

If

## has ramication, since

Q \A Q = (0, )
is trivial on the

Z p Z p 0
to

and

## trivial on one of the If

Zp

then by standard tricks, the last two integrals will be zero. part and the last two pieces

## become, by integrating just the real place from

1:

1 1 (0) + (0) s s1
In summary, by inspection of 0.1 and the above discussion, we have that

Z (s, , ) =

, Z (1 s, )
Summary of above proof: (1) Use strong approximation (2) Break into

|x| 1

and

|x| 1

## (3) Use P.S. on (4) let

|x| 1
in the big piece of the formula

x 1/x

(5) determine if ramication occurs Although the global zeta integral satises such a neat functional equation, the local pieces (dened below) require a slight modication for their functional equations.

## The Local Zeta Integral

Denition 13. (Local Zeta Integral) Let

s C

with

## (s) > 0, (x)

a Bruhat-

Schwartz function on the local eld (i.e. Locally constant and compactly supported on

Q p , or a Schwartz-function on R ). Zv (s, , ) =

Let

We dene

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q v

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

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- TATE'S THESIS

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Does the above converge? Well we can use the standard trick of splitting it into two pieces. If we consider the integral when

|x| > 1

## then it certainly converges

there since we are dealing with a (Bruhat-) Schwartz function. hand, for

|x| 1

On the other

Zp

|x| d x =

|x| d x =
0 pn Z p 0

pn

(s) > 0.

So the integral

Zv (s, , )

converges for

(s) > 0.

Theorem 14.

## of such that for 0 < (s) < 1

Zv (s, , ) = (s, ) Zv (1 s, , )

Proof.

## Consider two arbitrary Bruhat-Schwartz

and

on

Qv .

We compute:

) = Zv (s, , ) Zv (1 s, ,

Q p Qp

By letting

y xy

=
Q p Qp

=
Qp Q p Qp

## (x) (z )ev (xyz )|x| |y |1s (y )d x d y dz

Since

dx d x = c and the point 0 is measureless |x| =c (x) (z )ev (xyz )|y |1s (y )dx d y dz
Qp Q Qp p

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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## The last expression is independent over

and so

, therefore

Zv (s, , ) Zv (1

) = Zv (1 s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, , s, , Zv (s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, ,
which shows that

Zv (s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, ,

(s, )

## It turns out that it is not very hard to compute

(s, )

in each case.

All that

Zv (s,, ) is required is a particularly easy test function and the comparison of ) Zv (1s,,
for that easy function whether one on

Z p)

(x) = 1

for

x R.

## Then we choose the test function

(x) = ex

. Then,

Zv (s, , ) =
R

ex |x|s
s 2

dx |x|
some

= 2 dx Zv (1 s, ) = ex |x|1s |x|
R

s ( ) 2

u substitution

and recall

(s) =
0

e x x s

dx x

1s 2

1s ) 2 (s, )

v=

and

(x)

2

|x| x .

(x) = xex

so we

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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have that

Zv (s, , ) =
R

ex x2 |x|s+1
s+1 2

dx |x|
some

R

s+1 ( ) 2

u substitution

and recall

(s) =
0

ex xs

dx x

= i

(1s)+1 2

1s+1 ) 2

v = p

## is a nite prime and

is unramied.

This is the

easiest case and the one that comes up in proving the functional equation of the Riemann

function.

= 1Z p

transform.

Computing,

Zv (s, , ) =
Q p

1Zp (x)|x|s d x
(x)|x|s d x

=
Zp \{0}

=
n=0

(p)n pns

since

Zp \{0}=
n=0

pn Z p

Q p

1 1 (p)p(1s)

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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acter
2

## Then, computing the Fourier transform of

(x) =
Qp

(y )e2i{xy} dy e2i({x(1y}) dy
pr Zp
This is only nonzero when

x 1 + pr Zp

= 11+pr Zp = pr 11+pr Zp

dy
pr Z
p

Recall that

e2i{x}

Qp

{x}

x,

that is if

x =
N

an pn

then

{x} =

an pn Q
N

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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Zv (s, , ) =
Q p

## 1pr Zp e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x

e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x

=
pr Zp \{0}

pr

=
n=0

(p) p

n ns

since

Zp \{0}=
=1

p (j + pr Zp )
j =1 (j,p)=1

pr

e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x
p (j +pr Zp ) 2ij l
p

=
=1 j =1 r p
r

(p) (j ) p
pr s

=
=1 j =1

d x
p (j +pr Zp )

p r = p p1

p (p)
=1

j =1

2ij l
p

(j )

pr+1 rs = p (p)r p1 Zv (1 s, , ) =
Q p

pr

e2ijp (j )
j =1 (j,p)=1

11+pr Zp pr (x)|x|1s d x
pr (x)|x|1s d x d x |x|1 dx

=
1+pr Zp

= pr
1+pr Zp

p pr p1

1+pr Zp

p = p1
The L-Function and its -Factors

Great. So now we have functional equations and meromorphic continuations of the local Zeta-integrals to the entire complex plane. We now use this fact, together with

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

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- TATE'S THESIS

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the global-functional equation to obtain a functional equation and root numbers for a classical L-function. Let

Then

v be the unitary Hecke character associated to an automorphic form. v is ramied at only nitely many places. We dene the local L-function of s s ) 2 ( 2 s +1 2 ( s+1 ) 2 (1 p (p)ps )1 1

as follows if if if if

v= v= v=p v=p

is unramied is ramied

Lv (s, v )=

is unramied is ramied

pth

## place factor in the

Euler product, so this is a reasonable denition of a local L-function. Also, in the unramied places notice that above examples.

Lv (s, v ) = Zv (s, v , )

with

chosen as in the

Remark
of

19

The local L-function can be thought of as the greatest-common-divisor That is, the local L-

## Zv (s, , ) as we range over all Bruhat-Schwartz functions .

Zv (s,, ) function is the least complicated function so that Lv (s, ) is always holomorphic.
For example, if

is ramied, then

Zv (s, , )

## Also true is that we can always nd some but it

so that

Zv (s, , ) = Lv (s, )

## won't necessarily be true that for

, Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, ).

## Denition 20. (Local Root Number)

The local root number

v (s, ) is dened by

(0.2)

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )

v (s, )

Zv (s, , ) Lv (s, )
was.

which is independent of

(s, )

is unramied at

Therefore:

## Zv (s, , ) = Lv (s, ) and

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )
Lemma 21.

v (s, )

1.

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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Let us to back to the global functional equation and choose our test function,

=
v
where the and at that

v
At the unramied places

v are

chosen so that

Zv (s, v , ) = Lv (s, ).

we choose v

as in the examples and in the last case, its not hard to show

11+pr Zp

## Denition 22. (The global L-function) Let

the local L-factors as

## be a unitary Hecke character, and let

The we dene the global L-function

## Lv (s, ) be dened as above. L (s, ) =

v

Lv (s, )

We think of the global L-function as a completed L-function. It looks a lot like the Dirichlet L-function, but now we also have a component at the innite place, making it more symmetric and complete. It is this L-function which will have a natural functional equation coming from the adelic factorization.

Theorem 23.

Let

## We can apply the global functional equation:

, Z (s, , ) = Z (1 s, )
to the product over

of equation 0.2

v
The

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )

(s, )
v

Zv (s, , ) Lv (s, )

Zv 's

factor out entirely by the global functional equation and we get that

L(s, ) =
v
where

Lv (s, ) = (s, )
v

Lv (1 s, )

(s, ) =
v

v (s, )

=
v S

## AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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