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NAVA CHITRIK

Referenced heavily from Tate's thesis and from Goldfeld and Hundley (2011), Automorphic Representations and L-Functions for the General Linear Group, Cambridge University Press

Contents

Automorphic Forms for GL(1,AQ ) Dirichlet L-Functions Integration and Poisson Summation on 1 4

A -Function

4 5 7 9

The Zeta-Integral and its Functional Equation The Local Zeta Integral The L-Function and its -Factors

14

Automorphic forms for GL(1,AQ ) are a special type of function on

Q\A.

They

will turn out to be no more than the classical objects, the Dirichlet characters. First we will make some denitions for automorphic forms which are capable of generalization to

n>1

forms are associated to a unique Dirichlet character. In this way, we present Tate's thesis as the bottom rung in the theory of Automorphic forms. Many of the techniques encountered here will be used again in the theory of Automorphic forms for GL(2, A).

is a homomorphism,

: A Q C such

that

| (x)| = 1

and

(q ) = 1

whenever

q Q.

homomorphism

1 : Q \A Q S .

1

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

moderate growth if for each adele

g = {g , g2 , ...},

for all

t R.

be a xed unitary Hecke character. An

automorphic form is a function

: Q \ AQ C

satisfying:

(1) (2)

(zg ) = (z )(g ) z, g AQ

has moderate growth (this is automatic)

While the above denition seems a bit silly- it implies that automorphic forms are simply scaled unitary Hecke characters - this denition is only to mimic the denitions for higher dimension when these functions can be more complicated.

mod q ).

: (Z/q Z)

and

we can lift

to all of

by

(n) = ( n)

where

nn ( mod q )

(n) = 0

if

(q, n) = 1.

We will associate a unitary Hecke character the idelic lift of

be a character mod pf

idelic : Q \AQ

which is called

as follows:

idelic (g ) =

p

p (gp )

where

(g ) =

sign(g ) 1

if (1) = 1 if (1) = 1

and

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

(v )m v (gv ) = (j )1

if v = p where gv v m Z v if v = p where gv = pk (j + pf Zp )

which a character of a nite

group must lie on the unit circle. The other properties can be checked easily. More generally, any Dirichlet character factors into characters mod case we dene

pf ,

and in this

idelic as

Theorem 6.

(g ) = c idelic (g ) |g |it

where c C, t R and idelic is the idelic lift of a Dirichlet character as dened above. Proof.

As we noted in the denition,

and

is a

of each local

eld. Also from continuity, for all but nitely many primes, the factors must satisfy

v (v ) = 1.

Characters of

|r|it

or

|r|it sign(r)

Q p

is

(u) = 1 Q p:

whenever

is a unit, i.e.

Z p . Then

form on

u pn ,

(u p ) = (p) (p).This

(Z p ) 1.

such that

(1 + pk Zp ) 1

must contain an

open subgroup of this form. We call such a character ramied with conductor Now, for an arbitrary eld element addition to specifying simpler, on

pk .

in

u pn ,

we have that

(p) we must also specify how acts on the group Z p , or even Z/pk Z.

So

k Z p /(1 + p Zp )

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

character mod

pk .

(p)

(u)

is odd, i.e.

(u) = (u)

e.g.

To make the

We have left out some tedious calculation but it follows that You may wonder where the sign(g ) has gone. other components, indeed we have that

(1) = (1)(1).

Dirichlet L-Functions

Denition 7. (The L-function of an Automorphic form) Since any automorphic

form

L(s, ) =

p

(p) ps

(g ) = 1,

1

we get that

L(s, ) = (s) =

p

1 ps

=

n=1

ns

(s) > 1

via functional equation was solved in the 1800's by means of theta functions and other complicated mechanisms. In his thesis, Tate presented an elegant way to get these continuations using adelic integrals. remainder of these notes. This process will be described in the

We need a couple of denitions. The adelic Bruhat-Schwartz space is the space of linear combinations of factorizable functions, where each factor is locally constant and compactly supported (nite places), or Schwartz (innite places), and which is the characteristic function

1Zp

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

integral of a function in such a space by using linearity and taking the product of the integral, for purely factorizable functions, i.e. if

( x ) =

p (xp )

then

(x)d x =

A Q p S

Q v

v (xv )d xv

d x =

where the

dx

x

dxv d x = 1

1 1p1

dxp |xp |p

at a nite place

(a + pn Zp ) = pn .

Zp

dxp = 1

and

Z p

Theorem 9.

h(x) =

Q

1 |x|

h x

Proof.

omitted

(The Fourier transform is taken with respect to a self-dual Haar measure i.e. formula

(x) = f (x) f

holds)

Example 10. In this example, we will compute the functional equation of the

Riemann

-function

(g ) = eg

p<

1Zp

1.

g ), (g ) = (

and

= (0) = (0)

(g )|g |s d x =

A Q

Now, since

ex |x|s1 dx

p< Zp \{0}

|gp |s d gp = ()

Zp \{0} =

n=0

pn Z p

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

|gp |s d gp =

Zp \{0}

So that

pns d x =

pn Z p

n=0

1 1 ps

() = 2

0

ex xs

1

() =

Q

(x)|x|s d x =

Q \A Q

Q \A Q

(x)|x| d x +

s

(x)|x|s d x

Q \A Q

|x|1

|x|1

Now we'll apply Poisson summation to the rst of these two integrals

(x)|x|s d x

Q \A

Q \A Q

Q \A Q

|x|1

|x|1

Q \A Q

|x|s1 d x + 1

0

(|x|s |x|s1 )d x

p Z p

|x|1

|x|1

Q \A Q

(x) |x|

1s

d x+

(xs xs1 ) dx x

d x

|x|1

Q \A Q

(x) |x|s1 d x +

1 s

1 s1

|x|1

() =

Q \A Q

|x|1

, s 1 s.

Q \A Q = (0, )

p

Z p

GL(1,AQ ) s 2

- TATE'S THESIS

s/2

(s)

we have that

s/2

1s s (s) = 2 2

1s 2

(1 s)

You may have noticed a couple of thing about the above calculations. One major observation is that to get the functional equation we didn't even need to use the fact that on a

so that there is some reason to suspect that we will not need to rely =

function

particular

The remainder of these notes will be devoted to generalizing this process to obtain functional equations for more general Dirichlet L-functions.

Z (s, , ) =

A Q

This denition is by analogy with the Mellin Transform of real functions which is useful in classical analytic number theory.

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Theorem 12.

, Z (s, , ) = Z (1 s, )

Proof.

We compute:

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

Z (s, , ) =

A Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x

=

Q \A Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Q

by strong approximation

Q \A Q =

Q \A Q

||s () = 1

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Q

for

|x| 1 +

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Q

for

|x| 1

= I + II

We we will now use Poisson summation on the rst integral. We rewrite the Poisson summation formula as

(x) =

Q Q

Then integral

II

turns into:

II =

Q \A |x|1 Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Q

=

Q \A |x|1 Q

(x)|x| d x + (0)

s

|x|1 Q

(x)|x|s1 d x

|x|1 Q \A Q

Q \A

=

Q \A |x|1 Q

Q

Q \A |x|1 Q

(x)|x| d x + (0)

s

|x|1 Q \A Q

(x)|x|s1 d x

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

(0.1)

Z (s, , ) = I + II =

Q \A |x|1 Q

s

|x|1 Q \A Q |x|1 Q \A Q

(x)|x|s1 d x

(0)

If

Q \A Q = (0, )

is trivial on the

Z p Z p 0

to

and

Zp

then by standard tricks, the last two integrals will be zero. part and the last two pieces

1:

1 1 (0) + (0) s s1

In summary, by inspection of 0.1 and the above discussion, we have that

Z (s, , ) =

, Z (1 s, )

Summary of above proof: (1) Use strong approximation (2) Break into

|x| 1

and

|x| 1

|x| 1

in the big piece of the formula

x 1/x

(5) determine if ramication occurs Although the global zeta integral satises such a neat functional equation, the local pieces (dened below) require a slight modication for their functional equations.

Denition 13. (Local Zeta Integral) Let

s C

with

a Bruhat-

Schwartz function on the local eld (i.e. Locally constant and compactly supported on

Q p , or a Schwartz-function on R ). Zv (s, , ) =

Let

We dene

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Q v

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

10

Does the above converge? Well we can use the standard trick of splitting it into two pieces. If we consider the integral when

|x| > 1

there since we are dealing with a (Bruhat-) Schwartz function. hand, for

|x| 1

On the other

Zp

|x| d x =

|x| d x =

0 pn Z p 0

pn

(s) > 0.

So the integral

Zv (s, , )

converges for

(s) > 0.

Theorem 14.

Zv (s, , ) = (s, ) Zv (1 s, , )

Proof.

and

on

Qv .

We compute:

) = Zv (s, , ) Zv (1 s, ,

Q p Qp

By letting

y xy

=

Q p Qp

=

Qp Q p Qp

Since

dx d x = c and the point 0 is measureless |x| =c (x) (z )ev (xyz )|y |1s (y )dx d y dz

Qp Q Qp p

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

11

and so

, therefore

Zv (s, , ) Zv (1

) = Zv (1 s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, , s, , Zv (s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, ,

which shows that

Zv (s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, ,

(s, )

(s, )

in each case.

All that

Zv (s,, ) is required is a particularly easy test function and the comparison of ) Zv (1s,,

for that easy function whether one on

Z p)

(x) = 1

for

x R.

(x) = ex

. Then,

Zv (s, , ) =

R

ex |x|s

s 2

dx |x|

some

= 2 dx Zv (1 s, ) = ex |x|1s |x|

R

s ( ) 2

u substitution

and recall

(s) =

0

e x x s

dx x

1s 2

1s ) 2 (s, )

v=

and

(x)

2

|x| x .

(x) = xex

so we

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

12

have that

Zv (s, , ) =

R

ex x2 |x|s+1

s+1 2

dx |x|

some

R

s+1 ( ) 2

u substitution

and recall

(s) =

0

ex xs

dx x

= i

(1s)+1 2

1s+1 ) 2

v = p

is unramied.

This is the

easiest case and the one that comes up in proving the functional equation of the Riemann

function.

= 1Z p

transform.

Computing,

Zv (s, , ) =

Q p

1Zp (x)|x|s d x

(x)|x|s d x

=

Zp \{0}

=

n=0

(p)n pns

since

Zp \{0}=

n=0

pn Z p

Q p

1 1 (p)p(1s)

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

13

acter

2

(x) =

Qp

(y )e2i{xy} dy e2i({x(1y}) dy

pr Zp

This is only nonzero when

x 1 + pr Zp

= 11+pr Zp = pr 11+pr Zp

dy

pr Z

p

Recall that

e2i{x}

Qp

{x}

x,

that is if

x =

N

an pn

then

{x} =

an pn Q

N

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

14

Zv (s, , ) =

Q p

e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x

=

pr Zp \{0}

pr

=

n=0

(p) p

n ns

since

Zp \{0}=

=1

p (j + pr Zp )

j =1 (j,p)=1

pr

e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x

p (j +pr Zp ) 2ij l

p

=

=1 j =1 r p

r

(p) (j ) p

pr s

=

=1 j =1

d x

p (j +pr Zp )

p r = p p1

p (p)

=1

j =1

2ij l

p

(j )

pr+1 rs = p (p)r p1 Zv (1 s, , ) =

Q p

pr

e2ijp (j )

j =1 (j,p)=1

11+pr Zp pr (x)|x|1s d x

pr (x)|x|1s d x d x |x|1 dx

=

1+pr Zp

= pr

1+pr Zp

p pr p1

1+pr Zp

p = p1

The L-Function and its -Factors

Great. So now we have functional equations and meromorphic continuations of the local Zeta-integrals to the entire complex plane. We now use this fact, together with

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

15

the global-functional equation to obtain a functional equation and root numbers for a classical L-function. Let

Then

v be the unitary Hecke character associated to an automorphic form. v is ramied at only nitely many places. We dene the local L-function of s s ) 2 ( 2 s +1 2 ( s+1 ) 2 (1 p (p)ps )1 1

as follows if if if if

v= v= v=p v=p

is unramied is ramied

Lv (s, v )=

is unramied is ramied

pth

Euler product, so this is a reasonable denition of a local L-function. Also, in the unramied places notice that above examples.

Lv (s, v ) = Zv (s, v , )

with

chosen as in the

Remark

of

19

The local L-function can be thought of as the greatest-common-divisor That is, the local L-

Zv (s,, ) function is the least complicated function so that Lv (s, ) is always holomorphic.

For example, if

is ramied, then

Zv (s, , )

so that

Zv (s, , ) = Lv (s, )

, Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, ).

The local root number

v (s, ) is dened by

(0.2)

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )

v (s, )

Zv (s, , ) Lv (s, )

was.

which is independent of

(s, )

is unramied at

Therefore:

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )

Lemma 21.

v (s, )

1.

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

16

Let us to back to the global functional equation and choose our test function,

=

v

where the and at that

v

At the unramied places

v are

chosen so that

Zv (s, v , ) = Lv (s, ).

we choose v

as in the examples and in the last case, its not hard to show

11+pr Zp

the local L-factors as

The we dene the global L-function

v

Lv (s, )

We think of the global L-function as a completed L-function. It looks a lot like the Dirichlet L-function, but now we also have a component at the innite place, making it more symmetric and complete. It is this L-function which will have a natural functional equation coming from the adelic factorization.

Theorem 23.

Let

, Z (s, , ) = Z (1 s, )

to the product over

of equation 0.2

v

The

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )

(s, )

v

Zv (s, , ) Lv (s, )

Zv 's

factor out entirely by the global functional equation and we get that

L(s, ) =

v

where

Lv (s, ) = (s, )

v

Lv (1 s, )

(s, ) =

v

v (s, )

=

v S

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

17

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