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AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ ) - TATE'S THESIS

NAVA CHITRIK

Referenced heavily from Tate's thesis and from Goldfeld and Hundley (2011), Automorphic Representations and L-Functions for the General Linear Group, Cambridge University Press

Contents
Automorphic Forms for GL(1,AQ ) Dirichlet L-Functions Integration and Poisson Summation on 1 4

A -Function

4 5 7 9

The Functional Equation of the Riemann

The Zeta-Integral and its Functional Equation The Local Zeta Integral The L-Function and its -Factors

14

Automorphic Forms for GL(1,AQ )


Automorphic forms for GL(1,AQ ) are a special type of function on

Q\A.

They

will turn out to be no more than the classical objects, the Dirichlet characters. First we will make some denitions for automorphic forms which are capable of generalization to

n>1

then we will show that the one dimensional automorphic

forms are associated to a unique Dirichlet character. In this way, we present Tate's thesis as the bottom rung in the theory of Automorphic forms. Many of the techniques encountered here will be used again in the theory of Automorphic forms for GL(2, A).

Denition 1. (Unitary Hecke Character) A unitary Hecke character of the ideles


is a homomorphism,

: A Q C such

that

| (x)| = 1

and

(q ) = 1

whenever

q Q.

It should also be continuous. This is sometimes more concisely dened as a

homomorphism

1 : Q \A Q S .
1

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

Denition 2. (Moderate Growth) A function


moderate growth if for each adele

on the adeles is said to have there are constants such that

g = {g , g2 , ...},

({tg , g2 , ...}) < C (1 + |t| )M


for all

t R.
be a xed unitary Hecke character. An

Denition 3. (Automorphic form) Let


automorphic form is a function

: Q \ AQ C
satisfying:

(1) (2)

(zg ) = (z )(g ) z, g AQ
has moderate growth (this is automatic)

While the above denition seems a bit silly- it implies that automorphic forms are simply scaled unitary Hecke characters - this denition is only to mimic the denitions for higher dimension when these functions can be more complicated.

Denition 4. Dirichlet Character (

mod q ).

For any character

: (Z/q Z)
and

we can lift

to all of

by

(n) = ( n)

where

nn ( mod q )

(n) = 0

if

(q, n) = 1.

Denition 5. (Idelic lift of a Dirichlet character). Let


We will associate a unitary Hecke character the idelic lift of

be a character mod pf

idelic : Q \AQ

which is called

as follows:

idelic (g ) =
p

p (gp )

where

(g ) =

sign(g ) 1

if (1) = 1 if (1) = 1

and

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

(v )m v (gv ) = (j )1

if v = p where gv v m Z v if v = p where gv = pk (j + pf Zp )
which a character of a nite

This is a unitary Hecke character: unitary since

group must lie on the unit circle. The other properties can be checked easily. More generally, any Dirichlet character factors into characters mod case we dene

pf ,

and in this

idelic as

the products of these lifts. Thus we can lift an arbitrary

Dirichlet character to a unitary Hecke character.

Theorem 6.

Every automorphic form for GL(1,AQ ) is uniquely of the form


(g ) = c idelic (g ) |g |it

where c C, t R and idelic is the idelic lift of a Dirichlet character as dened above. Proof.
As we noted in the denition,

(g ) = c (g )where c = (1, 1, ...)

and

is a

unitary Hecke character. By continuity,

factors into a product of a characters of

Q v so we need to classify the individual multiplicative characters

of each local

eld. Also from continuity, for all but nitely many primes, the factors must satisfy

v (v ) = 1.
Characters of

we know are just

|r|it

or

|r|it sign(r)

(if you like, this follows

from Pontryagin duality). Characters of that

Q p

come in two avors. Suppose rst that

is

a local character and

(u) = 1 Q p:

whenever

is a unit, i.e.

Z p . Then

takes on a very simple

form on

since any element of the eld is of the form

u pn ,

this implies that

(u p ) = (p) (p).This

, so that we can fully describe

by the single piece of data,

case is called the unramied case.

The other possibility is that

(Z p ) 1.

In this case we still have a minimal integer

such that

(1 + pk Zp ) 1

since by continuity, the kernel of

must contain an

open subgroup of this form. We call such a character ramied with conductor Now, for an arbitrary eld element addition to specifying simpler, on

pk .
in

u pn ,

we have that

(u pn ) = (u) (p)n ,so

(p) we must also specify how acts on the group Z p , or even Z/pk Z.
So

k Z p /(1 + p Zp )

is actually given locally by a Dirichlet

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

character mod

pk .

A ramied local character is simply given by an unramied local

character (that is we have to specify

(p)

) and a Dirichlet character!

Note: for the archimedian places, we say a character is ramied if

(u)

is odd, i.e.

(u) = (u)

e.g.

the sign function is present in the formula.

To make the

denition consistent, we say value.

is ramied if it doesn't factor through the absolute

We have left out some tedious calculation but it follows that You may wonder where the sign(g ) has gone. other components, indeed we have that

(g ) = idelic (g )|g |it .

This parity disappears into the

(1) = (1)(1).

Dirichlet L-Functions
Denition 7. (The L-function of an Automorphic form) Since any automorphic
form

has an associated Dirichlet character

we can dene the complex function

L(s, ) =
p

(p) ps

Example 8. If we take the automorphic form

(g ) = 1,
1

we get that

L(s, ) = (s) =
p

1 ps

=
n=1

ns

The L-function of an automorphic form, as dened above converges absolutely for

(s) > 1

(easily seen from the summation).

The so-called analytic continuation

via functional equation was solved in the 1800's by means of theta functions and other complicated mechanisms. In his thesis, Tate presented an elegant way to get these continuations using adelic integrals. remainder of these notes. This process will be described in the

Integration and Poisson Summation on A


We need a couple of denitions. The adelic Bruhat-Schwartz space is the space of linear combinations of factorizable functions, where each factor is locally constant and compactly supported (nite places), or Schwartz (innite places), and which is the characteristic function

1Zp

at all but nitely many places. We can dene the

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

integral of a function in such a space by using linearity and taking the product of the integral, for purely factorizable functions, i.e. if

( x ) =

p (xp )

then

(x)d x =
A Q p S

Q v

v (xv )d xv

Let's say explicitly what these Haar measures are:

d x =
where the

dx
x

at the innite place

dxv d x = 1

1 1p1

dxp |xp |p

at a nite place

are derived from the metric, e.g.

(a + pn Zp ) = pn .

This gives that

Zp

dxp = 1

and

Z p

Theorem 9.

(Adelic Poisson Summation)


h(x) =
Q

1 |x|

h x

Proof.

omitted

(The Fourier transform is taken with respect to a self-dual Haar measure i.e. formula

(x) = f (x) f

holds)

The Functional Equation of the Riemann -Function


Example 10. In this example, we will compute the functional equation of the
Riemann

-function

using poisson summation of the adeles.

Let us consider the adelic function

(g ) = eg
p<

1Zp
1.

and notice that

g ), (g ) = (

and

= (0) = (0)

We construct the adelic integral

(g )|g |s d x =
A Q
Now, since

ex |x|s1 dx
p< Zp \{0}

|gp |s d gp = ()

Zp \{0} =
n=0

pn Z p

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

|gp |s d gp =
Zp \{0}
So that

pns d x =
pn Z p

n=0

1 1 ps

() = 2
0

ex xs

dx s 1 = s/2 (s) x p< 1 ps 2


1

On the other hand, using the strong approximation

we can rewrite (*) as

() =
Q

(x)|x|s d x =
Q \A Q

Q \A Q

(x)|x| d x +
s

(x)|x|s d x
Q \A Q

|x|1

|x|1

Now we'll apply Poisson summation to the rst of these two integrals

(x)|x|s d x
Q \A

Q \A Q

|x|1 )|x|s d x |x|1 (0) + (0)


Q \A Q

|x|1

|x|1

Q \A Q

|x|s1 d x + 1
0

(|x|s |x|s1 )d x
p Z p

|x|1

|x|1

Q \A Q

(x) |x|

1s

d x+

(xs xs1 ) dx x

d x

|x|1

Q \A Q

(x) |x|s1 d x +

1 s

1 s1

|x|1

In total, we have that

() =
Q \A Q

(x) |x|s1 + (x)|x|s d x + 1 1 s s1

|x|1

which is symmetric under the simultaneous changes

, s 1 s.

Q \A Q = (0, )
p

Z p

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ ) s 2

- TATE'S THESIS

Therefore, since (*) was also equal to

s/2

(s)

we have that

s/2

1s s (s) = 2 2

1s 2

(1 s)

You may have noticed a couple of thing about the above calculations. One major observation is that to get the functional equation we didn't even need to use the fact that on a

so that there is some reason to suspect that we will not need to rely =
function

particular

and the theory will have to explain the independence.

The remainder of these notes will be devoted to generalizing this process to obtain functional equations for more general Dirichlet L-functions.

The Zeta-Integral and its Functional Equation

Denition 11. Let

be an adelic Bruhat-Schwartz function, and let

be a unitary Hecke character. We dene the global zeta-integral

Z (s, , ) =
A Q
This denition is by analogy with the Mellin Transform of real functions which is useful in classical analytic number theory.

(x) (x)|x|s d x

Theorem 12.

(Functional equation of the global Zeta integral)

, Z (s, , ) = Z (1 s, )

Proof.

We compute:

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

Z (s, , ) =
A Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x

=
Q \A Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

by strong approximation

Q \A Q =
Q \A Q

and the fact that

||s () = 1

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

for

|x| 1 +

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

for

|x| 1

= I + II

We we will now use Poisson summation on the rst integral. We rewrite the Poisson summation formula as

(x) =
Q Q

(0) 1 (0) + |x| x |x|

Then integral

II

turns into:

II =
Q \A |x|1 Q

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q

=
Q \A |x|1 Q

1 (x)|x|s d x (0) |x| x

(x)|x| d x + (0)
s
|x|1 Q

(x)|x|s1 d x
|x|1 Q \A Q

Q \A

=
Q \A |x|1 Q

(x) (x)|x|1s d x (0)


Q
Q \A |x|1 Q

(x)|x| d x + (0)
s
|x|1 Q \A Q

(x)|x|s1 d x

Now we have that

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

(0.1)

Z (s, , ) = I + II =
Q \A |x|1 Q

(x) (x)|x|1s (x) (x)|x|s d x (x)|x| d x + (0)


s
|x|1 Q \A Q |x|1 Q \A Q

(x)|x|s1 d x

(0)

If

has ramication, since

Q \A Q = (0, )
is trivial on the

Z p Z p 0
to

and

on this domain isn't

trivial on one of the If

Zp

then by standard tricks, the last two integrals will be zero. part and the last two pieces

has no ramication then

become, by integrating just the real place from

1:

1 1 (0) + (0) s s1
In summary, by inspection of 0.1 and the above discussion, we have that

Z (s, , ) =

, Z (1 s, )
Summary of above proof: (1) Use strong approximation (2) Break into

|x| 1

and

|x| 1

(3) Use P.S. on (4) let

|x| 1
in the big piece of the formula

x 1/x

(5) determine if ramication occurs Although the global zeta integral satises such a neat functional equation, the local pieces (dened below) require a slight modication for their functional equations.

The Local Zeta Integral


Denition 13. (Local Zeta Integral) Let

s C

with

(s) > 0, (x)

a Bruhat-

Schwartz function on the local eld (i.e. Locally constant and compactly supported on

Q p , or a Schwartz-function on R ). Zv (s, , ) =

Let

be a local unitary character.

We dene

(x) (x)|x|s d x
Q v

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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Does the above converge? Well we can use the standard trick of splitting it into two pieces. If we consider the integral when

|x| > 1

then it certainly converges

there since we are dealing with a (Bruhat-) Schwartz function. hand, for

|x| 1

the function is bounded by some constant times

On the other

Zp

|x| d x =

|x| d x =
0 pn Z p 0

pn

which converges for

(s) > 0.

So the integral

Zv (s, , )

converges for

(s) > 0.

We will next determine that it has an meromor-

phic continuation via a functional equation.

Theorem 14.

There exists a meromorphic function (s, ), which is independent

of such that for 0 < (s) < 1


Zv (s, , ) = (s, ) Zv (1 s, , )

Proof.

We only need to show that the ratio

Zv (s,, ) is a meromorphic function Zv (1s,, )

which is inependent of the function functions

Consider two arbitrary Bruhat-Schwartz

and

on

Qv .

We compute:

) = Zv (s, , ) Zv (1 s, ,

(y )|x|s |y |1s (x) (x) (y )d xd y


Q p Qp

By letting

y xy

=
Q p Qp

(xy )|x| |y |1s (x) (y )d xd y

Using the denition of the fourier transform

=
Qp Q p Qp

(x) (z )ev (xyz )|x| |y |1s (y )d x d y dz

Since

dx d x = c and the point 0 is measureless |x| =c (x) (z )ev (xyz )|y |1s (y )dx d y dz
Qp Q Qp p

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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The last expression is independent over


and so

, therefore

Zv (s, , ) Zv (1

) = Zv (1 s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, , s, , Zv (s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, ,
which shows that

Zv (s, , ) ) Zv (1 s, ,

(s, )

is indeed independent of the test-function

It turns out that it is not very hard to compute

(s, )

in each case.

All that

Zv (s,, ) is required is a particularly easy test function and the comparison of ) Zv (1s,,
for that easy function whether one on

The excplicit computation will basically depend only on

is an unramied unitary character (recall this means that it is identically or ramied.

Z p)

Example 15. Suppose

v = and (x) is unramied.

Recall that this means that

(x) = 1

for

x R.

Then we choose the test function

(x) = ex

. Then,

Zv (s, , ) =
R

ex |x|s
s 2

dx |x|
some

= 2 dx Zv (1 s, ) = ex |x|1s |x|
R

s ( ) 2

u substitution

and recall

(s) =
0

e x x s

dx x

1s 2

1s ) 2 (s, )

just take the ratio of the two, to obtain

Example 16. Suppose

v=

and

(x)

is ramied, that is,


2

(x) = sign(x) = (x) = i(x)

|x| x .

Then we use the test funtion

(x) = xex

and notice that

so we

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

12

have that

Zv (s, , ) =
R

ex x2 |x|s+1
s+1 2

dx |x|
some

= ) = iex2 x2 |x|(1s)+1 dx Zv (1 s, |x|


R

s+1 ( ) 2

u substitution

and recall

(s) =
0

ex xs

dx x

= i

(1s)+1 2

1s+1 ) 2

Again, we take their ratio to get

Example 17. Suppose

v = p

is a nite prime and

is unramied.

This is the

easiest case and the one that comes up in proving the functional equation of the Riemann

function.

In this case, we choose

= 1Z p

which is its own Fourier

transform.

Computing,

Zv (s, , ) =
Q p

1Zp (x)|x|s d x
(x)|x|s d x

=
Zp \{0}

=
n=0

(p)n pns

since

Zp \{0}=
n=0

pn Z p

1 = 1 (p)ps ) = Zv (1 s, 1Zp (x)|x|1s d x


Q p

1 1 (p)p(1s)

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GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

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Example 18. Finally, the last possibility is that


acter
2

v = p a nite prime and the char(x) = e2i{x} 1pr Zp .

is ramied with conductor pr .

In this case we choose

Then, computing the Fourier transform of

(x) =
Qp

(y )e2i{xy} dy e2i({x(1y}) dy
pr Zp
This is only nonzero when

x 1 + pr Zp

= 11+pr Zp = pr 11+pr Zp

dy
pr Z
p

Now we'll compute the zeta integrals:

Recall that

e2i{x}

is the additive character on

Qp

-the one we use to compute the Fourier

Transform and where

{x}

is the fractional part of

x,

that is if

x =
N

an pn

then

{x} =

an pn Q
N

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GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

14

Zv (s, , ) =
Q p

1pr Zp e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x


e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x

=
pr Zp \{0}

pr

=
n=0

(p) p

n ns

since

Zp \{0}=
=1

p (j + pr Zp )
j =1 (j,p)=1

pr

e2i{x} (x)|x|s d x
p (j +pr Zp ) 2ij l
p

=
=1 j =1 r p
r

(p) (j ) p
pr s

=
=1 j =1

d x
p (j +pr Zp )

p r = p p1

p (p)
=1

j =1

2ij l
p

(j )

pr+1 rs = p (p)r p1 Zv (1 s, , ) =
Q p

pr

e2ijp (j )
j =1 (j,p)=1

11+pr Zp pr (x)|x|1s d x
pr (x)|x|1s d x d x |x|1 dx

=
1+pr Zp

= pr
1+pr Zp

p pr p1

1+pr Zp

p = p1
The L-Function and its -Factors

Great. So now we have functional equations and meromorphic continuations of the local Zeta-integrals to the entire complex plane. We now use this fact, together with

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

GL(1,AQ )

- TATE'S THESIS

15

the global-functional equation to obtain a functional equation and root numbers for a classical L-function. Let

Then

v be the unitary Hecke character associated to an automorphic form. v is ramied at only nitely many places. We dene the local L-function of s s ) 2 ( 2 s +1 2 ( s+1 ) 2 (1 p (p)ps )1 1

as follows if if if if

v= v= v=p v=p

is unramied is ramied

Lv (s, v )=

is unramied is ramied

Notice that in the nite places, this looks similar to the

pth

place factor in the

Euler product, so this is a reasonable denition of a local L-function. Also, in the unramied places notice that above examples.

Lv (s, v ) = Zv (s, v , )

with

chosen as in the

Remark
of

19

The local L-function can be thought of as the greatest-common-divisor That is, the local L-

Zv (s, , ) as we range over all Bruhat-Schwartz functions .

Zv (s,, ) function is the least complicated function so that Lv (s, ) is always holomorphic.
For example, if

is ramied, then

Zv (s, , )

will always be holomorphic, so the

GCD of holomorphic functions is 1. function the same

Also true is that we can always nd some but it

so that

Zv (s, , ) = Lv (s, )

won't necessarily be true that for

, Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, ).

Denition 20. (Local Root Number)


The local root number

v (s, ) is dened by

(0.2)

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )

v (s, )

Zv (s, , ) Lv (s, )
was.

which is independent of

since the function

(s, )

Important note: as I said above, whenever local L-function

is unramied at

we said that the

was a Z-integral. This implies that


Therefore:

Zv (s, , ) = Lv (s, ) and

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )
Lemma 21.

For a xed , and for all but nitely many places v ,

v (s, )

1.

AUTOMORPHIC FORMS FOR

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- TATE'S THESIS

16

Let us to back to the global functional equation and choose our test function,

=
v
where the and at that

v
At the unramied places

v are

chosen so that

Zv (s, v , ) = Lv (s, ).

we choose v

as in the examples and in the last case, its not hard to show

11+pr Zp

will do the trick

Denition 22. (The global L-function) Let


the local L-factors as

be a unitary Hecke character, and let


The we dene the global L-function

Lv (s, ) be dened as above. L (s, ) =


v

Lv (s, )

We think of the global L-function as a completed L-function. It looks a lot like the Dirichlet L-function, but now we also have a component at the innite place, making it more symmetric and complete. It is this L-function which will have a natural functional equation coming from the adelic factorization.

Theorem 23.

(Functional equation for the global L-function) There exists a mero-

morphic function (s, ) such that L (s, ) = (s, )L (1 s, )


Let

as above, where is chosen so that at each place Zv (s, , ) = Lv (s, )

We can apply the global functional equation:

, Z (s, , ) = Z (1 s, )
to the product over

of equation 0.2

v
The

Zv (1 s, , ) = Lv (1 s, )

(s, )
v

Zv (s, , ) Lv (s, )

Zv 's

factor out entirely by the global functional equation and we get that

L(s, ) =
v
where

Lv (s, ) = (s, )
v

Lv (1 s, )

(s, ) =
v

v (s, )

=
v S

v (s, ), where S is nite by Lemma 21.

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- TATE'S THESIS

17

And we're done!

We've shown how to construct a completed L-function which

has analytic continuation.