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A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

**BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
**

Submitted by

SARAVANAKUMAR.R RAMPRASATH.B SATHISHKUMAR.R SRIRAM.N

(Reg. No. 80708133095) (Reg. No. 80708133090) (Reg. No. 80708133099) (Reg. No. 80708133107)

Under the Guidance of Mrs. K. UMAA MAHESHWARI M.Tech., (Ph.D).

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI TIRUCHIRAPPALLI – 620 024 APRIL 2012

DECLARATION I hereby declare that the work entitled “PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THPPM UWB SYSTEM” is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree in B.E, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, is a record of the my own work carried out by me during the academic year 2011 – 2012 under the supervision and guidance of Mrs. K. UMAA MAHESHWARI M.Tech., (Ph.D). Research supervisor, Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering, J.J College Of Engineering And Technology, Tiruchirappalli. The extent and source of information are derived from the existing literature and have been indicated through the dissertation at the appropriate places. The matter embodied in this work is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree, either in this or any other University.

RAMPRASATH.B (80708133090)

(Signature of the candidates)

I certify that the declaration made above by the candidate is true.

(Signature of the Guide) Mrs. K. UMAA MAHESHWARI M.Tech.,(Ph.D.) A.P (SE.G)

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE ii

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF TH-PPM UWB SYSTEM” is a bonafide work carried out by SARAVANAKUMAR. R (80708133095), RAMPRASATH. B (80708133090), SATHISHKUMAR. R (80708133099), SRIRAM.N (80708133107) under my direct supervision is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics And Communication Engineering to Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli – 620 024. No part of the dissertation has been submitted for any degree/diploma or any other academic award anywhere before.

(Signature of supervisor) SUPERVISOR Mrs. K, UMAA MAHESHWARI M.Tech., (Ph.D) Asst.Professor Forwarded by

(Signature of Head Of The Department) Dr. B.ELIZABETH CAROLINE M.E., Ph.D., HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Examined on:

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

iii

D.. (Ph..E.. College of Engineering and Technology.SATHYAMOORTHY. UMAA MAHESWARI.. for granting us permission to do this project. Mrs. Tiruchirappalli for her assistance. We also thank our adored parents and family members for their support and encouragement throughout the project.. M. PONNUSAMY.ELIZABETH CAROLINE. K. K. We would like to thank our beloved chairman Dr.RAJA RAJESWARI. We Mrs.E. (Ph.. B. for their constant encouragement for the progression and we are pleasure to thank our beloved principal Dr. B. for embellishment of our academic life.E. professor.E.).. J.E... S.D.(Engg. We also express our gratitude to our Head Of the Department Dr.M.D. M.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We thank the Almighty God for guiding us and showering his blessings on us throughout this project.D.. B. all the staff members in ECE Department for their constant encouragement and guidance throughout this project. Ph...).Sc. Department of Electronics and Communication.K.M. We take this opportunity is thanking our internal guide and our project coordinator Mrs. S.Sc. guidance and support at all time since we have started this project. iv . M. M.. Ph.). thanks to our and project class coordinator coordinator MAHESWARI.J.L. SHANMUGANATHAN.E. and our dynamic director Dr. Ph. V.D.UMAA extend our sincere M.

performance of TH-PPM UWB system for single user and multi user is compared using different SV.ABSTRACT Ultra Wide Band System can be used to transmit signals at very low power level at very large bandwidth without causing any interference. v . It can be used for both indoor and outdoor propagation. Different channels provide fading to varied extent depending on the parameters specified. Performance had also been studied and analyzed for Bio. Time Hopped-Pulse Position Modulation (TH-PPM) UWB system is an efficient method when multiple user system has to be implemented. In this project.Medical signals. In this the Bit error rate performance for various multipath channels with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) has been investigated.channel models. Simulation results show the BER performance of TH-PPM UWB as a function of Eb/No and number of users.

3.5. 3. INTRODUCTION Ultra Wide band systems Advantages Operational details Types of UWB signals Channel model LITERATURE REVIEW PROPOSED MODEL Chipping waveform Input Data bit stream Spreading Time-hopping PPM Fading Channel Receiver PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS APPLICATION CONCLUSION REFERENCE APPENDIX PAGE NO. 3.2.6. 4. 1. 6.1. v VII VIII ix 1 2 3 4 6 9 13 17 17 18 19 19 23 31 32 43 44 45 46 vi . 1. 3.4. 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLE LIST OF ABBREVIATION 1. 1.4. 3. 7. 3.5. 8.3. 3.2. 2. 1.1. 1. 5.

5 4.2 5.12 5.2 3.9 4.6 4.11 4.3 3.4 4. of users Vs BER Block diagram ECG signal Performance of ECG signal PAGE NO.1 4.1 5.10 4.LIST OF FIGURES NO.2 1.3 FIGURE Frequency response characteristics Mono cycle Second derivative of Mono pulse Block diagram of system model A pseudo random sequence generator Time Hopping Pulse position modulation Block diagram of multi user TH-PPM system Example – time frame of TH-PPM Impulse response of CM1 Impulse response of CM2 Impulse response of CM3 Impulse response of CM4 Input data bits plot Data after spreading Time hopped PPM sequence After converting to UWB Faded and noisy signal at the receiver Final output data after dispreading Eb/No Vs BER for single user Eb/No Vs BER for 2 users Eb/No Vs BER for 5 users Eb/No Vs BER for 10 users Eb/No Vs BER for channel CM2 No.8 4. 2 5 6 17 18 21 22 22 22 29 29 30 30 33 33 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 40 42 42 43 vii .3 4. 1.9 3.7 3.1 1.4 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.10 4.7 4.1 3.2 4.3 3.

3.1 4.LIST OF TABLES No. 27 32 viii .1 TITLE Channel Characteristics Input parameters PAGE No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ABBREVIATIONS AWGN FCC FEC LDPC SNR UWB GPR PSD TH-PPM OFDM SV LOS NLOS BER EXPANSION Additive White Gaussian Noise Federal Communication Committee Forward Error Correction Low Density Parity Coding Signal to Noise Ratio Ultra Wide Band Ground Penetration Radar Power Spectral Density Time Hopped Pulse Position Modulation Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Saleh – Valenzuela Line of Sight Non Line of Sight Bit Error Rate ix .LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS No.

3 GHz-bandwidth pulse). as at least some of the frequencies have a line-of-sight trajectory. The information can also be modulated on UWB signals (pulses) by encoding the polarity of the pulse. 1 . Pulse-UWB systems have been demonstrated at channel pulse rates in excess of 1. which has proposed UWB as an alternative PHY layer. distances can be measured to high resolution and accuracy by compensating for local clock drift and stochastic inaccuracy. This helps overcome multipath propagation. It uses very low power.[1]. Such a pulse-based UWB method (using bursts of pulses) is the basis of the IEEE 802. It uses already allocated radio spectrum without causing significant interference to other users.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. but can also be sent at rates up to the inverse of the UWB pulse bandwidth. Another feature of pulse-based UWB is that the pulses are very short (less than 60 cm for a 500 MHz-wide pulse. With a cooperative symmetric two-way metering technique.1 ULTRA WIDEBAND SYSTEMS Ultra wideband (UWB) is a new technology from commercial and civilian application view point. A valuable aspect of UWB technology is the ability for a UWB radio system to determine the "time of flight" of the transmission at various frequencies. UWB transmissions transmit information by generating radio energy at specific time intervals and occupying a large bandwidth. UWB pulses can be sent sporadically at relatively low pulse rates to support time or position modulation. frequency. A significant difference between conventional radio transmissions and UWB is that conventional systems transmit information by varying the power level. there is still multipath propagation and inter-pulse interference to fast-pulse systems which must be mitigated by coding techniques. its amplitude and/or by using orthogonal pulses.3 gigapulses per second using a continuous stream of UWB pulses (Continuous Pulse UWB or C-UWB). supporting forward error correction encoded data rates in excess of 675 Mbit/s. less than 23 cm for a 1. thus enabling pulseposition or time modulation. so most signal reflections do not overlap the original pulse and the multipath fading of narrowband signals does not exist.15. However. and/or phase of a sinusoidal wave.4a draft standard and working group. which is below the thermal noise of the receiver and is inherently difficult to detect by unintentional users.

the development of UWB technology is drastically gaining momentum. A lower centre frequency for a given bandwidth allows better materials penetration. which are communication. [1]. It has been used in military applications.1) Power Spectral density NB UWB -10dB fL fc fH f (Hz) Fig 1.improved imaging and ranging accuracy. The fractional bandwidth is given by the equation. positioning and imaging. ( ) (1.UWB uses the existing radio spectrum that is currently being used by other conventional radio communication devices(as previously mentioned). UWB has three basic areas of application. more users and higher data rate. 2 .25 of centre frequency or more than 1.5 GHz. However the technology itself is not new.UWB technology is generally defined as any wireless transmission scheme that occupies fractional bandwidth of more than 0.UWB device transmits millions of very low power radio pulses (impulses ) .1 – Frequency Response Characteristics A very wide bandwidth means better multipath mitigation. each typically lasting less than a nanosecond over a very large radio spectrum. Since FCC approved the regulation for the commercial use of UWB in February 2002. interference mitigation by using spread spectrum techniques .

1 Antenna systems Distributed MIMO: To increase the transmission range. perhaps in combination with Reed-Solomon codes. like LDPC(Low Density Parity Coding). a combination of multiple antenna techniques is preferable as well. Multiple-antenna: Multiple-antenna systems (such as MIMO) have been used to increase system throughput and reception reliability. some UWB formats (mainly pulse based) can fairly easily be made to look like nothing more than a slight rise in background noise to any receiver that is unaware of the signal‟s complex pattern. as demonstrated recently in some very high data rate UWB pulsed systems. or equivalently in a fixed channel bandwidth by increasing the signal power exponentially. By virtue of the huge bandwidths inherent to UWB systems the huge channel capacities can be achieved without invoking higher order modulations that need very high SNR to operate.Thus channel capacity increases linearly by increasing bandwidth of the channel to the maximum value available.2 ADVANTAGES According to the Shannon-Hartley theorem. Current forward error correction (FEC) technology. Coupling MIMO spatial multiplexing with UWB's high throughput gives the possibility of short-range networks multi-gigabit rates. this system exploits distributed antennas among different nodes. 3 . Since UWB has almost impulse-like channel response. When stealth is required. channel capacity of a properly encoded signal is proportional to the bandwidth of the channel and to the logarithm of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) – assuming the noise is additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).1.1. with 1. can provide channel performance approaching the Shannon limit.

/ (1. all. The short pulses that carry the information need to be generated first. very wide and leads to the system having a very low power spectral density (PSD) across the entire spectrum. Any standard modulation scheme (that is amplitude.digital communication system. To carry information the energy spectrum of the resulting signal is. . A primary carrier is optional and can lead to a very simple. This is done by starting with a Gaussian pulse.The following characteristics set UWB apart from the competition: Very low transmission energy(on the order of 1 mW or less) Low probability of detection/interception Good battery life Minimal interference to other systems Very high data rates over short distance (200 Mbps over 10m) Useful for high-speed personal area networks (PANs) Excellent time resolution and good multipath immunity Useful for communication systems in cluttered environments Valuable to geo-location and radar applications Ability to penetrate walls and obstructions Application in medical imaging and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) Almost all-digital architecture Entire system can be miniaturized onto a chipset. therefore. or phase can be used to carry he information.3 OPERATIONAL DETAILS UWB uses extremely short pulses (from tens of picoseconds to a few nanoseconds in duration). Low cost 1.2) 4 . time. τ – is time decay constant which determines duration and t is the time. which has the form () Where.

Fig 1. Taking additional derivatives produces waveforms with additional zero crossings. / ) . UWB pulses are also modeled by normalized second derivative of the Gaussian mono pulses given by the equation: ( ) √ ( . depending on system requirements.2 Monocycle The Gaussian mono cycle has single zero crossing point.3) 5 .one additional zero crossings per additional derivative taken. / √ (1. The equivalent of taking derivatives is filtering which provides a choice of waveforms to be used as short pulses. This results in a decrease in relative bandwidth and an increase in centre frequency for a fixed value of t.

and Tf is the frame 6 .4. the transmit signal bandwidth is on the order of GHz.4 TYPES OF UWB SIGNALS There are two common forms of UWB: one based on sending very short duration pulses to convey information and another approach using multiple simultaneous carriers.4) . [1]. The most common form of multicarrier modulation Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).where Ep is the energy per where Ai(t) is the amplitude of the pulse equal to ±√ pulse. does not use a modulated sinusoidal carrier to convey information. and much information on this modulation type is available in recent technical literature. p(t) is the received pulse shape with the normalized energy. the transmitted signal is a series of baseband pulses.Fig 1. Instead. has become the leading modulation for high data rate systems.3 Second Derivative of Monocycle 1. Each approach has its relative technical merits and demerits. unlike classic communication.1 Impulse based signals (I-UWB) Pure impulse radio. The un-modulated transmit signal as seen by receiver in the absence of channel effects can be represented as () ∑ () ( ) (1. The fractional bandwidth is greater than 20%. Because the pulses are extremely short (commonly in the ns range or shorter). 1.

the information is recovered by multiplying the signal with a locally generated replica of the code sequence. In multi-carrier UWB.4. 7 . Most practical systems will use some form of pulse shaping to control the spectral content of each pulse to conform to regulatory limits. The pulse repetition rate Rf = 1/Tf is not necessarily equal to the inverse of the pulse width. s(t) is the transmitted signal to avoid confusion with the received signal r(t) that includes channel and antenna effects.1.5) where N is the number of carriers. At the receiver. 1. and di(t) is the symbol stream modulating the ith carrier. 1.2 Time hopping systems A time hopping system is spread spectrum system in which the period and duty cycle of a pulsed RF carrier are varied in pseudo random manner under the control of a coded sequence. Time hopping is often used effectively with frequency hopping to form a hybrid time-division.2 Multi carrier system (MC-UWB) MC-UWB is very different from I-UWB. the amount of spreading is dependent upon the ratio of chips/bit of information. For direct sequence. A narrow band carrier is modulated by a code sequence that can be a phase of the transmitted signal is abruptly changed in accordance with this code sequence.1 Direct sequence systems Direct sequence is perhaps one of the most widely known and utilized spread spectrum systems and it is relatively simple to implement. the complex baseband model transmitted signal has the form ( ) ∑ ( ) ( ) (1. The speed of the code sequence is called the chipping rate. The code sequence is generated by a pseudo random generator that has a fixed length. In other words. multiple-access (TDMA) spread spectrum system.4. measured in chips/second (cps). 1. (A UWB frame is defined as the time interval in which one pulse is transmitted.) Tp is defined as the duration of the pulse.1. the duty cycle of transmitted signal is almost always less than 1. After a given number of bits the code repeats itself exactly.repetition time.4. Ts = NTb is the symbol duration.

1.4.2.1 Frequency hopping systems In Frequency hopping systems, the carrier frequency of the transmitter abruptly changes (or hops) in accordance with a pseudo random code sequence. The order of frequencies selected by the transmitter is dictated by the code sequence. The receiver tracks these changes and produces a constant IF signal. The overall bandwidth required for frequency hopping is much wider than that required to transmit the same information using only one carrier frequency. However, because transmission occurs only on a small portion of this bandwidth at any given time, the effective interference bandwidth is really the same. Whilst providing no extra protection against wideband thermal noise, the frequency-hopping approach does reduce the degradation caused by narrowband interference sources. One of the challenges of frequency-hopping systems is to synchronize the transmitter and receiver. One approach is to have a guarantee that the transmitter will use all the channels in a fixed period of time. The receiver can then find the transmitter by picking a random channel and listening for valid data on that channel. The transmitter's data is identified by a special sequence of data that is unlikely to occur over the segment of data for this channel and the segment can have a checksum for integrity and further identification. The transmitter and receiver can use fixed tables of channel sequences so that once synchronized they can maintain communication by following the table. On each channel segment, the transmitter can send its current location in the table. In a real multipoint radio system, space allows multiple transmissions on the same frequency to be possible using multiple radios in a geographic area. This creates the possibility of system data rates that are higher than the Shannon limit for a single channel. Spread spectrum systems do not violate the Shannon limit. Spread spectrum systems rely on excess signal to noise ratios for sharing of spectrum. This property is also seen in MIMO and DSSS systems. Beam steering and directional antennas also facilitate increased system performance by providing isolation between remote radios. 1.4.3 RELATIVE MERITS OF IMPULSE VERSUS MULTICARRIER The relative merits and demerits of 1-UWB and MC-UWB are controversial issues and have been debated extensively in the standard bodies. One particularly important issue is minimizing transmitted by, and received by, the UWB system. MC- UWB is particularly 8

well-suited for avoiding interference because its carrier frequencies can be precisely chosen to avoid narrowband interference to or from narrowband systems.[1]. Additionally, MC-UWB provides more flexibility and scalability, but requires an extra layer of control in the physical layer. For both forms of UWB, spread spectrum techniques can be applied to reduce the impact of the interference on the UWB system. I-UWB signals requires fast switching times for the transmitter and receiver and highly precise synchronization. Transient properties become important in the design of the radio and antenna. The high instantaneous power during the brief interval of the pulse helps to overcome interference to UWB systems, but increases the possibility of interference from UWB to narrowband systems. The RF front-end of an I-UWB system may resemble a mixed –signal integrated circuits. Simple I-UWB can be very inexpensive to construct. On the other hand, implementing a MC-UWB front-end can be challenging due to the continuous variations in power over a very wide bandwidth. This is particularly challenging for the amplifier. In the case of OFDM, high-speed FFT processing is necessary, requiring significant processing power.[1] Another issue in the implementation of a UWB system is the general detection theory assumption that the system operates in an AWON noise environment. Unfortunately, this is not always true for any real communication system and especially for UWB systems. There can be other signals that are within the UWB pass band that do not have Gaussian noise statistics. These narrowband signals force a system to operate at highest transmit power or find a way to excise the in-band interference. 1.5 Channel model Channel measurement and modeling is an important issue when designing any wireless communication systems. In general there are two prevalent types of Channel modeling.[9]. 1. Deterministic Channel modeling The deterministic Channel-modeling involves ray-tracing and computational geometry techniques to predict the impulse response of the transmitter and the receiver characteristics and the physical channel based on transmitter and receiver environment of the surroundings. Although, this technique is computationally intensive and requires complete 9

knowledge of physical characteristics of the size but recent advances in ray-tracing techniques and powerful computers has made possible to perform the required computations in reasonable time. 2. Stochastic channel modeling: The stochastic channel models try to model the properties of a wireless channel statistically based on measurement data irrespective of a specific location. The results are extracted from extensive measurements and extrapolated to fit the particular statistical distributions. The appropriate statistical model parameters are used to generate channel responses that best approximate a real propagation environment and are subsequently used for system, simulation purposes. The two properties of a good model are its close approximation to the reality and computational simplicity. 1.5.3 Channel modeling for UWB The main reason to design a separate model for UWB systems is the extremely large bandwidth associated with UWB signals. Traditionally the channel models for path loss assume that diffraction coefficients, attenuation due to the materials and other propagation effects are constant over the band of interest. When the fractional bandwidth is 0.01 or less, this is a safe assumption. Additionally, narrowband models often incorporate antenna effects, such as the effective aperture, into the path gain loss. Again this is acceptable when the change in these antenna effects in negligible over the band. Neither of these assumptions is correct for a UWB system [8]. There are also small scale assumptions that may no longer hold for UWB systems. Most importantly, narrow band , and even wideband, channel models assume that the received signal is the sum of the feedback and attenuated copies of the received signal. The interaction of these multiple signals results in fading and possible frequency distortion. However, it is assumed that the individual copies are not distorted. When UWB signals are being used, this may no longer be true. Individual components of the received signal my be distorted, thus introducing pulse-level frequency distortion in addition to the distortion seen in the total received signal. This means that we must revisit the traditional model.

10

it has also been applied to the LOS channels where it is perhaps less valid.1.1.[10]. If after Δ seconds a path not arrived. τ k.2 Δ-K model The Δ-K model has also been used to model indoor wideband channels and like the Saleh-Valenzuela model is based on the assumption that multipath components arrive in clusters. The transition S-2 is triggered when a path occurs. and amplitude fading is assumed to be lognormal. Although the SV model was developed for NLOS channels. l is the delay of the k-th time path within the l-th cluster relative to the first path arrival time.5.[5]. In S-2 the mean arrival rate is given by Kλ. When the state S-1. the paths tend arrive in clusters. The comparisons showed that the S-V model was able to best fit the measured channel characteristics.1 Saleh-Valenzuela model The most common statistical model for the discrete indoor channel impulse response is the Saleh-Valenzuela model (SV). By increasing the arrival rate when a path has recently arrived. The SV model is a tapped-delay time model given by ( ) ∑ ∑ ( ) (1. the Rayleigh and lognormal amplitude distribution was compared with measurement Data. 1. The basic assumption behind this model is that the multipath components arrive in clusters. The probability that a path arrive in given delay is higher by a factor of K if a path has arrived within the past Δ seconds. which supported the use of the Δ-K and SV model.6) here L is the number of pulses per cluster.5.l corresponds to the fading associated with the kth ray of the lth cluster. The mean arrival rate is given by λ. The clustering of the multipath arrivals was observed in the measurements. K is the number of clusters. T1 is the arrival time of the path of the l-th cluster. Exponential energy decay is assumed here to describe the expected value of the energy in a path at a given dely.1. unless LOS components are specifically added. and the results showed 11 . and the inter-arrival times thus follow an exponential distribution where the arrival rate is based on the state. The assumed to be ± with equal likelihood. The arrival times follow a modified two-state Poisson process. In addition. T1 and β k. transition back to S-1 occurs.

Therefore. the final model that was proposed was the S-V model with a log-normal fading distribution on the amplitudes. Model parameters were found that best fit the characteristics of the channel.that the lognormal distribution best fit the characteristics of the measurement data. cluster decay factor . ray decay factor. 12 . ray (intra-cluster)arrival rate. including the cluster arrival rate. and standard deviation of the lognormal distribution.

[2]. achievable maximum channel capacity. IEEE [3]. The schemes are compared for both single and multiuser channel at a fixed data rate. the latter in which 2 scenario is also studied since most real systems present this impairment. inspired by the availability that a number of ultra wideband (UWB) transmission parameters can be tuned to better match the requirements of data flow. realistic UWB channel model from IEEE 802. a model to adaptively adjust the data transmission rate to generate the expected signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) at the receiver side for reliable communications is established.Mezzour. According to network topology. we implement a concurrent multiuser access scheme instead of a mutual exclusion method such as TDMA and random access. interferers closer to the destination than the user.15. In TM-MAC. direct Sequence Binary Shift Keying(DS-BPSK). and data transmission rate are also analyzed. The results of this paper show that DS modulation technique performs better in a multi-user with no power attenuation but TH modulation takes the advantage in a far scenario system. WCNC 2006.” by Joanne Gomes. “TH-PPM and TH-BPSK-UWB Performance Using UWB Channel-1 With Delay Estimation. In this paper. 2006. investigates performance comparison between two ultra wide band schemes. an efficient MAC protocol: the throughput maximized MAC protocol (TM-MAC). For multiuser interference. Qilian Liang. using the newly proposed.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY M. compares the performance of TH-PPM. “Throughput and Energy-Efficiency-Aware Protocol for Ultra wideband Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Cross-Layer Approach”: Qingchun Ren. This paper was presented in: Wireless Communications and Networking Conference.[4]. TM-MAC re-divides each Pico net into several subsets in which communication pairs can make communication simultaneously and achieve the maximum throughput using the highest data rate. The relationship among the theoretical maximum channel capacity.” Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS)/ Time Hopping ( TH) UWb performance comparison in a multi. In subset formation. and Time hopping Pulse Position Modulation(TH-PPM). It prevents the channel delay estimation result and decreases the performance of rake receiver using UWB SV channel-1.UWB and THBPSK-UWB for a single user link is compared. The paper concludes that TH-PPM-UWB performs better than THBPSK-UWB. Ecublens 1015 switzerland.user Ad Hoc environment”. they propose a general analytical 13 .

compared to Poisson distribution for most existing work.[9]. the measurements that form its basis. The article points out the important differences between UWB channels and narrowband wireless channels. Heavy tailed distribution. in terms of performance. The significance. but not LOS channels. especially with respect to fading statistics and time of arrival of multipath 14 . especially for the simulation of personal area networks. The traditional models can be made to fit the statistics of LOS channels. For LOS and NLOS indoor scenarios. UWB small scale channel modeling work. The IEEE 802. For algorithm essential parameters design. are discussed. These models were originally developed for NLOS channels and therefore do not have the dominant early arriving paths that are present in LOS channels.framework that captures the unique characteristics of shared wireless channel and throughput variance. These models are useful and appropriate to model NLOS channels. but not LOS channels. is exploited to accurately model the real traffic to achieve the adaptation of this algorithm. We discuss the standard model. It was shown that there is little difference in the simulated performance of UWB systems when any of the traditional indoor channel models considered are used. “Channel Models for Ultra wideband Personal Area Networks Andreas”. including statistical characterization and potential models. A new model for LOS channels was presented and shown to more accurately represent LOS channels than the traditional models. VTC 2003-Fall. This article describes the modeling of Ultra-Wideband wireless propagation channels. A new model for LOS UWB channels is presented and shown to represent LOS channels much more accurately than the traditional models. but they predict very pessimistic energy capture and BER performance. the multipath characteristics have been statistically analyzed for UWB pulses and two types of antennas. This paper was presented in Vehicular Technology Conference. as well as allows the modeling of a large class of system wide throughput maximization via the specification of the per-link utilization function. Three traditional models are found to be useful for modeling NLOS UWB channels. and the possibilities for future improvements. TR2004071 December 2003. 2003 IEEE 58th. 2003. of the channel impulse response model chosen for the simulation of UWB communications systems is also evaluated. they consider the influence of traffic type on the system performance.15. “UWB Small Scale Channel Modeling and System Performance”.3a standards task group has established a standard channel model to be used for the evaluation of PAN physical layer proposals.

which searches for the strongest multipath components and then places the Rake fingers at those delays. as the bandwidth of the UWB waveform increases. Any UWB system needs a Rake receiver to collect the energy of the multipath components arriving at different times.components. like Rake receiver performance. the average total received energy is distributed between a number of multipath arrivals. For example. In a dense channel model. one for each resolvable multipath component. As a result. not every resolvable delay tap carries significant energy. A low-cost partial Rake would thus be the method of choice in a dense channel. [9]. careful bandwidth selection of the UWB waveform can help balance the receiver complexity for capturing multipath energy while still benefiting from the reduced fading of the short duration of the pulses. a so-called selective Rake receiver must be chosen. For a traditional impulse-based UWB waveform. In order to take advantage of that energy. It is good in the sense that the multipath arrivals will undergo fewer amplitude fluctuations (fading) since there will be fewer reflections that cause destructive/constructive interference within the resolution time of the received impulse. Another aspect relevant to system design is that the channel model is sparse. are elaborated. but not in a sparse one. On the other hand. However. in other words. 15 . Using a sparse channel model in the standardization thus has an influence on the decision process. the long delay spread (several nanoseconds) can have both positive and negative implications. such a Rake is known as partial Rake. the complexity of the RAKE receiver could become limiting in order to capture the same energy. however. it is sufficient to always choose the first arriving multipath components. In a sparse model. The structure of the channel model has a strong influence on the system performance assessment. unique systems and receivers need to be designed with multipath energy capture in mind. The impacts of the different propagation conditions on system design. this may consist of a rake receiver with multiple arms. We thus have to select at which delays we can place the fingers of the multipath components. as those are usually the strongest. the number of available Rake fingers in the receiver is usually smaller than the number of multipath components.

the user for body worn devices) on the transceiver characteristics will have to be identified.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). the influence of the immediate surroundings (e. and a lot of work will have to be spent by the channel modeling community before our understanding of UWB channels is complete. Finally. But it is not a universal stochastic model of the wireless propagation channel. and was established in time to be useful for the selection process of the new standard for UWB high-data-rate communications. 16 . and that any model should be judged by its ability to fit the statistics of the measured data. However.15 standard model presented earlier is mainly intended to allow a fair comparison between different system proposals submitted to the standardization bodies. these suggestions only lined out a generic model structure. A comparison of the measurement data to stimulated data produced data produced by the IEEE 802. Obtaining results from these papers TH-PPM method was implemented for modulation scheme in this project.The 802. Hence Saleh-Valenzuela channel modeling proves better than all of these models. Some suggestions for such improvements have been presented earlier. a more elaborate channel model will be needed in the future. The 802.. For channel modeling results were obtained from the project IEEE P802.11 channel model. It recommends that a better model than the Δ-K be used. an actual parameterization will have to be based on future measurement campaigns.15 standard model was an important step for the understanding of UWB channels.g. and the Δ-K model is made and both models are judged as in sufficient for the purposes of modeling the UWB channel measurements. It is not detailed enough to allow realistic performance assessments of systems in terms of absolute criteria like throughput and bit error rate. In order to achieve that.

It will always produce the same sequence thereafter when initialized with that state. measured in bits. After spreading. The type D flip-flop has been selected and arranged that each data input expect is the Q output of the preceding flip-flop. it is easy to build PN sequences with periods long enough for many practical applications. A parity generator (generally constructed of an array of EX-OR logic gates) generated an output which is at logic 0 when an even number of inputs are at 17 . However.1. The pulses are transmitted through the channel and Additive White Gaussian noise is then added. 3.2. it is converted into bit sequence. The sequence is de spread and output data is obtained.Block diagram The block diagram of the TH-PPM system is shown in fig 3.1 .CHAPTER-3 PROPOSED SYSTEM Input data Bit Stream Spreading Modulation (TH-PPM) Fading channel + Correlator receiver Decision making Chipping waveform awgn TH-code Despreading Output Data Fig 3. It consists of a shift register. A piece of hardware which is widely used to generate PN sequences is shown in fig 3. The maximum length of the sequence before it begins to repeat is determined by the size of the state.1 Chipping waveform PN sequence A PR sequence can be started from an arbitrary starting state using a seed state. The input data bit stream which is generated is spread using the chipping waveform (PN sequence). The input is the output of a parity generator. The pulses are received by correlate type receiver. The modulated data sequence is converted into UWB pulses by multiplying with the second derivative Gaussian mono pulse. The pulses after decision making. the signal is Time Hopped Pulse Position Modulated using the randomly generated TH code. since the length of the maximum period potentially doubles with each bit of 'state' added.

As a matter of fact. it will remain in that state permanently. The parity generator inputs are the outputs of the flip-flops.it‟s sampled . quantized and encoded and then transmitted. When the quantzing a signal m(t) . 3. If the input signal is analog . The bit stream is randomly generated. A portion of each connection to the parity generator input is shown as dashed in order to indicate that not all outputs need to be connected to the parity generator.logic 0 and generates an output which is at logic 1 when an odd number of inputs are at logic 1. if the register should ever arrive at this all zero state.2 A pseudo random sequence generator A register with N flip-flops has states from 000…0 to 111…1. the quantized signal mq(t) has the great merit that it is. the character of the PN sequence generated depends on the number N of the flip-flops employed and on the selection of which flip-flop outputs are connected to the parity generator. The sequence generator goes through all of its states and hence the sequence generator goes through all of its states and hence the sequence length will be . a new signal mq(t) has been generated which is an approximation to m(t). in 18 . Actually the maximal sequence length is since 000…0 must be excluded. as is easily verified.2 Input data bit stream: The input to be transmitted can be either analog or digital. Parity Generator Clock Fig 3. Such is the case because. However.

large measure. the sequence length before repetition is usually extremely long. 3. and the rate of g(t) is the chip rate fc. The sequence g(t) is generated in a deterministic manner and is repetitive. TH is strictly speaking a non-SS technique.3 Spreading The encode bit sequence is spread using a chipping sequence in this block. it has been assumed that the sequence is extremely random. thereby increasing the number of allowable levels. However. It can also refer to pulse position modulation.1) . The quantized samples are encoded. which in its simplest form employs 2^k discrete pulses (referring to the unique positions of the pulse within the transmission window) to transmit k bit(s) per pulse. Thus the encoded data will have sequence of 0‟s and 1‟s. in which each of the samples is responded by the generation of a unique and identifiable binary pulse( binary level) pattern. Here. The chipping sequence g(t) is a binary sequence as in the input data bit stream d(t). The bit rate fc of g(T) is usually so much greater than fb. ( ) 3. Spreading of the spectrum is caused by other factors associated with TH. the quantizer in each pulse slot. The data sequence d(t) and the pseudo random (often called as Pseudo-noise or PN) sequence g(t) is spread by performing Ex-Or operation. then it is called “ chops the bits of data into chips “.4 Time hopping PPM Time-Hopping (TH) is a communications signal technique which can be used to achieve anti-jamming (AJ) or low probability of intercept (LPI). The transmitted signal will then have intermittent start and stop times. the transmission time is changed randomly by varying the period and duty cycle of the pulse (carrier) using a pseudo-random sequence. the levels are not only be numbered but also be assigned to an identification code. Although often used to form hybrid spread-spectrum (SS) systems. To achieve LPI. such as using pulses with low duty cycle having 19 ( ) ( ) (3. makes an estimate and then decides whether a positive or negative pulse was received and gives the decision in the form of reconstituted or regenerated train pulse and then decoded. The quality of the approximation may be improved by reducing the size of the steps. At the receiver . separable from the additive noise. The sequence of quantized multilevel samples is the decoded output.

This code will be known to the receiver of that particular user. An example of hybrid SS is TH-FHSS or hybrid TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). The periodicity of pulse repetition period (PRP) makes energy spikes to appear in the spectrum. and hence will receive the data at that particular time slots. and the time slot are position in which the user transmits his bit in that frame is decided by a pseudo-random code. Time hopping is introduced. a bit is repeated a number of times.a wide frequency response. so that Ns pulses will be transmitted representing the same bit. Many positions can be used to increase the number of symbols and hence M-ary PPM is obtained. each frame is divided into a number of slots. the pulse can take M equi-probable positions i. say Ns. To avoid this. called time-hopping code. Time hopping in UWB is obtained by encoding data symbols using pseudo-random (PN) codes introducing time delay in generated pulses.e. the symbol duration Ts is split into N frames with each user transmitting one pulse per frame. In a TH scheme. The length of the code sequence will be equal to the number of bits transmitted. Within each frame.. sometimes for a particular frame two users may have same TH code and there will be interference.4.1 TH code The time hopping code is generated by pseudo-random generator for each user. In order to smoothen the spectrum. 3. When many users transmit in the same channel. each user has his own TH-code. In a multi user system. the next pulse will not be damaged since two users will not have same TH code for more than two consecutive frame. Hence is one pulse is interfered. 20 .

Voltage The pulse position changes Pos = 1 Pos = 2 Pos = 5 Tc Tf Time Fig 3. Tc is additional time delay that associates with the time hopping code.3 Time Hopping The general form of the transmitted signal is. w(t) is the transmitted monocycle waveform (UWB). δppm is the time shift that applies to monocycle.2) where. Pulse position modulated data sequence from all users are combined such that in a frame containing N slots. sk(t) is the transmitted signal of the Kth user. ( ) ∑ ( ( ) ) (3. Cj(k) is the time hopping code for the jth bit of the kth user. dn is the information data sequence. Tf is the pulse repetition or frame time. Each user has a separate TH code generated. 21 . introduced due to PPM and that is defined when „1‟ is transmitted. N users will transmit a pulse.

Pulse position(PPM) is done by introducing a delay in the occurrence of the data within a slot. 22 .6 that PPM is applied by introducing a delay when transmitting a „1‟ within the slot. that the data is transmitted in the first slot in first frame.5 – Block diagram of Multi user TH-PPM UWB system The following Fig 3.Fig 3. Thus the data from all user are combined to form a single signal. User 1 transmits data sequences [1 1 0…] with a time hopping code sequence [3 4 3 . in second slot in second frame. Fig 3.3. Voltage Delay due to PPM transmitting ‘1’ User 1 User 2 Tc Tf Time Fig 3. It shows a single user transmitting the data. Here.6 shows tow users transmitting the data.e. the duty cycle is assumed to be 50%.] and User 2 transmits data sequence [0 0 1…] in time slots (i. which has five slots in a frame. in fifth slot in third frames and so on. The TH code for that sequence is given by [1 2 5 …].3 shows a typical time hopped sequence. when the data transmitted is a „1‟ as shown in fig. TH-code) [512…].6 Example – time frame of TH-PPM Its also shown in the fig 3.4..

A common example of multipath fading is the experience of stopping at a traffic light and hearing an FM broadcast degenerate into static. fading is deviation of the attenuation that a signal experiences over certain propagation media. 3. In wireless systems. A fading channel is a communication channel that experiences fading. Fading channel models are often used to model the effects of electromagnetic transmission of information over the air in cellular networks and broadcast communication. 23 . Strong destructive interference is frequently referred to as a deep fade and may result in temporary failure of communication due to a severe drop in the channel signal-to-noise ratio.The resulting bit stream is converted into UWB pulses by multiplying the sequence with second derivative monocycle pulse given in the equation 1. to get a pulse train.5. The loss of the broadcast is caused by the vehicle stopping at a point where the signal experienced severe destructive interference. while the signal is re-acquired if the vehicle moves only a fraction of a meter. fading may either be due to multipath propagation. sometimes referred to as shadow fading. This can result in either constructive or destructive interference. each traversing a different path. or due to shadowing from obstacles affecting the wave propagation. delay and phase shift while travelling from the source to the receiver. geographical position or radio frequency. Mathematically. The fading may vary with time. referred to as multipath induced fading. Cellular phones can also exhibit similar momentary fades. Each signal copy will experience differences in attenuation. The pulse train is transmitted which then passes through the channel that offers varying degree of fading which depends on various parameters as specified in section 3. Fading channel models are also used in underwater acoustic communications to model the distortion caused by the water. the receiver sees the superposition of multiple copies of the transmitted signal. As a result. fading is usually modeled as a time-varying random change in the amplitude and phase of the transmitted signal.5 FADING CHANNEL In wireless communications.3. amplifying or attenuating the signal power seen at the receiver. and is often modeled as a random process. The presence of reflectors in the environment surrounding a transmitter and receiver create multiple paths that a transmitted signal can traverse.

it may be defined as the maximum time for which the magnitude change of channel is correlated to its previous value. : The mean ray arrival rate.2 Characteristics used in deriving model parameters These parameters are found by trying to match important characteristics of the channel. : The ray exponential decay factor. 3. The terms slow and fast fading refer to the rate at which the magnitude and phase change imposed by the channel on the signal changes. since the observations show that the lognormal distribution seems to better fit the measurement data. The coherence time is a measure of the minimum time required for the magnitude change of the channel to become uncorrelated from its previous value. :The standard deviation of the lognormal distributed path powers. transmitted RF signal of the form 24 . it is concluded that the S-V channel model suited the channel characteristics and this model is based on the assumption that multipath components arrive in clusters.1 Channel model parameters The key parameters that defined the model are: I. 3.1. II.5. The main characteristics of the channel that are used to derive the above model parameters are the following: Mean excess delay RMS delay spread Number of multipath components (defined as the number of multipath arrivals that are within 10 dB of the peak multipath arrival) Power delay profile Consider a pulsed. IV. and UWB channel model derived from the Saleh-Valenzuela model with one slight modification.5. III. Alternatively. Based on this clustering phenomenon observed in the measurements. Λ λ Γ γ σ : The mean cluster arrival rate. It uses a lognormal distribution rather than Rayleigh distribution for the multipath gain magnitude.As stated in section 1.5. V. : The cluster exponential decay factor.

The mean excess delay is the first moment of the power delay profile and is defined to be 25 . | ( )| ∫ {∑ ∫ ∑ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (( (3. Now let ( ) √ for 0 = t = Tbb (3. and | ( )| ∫ *∑ ( ) ( )+ (3. Such a wide band pulse will produce an output that approximates hb(t. That is. The mean excess delay and RMS delay spread are multipath channel parameters that can be determined from a power delay profile.4) And let p(t) be zero elsewhere for all excess delays of interest.( ) * ( ) ( )+ (3. power delay profiles are measured using the techniques discussed below and are generally represented as plots of relative received power as a function of excess delay with respect to a fixed time delay reference. the power | ( )|2 is measured.7) Note that if all the multipath components are resolved by the probe p(t). given by equation 3.8.5.5) to determine the received power at sometime t0. using equation 3.6) ))} (3.τ). then | | for all j not equal to i. The low pass channel output r(t) is found by convolving p(t) with hb(t.τ) and yields ( ) ∑ ( ( ( )) ( )) (3.3) where p(t) is the repetitive baseband pulse train with very narrow pulse width Tbb and repetition period TREP which is much greater than the maximum excess delay τmax in the channel. The quantity | ( )|2 is found by summing up the multipath power resolved in the instantaneous multipath power delay profile| ( )|2 of the channel and is equal to the energy received over the time duration of the multipath delay divided by τmax.8) Many multipath channel parameters are derived from the power delay profile.

l is equi-probable ±1. The µk. ( [ ( )( ) (3.11) Since the model parameters are difficult to match to the average power decay profile.14) ( [ ] ) Γ ( ) (3. the main channel characteristics that are used to determine the model parameter are the first three above. By definition. 26 .lis given by ( ) ( Γ ( ) ) (3. each multipath arrival would have a fading term associated with the cluster arrival and a fading term associated with the ray arrival.17) The proposed change in S-V model allows clusters to fade independently of rays.9) The RMS delay spread is the square root of the second central moment of the power delay profile and is defined to be √ ∑ ∑ ( ) ∑ ∑ ( ( ) ) (3.15) (3. The distribution of the cluster arrival time and the ray arrival time are given by.16) 0 where T1 is the excess delay of bin l and is the main power of the first path of the first cluster and pk.∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ( ( ) ) (3.13) The channel coefficients are defined as follows: (3.10) (3. we have τ01 = T1. For example. ( | ( | ( ) ) Λ ) .12) )] (3.

03 CM 33 14.1 CM 11 5.l corresponds to the fading associated with the kthray of the lthcluster.21) In the above equation.75 7.05 5.93 0.0667 3 17 24 36.18 14.28 35 61.19) (3.0667 3 14. The µk.54 20 Cm 44 27 . and βk. ξl reflects the fading associated with the lthcluster.20) where T1 is the excess delay of bin l and 0 is the main power of the first path of the first cluster and pk.4 1 5. Target Channel Characteristics Mean excess delay(n sec) RMS delay (nsec) NP10Db Np(85%) Model parameters Λ(1/nsec) λ (1/nsec) Γ 0.1 lists some initial model parameters of the couple of different channel characteristics that were found through measurement data.38 8.1 0.This modification could change the channel coefficients in the following way.lis given by ( ) ( Γ ) – ( ) ( ) (3.2 0.0233 3.l is equi-probable ±1.28 CM 22 10. The following table 3.18) ( 0| | 1 ) Γ ( ) (3. if the fading for both the cluster and ray amplitudes are lognormal ( note that the product of two lognormal random variables result in a lognormal random variables ): (3.

840 99. and NOLS measurements made by Intel.5.10. CM4: this model is generated to fit a 20 nsec RMS delay spread to represent an extreme multipath channel.6500 34.2737 55691 19. CM2: This model is based on NLOS (0 to 4m) channel measurements made by Time Domain. They are given from fig 3.690 62.9800 15.Γ Σ(dB) Model Characteristics Mean excess delay(nsec)τm RMS delay (nsec) ( τ rms) NP 10Db NP (85%) 4. 28 . 3.3000 24. CM1: This model is based on LOS (0 to 4m) channel measurements made by Time Domain.03 4.1 – Channel characteristics 3. CM3: This model is based on NLOS (4 to 10m) channel measurements made by Time Domain.4 Impulse response realizations for channels The channel model should consist of a definite set of impulse response realization.705 140792 33.460 22.7 to fig 3.835 50.5.37 4.5067 4.8* 12 4.8* 6.8188 802946 20.86 Table 3.198 19.7100 9.8* 5.3 Various channel models The various channels models that suits UWB system are discussed below.8* 7.

7 – Impulse response of CM1 CM2 29 .CM1 Fig 3.

Fig 3.8 – Impulse response of CM2 CM3 Fig 3.10 – Impulse response of CM4 30 .9 – Impulse response of CM3 CM4 Fig 3.

n(t) is the additive white Gaussian noise and τk represents asynchronisms between the clock of the transmitted and the receiver. As a result. This gives the data to be interpreted.22) Where. 3. the transmitted signal at time t is „1‟ are it is considered to be „0‟. If the correlated signal is greater than the threshold. ( ) ( ) ∑ ( ) (3. 31 . Then decision is done based on the threshold values set. which corresponds to the error in the received data bit stream.6 Receiver The signal which is transmitted undergoes fading and received at the receiver side with delayed components. the impulse response of the channel is convolved with the time hopped PPM sequence which results in the faded output. The received signal r(t) is given by. Further the additive white Gaussian noise is added to the signal in the channel.In the system model used for implementation. The correlator receiver is used. The received signal is correlated with the mask signal for the required statistical decision tests. Ak models attenuation at transmitted signal. a bit stream is obtained and is de spread using the same PN sequence. The time hopped data sequence is known at the receiver side and it is available as the mask signal.

In the following. BER results represented as a function of Eb/N0 and the number of users is presented.5 and 10 user) is taken for the simulation and comparison.Chapter. The number of input bits is 1000 for each user.1.1 – Input parameters Binary data is generated using the uniform random number generator for each user.5 nanosecond 0.1 shows the generated data sequence of ten bits and fig 4. Fig 4. Single user system and multi user system (2. The parameterized channel models can be used to generate ensembles of impulse responses. and the information is spread using PN sequence generated. which in turn are employed to test the performance of THPPM UWB system.2 shows the spreaded sequence with PN sequence length 3. INPUT PARAMETERS Sampling frequency Chip duration Pulse width PPM delay for transmitting „1‟ No.5 nanosecond 1000 Second derivative Gaussian monocycle -30dB Table 4. of input bits Pulse Power SIMULATION VARIABLES 50 GHz 1 nanosecond 0. 32 .5. The input parameters considered for simulation are as given in the table 4.4 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS The implementation of TH-PPM multi user UWB system is based on the block diagram and shown in fig 3.

8 0.3 0.1 – input data bits (10 bits) DATA AFTER SPREADING 1 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 4.7 0.6 0.3 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fig 4.4 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.2 – Data after spreading 33 .6 0.8 0.2 0.INPUT DATA BITS(RAMNDOMLY GENERATED) 1 0.5 0.

UWB Pulse Signal.2 0.6 0 0. TIME HOPPED PPM SEQUENCE 1 0. 34 .4 0.3 0.1 0 0 0.Time hopping codes for each user are generated and data are modulated with pulse position modulation.5 1 1.9 0.3 Time Hopped PPM Sequence TRANSMITTED SIGNAL(UWB SIGNAL) 1 0.6 0.5 x 10 -7 Fig 4.2 -0.4 UWB pulse signal transmitted. Fig 4.2 0 -0.8 0.7 0.4 -0.5 x 10 -7 Fig 4.5 Time [s] 1 1. The resulting data sequence is modulated using UWB pulse.6 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.4.3 shows the TH-PPM and fig 4.

6.5. SIGNAL AT RECEIVER(PASSING THROUGH CHANNEL) 2 1.The resulting signal is made to under go the different UWB channel models ( CM1.5 -1 -1.5 1 0.CM3. The resulting data after dispreading is shown in fig 4. After extraction.5 Signal at the receiver At the receiver.CM4 ) and also the Gaussian channel (AWGN).CM2.5 x 10 -7 Fig 4. 35 .5 1 1.5 0 -0. The output is de spread using the same PN sequence. the signal is correlated with mask signal.5 -2 0 0. The resulting signal is passed through the decision making block and the output is taken. it is assumed that the time hopping sequence of the user of interest is known and each user extracts his information by using the time hopping code used at the transmitter. The noisy signal at the receiver is shown in fig 4.

4 0.7 to 4.8 0. Figs 4.3 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Fig 4. 36 .FINAL OUTPUT DATA 1 0.5 and 10 users.6 – Final output data after despreading The bit error rate is estimated by comparing the received data with the transmitted data to analyze the performance of different channels and it is plotted as a function of Eb/N0.5 0.6 0.2 0.7 0.10 shows the BER performance as a function of Eb/N0 for the AWGN channel and the four UWB channels for single user and multi user systems consisting of 2.9 0.

10 0 10 -1 Bit Error Rate 10 -2 10 -3 CM1 CM2 CM3 CM4 ONLY AWGN 0 2 4 6 8 10 Eb/No. dB 12 14 16 18 20 Fig 4. dB Fig 4.7 BER Vs Eb/N0 single user 10 0 10 -1 Bit Error Rate 10 -2 10 -3 CM1 CM2 CM3 CM4 ONLY AWGN 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Eb/No.8 BER Vs Eb/N0 2 users 37 .

10 0 10 -1 Bit Error Rate 10 -2 10 -3 CM1 CM2 CM3 CM4 ONLY AWGN 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Eb/No.10 BER Vs Eb/N0 10 users 38 . dB Fig 4. dB Fig 4.9 BER Vs Eb/N0 5 users 10 0 10 -1 Bit Error Rate 10 -2 10 -3 CM1 CM2 CM3 CM4 ONLY AWGN 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Eb/No.

hence it has less interference and less multipath components which contributes to its low bit error rate. CM1 has LOS component and considered for a range 0 to 4m.1 from the BER performance it is seen that the structure and characteristics of the channel model has a strong influence on the system performance assessment. For example.11 shows the performance of channel CM2 for varying number of users.The channels considered here (CM1. 10 0 10 -1 Bit Error Rate 10 -2 10 -3 Single user 2 users 5 users 10 users 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Eb/No.11 BER Vs Eb/ N0 for channel model 2 39 . dB Fig 4.12 shows the BER performance as a function of number of users.CM2. Fig 4. keeping other parameters constant. Fig 4.CM4) have different characteristics as specified in table 4.CM3.

This is due to increasing multi access interferences with increase in number of users.12 BER performance as a function of number of users. for Eb/N0 ≤ 10dB. From this two plots it is seen that the BER increases with increase in the number of users. BER performance is limited by the MAI floor which is due to multi access and inter symbol interference. And also we can see that for all channels. 40 .10 0 Bit Error Rate CM1 CM2 CM3 CM4 ONLY AWGN 0 2 4 6 8 10 number of users Fig 4. BER decreases steeply with increase in Eb/N0. And for Eb/N0> 10 dB.

As a result of this wireless technology patients gain more mobility and comfort by not having to be physically connected to several pieces of medical equipments. For the case of medical applications this devices are connected to sensors that monitor the vital body parameters and movements among the vitals that are commonly measured we have electro cardio grams (ECG). blood pressure. Wireless medical telemetry has been experiencing continuous developments and improvements. wireless medical telemetry has also the potential to reduce the cost by decreasing the need to have medical personnel in close proximity to patients at all times. nurses. blood oxygen saturation. 41 . where asset of communicating devices are located around the human body. Remote monitoring of patients enables a very efficiency and timely use of doctors. and temperature. In addition to improve the quality of patient‟s care. it may be used for indoor and outdoor signal propagation. Further applications in the area of telecommunications are being driven by the concept of being connected or able to communicate anywhere and at anytime. The monitoring of human vitals and movements requires a relatively low data rate.5 APPLICATION Based on the analysis of the multiuser TH-PPM UWB system. By measuring the vitals and wirelessly transmitting them to a control node or station a WBAN allows for the continuous monitoring of the patients‟ health status without the burden of physical wires attached to their bodies or frequent visits by medical personal. One such application would be in telemedicine. which in the case of UWB translates into very small transmitting power requirements and longer battery life. Recent advances in wireless have led to the development of wireless body area networks (WBAN).Chapter. This type of scenario is also envisioned in medical health care area. both which are desirable features for devices that are closed body and meant to be used for extended periods of time. and specialized medical equipments. During recent years in this applications a patient‟s health is remotely monitored through the use of radio technology.

5.physionet. The PCM data is taken as input data to the TH-PPM UWB system. the signal is demodulated based on TH code of each user. The subjects were men aged 50-80.2. which is then spread. 42 . Encoding PCM Mulituser TH-PPM UWB system Received Data Bits Sampling Input biomedical signal Quantizer Decoding Receiver Fig 5.1 – Block Diagram The bipolar samples were digitized and coded using PCM.e) signals of two patients are transmitted simultaneously. Each signal containing 640 samples (i.e. At the receiver side. This database contains ECG signals obtained from the patients who suffer from myocardial ischemia. The performance of the designed UWB channel model for the set of biomedical signals is shown in Fig. The ECG signal so obtained is shown in Fig 5.Some ECG signals from European ST-T database in http://www.3.5.org were obtained. TH-Pulse Position Modulated and transmitted. each samples at 200 samples per second with nominal 2mV range.2 ECG Waveform This application has been implemented for two users (i. Each record two hours in duration. for 5 seconds) which are coded to 5120 bits. de spread and then decoded to get back the transmitted ECG signal.

3 BER performance of ECG signal 43 . dB Fig 5.10 0 Bit Error Rate CM1 CM2 CM3 CM4 ONLY AWGN 0 2 4 6 8 10 Eb/No.

Similar performance is observed when bio-medical signal is used as an input. and the BER performance is analyzed for all the channels. Cm4 found to be the worst channel. CM-1 has the best performance. It is observed that the BER increases with increase on number of users. Thus channel models are used to compare the performance of TH-models. it offers maximum fading. This is because CM-1 is modeled for short distance LOS propagation and CM-3 for longer distance and NLOS path propagation.CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION The various channel models are studied and it‟s observed that SV Channel model best suits the UWB systems. CM-3 the worst and CM-2 and Cm-4 in between these two. next to it CM-2 has a little higher value. Hence CM-4 offers more fading compared to all the other channel models. Thus various channel models are used to compare the performance of TH-PPM UWB system for both single and multi users and it is found to perform well in CM-1. Also channel CM-1 is found to have least BER value. Performance of TH-PPM UWB system for single user and Multiuser system is compared using SV channel models. 44 . Different channels provide fading to varied extend depending on the parameters specified. The simulation is done for varying number of users and the BER performance as function of Eb/N0 and the number of users. This multiuser TH-PPM UWB system is used for transmission of bio-medical signals(ECG).

Michael Buehrer. Vol.Molisch and Jeffrey R. Kazi M. no. [6] “Coronel P. RaffaelloTest. Gubner and Kei Hao “The IEEE 802.15.” The University of Tokyo.” [10] Attaphongse Taparugssanagom.REFERENCES [1] Dinesh manandhar and Ryosuke Shibasaki. “IEEE p 802. “UWB Small Scale Channel Modelling and System Performance. pp . “Channel Models For Ultrawideband Personal Area Networks. Oppermann I. “Direct Spread Spectrum(DS)/Time Hopping(TH) UWB Performance comparison in a multi-user Ad-Hoc environment”. [2] M. Zasowski T. [12] Biomedical signal samples from: http://www. Ran M. Chevillat P” Wireless Body Area and sensor networks.3a UWB Channel Model as a Two – Dimensional Augmented Cluster Process” . Carlos Pomalaza-Raez.Introduction and Signal . SchottW.June 2008. [3] QingchunRen and Quilian Liang.McKinstry and R. Foerster. January 2010. [7] Mohammad UpalMahfuz. Switzerland. “Optimum receiver Performance Of TH-PPM ultra wideband system in multi user interference” [8] David R. Mumbai.805-815. [5] Jeff Foerster. Maass H. Ari Isola. “Ultra Wideband (UWB). Ecublens 1015. and Naadana Rajatheva. Wireless World Research Forum(WWRF)” Briefings 2004. India. Japan.MattiHamalainen and JariLinatti “UWB Channel for Wireless Body Area Networks in Medical Applications” [11] John A. “TH-PPM and TH-BPSK-UWB performance using UWB channel-1” proceedings of SPIT-IEEE colloquium and International Conference. Ahmed.org/physiobank/database/#ecg 45 .15Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks(WPANs). On mobile Computing. [4] Joanne Gomes.” IEEE Trans.”Intel Research and Development.” [9] Andreas F. Schwieger K. Zimmermann E. “ Throughput and Energy-Efficiency-Aware protocol for Ultra Wideband Communication in wireless Sensor Networks: A cross-layer Approach. Mezzour.physionet.7.6.

% number of pulses per bit Tc = 1e-9.25e-9.APPENDIX MATLAB PROGRAM FOR TIME HOPPING PPM FOR MULTIUSERS.5e-9. msg=zeros(1. Np = 5. % sampling frequency %numbits = 2. of bits for user'). % pulse duration [s] tau = 0. of users'). % frame time.Tm/2. vb=Tm*fc. % number of bits generated by the source Ts = 10e-9. i./Tc. numbit1=1000. 46 % INITIALISATION 'SEED' .1000).e. % shaping factor for the pulse [s] dPPM = 0. rand(state. snr=input('enter snr').5e-9. Nh = Ts. tb=linspace(-Tm/2. randn(state. % Average transmitted power (dBm) fc = 50e9.%input('enter the no. average pulse % repetition period [s] Ns = 1. clear all. u=input('enter the no.vb).12345). Pow = -30.54321). % chip time [s] % cardinality of the Time Hopping code % periodicity of the Time Hopping code Tm = 0.

of FF:'). for i=1:u msg(i. %%%%%plot(yum). %time hopping THcode = floor(rand(u.^2). bits=zeros(1.1000). %PN Sequence pnseq=pngeneration(no_ff). % disp(o1).numbits1).4*pi. yum =1*(1 . % bits(1. for i=1:u bits(i. % % numbits2=length(o).1.data=zeros(1.1000).g).* exp(-2*pi. end % disp('Output').:).*Nh). numbits1=length(bits).(0:1)).:)'. end no_ff=input('enter no.Implementation of the 2PPM-TH modulator % -------------------------------------------------47 . % GENERATION OF RANDOM DATA data(i.:)=spreadxor(data(i. % -------------------------------------------------% Step One .^2). g=pnseq'.:)=o(2. % bits(2.:)=randsrc(numbit1.*((tb)/Tm).*((tb)/Tm).:).:)=msg(i.:).:)=o(1.

totlength)./ fc. index1 = index1 + kTH*chipsamples.main loop for introducing TH and 2PPM % ------------------------------------------------ for i=1:u for k = 1 : length(bits) % uniform pulse position index1 = 1 + (k-1)*framesamples.dt = 1 . % no. % no. of samples between % pulses chipsamples = floor (Tc. % sampling period framesamples = floor(Ts.totlength). % no. of samples for the % PPM shift THp1 = size(THcode)./dt).index1) = 1. % introduction of TH kTH = THcode(i. % TH-code periodicity THp= THp1(1)*THp1(2). THseq(i./dt). % -----------------------------------------------% Step Two .THp1(2)))./dt). PPMTHseq=zeros(1.1+mod(k-1. of samples for the % chip duration PPMsamples = floor (dPPM. THseq=zeros(u. % introduction of 2PPM 48 . totlength = framesamples*length(bits).

PPMTHseq(index1) = 1.k). end % % ts = 0.yum. wav1=zeros(1.length(THseq)-length(mask2))].index1 = index1 + PPMsamples*bits(i. for i=1:u mask(i.:).length(PPMTHseq)). %%%%%plot(PPMTHseq). % mask2=maskref(THseq(2. % mask2=zeros(1. mask=zeros(u. %% 49 . end.PPMsamples).yum.:).length(THseq)). end end figure(2). j=1. % end % for i=1:u % mask2=[mask2 zeros(1.:)=maskref(THseq(i.167. end j=j+1.PPMsamples). for i= 1:length(PPMTHseq) if (PPMTHseq(i)==1) wav1(j:j+24)= PPMTHseq(i).length(THseq)).*yum. % sampling time (nsec) % number of channel impulse responses to generate % % num_channels = 1.

%% %% %% %% % % c = cconv(h_ct.4f.std_ln_2.. % snr=8.t_ct.. gamma. std_ln_1. lambda. % % Lam.gamma. % % ' Lam = %. l=1.snr). % % rand('state'.std_ln_1. nlos. for snr= 0:2:20 %plot(wav1). lambda. % % ' std_ln_1 = %.4f\n' .wav1. wtx = awgn(wav1.lambda. %% h_ct=h_ct'.. nlos.Gam. figure(4).t0. %% % % % get a bunch of realizations (impulse responses) % % [h_ct. std_shdw). %%%%%plot(c).length(wav1))..4f\n']. % % fprintf(1. std_shdw..12).% % randn('state'.. lambda = %. gamma.4f. Gam = %. 50 . std_ln_2. num_channels ). %% % initialize state of function for repeatability % initialize state of function for repeatability % % cm_num = 4. %wtx=wav1. Gam.12). NLOS flag = %d.nlos.4f. Gam.4f. % channel model number from 1 to 4 % % % get channel model params based on this channel model number % % [Lam. std_shdw = %.. std_ln_2 = %. .std_shdw] = uwb_sv_params( cm_num ).4f.np] = uwb_sv_model_ct( Lam. .['Model Parameters\n' ..zz=1. std_ln_2. std_ln_1. gamma = %.

end 51 .i).1000).rx(p.numbits1.1000).:). bout=zeros(1. for p=1:u Rxbits(zz. end end HDSD=1. bout(zz.%receiver %HDSD=1 ----> hard decision detection %HDSD=2 ----> soft decision detection Ns=1.g).:). rx=zeros(1.:). end zz=zz+1.ind:ind+chipsamples-1)=wtx(ind:ind+chipsamples-1).:).Ns.HDSD).p. ber(zz.:)).length(wtx)).:)= biteror(numbit1.Ts. for fr=1:framesamples:length(wtx) ind=fr+ THcode(j.Rxbits(zz. rx(j.mask(p.p.* chipsamples.p.p. ber=zeros(1.length(wtx)). i=i+1. for j=1:u i=1.:) = recver(wtx.bout(zz. Rxbits=zeros(1.fc.data(p.p. rx1=zeros(1.1000).:)= despreadxor(numbit1.

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