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5.2.

Calculation of GOSF

From FDLF we know that P = [B ] or = [X ] P where [X ] = [B ] . Or,

2 X22 X23 X2n P2 X 3 32 X33 X3n P3 = n Xn2 Xn3 Xnn Pn

(5.9)

In equation (5.9), the matrix [X ] is of size (n 1) (n 1) and any element Xij is actually located in the location (i 1), (j 1). As the matrix [B ] is a constant real matrix dependent only on the line parameters, matrix [X ] is also a constant real matrix dependent on the line parameters. Furthermore, in equation (5.9), the quantity 1 is not included in the vector as the reference angle does not change with any outage in the system. Now, to calculate the GOSF for the outage of generator at bus k, the perturbation at bus k is set to Pk and the perturbation at the slack bus is set to Pk (assuming that the entire lost generation is taken up by the slack bus) while keeping the perturbations at the other buses equal to zero. Therefore, the perturbed values of the bus angles can be given as,

i = Xik Pk for i = 2, n
Now, from equation (5.7), the change in power ow over line i-j is given by,

(5.10)

Pij =
Therefore,

1 1 (i j ) = (Xik Xjk )Pk , where, xl = xij is the reactance of the line i-j. xl xl
k ij =

Pij Xik Xjk = Pk xl

(5.11)

k As can be seen from equation (5.11), the factor ij is dependent only on the line parameters.

Let us now look at the application and utility of these sensitivity factors. For this purpose, let as consider the IEEE-14 bus system (the data of which are given in Tables A.3 and A.4). In this system, apart from the slack bus,there are two other generations at bus 2 and bus 6 (refer Table A.3). The real power ows in all the lines have been calculated with all the three generatiors operating in the system and are shown in column 2 of Table 5.1 (under the heading Pline(ori)). The GSOFs for these two generators have been calculated using equation (5.11) and are shown is columns 3 and 7 of Table 5.1 respectively (under the heading GSOF(2) and GSOF(6) respectively). From Table A.3 it can be seen that the specied real power generated by these two generations are 18.3 MW and 11.2 MW respectively. Hence, following the argument given for equation (5.2), the quantities P2 and P6 are equal to -0.183(p.u) and 0.112 (p.u) respectively (on a 100 MVA base) as shown in columns 4 and 8 of Table 5.1. With these information, the estimated line ows after the outage of generation 2 and 6 are calculated using equation (5.2) and are shown in columns 5 and 9 respectively. Lastly, full AC power ow studies have been carried out by removing generator 2 and 6 one by one (by modeling them as PQ bus after reducing their real power generation to zero) and the results of line 230

ows (obtained with full AC power ow) are shown in columns 6 and 10 respectively. From columns 5 and 6 as well as from columns 9 and 10 it is observed that the post-outage line-ows estimated by the sensitivity analysis technique match quite closely with those obtained by the full AC power ow method.

Table 5.1: Results of generator outage analysis in IEEE 14 bus system (all powers are given in p.u.) For outage of generator at bus 2 Line Pline GSOF Pline Pline P2 no. (ori) (2) (cal) (ACLF) 1 1.6262 -0.9709 -0.183 1.803875 1.7891 2 0.7464 -0.1935 -0.183 0.781811 0.7776 3 0.8655 0.0089 -0.183 0.863871 0.8606 4 0.5314 0.0556 -0.183 0.521225 0.5207 5 0.3662 0.0821 -0.183 0.351176 0.3511 6 -0.358 0.047 -0.183 -0.3666 -0.3622 7 -0.7068 0.1064 -0.183 -0.72627 -0.7217 8 0.2689 -0.0013 -0.183 0.269138 0.2691 9 0.1063 -0.0004 -0.183 0.106373 0.1064 10 0.2893 -0.0078 -0.183 0.290727 0.2887 11 0.1156 -0.0059 -0.183 0.11668 0.1154 12 0.0852 -0.0007 -0.183 0.085328 0.0851 13 0.2005 -0.0031 -0.183 0.201067 0.2003 14 0.0025 -0.0065 -0.183 0.00369 0.0025 15 0.2664 0.0052 -0.183 0.265448 0.2667 16 0.0123 0.0055 -0.183 0.011294 0.0124 17 0.0655 0.0037 -0.183 0.064823 0.0657 18 -0.0777 0.0057 -0.183 -0.07874 -0.0776 19 0.0233 -0.0012 -0.183 0.02352 0.0232 20 0.0857 -0.0038 -0.183 0.086395 0.0854 For outage of GSOF P6 (6) -0.7628 -0.112 -0.4344 -0.112 -0.1568 -0.112 -0.2928 -0.112 -0.2977 -0.112 -0.1203 -0.112 -0.0033 -0.112 -0.2562 -0.112 -0.1009 -0.112 -0.6729 -0.112 0.2459 -0.112 0.0277 -0.112 0.1312 -0.112 -0.0204 -0.112 -0.2358 -0.112 -0.2287 -0.112 -0.1548 -0.112 -0.2368 -0.112 0.05 -0.112 0.1574 -0.112 generator at bus 6 Pline Pline (cal) (ACLF) 1.711634 1.7203 0.795053 0.7753 0.883062 0.8888 0.564194 0.5678 0.399542 0.395 -0.34453 -0.3357 -0.70643 -0.7189 0.297594 0.3173 0.117601 0.1255 0.364665 0.3309 0.088059 0.0748 0.082098 0.0778 0.185806 0.1782 0.004785 0.0022 0.29281 0.3151 0.037914 0.0512 0.082838 0.0944 -0.05118 -0.039 0.0177 0.016 0.068071 0.0567

To calculate the LOSF, we rst need to understand the concept of Thevenin equivalent impedance of a power system. Let as rst have a look at that.

5.2.3

Determination of Thevenins equivalent impedance

V where and Y are the vector of bus injection currents, vector of bus voltages We know I=Y I, V =Z is the bus impedance matrix and and the admittance matrix respectively. Hence,V I where Z =Y 1 . As the matrix Z is a constant matrix, the relation V =Z is given by Z I denotes a linear and and equation connecting V I and hence, for incremental charges in V I the same relation also
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= Z holds good, i.e. V I. Expanding this relation we get, 12 Z 1n I V1 Z11 Z 1 Z V 2 21 Z22 Z2n I2 = n2 Z nn I Vn Zn1 Z n

(5.12)

Now, suppose that there is an incremental charge is the current of bus k only while the incremental changes at the other buses are zero. Hence, Ik 0 and Ii = 0 for i = 1, n; k . Hence, i = Z ik I k for i = 1, n. Hence, from equation (5.12), the changes in bus voltages are given by, V (0) , then the nal voltage after perturbation is given by, if the initial bus voltage is V k

k = V (0) + Z kk I k V k

(5.13)

Equation (5.13) can be represented as an equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 5.1, which shows the Thevenins equivalent circuit at bus k. From this circuit, the Thevenins equivalent impedance kk . of the system (looking from bus k) in equal to Z

Figure 5.1: Thevenin equivalent circuit from bus k In the next lecture, we will use the Thevenins equivalent impedance for calculating LOSF.

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