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FLUORESCENT LAMP MANUFACTURING PLANT

A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor. The excited mercury atoms produce short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light. Unlike incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps always require a ballast to regulate the flow of power through the lamp. However, a fluorescent lamp converts electrical power into useful light more efficiently than an incandescent lamp; lower energy costs offsets the higher initial cost of the lamp. While larger fluorescent lamps have been mostly used in large commercial or institutional buildings, the compact fluorescent lamp is now being used as an energy-saving alternative to incandescent lamps in homes. Compared with incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps use less power for the same amount of light, generally last longer, but are bulkier, more complex, and more expensive than a comparable incandescent lamp.
Manufactures of light bulbs are constantly trying to lower the costs of production. As a leading manufacturer of fluorescent lamps, the PHILIPS has played an important role in helping to develop the technology and automated machinery necessary to keep those products costs down. Typical fluorescent lamp consists of a long glass tube that seals the inner components from atmosphere.

Fluorescent tube: Tube in which the electric current produces ultraviolet radiation converted into visible light by a layer of a fluorescent substance.

Pin : Cylindrical metal part that establishes electric contact when inserted into the corresponding outlet. Pin base: End of the tube equipped with two pins that, when inserted into the socket, connect the tube with the electric circuit. Bulb: Long glass cylinder enclosing the components of this type of tube and diffusing light.

January 09, 2009

PHILIPS

Prepared By: Abdul Aziz Post: Internee of Sir Syed University of Engineering and technology

Pinch : Part in which the lead-in wires are attached. Exhaust tube: Glass tube used to empty the air from the bulb and then to fill it with inert gas before it is sealed.

Lead-in Electric conductor carrying the current to the filament.

wire:

Gas : The tube is filled with an inert gas under low pressure, with mercury added. Mercury: A small amount of vaporized mercury, added to the gas, emits ultraviolet radiation during the electric discharge. Electrode: A device placed at each end of the tube; an electric discharge arcs between the two of them. Fluorescent coating: The tube’s internal coating; it is composed of phosphate particles that convert ultraviolet rays into visible light.

Process Description The production of fluorescent lamps is done in four stages. Most of the work is done by automatic machinery, so only a minimal number of workers are required.
January 09, 2009

PHILIPS

Prepared By: Abdul Aziz Post: Internee of Sir Syed University of Engineering and technology

The four stages of production are: (1) Mount Making (2) Glass Tube Preparation (3) Base Preparation (4) Assembly. 1 Mount Making Three machines are used to make mounts. This machinery can be used to make stems for many types of lamp. Flare Making Machine: A specially designed machine with 12 heads located around the edge of turntable flanges tubes of glass into flares. The flare is separated from the glass / tubing by a flame which polishes the surface of the glass as it cuts it. 2 Stem Making Machine: Exhaust tubes and lead-in wires from presorted hoppers are, along with the flares, fed into the stem making machine, which automatically forms the stems. 3 Mounting Machine: The stems are forwarded to the mounting machine, where oxidized, tungsten wire filaments are attached, thus completing the mount making process. 2.Glass Tube Preparation Glass tubes of the appropriate length are placed in the washing and coating machine. This machine uses hot water and hot air to wash and dry the glass tubes before the inner walls of the tubes are coated with fluorescent powder. After being coated with fluorescent powder the tubes are automatically unloaded onto a roller conveyor which transports them through an oven and the through a cooling chamber. As the tubes pass through the oven, the fluorescent coating is baked on to the tubes. As they pass through the cooling chamber, two end-cleaning machines automatically brush the fluorescent coating from the ends of the tubes. The
January 09, 2009

PHILIPS

Prepared By: Abdul Aziz Post: Internee of Sir Syed University of Engineering and technology

conveyor then transports the tubes to the sealing machine for final assembly. 3 Base Preparation The required portions of the ingredients needed to make the sealing compound are mixed together in a cement-mixing machine. The sealing compound is then dispensed into the bases of the lamps by an automatic filling machine. The bases are then forwarded to the basing machine for final assembly. Assembly The mounts, glass tubes, and the cement filled bases are then assembled into finished products. 1 Automatic Sealing Machine: The glass tubes are placed on the sealing heads of the sealing machine as mounts are fed into the machine from the other side. The mounts are automatically placed in the proper position before they are heat sealed to the tubes. 2 Automatic Exhausting Machine: This machine automatically evacuates the sealed fluorescent lamp, injects it with mercury, fills it with argon gas and activates the cathode.

3 Automatic Basing Machine: The sealed and exhausted tubes are manually inserted into holders on the basing machine and heated by a gas burner. The cement filled caps is then
January 09, 2009

PHILIPS

Prepared By: Abdul Aziz Post: Internee of Sir Syed University of Engineering and technology

attached to each end of the lamp thus completing the manufacturing process. 4 Testing and Packing: This machine is designed to age randomly selected lamps to determine if any of them may be defective. The tubes are fed into the machine and all other operations are automatic. Universal ballast units are built into every head. Changeover from one size of lamp another size is fast and simple. After being automatically unloaded the lamps pass over a visual inspection panel. Qualified lamps are the then packed into protective cardboard packing. References: www.google.com www.yahoo.com www.wikipedia.com http://visual.merriam-webster.com http://turnkey.taiwantrade.com

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January 09, 2009

PHILIPS

Prepared By: Abdul Aziz Post: Internee of Sir Syed University of Engineering and technology