IBM WEBSPHERE

TECHNICAL CONFERENCE
Bangalore, India August 6 - 9, 2007

Session Number: W02
Tuning the Java Virtual Machine for Optimal Performance: Means and Methods

Rajeev Palanki IBM Java Technology Center rpalanki@in.ibm.com

© 2007 IBM Corporation Conference materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.

Objectives
• Have an insight into key aspects of JVM Runtime Performance and understanding of the means and methods to tune the JVM for optimal performance. • At the end of this session you should have:
High level overview of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and its key components. Understanding of different Garbage Collection schemas in the Sovereign & J9 Virtual Machines and their impact on JVM Runtime performance. Knowledge about using verbosegc outputs effectively to improve application response times. Introduction to Shared Classes Technology and performance gains. Familiarity with debugging and profiling tools available for JVM and their effective usage.

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Agenda
• Overview of the Java Virtual Machine and its key components • Garbage Collection Basics (Sovereign VM – 142 JDK) • Profiling Garbage Collection: Verbosegc Outputs • Garbage Collection Policies in Java 5.0 • Debugging and Analysis tools for Garbage Collection • Introduction to Shared Classes Technology • Real Time Java – A brief overview • Q&A

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IBM Java Building Blocks

Java SDK Class Libraries JIT

Virtual Machine

Basic text slide
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IBM Java Building Blocks

RAS

Big decimal

Java SDK
Class Libraries Security ORB XML

JIT

GC

Virtual Machine

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The Java Application Stack
ORB
Java Class Libraries

Java Code
Java Class Extensions

Native Code
Core Interface (CI) Diagnostics Execution Engine Lock Execution Management (XM) Classloader Data Conversion Native libraries

Storage

HPI (Hardware Platform Interface)
Platform
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JIT

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Building Blocks
The JDK is a key component in the Application Server Stack from a performance perspective
– “Write Once Run Anywhere”

Application

Class Libraries
– Collection of well-defined code packages that assist developers’ creation of business applications (3 specifications)

Just-in-Time Compiler
– Code generator that converts bytecodes into machine language instructions at run time. Platform independent execution environment that abstracts operating system specifics from the developer/user.

Class Libraries

JIT

Java SDK Virtual Machine

Virtual Machine

– –

Vendor specific operating environment Specific hardware architecture (instruction set)

Operating system

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IBM Java 5.0
• IBM have totally rewritten and redesigned our VM for Java 5.0 – You may have heard this referred as J9
New Virtual Machine implementation (J9) New Garbage Collection Mechanism (Modron) New Just In Time Compiler (Testarossa) Shared Classes technology

• Just In Time Compiler (Testarossa)
Multiple optimization levels Recompilation driven by sampling thread Dynamic Profile Information Collection Profiling thread helps determine “hotness” of methods Asynchronous compilation

• Garbage Collection (Modron)
Uses a “type accurate” collector Introduces parallel compactor Introduces “Generational GC” policy
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Garbage Collection Overview
Garbage Collection (GC)
The main cause of memory–related performance bottlenecks in Java.

Two things to look at in GC: frequency and duration
Frequency depends on the heap size and allocation rate Duration depends on the heap size and number of objects in the heap

GC algorithm
Critical to understand how it works so that tuning is done more intelligently.

How do you eliminate GC bottlenecks?
Minimize the use of objects by following good programming practices Set your heap size properly, memory-tune your JVM

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The (IBM) JVM Garbage Collector

• “The purpose of Garbage Collection is to identify Java Heap storage which is no
longer being used by the Java application and so is available for reuse by the JVM” •Key questions: •Performance and Scalability: How quickly can you find garbage? •Accuracy: •Effectiveness: Can you find all the garbage? How much space can you make available?

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Garbage Collection: IBM Technology
• Concurrent mark
Most of the marking phase is done outside of ‘Stop the World’ when the ‘mutator’ threads are still active giving a significant improvement in pause time.

• Parallelizing the garbage Collection phases
The Mark and sweep workload is distributed across available processors resulting in a significant improvement in pause times

• Adaptive sizing of thread local heaps
Reduces the amount of Java Heap locking

• Incremental compaction
The expense of compaction is distributed across GCs leading to a reduction in (an occasional) long pause time.

• Java 5 technologies
Lazy sweep, parallel compaction, generational and accurate collection

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The JVM Heaps
Native Heap Java Heap
freelist
Size
Next

Size
free storage

Next

Null
free storage

JIT Compiled Code Motif structures Thread Stacks Buffers

Free List

Xms - Active Area of Heap

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Allocation schemes
• Two types of allocation

Cache Allocation (for object allocations < 512 bytes), does not require Heap Lock. Each thread has local storage in the heap (TLH – Thread Local Heap) where the objects are allocated. Heap Lock Allocation (Heap Allocation occurs when the allocation request is more than 512 bytes, requires Heap Lock. If size is less than 512 or enough space in the cache try cacheAlloc return if OK HEAP_LOCK do forever If there is a big enough chunk on freelist Take it goto Gotit else manageAllocFailure If any error goto GetOut End do Gotit: Initialize object Get out Heap_UNLOCK

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Large Object Allocation
• • • • All objects => 64K are termed “large” from the VM perspective In practice, objects of 10MB+ in size are usually considered large The Large Object Area is 5% of the active heap by default. Any object is first tried to be allocated in the free list of the main heap – if there is not enough “contiguous” space in the main heap to satisfy the allocation request for object => 64K, then it is allocated in the Large Object Area (wilderness) Objects < 64K can only be allocated in the main heap and never in the Large Object Area Active heap

LOA

Xmx

Users can identify the Java stack of a thread making an allocation request of larger than the value specified with the environment variable ALLOCATION_THRESHOLD export ALLOCATION_THRESHOLD =5400 This will give java stacks for object allocations of created than 5400 bytes.

Users can specify the desired % of the Large Object Area using the Xloration option (where n determines the fraction of heap designated for LOA. (For example: Xloratio0.3 reserves 30% of the active heap for the Large Object Area)

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Sub pools
• Subpools provide an improved policy of object allocation and is available from JDK 1.4.1 releases only on AIX.
– – – –

Improved time for allocating objects Avoid premature GCs due to allocation of large objects Improve MP scalability by reducing time under HEAP_LOCK Optimize TLH sizes and storage utilization

• The subpool algorithm uses multiple free lists rather than the single free list used by the default allocation scheme. • It tries to predict the size of future allocation requests based on earlier allocation requests. It recreates free lists at the end of each GC based on these predictions. • While allocating objects on the heap, free chunks are chosen using a ″best fit″ method, as against the ″first fit″ method used in other algorithms. • It is enabled by the –Xgcpolicy:subpool option. • Concurrent marking is disabled when subpool policy is used.

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Garbage Collection Basics (142 JVM)
• Garbage Collection is performed when there is: An allocation failure in the heap lock allocation Specific call to System.gc • Garbage Collection is Stop the World (All other application threads are suspended during GC) • Two main technologies used to remove garbage: Mark Sweep Collector Copy Collector
GC occurs in the thread that handled the request

Requested object allocation that caused allocation failure Programmatically requested GC • Thread must acquire certain locks required for GC Heap Lock Thread queue lock JIT lock

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Object reclamation process for a Mark Sweep Collector

Obtain locks and suspend threads Mark phase
Process of identifying all objects reachable from the root set. All “live” objects are marked by setting a mark bit in the mark bit vector.

Sweep phase
Sweep phase identifies all the objects that have been allocated, but no longer referenced.

Compaction (optional)
Once garbage has been removed, we consider compacting the resulting set of objects to remove spaces between them.

Release locks and resume threads

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Mark – Sweep – Compact Algorithm

reachable object unreachable object

Root Set

Heap

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Together we achieve: Some parallel processing
• GC Helper threads
On a multiprocessor system with N CPUs, a JVM supporting parallel mode starts N-1 garbage collection helper threads at the time of initialization. These threads remain idle at all times when the application code is running; they are called into play only when garbage collection is active. For a particular phase, work is divided between the thread driving the garbage collection and the helper threads, making a total of N threads running in parallel on an N-CPU machine. The only way to disable the parallel mode is to use the -Xgcthreads parameter to change the number of garbage collection helper threads being started. • Parallel Mark The basic idea is to augment object marking through the addition of helper threads and a facility for sharing work between them. • Parallel BitWise Sweep Similar to parallel mark, uses same helper threads as parallel mark Improves sweep times by using available processors.

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Concurrent Marking
Designed to give reduced and consistent GC pause times as heap sizes increases. Concurrent aims to complete the marking just before the before the heap is full. In the concurrent phase, the Garbage Collector scans the roots by asking each thread to scan its own stack. These roots are then used to trace live objects concurrently. Tracing is done by a low-priority background thread and by each application thread when it does a heap lock allocation. Concurrent is enabled by the option: -Xgcpolicy:optavgpause

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Incremental Compaction
• Incremental compaction removes the dark matter from the heap and reduces pause times significantly • The fundamental idea behind incremental compaction is to split the heap up into sections and compact each section just as during a full compaction. • Incremental compaction was introduced in JDK 1.4.0; is enabled by default and triggered under particular conditions. (Called Reasons) • -Xpartialcompactgc • -Xnopartialcompactgc • -Xnocompactgc Option to invoke incremental compaction in every GC cycle. Option to disable incremental compcation. Option to disable full compcation

The heap is divided into regions The regions are further divided into sections Each section is handled by one helper thread A region is divided into (number of helper threads +1) or 8 sections (whichever is less) The whole heap is covered in a few GC cycles.

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Explicit Garbage Collection
Garbage collector is called only upon two conditions: When an allocation failure occurs GC explicitly called using System.gc Don’t call System.gc() at all. It hurts more often than it helps. GC knows when it should run The temptation to scatter System.gc() calls here, there, and everywhere is enormous. It does not make a good idea. TRUST ME !!!!! Use –Xdisableexplicitgc to avoid running GC for each System.gc().

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Profiling Garbage Collection: Verbosegc output
The most indispensable tool for profiling GC activity is Verbosegc – from JVM runtime. Enabled using –verbosegc on the java command line.
Verbosegc redirection -Xverbosegclog: <path to file> filename Verbosegc redirection to multiple files -Xverbosegclog:<path to file>filename#,X,Y (Redirect to Y files each containing X GC cycles)

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Understanding a typical verbosegc output
<AF[71]: Allocation Failure. need 65552 bytes, 3 ms since last AF> <AF[71]: managing allocation failure, action=2 (142696/10484224)> <GC(71): GC cycle started Fri Mar 19 17:59:06 2004 <GC(71): freed 94184 bytes, 2% free (236880/10484224), in 12 ms> <GC(71): mark: 5 ms, sweep: 0 ms, compact: 7 ms> <GC(71): refs: soft 0 (age >= 32), weak 0, final 0, phantom 0> <GC(71): moved 3095 objects, 188552 bytes, reason=1> <AF[71]: managing allocation failure, action=3 (236880/10484224)> <AF[71]: managing allocation failure, action=4 (236880/10484224)> <AF[71]: managing allocation failure, action=6 (236880/10484224)> JVMDG217: Dump Handler is Processing a Signal - Please Wait. JVMDG315: JVM Requesting Heap dump file JVMDG318: Heap dump file written to /workarea/rajeev/gctests/heapdump.20040319.175906.8467.txt JVMDG303: JVM Requesting Java core file JVMDG304: Java core file written to /workarea/rajeev/gctests/javacore.20040319.175906.8467.txt JVMDG274: Dump Handler has Processed OutOfMemory. <AF[71]: insufficient heap space to satisfy allocation request> <AF[71]: completed in 203 ms>

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When are GC messages printed out?
• The first two lines are put out just before the beginning of STW phase of GC. • Rest of messages are printed out after the STW phase ends and threads are woken up. No messages are printed during GC. • Heap shrinkage messages are printed before STW messages, but shrinkage happens AFTER STW phase! • Heap expansion messages are correctly printed AFTER STW messages.

(STW = Stop The World)

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Things to look for in a verbosegc output
• Was it an Allocation Failure GC? • What was the size of allocation request that caused AF? • What were the total and free heap sizes before GC? • What was the total pause time? • Where was maximum time spent in GC? • Are we doing a compaction in each GC cycle? • What actions were taken by GC? • Was GC able to meet allocation request in the end? • What was the free heap size after GC?

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GC actions (JDK 142)
• Look for lines of this type: managing allocation failure, action=<n> Where <n> is the numerical value of action taken. Actions: 0 -> GC because of exhaustion of pinned free list. 1 -> Perform garbage collection without using wilderness 2 -> Garbage Collector tried to allocate out of wilderness and failed. 3 -> Expand the Java heap 4 -> Clear soft references 5 -> Steal space from transient heap (zOS only) 6 -> Couldn’t get enough space. Print appropriate messages.
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Using verbosegc to set the heap size
• Use verbosegc to guess ideal size of heap, and then tune using –Xmx and –Xms. • Setting –Xms:
Should be big enough to avoid AFs from the time the application starts to the time it becomes ‘ready’. (Should not be any bigger!)

• Setting –Xmx:
In the normal load condition, free heap space after each GC should be > minf (Default is 30%). There should not be any OutOfMemory errors. In heaviest load condition, if free heap space after each GC is > maxf (Default is 70%), heap size is too big.

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Example of verbosegc when heap is too small
GC is too frequent
<AF[25]: Allocation Failure. need 65552 bytes, 1 ms since last AF> <AF[25]: managing allocation failure, action=2 (319456/10484224)> <GC(25): GC cycle started Sat Mar 20 15:32:50 2004 <GC(25): freed 3968 bytes, 3% free (323424/10484224), in 11 ms> <GC(25): mark: 5 ms, sweep: 0 ms, compact: 6 ms> <GC(25): refs: soft 0 (age >= 32), weak 0, final 0, phantom 0> <GC(25): moved 214 objects, 9352 bytes, reason=1> <AF[25]: managing allocation failure, action=3 (323424/10484224)> <AF[25]: managing allocation failure, action=4 (323424/10484224)> <AF[25]: managing allocation failure, action=6 (323424/10484224)> <AF[25]: warning! free memory getting short(1). (323424/10484224)> <AF[25]: completed in 13 ms>

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Example of verbosegc when heap is too big
GC is too long
<AF[29]: Allocation Failure. need 2321688 bytes, 88925 ms since last AF> <AF[29]: managing allocation failure, action=1 (3235443800/20968372736) (3145728/3145728)> <GC(29): GC cycle started Mon Nov 4 14:46:20 2002 <GC(29): freed 8838057824 bytes, 57% free (12076647352/20971518464), in 4749 ms> <GC(29): mark: 4240 ms, sweep: 509 ms, compact: 0 ms> <GC(29): refs: soft 0 (age >= 32), weak 0, final 1, phantom 0> <AF[29]: completed in 4763 ms>

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Effect of wrong –Xms & -Xmx settings
Too small heap = Too frequent GC. Too big heap = Too much GC pause time. (Irrespective of amount of physical memory on the system) Heap size > physical memory size = paging/swapping = bad for your application. It is desirable to have the Xms much less than Xmx if you are encountering fragmentation issues. This forces class allocations, thread and persistent objects to be allocated at the bottom of the heap.

What about Xms=Xmx?
It means no heap expansion or shrinkage will ever occur. Not normally recommended. It may be good for a few apps which require constant high heap storage space. Hurts apps which show a varying load. May lead to more fragmentation

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Mark Stack Overflow (MSO)
• Verbosegc will contain the line: <GC(45): mark stack overflow> • Is bad for performance. • Caused by too many objects on the heap, especially deeply nested objects. • Processing MSOs is expensive • No solution is a silver bullet. Things to try: Decrease the heap size! Use concurrent mark (-Xgcpolicy:optavgpause) Re-design the application. Increase GC helper threads (-Xgcthreads<n>)

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High pause times and system activity
In the event of pause times being usually acceptable with the exception of a few "abnormally high" spikes - we are likely to infer that the deviation was a result of some system level activity (heavy paging for ex) outside of the Java process. Consideration: How many clock ticks our process actually spent executing instructions, not time spent waiting for I/O or time spent waiting for a CPU to become available for the process to run on?

Profile system level activity

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Headline Changes in Java 5.0 Garbage Collector

Java Tiger: JSE 5.0
5.0 uses a completely new memory management framework No pinned/dosed objects Stack Maps used to provide a level of indirection between references and heap 5.0 VM never pins arrays, it always makes a copy for the JNI code The GC is Type Accurate New efficient parallel compactor -Xgcpolicy:optavgpause includes concurrent sweeping (as well as marking)

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Garbage collection policies in IBM Java 5.0
• Four policies available:
Optthruput (default)
Mark-sweep algorithm Fastest for many workloads

optavgpause
Concurrent collection and concurrent sweep Small mean pause Throughput impact

gencon
The Generational Hypothesis Fastest for transactional workloads Combines low pause times and high throughput

subpools
Mark-sweep based, but with multiple freelists Avoids allocation contention on many-processor machines Available on all PPC and S390 platforms

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Why different GC Policies?
• Availability of different GC policies gives you increased capabilities. • Best choice depends upon application behaviour and workloads. • Think about throughput, response times & pause times.

Policy
Throughput is the amount of data processed by the application Response time is the latency of the application – how quickly it answers incoming requests Pause time is the amount of time the garbage collector has stopped threads while collecting the heap.

Option ( -Xgcpolicy )
Optthruput (Default)

Description
It is typically used for applications where raw throughput is more important than short GC pauses. The application is stopped each time that garbage is collected. Trades high throughput for shorter GC pauses by performing some of the garbage collection concurrently. The application is paused for shorter times. Handles short lived objects differently than the longer lived.

Optimize for throughput

Optimize for pause times

Optavgpause

Generational Concurrent

gencon

Supool

subpool

Uses same algorithm similar to the default policy but employs allocation strategy suitable for SMPs.

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Runtime Performance Tuning
What policy should I choose for my J9 VM

Policy
optthruput

Considerations
I want my application to run to completion as quickly as possible.

optavgpause

• My application requires good response times to unpredictable events. • A degradation in performance is acceptable as long as GC pause times are reduced. • My application is running very large java heaps. • My application is a GUI application and user response times are important.

gencon

• My application allocates many short lived objects • The java heap space is fragmented • My application is transactions based

Subpool

I have scalability concerns on large multiprocessor machines.
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Memory Management / Garbage Collection
How the IBM J9 Generational Garbage Collector Works

JVM Heap
Nursery/Young Generation Old Generation Permanent Space

IBM J9: -Xmn (-Xmns/-Xmnx) Sun: -XX:NewSize=nn -XX:MaxNewSize=nn -Xmn<size>

IBM J9: -Xmo (-Xmos/-Xmox) Sun: -XX:NewRatio=n

Sun JVM Only: -XX:MaxPermSize=nn

• Minor Collection – takes place only in the young generation, normally done through direct copying very efficient • Major Collection – takes place in the new and old generation and uses the normal mark/sweep (+compact) algorithm
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Nursery/Young Generation
Nursery/Young Generation Survivor Space Allocate Space Allocate Space Survivor Space

• Nursery is split into two spaces (semi-spaces)
Only one contains live objects and is available for allocation Minor collections (Scavenges) move objects between spaces Role of spaces is reversed

• Movement results in implicit compaction

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Sample verbosegc output for gencon

<af type="nursery" id="35" timestamp="Thu Aug 11 21:47:11 2005" intervalms="10730.361"> <minimum requested_bytes="144" /> <time exclusiveaccessms="1.193" /> Allocation request <nursery freebytes="0" totalbytes="1226833920" percent="0" /> details, time it took to <tenured freebytes="68687704" totalbytes="209715200" percent="32" > <soa freebytes="58201944" totalbytes="199229440" percent="29" /> stop all mutator threads. <loa freebytes="10485760" totalbytes="10485760" percent="100" /> </tenured> <gc type="scavenger" id="35" totalid="35" intervalms="10731.054"> <flipped objectcount="1059594" bytes="56898904" /> Heap occupancy <tenured objectcount="12580" bytes="677620" /> details before GC. <refs_cleared soft="0" weak="691" phantom="39" /> <finalization objectsqueued="1216" /> <scavenger tiltratio="90" /> <nursery freebytes="1167543760" totalbytes="1226833920" percent="95" tenureage="14" /> <tenured freebytes="67508056" totalbytes="209715200" percent="32" > <soa freebytes="57022296" totalbytes="199229440" percent="28" /> <loa freebytes="10485760" totalbytes="10485760" percent="100" /> Details about the </tenured> <time totalms="368.309" /> scavenge. </gc> <nursery freebytes="1167541712" totalbytes="1226833920" percent="95" /> <tenured freebytes="67508056" totalbytes="209715200" percent="32" > <soa freebytes="57022296" totalbytes="199229440" percent="28" /> <loa freebytes="10485760" totalbytes="10485760" percent="100" /> </tenured> Heap occupancy <time totalms="377.634" /> </af>

details after GC.

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Diagnostic tool for garbage collector
• Diagnostic tool for optimizing parameters affecting the garbage collector while using IBM JVM • Reads the “verbosegc” output and produces textual and graphical visualizations and related statistics
– – – – –

Frequency of garbage collection cycles Time spent in different phases of garbage collection Quantities of heap memories involved in the process Characteristics of allocation failures Mark Stack Overflows

• Built in parsers for JVM 1.5, 1.4.2 , 1.3.1 & 1.2.2 • Prerequisite – JFreeChart libraries (freely downloadable) • http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/gcdiag

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Screen Shots

Starting the tool and selecting verbosegc input file and appropriate JVM parser

Extract GCCollector.zip Place jfreeChart-0.9.21.jar and jcommon-0.9.6.jar in the lib directory of the GCCollector folder Execute GCCollector.bat (which will spawn a GUI) Select verbosegc file for analysis Select appropriate JVM parser

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Duration of GC Cycles – Graphical View

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Graphical view of heap usage

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Information for specific cycle

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Choosing time range

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Extensible Verbose Tool Kit
Analyzing your verbose GC output

• EVTK: Verbose GC visualizer and analyzer
Available through ISA IBM Support Assistant v3.0.2
https://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/iwm/web/preLogin.do?source=isa

Reduces barrier to understanding verbose output
Visualize GC data to track trends and relationships Analyze results and provide general feedback Extend to consume output related to application Build plug-able analyzers for specific application needs

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Starting the EVTK
In the Tools section of ISA, select the Java product plug-in to display the available tools

Click on the name of a tool to start that tool

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EVTK usage scenarios
• Investigate performance problems
Long periods of pausing or unresponsiveness

• Evaluate your heap size
Check heap occupancy and adjust heap size if needed

• Garbage collection policy tuning
Examine GC characteristics, compare different policies

• Look for memory growth
Heap consumption slowly increasing over time Evaluate the general health of an application

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Extensible Verbose Toolkit overview
• The Extensible Verbose Toolkit (EVTK) is a visualizer for verbose garbage collection output
The tool parses and plots verbose GC output and garbage collection traces (-Xtgc output)

• The tooling framework is extensible, and will be expanded over time to include visualization for other collections of data • The EVTK provides
Raw view of data Line plots to visualize a variety of GC data characteristics Tabulated reports with heap occupancy recommendations View of multiple datasets on a single set of axes Ability to save data as an image (jpeg) or comma separated file (csv)

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Plotting data with the EVTK

Use File > Open to open a new input file Use File > Add to add multiple input files to a single data set for comparison and aggregated display Right-click on the plot and use the context menu to export data

The VGC Data menu allows you to choose what data to display

The Axes panel supports customized units and panand-zoom The Line plot tab contains the data visualization
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Reports and recommendations
• Report contents can be configured using VGC menu options Occupancy recommendations tell you how to adjust heap size for better performance Summary information is generated for each input in the dataset Graphs included for all GC display data • Can export as HTML by rightclicking and using the context menu

The Report tab contains the report for the current dataset

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Types of graphs
• The EVTK has built-in support for over forty different types of graphs
These are configured in the VGC Data menu Options vary depending on the current dataset and the parsers and postprocessors that are enabled • Some of the VGC graph types are:
• Used total heap • Pause times (mark-sweep-compact collections) • Pause times (totals, including exclusive access) • Compact times • Weak references cleared • Soft references cleared • • • • • • • Free tenured heap (after collection) Tenured heap size Tenure age Free LOA (after collection) Free SOA (after collection) Total LOA Total SOA

• Note: Different graph types and a different menu are available for TGC output

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Heap usage and occupancy recommendation
The summary report shows that mean heap occupancy is 98% and that the application is spending over a third of its time doing garbage collection

This graph shows heap usage after garbage collection; it jumps up to around 60M and stays there
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EVTK – Heap Visualization

Heap occupancy

Pause times
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EVTK - Comparison & Advice

Compare runs…

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Performance advisor…

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Java 5 Shared Classes
• Available on all platforms. • Feature enabled using the –Xshareclasses flag. • Static class data caches in shared memory
Shared between all IBM Java VMs All application and bootstrap classes shared Cache persisted beyond lifetime of any JVM, but lost on shutdown/reboot

Provides savings in footprint and start up times.

• Target: Server environments where multiple JVMs exist on the same box. • Multiple sharing strategies
Standard Classloaders (including Application Classloader) exploit this feature when enabled. API to extend Customer Classloaders available.

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Shared Classes – Start up times
Startup Improvements with Shared Classes and AOT

Sharing helps speed up JVM startup 30
25

20
Seco n d s

default

15

-Xshareclasses (Java 5.0)"

10
-Xshareclasses (Java 6.0)

5

0 eclipse 3.2.2 tomcat 5.5 WAS 6.1

Lower is better
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What does real-time mean?
• Real-time = predictability of performance Hard - Violation of timing constraints are hard failures Soft - Timing constraints are simply performance goals Constraints vary in magnitude (microseconds to seconds) Consequences of missing a timing constraint: from service level agreement miss (stock trading) to life in jeopardy (airplanes) Real-fast is not real-time, but Real-slow is not real-good Need a balance between predictability and throughput

• •

• •

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WebSphere Real Time (WRT)
• • 1.0 generally available in August 2006. WRT is a Java runtime providing highly predictable operation Real-time garbage collection (Metronome) Static and dynamic compilation Full support for RTSJ (JSR 1) Java SE 5.0 compliant Built and rigorously tested on a RT Linux OS with IBM Opteron Blades

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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Real-Time Garbage Collection
The Metronome Garbage Collector

• Utilization
Percentage of time dedicated to the application in a given window of time Time
Application Collector 10ms Application receives a minimum percentage of time to run

• Metronome uses a 10ms sliding window to measure utilization
Utilization is user selectable via command line
2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation 61

Visual Performance Analyser
• Eclipse based performance visualization kit – Profile Analyzer – Code Analyzer – Pipeline Analyzer • Profiler Analyzer provides a powerful set of graphical and text-based views that allow users to narrow down performance problems to a particular process, thread, module, symbol, offset, instruction or source line. – Supports time based system profiles • Code Analyzer examines executable files and displays detailed information about functions, basic blocks and assembly instructions. • Pipeline Analyzer displays the pipeline execution of instruction traces. • http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/vpa

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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Profile Analyzer Views
• The following are important views within Profile Analyzer: Basic Blocks Call-Graph Callers/Descendants Compiler Listing Console Counters Database Connections Disassembly/Offsets Disassembly Comparison Java/Classes Hierarchy Profile Comparison Profile Details Profile Resources Resolved Calls Sample Distribution Chart Source Code Symbol Distribution Temporal Profiling

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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Temporal Profiling View

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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Counters : In the Process Hierarchy View ( View Window -> Show View -> Others -> Profile Analyzer -> Counters)

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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Summary
• Take Aways from the Session:
High level overview of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and its key components. Understanding of different Garbage Collection schemas in the Sovereign & J9 Virtual Machines and their impact on JVM Runtime performance. Knowledge about using verbosegc outputs effectively to improve application response times. Introduction to Shared Classes Technology and performance gains. Familiarity with debugging and profiling tools available for JVM and their effective usage.

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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References & Further Reading
• www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-ibmjava2 • developers.sun.com/learning/javaoneonline/2007/pdf/TS2023.pdf • http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/jibmjava4/ • http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/jrtj1/index.html • https://www950.ibm.com/events/IBMImpact/Impact2007/3977.pdf

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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Questions ?

2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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2007 WebSphere Technical Conference (Bangalore, India) © 2007 IBM Corporation

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