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**Winter Quarter 2011-12
**

Juan J. Alonso • Durand 252 • Tel: 3-9954 • email: jjalonso@stanford.edu

PROBLEM SET 4

Due Date: February 17th, 2012, 5pm

Problem 1. Supersonic Thin Airfoil Theory. The main objective of this problem is to understand the eﬀects of angle of attack, thickness, and camber distributions of a supersonic thin airfoil on its performance (lift, drag, and moment coeﬃcients, as well as the location of the center of pressure and the aerodynamic center). Consider a family of supersonic airfoils (for illustration purposes only: you would normally design them diﬀerently) given by the following camber and thickness distributions. The camberline is that of the NACA four-digit series of airfoils that you used in PS1, and is given by the following two parabolas: x 2p − x for 0 < x c c <p p2 ¯ Y (x) = (c−x) x x 1 + c − 2p for p < c < 1, (1−p)2 where is the maximum camber ratio and p is the chordwise location of the maximum camber. The thickness distribution is parabolic and given by: x T (x) = 4τ (c − x), c where τ is the thickness-to-chord ratio. As usual, you can construct the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil by simply adding/subtracting one half the thickness to/from the camberline (vertically: no need to add the thickness normal to the camberline): ¯ + 1 T (x) yu (x) = Y 2 ¯ − 1 T (x). yl (x) = Y 2 Using thin airfoil theory, derive closed-form expressions (using Mathematica or MATLAB’s Symbolic Toolbox is probably a good idea, although it can also be done by hand) for: • The coeﬃcient of lift, Cl , of the airfoil, as a function of , p, τ , and α. • The coeﬃcient of wave drag, Cd , of the airfoil, as a function of , p, τ , and α. • The coeﬃcient of moment about the leading edge, Cmle , of the airfoil, as a function of , p, τ , and α. Use these expressions to compute the location of the center of pressure, xcp , for the family of airfoils. Where is the aerodynamic center located? Is it a function of any of the parameters in this problem ( , p, τ , and α)? Finally, for an airfoil of this family with 1% maximum camber located at the quarter chord, and 2% thickness, please plot the variation of Cl , Cd , xcp , and Cmle as a function of angle of attack 1

the airfoil cannot be a ﬂat plate. 2 . that minimizes the wave drag of the airfoil while satisfying the area constraint? Hint: you may want to quickly review the theory of calculus of variations or. Pointers will be given in lecture on Monday. Assume that we have a supersonic airfoil with no camber and at zero angle of attack in a free stream M∞ = 2. We are interested in thickness distributions that minimize the wave drag of the airfoil.in what you would consider a logical range of α. alternatively. T (x). A0 . review how to use the concept of Lagrange multipliers for constrained optimization. In other words. What is this airfoil’s optimum lift-to-drag ratio and at what α and Cl is it achieved? Problem 2. airfoil A = 0 What is the thickness distribution. T (x). while remaining practical. Optimal Thickness Distribution for a Supersonic Thin Airfoil. The thickness distribution is given by an arbitrary function.0. In order to properly pose this shape optimization problem assume that the area enclosed by the c T (x)dx must be greater than a speciﬁed amount.

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