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FINAL REPORT

(2003-2006)

APPROPRIATE COMPOSTING TECHNOLOGY FOR RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM IN NORMAL AND SALT-AFFECTED SOILS
PAKISTAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION
Grant No. (R&D/P-SSRI/AGRI. 161)

Conducted under

Compiled by

DR. NAZIR HUSSAIN
(Agricultural Chemist / Principal Investigator)

Dr. Ghulam Sarwar Mr. Abdul Rasul Naseem

Government of Punjab, Agricultural Department

Soil Salinity Research Institute, (SSRI)
Pindi Bhattian (Punjab) Pakistan July, 2006

FINAL REPORT
(2003-2006)

APPROPRIATE COMPOSTING TECHNOLOGY FOR RICE-WHEAT SYSTEM IN NORMAL AND SALT-AFFECTED SOILS

Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF) Islamabad, Soil Salinity Research Institute, (SSRI)
Pindi Bhattian (Punjab) Pakistan July, 2006

Ways to Contacts:
DR. NAZIR HUSSAIN
(Agricultural Chemist / Principal Investigator)

Soil Salinity Research Institute, (SSRI) Pindi Bhattian (Punjab) Pakistan Phone No: 0547-531573, 531376 Fax No: 0547-531576 E-mail: alp_project2003@yahoo.com / dr_nazirssri@yahoo.com

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CONTENTS
Sr. No. Titles and subtitles
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Summary Detailed Report Project Title Report Period Introduction Experimental Procedures Results Discussion Conclusions Need for additional research Publications Ph.D. Degrees List of Scientists Bibliography Tables(1-40)

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LIST OF TABLES
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1 2 3

Title of tables
Analysis of Different Organic Materials Used in Various Experiments Original soil analysis of pot and field experiments Nutrient Supplementation to first rice crop (2003) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Nutrient Supplementation to first wheat crop (2003-04) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Nutrient Supplementation to second rice crop (2004) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Nutrient Supplementation to second rice crop (2004) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first rice crop (field experiment) Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first wheat crop (field experiment) Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after second rice crop (field experiment) Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after second wheat crop (field experiment) Nutrient Supplementation to first rice crop (2003) through Compost in Norm Soils (pot experiment) Nutrient Supplementation to first wheat crop (2003-04) through Compost in Normal Soils (pot experiment) Nutrient Supplementation to second rice crop (2004) through Compost in Normal Soils (pot experiment) Nutrient Supplementation to second wheat crop (2004-05) through

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Compost in Normal Soils (pot experiment) 15 Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first rice crop (pot experiment) Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first wheat crop (pot experiment) Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after second rice crop (pot experiment) Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after second wheat crop (pot experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Yield and Yield Parameters of first Rice crop (2003) in Saline Sodic Soil (Field Experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Yield and Yield Parameters of first wheat crop (2003-04) in Saline Sodic Soil (Field Experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Yield and yield Parameters of Second Rice crop (2004) in Saline Sodic Soil (Field Experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Yield and yield Parameters of second wheat crop (2004-05) in Saline Sodic Soil (Field Experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after first Rice crop (Field Experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after first wheat crop(Field Experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after Second Rice crop (Field Experiment) Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after Second wheat crop (Field Experiment) 48

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Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of first rice crop (2003) on normal soil (pot experiment) Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of first wheat crop (2003-04) on normal soil (pot experiment) Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of second rice crop (2004) on normal soil (pot experiment) Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of second wheat crop (2004-05) on normal soil (pot experiment) Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after first rice crop (pot experiment) Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after first wheat crop (pot experiment)

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Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after second rice crop (pot experiment) Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after second wheat crop (pot experiment) Effect of compost on rice nursery (2004) grown in the field for transplantation Effect of compost on rice nursery (2005) grown in the field for transplantation Effect of compost on nutrient concentration of rice nursery (2004) grown in the field for transplantation Effect of compost on nutrient concentration of rice nursery (2005) grown in the field for transplantation Economics parameters of experiment, “Comparative efficiency of chemical fertilizers and compost in normal soil” Economics parameters of experiment, “Reclamation of salt affected soils”

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SUMMARY
The soils of Pakistan are low in organic matter due to which over all fertility status is not higher enough to give the good yield of different crops. Among the causes of low organic matter are high temperature, low rainfall and removal of almost all the crop residues except the roots. The mechanical harvesting and threshing of crops, especially rice and wheat have aggravated the situation. Burning of rice and wheat straw has become a popular practice among farmers. To ensure the good productivity of crops, the organic matter contents have definitely to be raised. But after the introduction of chemical fertilizers, the conventional sources of organic matter like farmyard manure (FYM) and the green manure have almost been left gradually. Resultantly, the organic matter status of Pakistan soils has already reached the bare minimum. The present project was planned and approved by Pakistan Science Foundation to standardize the composting technology and assess its usefulness in enhancing fertility status and reclamation of salt-affected soils resulting in more crop yields. The project was approved for 3 years with a total cost of Rs.3, 75,615/-. Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany collaborated to accomplish this work. Soil Salinity Research Institute implemented this project while the University was playing only the guiding role, if and when needed. Rice and wheat straw were composted successfully in constructed pits of 4x4x4 feet. Chopped material was piled in 5 cm layers alternated with thin layer (2 cm) of farmyard manure and incubated at moisture of 40-50 %. Well-rotten compost was, thus, prepared in 60-70 days. Five experiments on rice as well as wheat were conducted to assess the usefulness of the produced compost. Three experiments were carried out in the field and two in the Wire house. The themes of these experiments were to assess the level of compost with or without chemical fertilizers, comparison of compost with FYM and Sesbania green manure. The efficiency of compost in reclamation of salt-affected soils was also evaluated. The salient results of different experiments are as under:

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2. Comparative efficiency of chemical fertilizers and compost in normal soil (Pot and field experiments)
Maximum plant height, number of fertile tillers, total biomass and grain yield of paddy as well as wheat were significantly increased when chemical fertilizer or compost was added in normal soil. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the addition of 20 t. ha-1 compost while the highest yield of wheat was recorded with the combined application of compost (10 t. ha-1) and chemical fertilizers at the half rates. Soil pH and SAR decreased significantly while ECe was increased slightly. Addition of compost enhanced the organic matter content, available phosphorus and potassium level of the soil.

3. Reclamation of salt affected soils
Compost proved greatly helpful in increasing the yield of rice and wheat crops in saline sodic soils. Plant height, total biomass and grain yield of paddy as well as wheat significantly enhanced when either compost or gypsum was applied. A significant effect of compost alone or its combination with gypsum in decreasing soil pH, ECe and SAR was recorded. Similarly, an increase in organic matter, phosphorus and potassium was noticed in all the treatments when compared with control. The reclamative effect of compost alone or in combination with gypsum was found to be very clear. The salinity parameters reduced significantly and brought within permissible limits.

4. Comparison of different sources of organic material
The yield components (maximum plant height and number of fertile tillers), total biomass and yield of paddy during both the years were maximized when compost was applied in combination with ½ doze chemical fertilizers. Other combinations (Sesbania green manure, FYM alone as well as combination with fertilizer) remained significantly inferior. Soil pH and SAR were decreased

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significantly when different organic materials were applied alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers. An increase in organic matter, available phosphorus and water soluble potassium contents of the soil was noticed after the harvest of four crops in all the treatments when compared with control.

5. Use of compost in rice nursery raising
Average height of rice nursery when measured at the age of transplanting was affected positively with the use of compost and urea fertilizer. The fresh and oven dry weight of rice nursery was also significantly greater in these treatments when compared with control. Chemical analysis of plant samples revealed that addition of compost enhanced the concentration of total phosphorus, total potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper.

Conclusions:
It can be concluded that composting of crop residues in rice-wheat cropping system is very useful practice, which can easily be adopted instead of burning. This will not only ensure high yields but also improve the fertility status of the soil on long term basis. Decreasing the use of chemical fertilizers to half can also decrease the cost of crop production. The compost can also be utilized for reclamation of salt-affected soils in combination with gypsum. These practices are environmental friendly and will help to decrease the pollution.

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3.
i)

DETAILED REPORT Project Title

Appropriate Composting technology for rice wheat system in normal and saltaffected soils.
Three years (June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2006)

ii)

Report Period

iii) Introduction
Pakistan spreads over an area of 79.61 million hectares (M ha), however, only about one-fourth of this area supports the population of 145 million. The country is the sixth biggest nation of the world in terms of population (ANONYMOUS, 2003). According to projections at the present growth rate, population will be 201 million in the year 2010 and the requirement of different commodities will be doubled. The annual growth rate of 1.9 %, forces the over-exploitation of the natural resources of the country (ANONYMOUS, 2005). Land is the major non-renewable resource and faces the biggest threat of degradation. Land resources of the country are degrading at an alarming rate and causing environmental problems. Almost 70 % of the total area of the country falls under arid and semi-arid regions while in irrigated belt salinity is threatening about 5 M ha. Because of continued cultivation, the soils of Pakistan are becoming low and deficient in organic matter contents. According to Nizami and Khan (1989) Pakistani soils exhibit poor aggregate stability and are low in iron and aluminum contents. Out of 33, 7714 samples analyzed in the Punjab, 96% of the samples were in the poor to medium range of organic matter and only 4% exhibited a moderate to adequate level. Micronutrient deficiency such as zinc is widespread in all rainfed areas (Rafique et al., 1990). Cultivation of high yielding crop varieties and multiple cropping is depleting the fertility of soils at a rapid pace. The soils that were once well supplied with available nutrients are now gradually becoming deficient (Zia et al. 1994). A decline of crop yields under continuous cultivation is due to loss of soil organic matter including other factors (Juo et al. 1995). Ponnamperuma (1984) reported an increase of 0.4 t ha-1paddy

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due to rice straw incorporation over burning or removal. This increase was per season and enhanced with time as a result of fertility build up. To ensure the good productivity of crops, the organic matter content has definitely to be increased. Organic matter is regarded as a very important parameter of soil productivity. It has number of important roles to play in soils, both in their physical structure and as a medium for biological activity. Organic matter makes its greatest contribution to soil productivity. It provides nutrients to the soil, improves its water holding capacity, and helps the soil to maintain good tilth and thereby better aeration for germinating seeds and plant root development (Zia et al., 1993). Use of compost can be beneficial to improve organic matter status. Compost is rich source of nutrients with high organic matter content. Physical and chemical properties of soil can be improved by using compost, which will ultimately increase crop yields. Depletion of nutrients and poor organic matter contents of Pakistani soils can only be replenished by applying compost to these soils. So use of compost is the need of the time (Sarwar, 2005). Compost prepared from crop residues, leaves, grass chippings, plant stalks, wines, weeds, twigs and branches are very good alternative which proved useful in many countries of the world. Use of compost has not only been adopted to enhance soil organic matter and enrich it in different nutrients but also to control the environmental pollution from debris. In Pakistan, this field remained ignored and no systematic study was conducted to standardize the composting technology. Raw manure use has often been associated with imbalances in soil fertility (Kuepper, 2003) because it is often rich in specific nutrients like phosphate or potash. In contrast an effective composting process converts waste raw products into humus, which is relatively stable, and chemically active organic fraction found in fertile soils. Good compost is a ‘safe” fertilizer which is low in soluble salts and does not “burn” plants. Smiciklas et al. (2002) reported significantly higher yield of corn due to application of mature compost as compared to raw or same un-composted material.

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Soil salinity and sodicity are among the major constraints of present agriculture in Pakistan. According to estimates 6.6 M ha are affected from salinity/sodicity to various degrees in Pakistan (Khan, 1998). The area affected from slight to moderate problem is 1.83 M ha (Anonymous, 2003) which can be rehabilitated by using compost and other organic materials. Moreno et al. (1996) amended a calcareous soil (pH 8.77) with sewage-sludge compost. Hileman et al. (1980) noted a significant drop in Na level of salt-affected soil after application of compost. Zaka et al. (2003) noticed a significant decrease in ECe, pH and SAR of salt-affected soil (ECe =10.18–13.1 dSm-1, pH = 9.54-9.92 and SAR = 72.2-78.3) due to application of organic amendments which was attributed to the formation of organic acids and resultant mobilization of native Ca. Physical properties of a saline-sodic soil like bulk density, porosity, void ratio, water permeability and hydraulic conductivity were significantly improved when FYM(10tha1)

was applied in combination with chemical amendments (Hussain et. al. 2001). Thus,

application of organic materials including compost can prove very useful in rehabilitation of salt-affected soils to the original potential along with significant improvement in physical conditions. According to the experiments of Sarwar (2005), the grain yield and yield components (plant height, number of fertile tillers and 1000 grain weight) of rice and wheat increased significantly with the application of different organic materials but compost proved the most superior in this regard. The combination of compost with chemical fertilizer further enhanced the biomass and grain yield of both crops. The soil pHs was lowered and SAR decreased due to acidic effect of compost and other organic materials, formation of acids, release of Ca and leaching of Na. These effects were more pronounced in saline sodic soils. There was a slight increase in ECe of normal soil. However, ECe of saline sodic soil decreased due to the leaching of salts as a result of improved soil physical conditions. The available amount of all the major plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and organic matter increased in the soil. Therefore, plant uptake of these nutrients also increased when compost and other organic materials were applied. The effect of combination of compost and chemical fertilizers was also positive. Thus,

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systematic investigations were required to formulate recommendations for the farmers regarding composting of crop residues and application in their soils for the increased and sustainable crop production through improved soil fertility and a decrease in soil salinity/sodicity. Keeping in view the prevailing situation (nominal quantity of organic matter status, low fertility and high salt content in the soils of Pakistan), it was direly needed that the use of organic matter be enhanced. The best alternative is the compost prepared from different waste materials, especially rice and wheat straw in the rice-wheat cropping system. The project, “Appropriate Composting Technology for rice-wheat system in
normal and salt-affected soils”, was planned to standardize the composting technology and

assess its usefulness in enhancing fertility status and reclamation of salt-affected soils resulting in more crop yields. The Pakistan Science Foundation approved this project for 3 years. Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and University of. Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany collaborated to accomplish this work. Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian implemented the Project while the University performed the guiding role only, if and when needed. The specific objectives of this project were as under: -

To standardize composting technologies for different organic material and kitchen waste. To assess the effects of compost on crop yield enhancement and soil fertility improvement. To evaluate the probable impact of compost on reclamation of saltaffected soils. To recommend an economical and practically adoptable technology for dissemination amongst farmers.

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EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
A) Method for Compost production
The hot method of composting was used for production of compost. In this method constructed pits of 1.25x1.25x1.25 meter size (total volume 1.95 m3) were used to accelerate the decomposition process so as to kill most of the weed seeds and pathogens. The residues of crops (rice and wheat) and wastes (tree leaves, flower, wines and grasses) were chopped and piled in the pits. A layer of animal manure 3-5 cm thick was spread on the top of the piled material in order to initiate and enhance the decomposition process. The piled material was kept at different moisture levels (30, 40, 50, 60 & 70 %). The materials were turned weekly. Urea and sugar solutions were sprayed twice. Microbial inoculation (Effective microbes = EM) was also tested. About one ton compost was, thus, prepared before the start of two seasons (Rabi and Kharif).

B.

Use of Compost
The use of compost for nutrient supplementation in rice-wheat cropping

system as well as reclamation of salt-affected soils was investigated after compost preparation. The treatment details of these studies are as under: i). Comparative efficiency of chemical fertilizers and compost

T1 T2

Control Recommended dose of NPK fertilizer (Rice (Wheat N-P-K = 100-70-70 Kg.ha-1) N-P-K = 140-110-70 Kg.ha-1)

T3 T4 T5

Compost @ 20 t ha-1 Half recommended dose of fertilizer + compost @ 10 t ha-1 Compost @ 10 t ha-1 + straight fertilizers so as to make total N, P & K equal to recommended dose (T2)

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This experiment was conducted in wire house as well as field in a permanent layout for two years on rice-wheat cropping system. Yield of crops were recorded at maturity and soil was analyzed for ECe, pHs and SAR.

ii).

Comparison of different sources of organic material
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 Control Sesbania green manure @ 1.0% of soil weight (150 g.pot-1) FYM @ 1.0% soil weight (150 g.pot-1) Compost @ 1.0% of soil weight (150 g.pot-1) Half recommended dose of N, P & K + Sesbania green manure @ 0.5% of soil weight (75 g.pot-1) Half recommended dose of N, P & K + FYM @ 0.5 of soil weight (75 g.pot-1) Half recommended dose of N, P & K + compost @ 0.5 of soil weight (75 g.pot-1) Recommended dose of N, P & K fertilizer Half recommended dose of N, P & K fertilizer

The layout design of this pot experiment was completely randomized with three replications. Rice and Wheat crops data were recorded at maturity and soil was analyzed for ECe, pHs, and SAR continuously for two years.

iii)

Reclamation of salt affected soils
T1 T2 T3 Control Gypsum @ 100% of soil gypsum requirement (3.50 t.ha-1) Compost @ 24 t.ha-1

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T4 T5 T6 T7

Compost @ 24 t.ha-1 + Gypsum @ 100% G.R Compost @ 12 t.ha-1 + Gypsum @ 100% G.R Compost @ 24 t.ha-1 + Gypsum @ 50% G.R Compost @ 12 t.ha-1 + Gypsum @ 50% G.R

Compost and gypsum were applied to a salt-affected soil (Table 2). Tube- well water was applied (3 irrigations) for leaching of salts. Rice and wheat crops were grown in sequence for two years. Crop data were recorded at maturity and soil was analyzed after harvesting of crop. The recorded data were put to statistical analysis.

iv)

Use of compost in rice nursery raising
In order to obtain healthy rice nursery with ample nutrient uptake, the

following experiment was conducted in RBC design with 3 replications for consecutive two years.

T1 T2 T3 T4

Conventional method: Covering the spreaded seed with silt or soil Covering the spreaded seed with compost @ 1000 kg ha-1 Covering the spreaded seed with well rotten farm yard manure @ 1000 kg ha-1 Covering the spreaded seed with soil but application of nitrogen @ 50 kg ha-1 after10-15 days
The uniform quantity of seed was spreaded per sq. feet. Average height,

fresh and oven dry weight of rice nursery was recorded. The samples of rice nursery harvested at the age of 35-40 days were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu concentrations.

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V) A)

RESULTS Composting technology
It was observed that:

Excessive moisture (> 60%) or dryness (moisture less than 40%) delayed the process of compost production by 10-15 days. The maintenance of 40-60% moisture completed the process within 60-70 days. The application of urea @ 1% enhanced the process by 7-10 days The application of microbial inoculum (EM) fastened the process by 10-15 days. One liter of EM (obtained from University of Agriculture, Faisalabad) was applied after its 10 times dilution. The analysis of compost and its comparison with farmyard manure as well as Sesbania green manure indicated that EC & pH of compost was more than Sesbania but lesser than FYM (Table 1). Organic carbon and total N was maximum in compost. However, potash was the minimum in this organic product.

B) 1)
i)

Use of compost Nutrient supplementation
Comparative efficiency of compost and fertilizer
This experiment was conducted for two years in pot as well as field and

results of both these experiments indicated the same trend of improvement in yield and its components as well as soil parameters. The data indicated that maximum plant height, number of fertile tillers, total biomass and grain yield of paddy as well as wheat were significantly increased when chemical fertilizer or compost was added in normal soil (Table 3, 4, 5 & 6). Maximum yield of paddy was recorded with the addition of 20 t. ha-1 compost while the highest yield of wheat was recorded with the combined application of compost (10 t. ha-1) and chemical fertilizers at the half rates (T4). The application of fertilizer alone proved inferior treatment. The results of pot experiment were some what different from the field conditions (Table 11, 12, 13 & 14). The paddy - 17 -

and wheat grain yield was found to be significantly more in treatments of compost alone (T3) or its combination with fertilizer at half rate (T4). However, control remained at the bottom in field as well as pot experiment in respect of paddy and wheat grain yield. The analysis data of field (Table 7, 8, 9 & 10) and pot (Table 15, 16, 17 & 18) experiments indicated that soil pH and SAR decreased significantly while ECe was increased slightly. The differences among various treatments were significant when examined statistically. However, the use of chemical fertilizer alone (T2) remained at par with control for pH and ECe of the soil. The application of compost alone @ 20 t. ha-1 (T3) lowered the soil pH to the maximum level in contrast to the electrical conductivity of the soil that approached the highest value in this treatment. Use of chemical fertilizer alone (T2) remained inferior to compost in this regard. Addition of compost to the soil enhanced the organic matter content, available phosphorus and potassium level in the soil. The above findings were almost similar in soil samples collected after the harvest of rice as well as wheat both in pot and field experiments.

ii)

Reclamation of salt-affected soils
Data (Table 19, 20, 21 & 22) indicated that compost proved greatly helpful in

increasing the yield of rice and wheat crops even in salt-affected soils. Plant height, total biomass and grain yield of paddy as well as wheat significantly enhanced when either compost (T3) or gypsum (T2) was applied. Both of these treatments were superior to control. Combined application of gypsum and compost (T4 & T5) was assessed as the best treatments for paddy yield whereas maximum wheat grain yield of second crop was recorded with the application of gypsum @ 50 % G.R. along with compost @ 24 t. ha-1 (T6). Decreasing the addition (T6 & T7) of gypsum or compost to the half level also decreased the efficiency of these treatments. A significant effect of compost alone or its combination with gypsum in decreasing soil pH, ECe and SAR was recorded (Table 23, 24, 25 & 26). Similarly, an increase in organic matter, phosphorus and potassium was noticed in all the treatments

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when compared with control. The best treatment was combination of gypsum @ 100 GR and compost @ 24 t.ha-1 (T4). After the harvest of rice crop, the salinity parameters were brought almost within the permissible limits. Further soil improvement was observed after the first wheat crop. The pH values became statistically similar in all the treatments except control after rice harvesting but differences still existed in respect of soil SAR. Although, the differences for soil EC among treatments were significant when compared with control but the last four treatments (T4 to T7) were noticed as nonsignificant among themselves after the harvest of rice. The combination of gypsum and compost both at the higher level (T4) remained as the best treatment even at the end of second year of experimentation (after both rice as well as wheat crops). The differences among various treatments for organic matter, phosphorus and potassium also remained significant in soil samples analyzed after four crops.

iii)

Comparison of different sources of organic material
The yield components (maximum plant height and number of fertile tillers),

total biomass and yield of paddy for the both years were found to be maximum when compost was applied in combination with ½ doze chemical fertilizers (Table 27 & 29). Other combinations (Sesbania green manure as well as fertilizer alone remained significantly inferior. Compost alone proved superior to Sesbania green manure and FYM. Control produced the minimum biomass and paddy yield. In case of subsequent wheat, compost alone as well as its combination with chemical fertilizer at the ½ recommended rate was observed as the best treatments (Table 28 & 30). The combined effect of Sesbania and fertilizer was also found to be superior to rest of the treatments. The usefulness of FYM was less than other organic materials. Like the previous experiments, soil pH and SAR were decreased significantly when different organic material were applied alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers (Table 31, 32, 33 & 34) when these parameters were evaluated after rice and wheat harvesting . The highest decrease was recorded in case of compost as compared

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to other organic sources. Chemical fertilizers at recommended or half recommended levels were assessed as the inferior treatments. However, both of these treatments were still better than control in respect of soil chemical characteristics of soil. There was slight increase in EC of the soil with the application of organic amendments. An increase in organic matter, available phosphorus and water soluble potassium contents of the soil was noticed after the harvest of four crops in all the treatments when compared with control. The differences among various treatments remained significant statistically.

iv)

Use of compost in rice nursery raising
It was noted from the data (Table 35 & 36) that average height of rice nursery

when measured at the age of transplanting was affected significantly with the use of compost and urea fertilizer. The fresh and oven dry weight of rice nursery was also significantly greater in these treatments when compared with control. The treatment of FYM proved inferior to compost and urea but remained superior to control. Chemical analysis of plant samples of rice nursery revealed that although highest concentration of total nitrogen was observed in T4 receiving urea fertilizer but treatment of compost (T2) followed it (Table 37 & 38). The concentration of total phosphorus, total potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper was found maximum in T2, followed by T4. The differences among various treatments when compared with control remained significant statistically.

VI

Discussion
The project data collected during pot and field experimentation clearly indicated

that composting of crop residues along with other farm wastes is not only possible but its subsequent application also significantly improved the yields of rice and wheat in normal as well as salt-affected soils. The compost proved superior to Sesbania green manure and farmyard manure in terms of crop yields as well as soil improvement. The

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increase in crop yields occurred mainly due to decrease in soil pH and SAR coupled with improvement in nutrient supplying capacity of soil.

Soil pH:
Soil pH is the single soil characteristic which elucidates an overall picture of the medium for plant growth including nutrient supply trend, fate of added nutrients, salinity/sodicity status and soil aeration, soil mineralogy and ultimate weather conditions of the region. The pH is alkaline in many areas of Pakistan that are included in arid and semi-arid zones. The numerical values are always more than 8.00 even in normal soil while pH of sodic soils may approach 10.00. Hence, a decrease in soil pH due to any land management strategy is always appreciable and result in ultimate conversion of soil medium towards favourable one and net translation into increased yields. Application of compost in particular and other organic materials (FYM and Sesbania green manure) in general reduced the soil pH significantly in pot and field experiments conducted on normal and saline sodic soils. The production of organic acids (amino acid, glycine, cystein and humic acid) during mineralization (amminization, ammonification and nitrification) of organic materials by heterotrophs and autotrophs would have caused a decrease in soil pH. The pH of an acidic soil is controlled by H, Fe and Al ions while that of alkaline soils is driven by Ca and Mg (Brady, 1990) and Na is in controlling position when the soil is sodic as well. The possible reactions resulting a net decrease in pH of the soils can be visualized as under:

-- Ca2+

-- -Mg2+

Micelle

-- Ca2+ -- Ca2+

+ 2H -----H+

Micelle

-- H+ -- Mg2+

+ 2Ca (1)

(Normal alkaline soil)

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The released Ca will increase the Ca concentration of the soil solution resulting in decrease of soil SAR. It may also precipitate as CaCO3 in calcareous soils.

--H+
Micelle

-- Na+ -- Na+ -- Na+ -- Ca2+

+ 2H

---H+ + 2Na (2) Micelle --+ ----Na --Ca2+

(Sodic or Saline-Sodic Soil) The Na ion such released may be leached down into the deep profile because all the sodium salts (Even Na2CO3) are highly soluble.

Electrical conductivity of soil:
Electrical conductivity (EC) is a soil parameter that indicates indirectly the total concentration of soluble salts and is a direct measurement of salinity. Salinity is a problem of arid and semi-arid regions in the world. This is particular problem of irrigated agriculture in such areas. The critical limit of this soil character is 4.0 dS.m-1 above which plants face constraints of water uptake due to physiological unavailability, osmotic effects due to decrease of water potential and restricted nutrient uptake that may be due to specific ion effect. The results of present research investigations regarding ECe indicated two different trends in normal and salt-affected soils. A trend of general increase in EC of normal soil was observed in pot as well as field experiments after rice and wheat crops. Application of organic materials particularly caused an increase of this soil parameter. The decomposition of organic materials releases acids or acid forming compounds which react with the sparingly soluble salts already present in the soil and either convert them into soluble salts or at least increase their solubility. Hence, the EC of soil was increased. e.g., CaCO3 ever present in the soils of arid and

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semi-arid regions may be converted to CaHCO3 or ever to Na2CO3 which are more soluble forms. However, the quantum of increase will depend how much quantity of the acids or acid forming substances was produced which will in turn rely upon the amount of the organic materials applied. The other factors to be taken into consideration are the removal of soluble salts from the soil eco-system. If the physical properties, especially hydraulic conductivity, of the soil are good and the system is open as in case of field experiments, the effect of increase in soil EC will partially be mitigated. However, when the experimental soil was saline sodic, the effect of different treatments on soil EC totally changed. A net decrease in EC of the field soil was observed. The EC of such soils was already beyond the critical limit of 4.0 dS.m-1. The main reason for this decrease in soil EC which can be suggested with logic is the leaching of soluble salts into the lower profile. There are clear reports in the literature (Tandon, 2000) that physical properties (hydraulic conductivity, bulk density and total porosity) of salt-affected soils greatly improved when organic materials in the shape of manure or compost are applied. Physical properties of soil like bulk density, porosity, void ratio, water permeability and hydraulic conductivity were significantly improved when FYM (10 t ha-1) was applied in combination with chemical amendments resulting in enhanced rice and wheat yields in sodic soil (Hussain et al., 2001). Other organic materials like rice straw, wheat straw, rice husk and chopped salt grass also improved these physical properties of a saline sodic soil (Hussain et. al., 1998). Soil organic matter encourages granulation, increases cation exchange capacity (CEC) and is responsible for up to 90 % adsorbing power of the soils.

Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of soil:
Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) is yard stick used to measure the sodicity of a soil. Sodicity is the accumulation of sodium ion in excessive quantities which hinder plant growth directly or through the impairment of physical soil conditions. A clear decrease in SAR of the normal as well as salt-affected soil was recorded in different pot - 23 -

and field experiments after wheat as well as rice crops. Studies of Sarwar (2005) and Zaka et al. (2003) also indicated the same trend of decrease in soil SAR with the use of FYM, rice straw and Sesbania green manure. They attributed this reduction in SAR of the soil with organic materials due to the release of organic acids causing mobilization of native calcium present as CaCO3 in the soil. The values of SAR become shorter either due to an increase in divalent cations (Ca + Mg) or decrease in monovalent cation (Na). The measured values of cations indicated that Na decreased while Ca + Mg increased after the application of different organic materials. The chemical reactions proposed under discussion on soil pH further elaborates how a net increase in Ca + Mg and decrease in Na in the soil solution occurred (Equation 1 & 2). The acid or acid forming substances expelled Na or Ca + Mg from the clay micelle, the hydrogen ion taking their place. Sodium salts being readily water soluble left the soil system and went into the lower depths of soil profile. The divalent cations (Ca + Mg) increased the net concentration of the soil solution. However, a part of these would have also precipitated with carbonates (CO3) and bicarbonates (HCO3) present in the soil.

Soil Organic Matter:
Organic matter is regarded as the ultimate source of nutrients and microbial activity in the soil. It is the deciding factor in soil structure, water holding capacity, infiltration rate, aeration and porosity of the soil. Thus, if only one soil parameter of productivity is to be considered that may be organic matter. During these studies, different sources of organic matter at variable rates were tried for their efficiency. It was observed that every rate of all organic materials resulted in an increase of soil organic matter status in the pot as well as field experiments of normal and salt-affected soils. Compost proved superior to FYM and Sesbania green manure. A combination of compost and chemical fertilizer proved further helpful in increasing the organic matter level of the soil. Similar results are also obtained by earlier workers (Sarwar, 2005;

- 24 -

Smiciklas et al. 2002; Kumazawa, 1984; Sarwar et al. 2003; Ahmad et al. 1996; Parr and Hornick, 1994; Hileman, 1980; Pattanayak et al. 2001; Singh et al. 2001; and Selvakumari et al. 2000). The reason for the increase in organic matter status in all treatments of field and pot experiments is very clear. Application of organic matter resulted in overall increase of the soil organic matter level. The status of organic matter in the soil had a relationship with the quantity applied. Comparatively more biomass production in different treatments also contributed more crop residues to the soil that caused an improvement of organic matter status of the soil.

Available Phosphorus:
Phosphorus is second major element for plant growth. It is an integral part of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP); the two compounds involved in almost all energy transformations in plants. It is also essential part of DNA, which is the seat of genetic inheritance in plants. Perhaps the availability of this nutrient is the most dynamic in the soil. Beside other factors, its availability is controlled by soil pH, clay content, calcareousness and organic matter percentage of the soil. The ideal pH for maximum availability of phosphorus ranges from 6.5 to 7.5. BRADY (1990) represented variable soil pH effects on availability of phosphorus by the following equation: H2O + PO43- (3) H+ (Very alkaline solutions)

H2PO4H+

H2O + HPO42-

(Very acid solutions)

All the experimental soils were alkaline having pH more than 8.0. As described earlier, there was a significant decrease in soil pH of all experimental soils. Hence, an increase in availability of phosphorus was especially observed. An increase in organic matter content of the soil further favoured availability of soil phosphorus. The overall conclusions drawn from these data are that organic materials contributed more than - 25 -

chemical fertilizer in building up the phosphorus status of the soil. The compost proved superior to FYM and Sesbania green manure. When chemical fertilizer containing soluble Ca (H2PO4) 2.H2O is added to the soil, even those of relatively high pH, the Ca (H2PO4) 2.H2O in fertilizer granules attracts water from the soil resulting in the following reaction: CaHPO4.H2O + H3PO4 (4)

Ca (H2PO4) 2.H2O + H2O

But the availability of phosphorus is also affected by the presence of CaCO3 in the calcareous soils. The process indicated in the above equation is reverted and fixation process starts. Then the equation, which demonstrates the reaction, will be as under: Ca3 (PO4) 2 + 2CO2 + 2H2O (5)

Ca (H2PO4) 2.H2O + 2 CaCO3

This equation indicates the process in operation at pH 8.0 or above. Thus, the available phosphorus starts becoming unavailable. When an organic source of nutrition is applied, the bond of phosphorus compounds with CaCO3 is broken and the operation of above equation is either delayed or terminated. Resultantly, phosphorus is kept at higher amounts in the available form. Earlier scientists also investigated the availability of phosphorus in the soil by using various organic materials and their findings supported the above results. According to Parma and Sharma (2002) and Hileman et al. (1980) the available phosphorus status of the soil improved with the use of organic materials in the form of compost and FYM. Pattanayak et al. (2001) noted that the available level of phosphorus in the soil increased with the use of green manures. Similarly, Selvakumari et al. (2000) and Sarwar (2005) observed significant increase in available P content in the soil with the use of organic and inorganic manures over control. The same trend of improvement in availability of phosphorus in the soil was recorded by Verma et al. (2002), Singh et al. (2002) and Swarup and Yaduvanshi (2000). - 26 -

Water Soluble Potassium:
Potassium plays many essential roles in plants. It is an activator of many enzymes responsible for plant processes; energy metabolism, starch synthesis, nitrate reduction and sugar degradation. It helps in regulating the opening and closing of stomata of leaves. In the present studies, water soluble potassium (as assessed after the harvest of rice and wheat crops) increased when compost was applied in combination with chemical fertilizer. This trend was noticeable in normal as well as salt-affected soils. Potash is found in different forms; readily available/water soluble, exchangeable and fixed as part of clay micelle. All the forms are in a balance with each other. A shift in one form triggers similar changes in other forms automatically. When the acid or acids forming compounds are added in the form of organic materials to the soil, these also affect potassium availability. The effect is positive resulting in more availability of K to the plants. The hydrogen ion released from organic materials exchange with K from exchange site or set free from the fixed site of the clay micelle. Thus, the overall status of soil regarding availability of potassium content is improved. The increase observed in different treatments of both studies is thus explainable with this hypothesis. The probable equation proposed for K release will be as under:

-- K+ --- Ca2+ Mg2+
Micelle

--Ca2+ -- K+ + 2H --H+ -- Mg2+
Micelle --H+

+2K

(6)

Research conducted by other scientists proved the above hypothesis. Sarwar (2005), Selvakumari et al. (2000), Swarup and Yaduvanshi (2000), Singh et al. (2001), Khoshgoftarmanesh and Kalbasi (2002), Verma et al. (2002) and Singh et al. (2002) also reported that continuous use of chemical fertilizers, FYM, compost and green manure enhanced the potassium status in the soil. - 27 -

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION of PLANTS:
The chemical composition of plants is a translation of the conditions under which they complete their life cycle fully or a part of it. The chemical composition is a net summary of all the changes either positive or negative, which were faced by the plants. The nutrient uptake is directly or indirectly affected by many factors like total concentration as well as available quantity of different nutrients, root development, aeration, water potential, climatic conditions and other related soil parameters. Beside all these, the presence of a nutrient in available form for the plant has to play the deciding role. The fertility status of Pakistani soils is very low. Application of nutrients in readily available form rapidly enhances the availability of that nutrient in the soil but all is neither taken up by plants nor remain permanently in available form. The dynamic processes are continuously in operation in the soil or accelerated and a major part of the applied nutrients is rapidly converted into unavailable forms. Some fraction of it may be permanently fixed but when organic materials are applied, the overall fertility status of the soil is built up, the total reserve of nutrients is increased and a stage for enhanced availability is set up. The present studies were investigated to evaluate the possibilities of replenishing the nutrient pool in the soil. It was observed that major nutrients uptake by rice nursery was significantly increased when organic matter in different forms (compost and FYM) was applied to the soil. The concentration of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn in rice nursery improved appreciably. Compost proved superior to FYM and chemical fertilizer. The application of chemical fertilizer in the form of urea was better than compost only for the nitrogen but remained inferior for all other nutrients. It has been observed in earlier section on soil parameters that organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of soil significantly enhanced due to different treatments of experiments, especially, when organic matter was added alone or along with chemical fertilizer. This increased availability of N, P and K, that resulted in more uptakes of these nutrients by the plants. The pH of the soil also indicated a positive change i.e. a shift towards neutrality. This positive change enhanced the solubility of - 28 -

different nutrients especially phosphorus in the soil. The form of phosphorus ion may have converted from PO43- to HPO42- or even H2PO- for short periods, which resulted in increased concentration of phosphorus in the plants. Similarly, production of hydrogen ions during decomposition of organic materials would have helped the release of K from exchange site or from the fixed pool. The solubility of many nutrient salts increases in the acidic medium like compost, which may have resulted in more availability of nutrients for the plants. The good physical conditions of the soil resulted from improved relative properties like water holding capacity, infiltration rate, porosity, hydraulic conductivity, bulk density and ability against sudden temperature changes favoured root growth. The more root volume enhanced nutrient uptake. The presence of K in appropriate quantities catalyzed the metabolism processes (activator of dozens of enzymes responsible for plant processes; energy metabolism, starch synthesis, nitrate reduction and sugar degradation). It helps in regulating the opening and closing of stomata of leaves and resulted in higher concentration of other nutrients. The application of organic materials changed the status of secondary elements in the soil. The water soluble forms of Ca + Mg in soil significantly increased which resulted in higher uptake of these two nutrients by the plants. There is always a direct relationship between the soil concentration of nutrients and its quantity taken by the plants. The reasons for more availability of Ca + Mg have already been discussed in soil section. These exchange reactions enhanced due to the release of hydrogen ion from the decomposition of organic materials that resulted in more availability of Ca & Mg for plants. The observations of Mahmood et al. (1983) supported some of the above presented logics. They argued that the phenolic compounds particularly the humic compounds of compost enhanced the uptake of nutrients due to higher nutrient content of the substrates like compost. The solubilization of soil K in the presence of humus matter of compost was regarded as another cause of more nutrient uptake. Kumazawa (1984) reported that immobilization and mineralization of N in the soil

- 29 -

could be regulated by the addition of organic matter to improve N uptake by rice. Similarly, Kumaraswamy (2000) claimed higher uptake of nutrients by plants. Tomar et al. (1984) observed that increased solubility of rock phosphate in calcareous soil due to the application of cattle dung. Tiwari et al. (2000) noticed faster rate of mineralization and greater utilization of nutrients through the use of green manure in combination with chemical fertilizer. Other scientists (Sarwar et al. 2003, Dixit and Gupta 2000, Selvakumari et al. 2000 and Sarwar 2005) also observed increased uptake of N, P and K by various plants when inorganic and organic sources of nutrients in the form of chemical fertilizer, FYM, green manure and compost were applied to the soil. Similarly, the findings of Singh et al. 2002, Pattanayak et al. 2001, Tabassam et al. 2002 and Yaduvanshi, 2001 were again in the same direction of enhanced N, P and K nutrients uptake by plants. Pattanayak et al. (2001) reported that N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake was the highest in the treatments receiving green manuring of

dhancha(Sesbania) with SSP + URP source of phosphorus and the lowest in no green manuring treatment with URP source.

Crop yields:
Result of application of various inorganic and organic amendments, activities of different natural processes taking place in the soil, efficiency of various physical and manual operations as well as physical, chemical and biological changes appear in the form of yield of crops. Thus, yield is the ultimate task of farming for increase in income. The yield and different yield parameters of rice and wheat crops increased significantly with the use of chemical fertilizer alone or in combination with various organic materials applied in the form of Sesbania green manure, FYM and compost in all field and pot experiments. Different yield parameters including maximum plant height, number of fertile tillers plant-1 and total biomass were affected positively in these treatments. The improvement in these parameters of yield contributed towards increase in yield of rice and wheat crops. The use of compost proved superior to FYM and Sesbania green manure when applied alone or in combination with chemical fertilizer. - 30 -

The improvement in grain yields of rice as well as wheat crops followed a sequence of processes. Addition of different organic materials like Sesbania green manure, FYM and compost enhanced the organic matter percentage of the soil that has been regarded a key factor determining soil fertility and productivity. This increase in organic matter content in the soil improved the physical properties (bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, water permeability, total porosity, void ratio and infiltration rate etc.) of the soil. The betterment in physical properties of soil reduced the soil pH as various acids or acid forming compounds were released from the addition of organic materials. This reduction in soil pH increased the availability of soil nutrients for the plants and resultantly more uptake of various nutrients by the plants was noticed. The enhanced uptake of K by rice and wheat improved the metabolic activities in the plants. As a result of all above processes, various yield components (maximum plant height and number of fertile tillers plant-1) of rice as well as wheat crops were positively affected and ultimately these components contributed towards increase in grain yields of these crops. In case of salt-affected soils, the reclamation of these soils occurred and as a result of reclamation process, Na+ salt present on the exchange site leached down and H+ occupied its place lowering soil pH. Hence, better physical conditions for plant growth were created. Moreover, application of different organic materials improved the physical properties of these soils permitting more leaching of excessive salts. Findings of other scientists also favoured these hypotheses. Sarwar (2005) observed that grain yield and yield components (plant height, number of fertile tillers and 1000 grain weight) of rice and wheat increased significantly with the application of different organic materials but compost proved the most superior in this regard. The combination of compost with chemical fertilizer further enhanced the biomass and grain yield of both crops. Zaka et al. (2003) observed significant increase in rice and wheat yields with the use of FYM, rice straw and Sesbania. Singh et al. (2001) noted an increase in grain yield of rice with the use of FYM and green manure in combination with mineral fertilizer. They also observed the significant residual effect of FYM and

- 31 -

green manure on the grain yield of wheat. Tiwari et al. (2001) claimed that to achieve the highest grain production of rice under saline sodic soil conditions, the use of FYM will be more profitable probably by increasing the cynobacterial N fixation. They also noted the carry over effect of FYM applied to the rice crop on the grain production of succeeding wheat crop.

Economic Feasibility:
Economic feasibility is the final yard stick of an evolved technology if it is to be recommended to the farmers for adoptation. Technically good techniques are found sometimes economically unfeasible that becomes a major constraint for its popularization. Hence, economics of field experiments was also calculated. Data indicated that 42.7% more net income was realized when compost alone was applied in the rice-wheat cropping system (Table 39). The increase in net income over control was 9.3% for chemical fertilizer application at the recommended doses. The combination of fertilizer and compost at half levels economically proved a little bit inferior to compost alone with a net increase of 41.7 % over control. The benefit cost ratio (BCR) was computed as 0.36, 3.54, and 2.19 for fertilizer, compost and combination. Application of compost at half level + NPK to bring the nutrients equal to recommended dose of fertilizer revealed maximum BCR but decreased the net income that remained 28.9 %. In reclamation experiment the conventional application of gypsum indicated maximum BCR of 23.2 followed by combination of gypsum (100 % requirement) and compost (12 t ha-1). However, maximum net income was obtained with full doses of gypsum and compost where increase over control was 138.01 % (Table 40). The most feasible treatment adjudged through combined parameters of increase in net income and CBR was combined application of gypsum (100% requirement) and compost (12 t ha-1).

- 32 -

vii)

Conclusions

The following conclusions can be drawn from the results obtained from different experimentations. 1. Chopped crop residues of rice wheat cropping system can be composted easily by piling in cemented pits of 4 x 4 x 4 feet with layers of animal manure and incubating the material at 40-60 % moisture. Excessive dryness or moisture delayed/stopped the process of decomposition. 2. Combined application of compost (10 t.ha-1) and chemical fertilizer at the half recommended level proved as the best strategy to obtain maximum yield of rice and wheat crops. Thus, farmers can save half of the expenditure incurred on application of chemical fertilizer. 3. Combined addition of gypsum and compost increased the yield of crops even in salt-affected soils. However, compost alone could also suffice. 4. An enhancement in fertility status of normal and salt affected soils and a decrease in salinity/sodicity parameters are possible due to application of compost. Compost clearly decreased soil pH and SAR. 5. An improvement in rice nursery was observed when compost (1000 Kg.ha-1) was applied instead of covering the seeds with soil or Farm Yard Manure (conventional method).Urea application, coupled with conventional method, also proved useful.

Evolution of Technologies
Three technologies were evolved through research studies of this project. 1. Technology for composting of crop and plant residues at small scale level under prevailing conditions of rice zone. 2. Technology for partial substitution of chemical fertilizers through compost in rice-wheat system for sustained crop production in normal soil. The technology envisages application of fertilizers at half level with combination of compost prepared from crop residues available at farm. The technology will help in reduction of cost of production and solving pollution problem occurring through burning of rice and wheat straw after harvesting of crops with combine harvester.

- 33 -

3. Alternate Technology for reclamation of saline sodic soils through which application of gypsum can be substituted partially or fully through compost prepared from crop residues from normal soil. This technology can help the farmers for reclamation of salt-affected soils with the material available at farm and they have neither to spend money on conventional amendments nor to transport it to the farm gate. These technologies will be got registered as patents with the concerned organization. In this regard help of PSF will be sought.

Recommendations for the farmers
1. The residues of rice-wheat cropping system should not be burnt in the fields after harvesting but be composted through chopping, piling in pits and incubation. 2. The prepared compost should be used for substitution of fertilizer to the half level for crop production in normal soil. This will help in cutting cost of inputs to almost half. 3. The combined application of gypsum and compost both at half levels can help in reclamation and restoration of fertility saline sodic soils.

Recommendations for future research
Following are the fields in which further research is required:

1. Usefulness and probabilities of using compost in other cropping systems like wheat- summer fodder, cotton-wheat and sugarcane etc. 2. Benefits of compost when applied in lesser quantities. 3. Uses of composts for high valued crops like vegetables, fruit and nursery plants. 4. Evolution of technology for large scale production of compost at farm level. 5. Development of mechanical devices for large scale production of compost at farm level.

- 34 -

B)

Publications
The results of the experiments conducted under this project are very much encouraging and are of farmers’ interest. These are under process for publication in different journals of international repute.

C)

Ph.D. degrees
Dr. Ghulam Sarwar (Co-P.I./P.I.) conducted major part of his Ph.D. research at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian , as part of this project, under supervision of Dr. Nazir Hussain (Ex. P.I.) and Professor Dr. Schmeisky. He defended his thesis at University of Kassel, Germany and was awarded Ph.D. Degree by that university. Copy of his dissertation is being submitted separately.

D)

List of Scientists
1) Dr. Nazir Hussain, Agricultural Chemist / Ex. Principal Investigator (From 01-06-2003 to 20-03-2005) of the Project, Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian. 2) Dr. Ghulam Sarwar, Research Officer / Ex. P.I. (From 21-03-2005 to 31-08-2005) of the Project, Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian. 3) Mr. Abdul Rasul Naseem, Assistant Agri. Chemist / P.I. of the Project (From 01-09-2005 to 31-05-2006), Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian. 4) Professor Dr. H. Schmeisky, Chairman, Department of Landscape Ecology and Nature Conservation, University Of Kassel, Germany (Ph.D. Supervisor). 5) Mr. Nisar Mahmood-ul-Hassan, Director, Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian. 6) Mr. Amar Iqbal Saqab, Assistant Research Officer, Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian.

- 35 -

Dr. Nazir Hussain Agri. Chemist/ Principal Investigator

Mr. Abdul Rasul Naseem Assistant Agri. Chemist / Co-PI

Dr. Ghulam Sarwar Research Officer / Co-PI

Mr. Khalid Mahmood Assistant Agri. Chemist

Mr. Muhammad Anwar Assistant Agri. Chemist

- 36 -

E)

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anonymous, 2003. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan,2002-2003. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Livestock (Economic Wing), Islamabad. Anonymous, 2005. Statistical Pocket Book. Federal Bureau of Statistics. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Livestock (Economic Wing), 5-SLIC Building, F-6/4, Blue Area, Islamabad, Pakistan Brady, N.C.2005. Nature and properties of soil (13th Edition). Macmillan Publishing Co. New York. Hileman, L.H., G.Crossland and E. Burr. 1980. Performance of compost in reclaiming salt-damaged soils. Mimeograph Series. 279. pp. 19. Agri. Ata. Exp. Division of Agri., Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Hussain, N., G. Hassan, A. Ghafoor and G. Sarwar. 1988. Biomelioration of sandy clay loam saline sodic soil. Proc. Sixth Int. Micro Irrigation Cong. March 8-10, 1998, Florida, USA. PP. 293-300. Hussain, N., G.Hassan, M.Arshadullah and F.Mujeeb 2001. Evaluation of amendments for the improvement of physical properties of sodic soil. Int. J. Agric. Biology. 3:219-322. Juo, A.S.R., A.Dabiri and K.Fram zluebbers 1995. Acidification of a kaolinitic Alfisol under continuous cropping and nitrogen fertilization in West Africa. Plant and Soil. 171: 245-253. Kuepper, G. 2003. Manures for organic crop production. Http; www.attra.mcat.org/attra-pub/PDF/manures.pdf. Fundamentals of Sustainable Agriculture. Appropriate technology transfer for rural areas (ATTRA).U.S.A. Khan, G.S. 1998. Soil salinity/sodicity status in Pakistan. Soil Survey of Pakistan, Lahore. pp.19.

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Moreno, J.L., C. Garcia, T. Hernandez and J.A. Pascual. 1996. Transference of heavy metals from calcareous soils amended with sewagesludge compost to barley plants. Bioresource-technol.55 (3): pp.251-258. The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, afsic @ nal.usda.gov http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC pubs/qb 970/-htm. June 9,1997. Niazmi, M.I. and N.A. Khan, 1989. The effect of soil crust on yield of maize crop on three soil families under rainfed condition. Pak. J. Soil Science 4(1-2): 25-29. Ponnamperuma, F.N.1984. Straw as a source of nutrients for wetland rice. Organic matter and rice IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines. Pp.117135. Qazilbash, A.A. 2002. Population growth and its impact on environment. Population & Environment Bulletin. Vol.2. PP: 4. Rafique, E., A. Rashid and M. Yasin, 1990. Extent and severity of micronutrient status in soils of Jhelum district. (unpublished) Nat. Agric. Res. Centre., Islamabad, Pakistan. Sarwar, G. 2005. Use of compost for crop production in Pakistan. Okologie und Umweltsicherung Germany, ISSN (0943-7223) 26/2005 pp:1~203 Singh, M., V.P. Singh and K.S. Reddy. 2001. Effect of Integrated use of fertilizer nitrogen and Farmyard manure or Green manure on transformation of N, K and S and productivity of rice-wheat system on a vertisol. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, Vol. 49. No. 3. pp 430435. Smiciklas,K.D.,P.M.Walker and T.R.Kelley. 2002. Utilization of compost (Food, paper, landscape and manure) in row crop production website reference ww:/E:/utilization % 20 conipost % 20 (Food %20 paper, %20 lands scape % 20 M and % 20l : Department of Agriculture and Health Sciences, Illinois State University, USA. Tandon, H.L.S. 2000. Fertilizer, Organic Manures, Recyclable Wastes and Biofertilisers.–components of integrated plant nutrition– Fertiliser

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Development and Consultation Organisation. 204-204 A Bhanot Corner, 12 Pamposh Enclave New Delhi-110048, India. Tiwari, V.N., H. Singh and R.M. Upadhyay. 2001. Effect of Biocides, Organic Manure and Blue Green Algae on yield and yield attributing characteristics of rice and soil productivity under sodic soil conditions. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 49(2) : 332-336. Zaka, M.A., F. Mujeeb, G. arwar, N.M. Hassan and G. Hassan. 2003. Agromelioration of saline sodic soils. Online J., Bio.Sci.3 (3):329-334. Zia, M. S. 1993. Soil Fertility Evaluation and Management for Flooded lowland-rice soils of Pakistan. Ph. D. Dissertation Kyoto University, Japan. Zia, M. S., M.I. Nizami and M. Salim. 1994. Problems of soil degradation in Pakistan. In. The collection of land degradation data. Report of the expert consultation on the Asian network on problem soils. RAPA Publication: 1994/3. Regional office for Asia and the Pacific. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Bangkok. Thailand. Pp. 179-202.

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Table 1: Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Analysis of Different Organic Materials Used in Various Experiments Determinations Unit dS.m-1 % % % g.kg-1 g.kg-1 g.kg-1 g.kg-1 FYM 8.05 12.78 40.36 23.47 1.80 13.04 12.4 4.7 14.3 7.0 Sesbania 6.60 5.92 46.86 27.24 1.90 14.33 15.5 5.3 40.5 11.5 Compost 7.67 6.31 48.15 28.00 2.10 13.33 18.6 6.6 13.3 14.8

pH (1:1) EC (1:1) Organic matter Organic carbon Total nitrogen C/N ratio Calcium Magnesium Potassium Available Phosphorus Chlorides

11

g.kg-1

4.48

4.21

5.35

- 40 -

Table 2:
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Original Soil Analysis of Pot and Field Experiments
Determinations Unit % dS.m-1 m molc L-1 m molc L-1 m molc L-1 m molc L-1 m molc L-1 m molc L-1 (m mol L-1)1/2 t.acre-1 % % % % % % Normal soil 38.95 8.15 2.35 Nil 7.00 4.15 12.35 8.60 14.90 7.20 Nil 60.00 20.00 20.00 Sandy clay loam 0.20 0.35 0.02 Salt-affected (saline sodic) soil 42.29 8.63 4.95 2.50 13.50 14.00 19.50 9.05 40.45 18.99 3.50 56.00 20.00 24.00 Sandy clay loam 0.12 0.20 0.01

Saturation percentage pHs ECe CO3-2 HCO3-1 Cl-1 SO4-2 Ca+2 + Mg+2 Na+1 SAR Gypsum requirement (GR) Sand Silt Clay Textural class Organic carbon Organic matter Total Nitrogen

- 41 -

Table 3 Treatments T1-Control

Nutrient Supplementation to first rice crop (2003) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 117.3 124.0 129.3 121.3 No. of fertile tillers/plant. 20.0 D 25.3 B 29.3 A 23.3 C Total biomass (t ha-1) 12.54 C 14.22 AB 14.92 A 13.75 AB Grain yield (t ha-1) 2.41 C 3.00 A 3.09 A 2.89 A

T2-Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4- ½ Recommended dose of NPK + -1 Compost @ 10 t.ha T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer Table 4 Treatments Control Recommended dose of NPK Compost @ 20 t ha-1 ½ Recommended dose of NPK +Compost @ 10 t ha-1 Compost @ 10 t ha-1 + Straight fertilizer

119.5 NS

22.8 C

13.00 B

2.65 B

Nutrient Supplementation to first wheat crop (2003-04) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 99.25 106.75 107.50 108.25 No. of fertile tillers/plant. 6.35 C 7.28 B 8.05 A 8.93 A Total biomass (t ha-1) 7.95 C 11.24 B 12.63 AB 14.25 A Grain yield (t ha-1) 2.69 C 4.20 B 4.59 AB 5.00 A

106.25 NS

7.50 B

11.33 B

4.27 B

- 42 -

Table 5

Nutrient Supplementation to second rice crop (2004) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 115.5 B 118.5 B 125.8 A 119.0 B No. of fertile tillers/plant. 18.25 C 20.50 BC 27.50 A 22. 75 B Total biomass (t ha-1) 7.94 E 9.75 D 13.80 A 13.50 B Paddy yield (t ha-1) 1.82 E 2.80 D 3.79 A 3.63 B

Treatments T1-Control T2-Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4- ½ Recommended dose of NPK + -1 Compost @ 10 t.ha T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer

117.5 B

19.00 C

12.22 C

2.99 C

Table 6

Nutrient Supplementation to second wheat crop (2004-05) through Compost in Normal Soils (field experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 98.00 C 104.25 B 106.50 AB 107.00 A No. of fertile tillers/plant. 6.15 C 6.82 BC 7.75 AB 8.50 A Total biomass (t ha-1) 8.31 E 11.31 D 12.31 B 12.89 A Wheat Grain yield (t ha-1) 2.66 E 3.47 D 3.90 B 4.76 A

Treatments T1-Control T2-Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4- ½ Recommended dose of NPK + -1 Compost @ 10 t.ha T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer

104.50 B

7.20 ABC

11.55 C

3.63 C

- 43 -

Table 7

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first rice crop (field experiment) Treatments pHs ECe SAR Organic Phosphor Potash (dSm-1) matter us (ppm) (%) (ppm) T1-Control 8.17 A 2.43 14.85 A 0.49 C 4.14 D 19.0 D T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer Table 8 8.15 A 2.55 13.42 A 0.74 B 9.85 C 36.0 C

7.71 B 7.85 B

3.64 3.48

3.71 B 4.05 B

1.16 A 1.06 A

13.73 B 16.60 A

55.0 A 44.0 B

7.95 B

3.63 NS

5.86 B

0.94 A

9.40 C

38.0 C

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first wheat crop (field experiment) Treatments pHs ECe Organic Phospho Potash SAR (dSm-1) (ppm) matter rus (%) (ppm) T1-Control 8.20 A 2.50 13.46 A 0.61 B 5.53 C 22.0 C T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer 8.18 A 2.52 13.25 A 0.83 B 10.56 B 39.0 BC

7.65 B 7.85 B

3.72 3.19

4.52 B 5.19 B

1.23 A 1.17 A

16.24 A 17.76 A

61.0 A 53.0 A

7.86 B

3.26 NS

5.62 B

0.97 A

12.35 B

42.0 AB

- 44 -

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient second rice crop (field experiment) Treatments pHs ECe SAR Organic (dSm-1) matter (%) T1-Control 8.21 A 2.54 C 14.25 A 0.55 C T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer Table 10 8.19 A 2.58 C 13.75 B 0.85 B

Table 9

supplementation after Phospho rus (ppm) 5.30 E 10.00 D Potash (ppm) 20.0 D 38.5 C

7.68 C 7.97 B

3.70 A 3.50 AB

5.50 E 6.35 D

1.20 A 1.10 A

14.55 B 16.90 A

58.6 A 50.0 B

8.00 B

3.45 B

7.20 BC

0.95 B

10.75 C

37.0 C

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after second wheat crop (field experiment) Treatments pHs ECe SAR Organic Phospho Potash (dSm-1) matter rus (ppm) (%) (ppm) T1-Control 8.25 A 2.46 D 14.10 A 0.53 D 5.26 E 18.60 E T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer 8.17 B 2.53 CD 13.70 B 0.80 C 10.19 D 37.30 D

7.92 D 8.03 C

3.18 A 2.76 B

6.15 E 7.20 D

1.18 A 1.11 A

15.00 B 16.35 A

57.70 A 51.50 B

8.03 C

2.63 C

8.35 C

0.93 B

11.45 C

40.25 C

- 45 -

Table 11

Nutrient Supplementation to first rice crop (2003) through Compost in Normal Soils (pot experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 83.75 99.25 101.75 103.25 No. of fertile tillers/plant. 3.17 C 9.67 B 16.92 A 18.83 A Total biomass (g pot-1) 17.87 C 48.74 B 76.16 A 91.46 A Paddy yield (g pot-1) 3.59 D 11.63 C 18.53 A 20.86 A

Treatments T1-Control T2-Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4- ½ Recommended dose of NPK + -1 Compost @ 10 t.ha T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 +Straight fertilizer Table 12

100.00 NS

16.33 A

64.00 AB

14.96 B

Nutrient Supplementation to first wheat crop (2003-04) through Compost in Normal Soils (pot experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 69.50 73.0 76.50 80.25 No. of fertile tillers/plant. 3.50 B 4.91 A 5.75 A 6.66 A Total biomass (g pot-1) 22.04 B 43.85 A 48.17 A 52.28 A Wheat Grain yield (g pot-1) 11.15 B 25.26 A 29.25 A 30.90 A

Treatments T1-Control T2-Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4- ½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer

75.25 NS

5.08 A

47.71 A

27.95 A

- 46 -

Table 13

Nutrient Supplementation to second rice crop (2004) through Compost in Normal Soils (pot experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 85.5 D 98.5 B 103.0 A 104.5 A No. of fertile tillers/plant. 4.0 D 10.5 C 15.5 B 17.8 A Total biomass (g pot-1) 15.17 E 44.87 D 70.66 B 94.56 A Paddy yield (g pot-1) 3.25 E 10.85 D 16.80 B 21.00 A

Treatments T1-Control T2-Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4- ½ Recommended dose of NPK + -1 Compost @ 10 t.ha T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer Table 14

92.5 C

14.0 B

60.35 C

13.65 C

Nutrient Supplementation to second wheat crop (2004-05) through Compost in Normal Soils (pot experiment) Max. Plant Height (cm) 81.00 93.50 102.25 102.75 No. of fertile tillers/plant. 2.75 C 9.25 B 15.50 A 16.25 A Total biomass (g pot-1) 15.95 E 42.49 D 78.20 B 88.35 A Wheat Grain yield (g pot-1) 3.21 E 10.36 D 18.75 B 19.65 A

Treatments T1-Control T2-Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4- ½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer

99.50 NS

14.75 A

60.64 C

12.78 C

- 47 -

Table 15

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first rice crop (pot experiment) Treatments pHs ECe SAR Organic Phospho Potash (dSm-1) matter rus (ppm) (%) (ppm) T1-Control 8.42 A 2.62 13.80 0.21 C 5.26 C 22.0 C T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer Table 16 8.37 B 2.60 12.35 0.43 B 12.76 B 33.0 B

8.26 B 8.32 B

3.05 2.85

10.42 11.76

0.89 A 0.74 A

16.29 A 10.35 B

58.0 A 54.0 A

8.35 B

2.91 NS

11.90 NS

0.76 A

10.20 B

53.0 A

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after first wheat crop (pot experiment) ECe Treatments pHs SAR Organic Phosphor Potash -1) (dSm matter us (ppm) (%) (ppm) T1-Control 8.45 A 2.60 13.65 A 0.25 C 5.52 C 24.0 C T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer 8.23 B 2.57 10.09 B 0.51 B 14.67 AB 35.0 B

8.09 B 8.18 B

3.26 2.89

7.65 B 8.25 B

0.93 A 0.86 A

18.12 A 11.62 B

62.0 A 60.0 A

8.20 B

2.75 NS

8.87 B

0.80 A

11.05 B

58.0 A

- 48 -

Table 17

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after second rice crop (pot experiment) Treatments pHs ECe SAR Organic Phospho Potash (dSm-1) matter rus (ppm) (%) (ppm) T1-Control 8.44 A 2.65 C 14.00 A 0.24 C 5.35 D 23.0 E T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer Table 18 8.40 A 2.61 C 13.25 B 0.45 B 13.20 B 36.0 D

8.20 C 8.28 BC

3.18 A 3.00 AB

8.48 E 10.50 D

0.90 A 0.88 A

17.00 A 10.65 C

60.0 A 55.0 B

8.30 B

2.85 B

11.00 C

0.75 A

10.70 C

50.0 C

Effect of compost on soil properties in nutrient supplementation after second wheat crop (pot experiment) ECe Treatments pHs SAR Organic Phospho Potash -1) (dSm matter rus (ppm) (%) (ppm) T1-Control 8.44 A 2.65 C 14.15 A 0.23 D 5.30 D 23.8 E T2Recommended dose of NPK T3-Compost @ 20 t.ha-1 T4-½ Recommended dose of NPK + Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 T5-Compost @ 10 t.ha-1 + Straight fertilizer 8.40 AB 2.61 C 13.53 A 0.41 C 14.00 B 37.0 D

8.24 C 8.36 B

3.12 A 2.92 B

11.24 C 12.62 B

0.87 A 0.82 A

17.30 A 11.00 C

58.7 A 56.4 B

8.34 B

2.95 B

12.00 BC

0.73 B

11.21 C

54.2 C

- 49 -

Table-19:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum Parameters of first Rice crop (2003) in Saline Experiment) Treatments Maximum plant Total biomass height (cm) (t. ha-1) 84.50 D 93.50 C 98.50 C 125.50 A 122.00 A 114.25 B 100.00 C 6.80 F 11.60 E 12.45 E 20.31 A 18.78 B 14.95 C 13.83 D

on Yield and Yield Sodic Soil (Field Rice grain yield (t. ha-1) 1.00 D 2.26 C 2.53 C 3.85 A 3.60 A 3.09 B 2.58 C

T1-Control T2-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. +Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1

Table 20:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Yield and Yield Parameters of first wheat crop (2003-04) in Saline Sodic Soil (Field Experiment) Treatments Maximum No. of fertile Total Grain yield plant height tillers / plant biomass of of wheat (t.ha-1) (cm) wheat T1-Control 99.25 B 6.35 D 7.37 E 2.13 E T2-Gypsum @ 100 % 105.00 AB 7.78 C 9.97 CD 3.28 D G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha- 107.50 A 7.90 C 8.62 DE 3.38 CD
1

T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. +Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R.+ Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1

110.50 A 108.25 A 108.00 A 106.00 A

9.35 A 8.35 BC 8.93 AB 8.05 C

11.96 AB 11.23 ABC 12.89 A 10.07 BCD

4.75 A 4.08 B 3.91 B 3.77 BC

- 50 -

Table 21:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Yield and yield Parameters of Second Rice crop (2004) in Saline Sodic Soil (Field Experiment)
Maximum plant height (cm) 87.00 G 97.75 F 105.50 E 137.50 A 128.25 B 120.50 C 110.50 D Total biomass (t. ha-1) 7.41 D 14.47 C 15.22 B 16.87 A 16.71 A 16.38 A 15.53 B Paddy yield (t. ha-1) 1.38 D 4.13 C 4.36 C 5.46 A 5.35 A 4.97 AB 4.46 BC

Treatments T1-Control T2-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. +Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 Table 22:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Yield and yield Parameters of second wheat crop (2004-05) in Saline Sodic Soil (Field Experiment)
Maximum plant height (cm) 97.69 D 103.00 C 104.00 BC 107.90 A 105.00 B 105.50 B 103.50 C Total biomass (t. ha-1) 5.13 F 6.36 E 6.60 E 9.36 B 8.61 C 10.04 A 7.89 D Wheat grain yield (t. ha-1) 1.28 G 1.65 F 1.98 E 2.76 B 2.57 C 3.78 A 2.22 D

Treatments T1-Control T2-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. +Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1

- 51 -

Table 23:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after first Rice crop (Field Experiment)

Treatments
T1-Control

pHs
8.80

(dS m-1)

ECe

SAR
(mmol. L-1)1/2

Organic matter (%)
0.55 C

Phospho rus (ppm)
4.72 C

Potash (ppm)
29.0 C

6.85 A

32.8 A

T2-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. +Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1

8.40

4.62 B

16.8 B

0.70 B

13.04 B

40.0 B

8.30

4.05 C

13.4 CD

0.88 A

16.18 AB

56.0 A

8.20

3.91 C

10.3 E

0.99 A

27.55 A

72.0 A

8.30

4.15 C

12.5 D

0.86 A

18.35 AB

45.0 B

8.40

4.10 C

14.3 C

0.92 A

21.18 A

60.0 A

8.20 N.S.

3.85 C

14.9 C

0.80 AB

13.51 B

43.0 B

- 52 -

Table 24:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after first wheat (Field Experiment)

Treatments pHs

ECe

(dS.m-1)

SAR

(mmol.L1)1/2

Organic matter (%)
0.65 C 0.73 C 1.05 AB 1.30 A

Phospho rus (ppm)
6.04 C 17.21 B 23.58 A 31.39 A

Potash (ppm)
33.0 E 45.0 DE 63.0 BC 77.0 A

T1-Control T2-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1

8.65 A 8.29 BC 8.20 D 8.06 E

6.39 A 3.97 B 3.94 B 1.76 C

22.63 A 12.47 B 11.53 B 9.54 B

8.19 D

1.89 C

11.07 B

1.14 AB

22.65 A

50.0 CD

8.32 B

3.71 B

10.62 B

1.13 AB

26.30 A

69.0 B

8.23 CD

3.57 B

11.29 B

0.96 B

16.66 B

48.0 D

- 53 -

Table 25:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after Second Rice crop (Field Experiment)

Treatments
T1-Control T2-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. +Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1

pHs
8.75 A 8.44 B 8.36 B 8.25 B

(dS.

ECe

m-1)

(mmol. L-1)1/2

SAR

Organic matter (%)
0.53 D 0.74 C 0.85 BC 1.00 A

Phosph orus (ppm)
4.29 G 12.84 F 16.35 D 26.75 A

Potash (ppm)
30.0 E 41.5 D 54.6 B 70.8 A

6.73 A 4.50 B 4.14 C 4.00 C

32.0 A 16.2 B 13.8 C 11.5 D

8.33 B

4.10 C

13.0 CD

0.84 BC

17.50 C

47.2 C

8.42 B

4.05 C

14.6 C

0.95 AB

20.45 B

58.6 B

8.35 B

3.92 C

13.8 C

0.78 C

14.20 E

45.5 CD

- 54 -

Table 26:

Effect of Different Levels of Compost and Gypsum on Chemical Properties of Saline Sodic Soil after Second wheat crop (Field Experiment)

Treatments
T1-Control T2-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. T3-Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T4-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. +Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T5-Gypsum @ 100 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1 T6-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 24 t ha-1 T7-Gypsum @ 50 % G.R. + Compost @ 12 t ha-1

pHs
8.71 A 8.46 B 8.34 C 8.22 D

(dS. m-1)

ECe

(mmol. L-1)1/2

SAR

6.35 A 3.88 B 3.75 B 2.45 D

25.15 A 14.50 B 12.42 D 10.48 E

Organic matter (%) 0.56 D 0.75 C 0.89 BC 1.10 A

Phospho rus (ppm) 4.40 F 12.97 E 17.00 C 27.15 A

Potash (ppm) 31.5 F 43.0 E 55.0 C 72.0 A

8.30 C

2.91 C

13.71 BC

0.90 BC

18.00 C

48.10 D

8.32 C

2.52 D

12.95 CD

1.00 AB

21.10 B

59.0 B

8.37 C

2.39 D

13.50 BC

0.82 C

14.60 D

46.3 D

- 55 -

Table 27:

Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of first rice crop (2003) on normal soil (pot experiment) Maximum No. of plant height fertile (cm) tillers / plant 91.25 E 4.50 G 95.50 D 6.50 F Total biomass / pot (gm) 21.18 I 36.90 H Rice grain yield / pot (gm) 5.71 G 9.18 F

Treatments T1- Control T2- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T3- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8- Rec. NPK fertilizer T9- Half rec. NPK fertilizer

96.50 D 102.00 BC 100.50 C

6.17 F 8.50 E 18.33 B

39.84 G 63.43 E 69.06 D

9.57 F 15.48 D 16.23 D

100.50 C

16.75 C

80.23 C

18.32 C

105.50 A

21.08 A

120.56 A

23.63 A

103.25 B 100.25 C

9.33 E 10.92 D

100.75 B 42.09 F

21.75 B 11.45 E

- 56 -

Table 28:

Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of first wheat crop (2003-04) on normal soil (pot experiment) Maximum plant height (cm) 67.50 70.25 No. of fertile tillers/plant 3.55 D 3.85 CD Total biomass/pot (g) 21.19 C 40.25 B Wheat grain yield/pot (g) 11.00 D 21.26 C

Treatments T1- Control T2- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T3- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8- Rec. NPK fertilizer T9- Half rec. NPK fertilizer

70.00

4.00 CD

35.50 B

20.41 C

73.25 75.20

5.00 ABC 6.20 A

45.75 AB 48.00A

28.59 A 28.60 A

75.00

6.00 AB

38.75 B

23.25 BC

78.00

6.15 A

48.50 A

27.16 A

72.50 71.00 NS

4.80 BC 4.67 CD

44.00 AB 40.00 B

22.00 B 20.25 C

- 57 -

Table 29:

Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of second rice crop (2004) on normal soil (pot experiment) Maximum plant height (cm) 58.25 E 87.25 D No. of fertile tillers / plant 12.7 E 17.7 D Total biomass (g pot-1) 30.2 H 59.5 G Paddy yield (g pot-1) 7.5 G 14.0 F

Treatments T1-Control T2-Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T3-Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4-Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5-Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6-Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7-Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8-Rec. NPK fertilizer T9-Half rec. NPK fertilizer

93.00 C

17.7 D

59.8 G

14.5 F

103.00 AB 102.50 AB

18.7 BC 18.7 BC

75.5 E 110.4 D

18.2 D 22.0 C

102.00 AB

19.3 B

115.0 C

22.5 C

106.25 A

20.3 A

145.6 A

35.4 A

100.00 B 98.75 B

18.0 CD 17.3 D

125.7 B 70.0 F

30.5 B 16.8 E

- 58 -

Table 30:

Effect of compost and other organic materials on yield and yield parameters of second wheat crop (2004-05) on normal soil (pot experiment) Maximum plant height (cm) 65.00 B 68.50 AB No. of fertile tillers / plant 3.25 C 3.70 C Total biomass (g pot-1) 19.25 H 36.50 F Wheat grain yield (g pot-1) 9.50 G 20.25 D

Treatments T1-Control T2-Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T3-Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4-Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5-Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6-Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7-Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8-Rec. NPK fertilizer T9-Half rec. NPK fertilizer

69.00 AB

3.85 C

32.00 G

18.75 E

71.75 AB 74.00 AB

4.65 B 5.90 A

41.75 C 43.50 B

25.00 A 24.25 B

73.50 AB

5.75 A

36.50 F

21.50 C

75.25 A

5.80 A

45.00 A

25.25 A

71.00 AB 70.50 AB

4.60 B 4.50 B

40.75 D 37.25 E

20.15 D 18.20 F

- 59 -

Table 31: Treatments T1- Control T2- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight

Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after first rice crop (pot experiment) pHs 8.49 A 8.40 B ECe (dS. m-1) 2.46 D 2.52 D
(mmol. L1)1/2

SAR

12.66 A 10.28 B

Organic matter (%) 0.19 C 0.66 A

Phosphor us (ppm) 5.18 E 9.40 D

Potash (ppm) 21.0 C 34.0 B

T3- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8- Rec. NPK fertilizer T9- Half rec. NPK fertilizer

8.33 B

2.80 C

8.12 C

0.68 A

9.81 D

39.0 B

8.15 C

2.76 C

6.34 D

0.73 A

10.96 CD

45.0 B

8.39 B

2.46 D

10.07 B

0.75 A

15.37 AB

54.0 A

8.32 B

2.90 BC

10.16 B

0.76 A

18.73 A

55.0 A

8.19 C

2.71 C

6.13 D

0.81 A

19.45 A

62.0 A

8.05 D

3.01 AB

4.00 E

0.41 B

14.40 BC

36.0 B

8.02 D

3.18 A

4.79 DE

0.28 BC

8.85 DE

28.0 BC

- 60 -

Table 32: Treatments T1- Control

Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after first wheat crop (pot experiment) pHs 8.50 A 8.21 B ECe (dS m-1) 2.50 2.72
(mmol. L-1)1/2

SAR

13.25 A 10.00 BC

Organic matter (%) 0.23 B 0.85 A

Phosphor us (ppm) 5.56 C 10.65 B

Potash (ppm) 22.0 E 37.0 CD

T2- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T3- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8- Rec. NPK fertilizer T9- Half rec. NPK fertilizer

8.23 B

2.85

8.87 C

0.90 A

11.25 B

40.0 BC

7.85 C

3.00

5.45 D

0.80 A

16.48 A

48.0 B

8.19 B

2.75

10.10 BC

0.89 A

20.60 A

57.0 A

8.20 B

2.87

9.00 C

0.92 A

21.50 A

58.0 A

7.86 C

3.05

5.70 D

0.86 A

15.25 B

65.0 A

8.45 A 8.46 A

2.67 2.60 NS

11.19 AB 12.00 AB

0.47 B 0.35 B

9.30 B 6.78 C

38.0 CD 31.0 D

- 61 -

Table 33: Treatments T1- Control

Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after second rice crop (pot experiment) pHs 8.50 A 8.45 AB ECe (dS. m-1) 2.48 C 2.55 BC
(mmol. L1)1/2

SAR

13.0 A 11.2 B

Organic matter (%) 0.20 E 0.60 C

Phosphor us (ppm) 5.2 G 9.5 F

Potash (ppm) 20.0 F 33.0 E

T2- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T3- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5- Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6- Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7- Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8- Rec. NPK fertilizer T9- Half rec. NPK fertilizer

8.36 AB

2.75 A

10.8 B

0.65 C

9.7 F

40.0 D

8.14 C

2.80 A

8.5 D

0.75 B

11.4 E

48.0 C

8.44 AB

2.50 C

9.6 C

0.78 B

15.5 C

52.0 BC

8.30 B

2.67 AB

9.0 CD

0.80 B

18.2 B

57.0 B

8.10 C

2.74 A

6.7 E

0.89 A

20.0 A

65.0 A

8.40 AB 8.44 AB

2.45 C 2.44 C

12.5 A 12.8 A

0.37 D 0.25 E

14.1 D 9.0 F

35.0 DE 30.0 E

- 62 -

Table 34:

Effect of compost and other organic materials on chemical characteristics of normal soil after second wheat crop (pot experiment) Treatments pHs ECe SAR Organic Phosphor Potash (mmol. L-1)1/2 (dS m-1) matter us (ppm) (%) (ppm)
T1-Control T2-Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T3Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight T4-Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight T5-Green manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T6Farmyard manure @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T7-Compost @ 1.0 % soil weight + rec. ½ fertilizer T8-Rec. NPK fertilizer T9-Half rec. NPK fertilizer 8.52 A 8.32 C 2.55 G 2.78 DEF 13.75 A 11.25 C 0.22 G 0.64 E 5.32 H 9.59 G 20.5 I 35.0 G

8.35 BC

2.93 CD

9.15 E

0.70 D

10.00 F

41.0 E

8.00 D

3.10 AB

6.50 G

0.79 C

11.82 E

50.0 D

8.25 C

2.90 CDE

10.80 CD

0.81 BC

16.35 C

52.5 C

8.30 C

3.00 BC

10.45 D

0.85 AB

18.80 B

57.3 B

8.05 D

3.19 A

7.10 F

0.90 A

21.00 A

66.0 A

8.47 AB

2.76 EF

12.20 B

0.40 F

15.08 D

36.8 F

8.49 A

2.64 FG

12.45 B

0.27 G

9.50 G

30.0 H

- 63 -

Table 35:

Effect of compost on rice nursery (2004) grown in the field for transplantation
Average height (cm)of rice nursery plants
26.33 B

Treatments
T1- Conventional method covering the spreaded seed with silt or soil T2- Covering the spreaded seed with compost @ 1000 Kg.ha-1 T3- Covering the spreaded seed with well rotten FYM @ 1000 Kg.ha-1 T4- Covering the spreaded seed with soil but application of nitrogen @ 50 Kg.ha-1 after 10-15 days

Fresh weight (g)of rice nursery/m2
424.53 B

Oven dry weight (g)of rice nursery/m2
84.58 B

28.33 A

604.73 A

125.67 A

26.33 B

380.97 C

88.35 B

27.67 AB

429.50 B

91.10 B

Table 36:

Effect of compost on rice nursery (2005) grown in the field for transplantation
Average height (cm)of rice nursery plants
24.33 B

Treatments
T1- Conventional method covering the spreaded seed with silt or soil T2- Covering the spreaded seed with compost @ 1000 Kg.ha-1 T3- Covering the spreaded seed with well rotten FYM @ 1000 Kg.ha-1 T4- Covering the spreaded seed with soil but application of nitrogen @ 50 Kg.ha-1 after 10-15 days

Fresh weight (g)of rice nursery/m2
384.70 C

Oven dry weight (g)of rice nursery/m2
79.63 D

30.00 A

528.38 A

104.24 A

25.67 B

413.21 C

84.45 C

29.33 A

468.70 B

86.99 B

- 64 -

Table 37:
Treatments T1Convention al method covering the spreaded seed with silt or soil T2Covering the spreaded seed with compost @ 1000 Kg.ha1

Effect of compost on nutrient concentration of rice nursery (2004) grown in the field for transplantation
Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Total Potassium (%) Calcium Magnesium Zinc Copper

(ppm)

0.98 D

0.1196 B

1.345 C

0.220 D

0.408 D

50.0 B

56.67 C

1.38 B

0.1541 A

1.696 A

0.490 A

0.590 A

66.67 A

80.0 A

T3Covering the spreaded seed with well rotten FYM @ 1000 Kg.ha1

1.15 C

0.1333 AB

1.462 B

0.273 C

0.493 C

56.67 B

70.0 B

T4Covering the spreaded seed with soil but application of nitrogen @ 50 Kg.ha1 after 10-15 days

1.50 A

0.1396 AB

1.604 A

0.402 B

0.529 B

50.0 B

60.0 C

- 65 -

Table 38:
Treatments T1Convention al method covering the spreaded seed with silt or soil T2Covering the spreaded seed with compost @ 1000 Kg.ha1

Effect of compost on nutrient concentration of rice nursery (2005) grown in the field for transplantation
Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Total Potassium (%) Calcium Magnesiu m Zinc Copper

(ppm)

1.12 C

0.1365 C

1.279 C

0.194 D

0.288 C

56.67

56.67 B

1.43 AB

0.1676 A

1.671 A

0.354 A

0.486 A

63.33

70.00 A

T3Covering the spreaded seed with well rotten FYM @ 1000 Kg.ha1

1.30 B

0.1439 BC

1.387 BC

0.232 C

0.374 B

60.00

70.00 A

T4Covering the spreaded seed with soil but application of nitrogen @ 50 Kg.ha1 after 10-15 days

1.55 A

0.1570 AB

1.487 B

0.284 B

0.458 A

60.00 N.S.

60.00 B

- 66 -

Table 39:

Economics parameters of experiment, “Comparative efficiency of chemical fertilizers and compost in normal soil” T1
---

#
1 2
a b c d 3 a b c d

Parameters

T2
43080

T3
20000

T4
31540

T5
13400

Variable cost of treatments Yield:
Rice grains Rice straw Wheat grains Wheat straw Income: Rice grains Rice straw Wheat grains Wheat straw

4.23 16.25 5.35 10.19 52875 24375 55506 32730 165486 165486 -------

5.8 17.17 7.67 14.88 72500 27255 79576 44640 223971 180891 15405 9.3 0.36

6.88 21.84 8.49 16.45 86000 32760 88084 49350 256194 236194 70708 42.7 3.54

6.52 20.73 9.76 17.38 81500 31095 101260 52140 265995 234455 68969 41.7 2.19

5.64 19.58 7.90 14.98 70500 29370 81962 44940 226772 213372 47886 28.9 3.57

4 5 6 7 8

Gross Income
Net Income Net Income over control Percent increase over control Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)

- 67 -

Table 40:

Economics parameters of experiment, “Reclamation of salt affected soils” T1
---

#
1 2
a b c d 3 a b c d

Parameters

T2
3500

T3
12000

T4
15500

T5
9500

T6
13750

T7
7750

Variable cost of treatments Yield:
Rice grains Rice straw Wheat grains Wheat straw Income: Rice grains Rice straw Wheat grains Wheat straw

2.38 11.83 3.41 9.09 29750 17745 35379 27270 110144 110144 -------

6.40 19.68 4.93 11.40 80000 29520 51149 34200 194869 191369 81225 73.74 23.21

6.90 20.78 5.36 9.86 86250 31170 55610 29580 202880 190880 80736 73.30 6.73

9.32 27.87 7.51 13.81 116500 41805 77916 41430 277651 262151 152007 138.01 9.81

8.96 26.54 6.65 13.19 112000 39810 68994 39570 260374 250874 140730 127.77 14.81

8.06 23.28 7.69 15.24 100750 34920 79784 45720 261174 247424 137280 124.64 9.98

7.04 22.32 5.99 11.97 88000 33480 62146 35910 219536 211786 101624 92.26 13.11

4 5 6 7 8

Gross Income
Net Income Net Income over control Percent increase over control Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)

- 68 -