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Group: Danial Mushtaq 49542 Ismail Patel 52056 Sheehan Fernandes 49935

ABSTRACT

During the lab, we were asked to carry out four experiments. First, we found the resistance of 5 different resistors by their color codes and compared it with their actual values, measured with the help of an Ohmmeter. We also set up a resistive network on a circuit board and measured its equivavalent resistance. In the next experiment, we took the current readings across a single resistor at different voltage values, i.e. from 2-20 Volts and verified if the resistor obeys Ohms law. Later, we replaced the resistor with a filament lamp and by carrying out a similar procedure, we studied the effect of temperature on resistance. Lastly, we set up another circuit with 5 different resistors, arranged in both parallel and series combination, in order to verify the Kirchoffs rules for Current and Voltage.

Experiment 1

Resistance measurement Procedure

Randomly select five resistors from the set of resistors on the circuit board. Record in Table 1 the color code, nominal (indicated) value and tolerance of each resistor. Measure the actual resistance of each resistor using the Ohmmeter set to function. Record the values in table 1. Compute the percent error (PE) between the actual (measured) value and the nominal value for each resistor. PE= (measured-nominal)*100%/nominal Obsevations Resistor Color Code Nominal Value % Tolerance Measured Value Percentage Error (PE) R1

Green, Red, Brown, Gold

R2

Yellow, Purple, Brown, Gold

R3

Red, Red, Red, Gold

R4

Blue, Grey, Brown, Gold

R5

Brown, Black, Red, Gold

Are all resistors within the tolerance? Yes, all the resistors are within the tolerance of +/- 5%

Resistive Network

Circuit Diagram

R1

R2

R3

b

Procedure Connect R1 in series with the parallel combination of R2 and R3 to build the resistive network in figure 1. Measure the equivalent resistance between a and b with the ohmmeter, and calculate the equivalent resistance using the nominal value of each resistor Calculations Req (Measured) = 1192 Req (Calculated) = 1207 Q) Are the two values the same? Explain the causes for any disparity? A) No, the two values are not the same. Percentage Difference = |{(1207-1192)/[(1207+1192)/2]}x 100| = 1.25 % They have a percentage difference of 1.25 %. This can be due to resistance of the wires of measuring instrument and the tolerance value of each resistor which is +/- 5%

A

0-20 V

Procedure Choose one of the resistors i.e. 680 and build the circuit in figure 2. Adjust the power supply to vary the resistor voltage as given in table 2 and measure the current in the circuit for each voltage.. Compute the resistance for each set of voltage and current values using ohms law and record the values in the third row of table 2 , then compute the average value. Plot the resistor voltage (VR) versus the resistor current (IR) and determine the resistance from the slope of the straight line. Now measure the actual resistance of the resistor using the ohmmeter and compare the nominal, calculated and measured values of resistance.

Calculations VR(V) IR(mA) R=VR/IR 2 2.94 680.3 4 5.88 680.3 6 8.88 675.7 8 11.83 676.2 10 14.85 673.4 12 17.76 675.7 14 20.75 674.7 16 23.87 670.3 18 20 26.80 29.96 671.6 667.6

R (average) = 674.6

Voltage vs Current

25 y = 667.65x + 0.0825 20 Voltage(V) 15 10 5 0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 Current(A) Series1 Linear (Series1)

Now measure the actual resistance of the resistor using the ohmmeter and compare the nominal, calculated and measured values of resistance. R (Ohmmeter) = 681 We believe that the measured value is most accurate. Comparing this value to the other two values: Percentage Difference between measured value and nominal value = |{(681-680)/[(681+680)/2]}x 100| =0.15%

Percentage Difference between measured value and calculated value: = |{(681-667)/[(681+667)/2]}x 100| =2.1% What conclusion regarding the voltage to current relationship can you draw from your measurements? The voltage vs. current graph is linear and passes through the origin as the y intercept value is very close to 0 (0.0825) This means that that the graph shows a directly proportional relationship between Voltage and Current, and hence, the resistor obeys Ohms law.

Part 3: Temperature Effect on Resistance Replace the resistor in the above circuit by a lamp filament. Adjust the power supply to each of the voltages listed in table 3. Measure and record the lamp current for each voltage. Compute and record the filament resistance of the lamp for each set of voltage and current values recorded in table 3.

Results V (V) I (mA) R=V/I 2 11.11 180 4 16.72 239 6 21.20 283 8 25.08 319 10 28.58 350 12 31.85 377 14 34.76 403 16 37.47 427 18 40.10 449 20 42.70 468

Based on your measurements, as the filament voltage increases, does the resistance of the filament increase? What do you conclude? As the voltage and current passing through of the filament increases the temperature increases. This temperature rise increases the resistance of the filament. This is due to the fact that the thermal vibrations in the filament increases causing electron scattering therefore more collisions will take place, slowing down the electron flow.

25 20 15

Voltage(V)

10

Series1

Is the relationship linear or nonlinear? It is a non- linear relation. This proves the light bulb does not obey ohms law. It is a non ohmic material

+ V5 -

I5 + V1 -

R5 + I3 + V2 V3 -

I1 IS VS

R1

R3

I2 R2

I4 R4

+ V4 -

Procedure Build the circuit shown in figure 3 on the circuit board using the following resistors: R1=820 R2=470 R3=1 k R4=2.2 k R5=680 . Adjust the power supply to 15 V and connect it to the circuit as indicated. Use the multimeter to measure each of the voltages and currents listed in table 4. Record the values with correct polarity (sign) in the table. Make sure to connect the ammeter such that the measured current flows into the positive terminal of the ammeter.

Results Voltage [V] DMM Current [mA] DMM Vs 51.51 IS 51.12 V1 1..1 I1 56.0. V2 ..16 I2 -51.53 V3 -...3 I3 -...2 V4 2.13 I4 1.10 V5 1... I5 0.1.

Based on above results; is Kirchhoffs Voltage Law confirmed? Yes, the Kirchhoffs voltage law is confirmed. Using measured currents: Is I1 + I5 = IS? I1 + I5 = Is 10.73mA + 7.86mA = 18.59mA = Is I3+I5 = I4 3.39mA + 7.86mA = 4.47mA = I4 Is Kirchhoffs Current Law confirmed? Yes, Kirchhoffs Current Law is confirmed. Calculate the power supplied or absorbed by Vs, R2 and R3? PVs = Is x Vs 18.59mA x 15.18v = 282mW (Supplied) PR2 = I22 x R2 (-14.12 x 10-3)2 x 470 = 93.7mW (Absorbed) PR3 = I32 x R3 (-3.39 x 10-3)2 x 1000 = 11.50mW (Supplied)

Is I1 + I2 = I3?

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