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NON LINEAR STATIC ANALYSIS PROCEDURES When to apply: Whenever the linear analysis is not applicable due to D/C

for one or more components exceed a value of 2.0 and there is structural irregularity present i.e. in-plane irregularity, outof-plane irregularity, severe weak storey irregularity and severe torsional strength irregularity etc., non linear procedures must be adopted for analysis purposes The non linear static procedures, NSP, are applicable only when the effect of the higher modes is not significant, because NSP cannot account for the changes in the dynamic response as the structure degrades in stiffness or account for higher mode effect. However, if the NSP is adopted for analyzing a structural system that has significant higher mode effects the nonlinear dynamic procedure is also employed for verification purposes. THE HIGHER MODE EFFECT To determine whether the higher mode effects in a structural system are significant or not the following procedure is adopted 1. A modal response spectrum analysis shall be performed for the structure using sufficient modes to capture 90% mass participation. 2. Another modal response spectrum analysis is performed but this time only considering the first mode participation. 3. The higher mode effects are considered significant If the shear for any storey resulting from the former modal analysis i.e. step 1etc, exceeds 130% of the corresponding storey shear considering only the first mode response.

PRIMARY ELEMENTS AND COMPONENTS Elements and components that provide capacity of the structure to resist collapse during a seismic action induced by the ground motion in any direction are classified as primary. Although damage to the primary elements and some degradation of their stiffness may be permitted to occur, the overall function of these elements in resisting structural collapse should not be compromised. SECONDARY ELEMENTS AND COMPONENTS Elements and components that does not contribute significantly or reliably in resisting earthquake effects due to low lateral stiffness, strength or flexibility e.g. exterior cladding or interior partitions and similarly the interaction of the floor framing systems and columns (though can add some stiffness but that effect neglected when proportioning buildings shear walls) in shear wall buildings design etc. However, the ability of the secondary elements and components to support gravity loads under the maximum induced deformations must be preserved.

FORCE AND DEFORMATION CONTROLLED ACTIONS This classification is explained below with the help of figure 1

TYPE 1 The type 1 curve depicted in figure 1 is representative of the ductile behavior. Primary elements and components actions having e / g > 2 are classified as deformation controlled, otherwise shall be classified as force controlled. Secondary element and components actions are classified as deformation controlled no matter whatever is the e / g value. TYPE 2 The type 2 curve depicted in figure is representative of the ductile behavior. All primary and secondary element and component actions depicting such behavior are classified deformation controlled actions if e / g > = 2, otherwise are classified force controlled actions. TYPE 3 The Type 3 curve depicted in figure is representative of a brittle or non-ductile behavior where there is an elastic range (point 0 to point 1 on the curve) followed by loss of strength and loss of ability to support gravity loads beyond point 1. Primary and secondary component actions displaying Type 3 behavior shall be classified as force-controlled.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERION 1. Acceptance criteria for the primary components exhibiting type 1 behavior are typically within point 0 to 2. While that for secondary components exhibiting type 1 behavior will be within any of the performance ranges. 2. Acceptance criteria those exhibiting type 2 behaviors will be within elastic or plastic ranges, depending on performance level. 3. Acceptance criteria for those exhibiting type 3 behavior will always be within elastic ranges. GENERALIZED COMPONENT FORCE DEFORMATION RELATIONS FOR DEPICTING MODELLING AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERION

FIGURE 2

In Figure 2, the yield strength of the component, QY, will vary because of inherent variability in the material strength comprising the individual elements as well as differences in workmanship and physical condition. EXPECTED STRENGTH, QCE: When evaluating behavior of the deformation controlled actions, expected strength should be used instead of yield strength, QY. The expected strength is defined as the statistical mean value of yield strengths for a population of similar components and includes consideration of strain hardening and plastic section development. The material properties to be used in computing the expected strength shall be based on the mean values of the tested material properties such material properties are called the expected material properties. LOWER BOUND STRENGTH, QCL: When evaluating the behavior of the force controlled actions the lower bound estimate of the component strength, QY, should be used. The lower bound strength is defined as the statistical mean minus one standard deviation of the yield strengths for a population of similar components. The material properties to be used in computing lower bound strength shall be based on the mean values of the tested material properties minus one standard deviation such material properties are called nominal or lower bound material properties.