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Nastran

A Rip-Roarin’ Review of Rigid Elements

**RBEs and MPCs • Not necessarily “rigid” elements
**

– Working Definition:

The motion of a DOF is dependent on the motion of at least one other DOF

Slide 2

Motion at one GRID drives another • Simple Translation

**X motion of Green Grid drives X motion of Red Grid
**

Slide 3

Motion at one GRID drives another • Simple Rotation Rotation of Green Grid drives X translation and Z rotation of Red Grid Slide 4 .

not elastic relationship Not dictated by stiffness. Independent DOFs Stiffness/mass/loads at dependent DOF transferred to independent DOF(s) Slide 5 .RBEs and MPCs The motion of a DOF is dependent on the motion of at least one other DOF • • • • • • Displacement. mass. or force Linear relationship Small displacement theory Dependent v.

Small Displacement Theory & Rotations • Small displacement theory: sin() = tan() = cos() = 1 Y TxB • For Rz @ A RzB = RzA= TxB = (-)*LAB TyB = 0 B - A X Slide 6 .

& User-input based • User-input based – MPC Slide 7 .Typical “Rigid” Elements in MSC.Nastran • Geometry-based – RBAR – RBE2 – RBE3 } Really-rigid “rigid” elements • Geometry.

Common Geometry-Based Rigid Elements • RBAR – Rigid Bar with six DOF at each end • RBE2 – Rigid body with independent DOF at one GRID. and dependent DOF at an arbitrary number of GRIDs. Slide 8 .

The RBAR • The RBAR is a rigid link between two GRID points Slide 9 .

but this is rare – The independent DOFs must be capable of describing the rigid body motion of the element RBAR RBAR EID 535 GA 1 GB 2 CNA CNB 123456 CMA CMB 123456 Slide 10 .The RBAR B – Most common to have all the dependent DOFs at one GRID. and all the independent DOFs at A the other – Can mix/match dependent DOF between the GRIDs.

RBAR Example: Fastener • Use of RBAR to “weld” two parts of a model together: RBAR RBAR EID 535 B GA 1 GB 2 CNA CNB 123456 CMA CMB 123456 A Slide 11 .

RBAR Example: Pin-Joint • Use of RBAR to form pin-jointed attachment RBAR RBAR EID 535 B GA 1 GB 2 CNA CNB 123456 CMA CMB 123 A Slide 12 .

The RBE2 • One independent GRID (all 6 DOF) • Multiple dependent GRID/DOFs Slide 13 .

RBE2 Example • Rigidly “weld” multiple GRIDs to one other GRID: RBE2 RBE2 EID 99 GN CM GM1 GM2 GM3 GM4 GM5 101 123456 1 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 101 Slide 14 .

RBE2 Example RBE2 EID RBE2 99 GN CM GM1 GM2 GM3 GM4 GM5 101 123456 1 2 3 4 • Note: No relative motion between GRIDs 1-4 ! 3 – No deformation of element(s) between these GRIDs 101 4 1 2 Slide 15 .

Common RBE2/RBAR Uses • RBE2 or RBAR between 2 GRIDs – “Weld” 2 different parts together • 6DOF connection – “Bolt” 2 different parts together • 3DOF connection • RBE2 – “Spider” or “wagon wheel” connections – Large mass/base-drive connection Slide 16 .

RBE3 Elements • Motion at a dependent GRID is the weighted average of the motion(s) at a set of master (independent) GRIDs – NOT a “rigid” element – IS an interpolation element – Does not add stiffness to the structure (if used correctly) Slide 17 .

RBE3 Description Slide 18 .

SUPORTed or be dependent on other RBE/MPC elements Slide 19 .RBE3 Description • By default. OMITted. the reference grid DOF will be the dependent DOF • Number of dependent DOF is equal to the number of DOF on the REFC field • Dependent DOF cannot be SPC’d.

3 * U99 Slide 20 .RBE3 Description • UM fields can be used to move the dependent DOF away from the reference grid – For Example (in 1-D): U99 = (U1 + U2 + U3) / 3 3 * U99 = U1 + U2 + U3 -U1 = + U2 + U3 .

RBE3 Is Not Rigid! • RBE3 vs. RBE2 enforces beam theory (plane sections remain planar) RBE3 RBE2 Slide 21 . RBE2 – RBE3 allows warping and 3D effects – In this example.

RBE3: How it Works? • Forces/moments applied at reference grid are distributed to the master grids in same manner as classical bolt pattern analysis – Step 1: Applied loads are transferred to the CG of the weighted grid group using an equivalent Force/Moment – Step 2: Applied loads at CG transferred to master grids according to each grid’s weighting factor Slide 22 .

RBE3: How it Works? • Step 1: Transform force/moment at reference grid to equivalent force/moment at weighted CG of master grids. FA CG Reference Grid FCG MA CG MCG e FCG=FA MCG=MA+FA*e Slide 23 .

RBE3: How it Works? • Step 2: Move loads at CG to master grids according to their weighting values. – Force at CG divided amongst master grids according to weighting factors Wi – Moment at CG mapped as equivalent force couples on master grids according to weighting factors Wi Slide 24 .

.. Forces derived from force at CG: Fif = FCG{Wi/ Wi} Plus Forces derived from moment at CG: Fim = {McgWiri/(W1r12+W2r22+W3r32)} Slide 25 .RBE3: How it Works? • Step 2: Continued… FCG F1m CG MCG F2m F3 m Total force at each master node is sum of.

RBE3: How it Works? • Masses on reference grid are smeared to the master grids similar to how forces are distributed – Mass is distributed to the master grids according to their weighting factors – Motion of reference mass results in inertial force that gets transferred to master grids – Reference node inertial force is distributed in same manner as when static force is applied to the reference grid. Slide 26 .

Example 1 • RBE3 distribution of loads when force at reference grid at CG passes through CG of master grids Slide 27 .

Example 1: Force Through CG • Simply supported beam – 10 elements. 11 nodes numbered 1 through 11 • 100 LB. Force in negative Y on reference grid 99 Slide 28 .

Example 1: Force Through CG • Load through CG with uniform weighting factors results in uniform load distribution Slide 29 .

the x rotation DOF is added so that master grids can determine all 6 rigid body motions. otherwise RBE3 would be singular Slide 30 .Example 1: Force Through CG • Comments… – Since master grids are co-linear.

Example 2 • How does the RBE3 distribute loads when force on reference grid does not pass through CG of master grids? Slide 31 .

Example 2: Load not through CG • The resulting force distribution is not intuitively obvious – Note forces in the opposite direction on the left side of the beam. Upward loads on left side of beam result from moment caused by movement of applied load to the CG of master grids. Slide 32 .

Slide 33 .Example 3 • Use of weighting factors to generate realistic load distribution: 100 LB. transverse load on 3D beam.

the load is equally distributed to all grids. Slide 34 .Example 3: Transverse Load on Beam • If uniform weighting factors are used.

Example 3: Transverse Load on Beam • The uniform load distribution results in too much transverse load in flanges causing them to droop. Displacement Contour Slide 35 .

DOF 5 added to make RY rigid body motion determinate Slide 36 .Example 3: Transverse Load on Beam • Assume quadratic distribution of load in web • Assume thin flanges carry zero transverse load • Master DOF 1235.

Example 3: Transverse Load on Beam • Displacements with quadratic weighting factors virtually equivalent to those from RBE2 (Beam Theory). but do not impose “plane sections remain planar” as does RBE2. Slide 37 .

00685 Slide 38 .Example 3: Transverse Load on Beam • RBE3 Displacement Contour – Max Y disp=.

Example 3: Transverse Load on Beam • RBE2 Displacement contour – Max Y disp=.00685 Slide 39 .

but still allow for free expansion due to pressure? Slide 40 .Example 4 • Use RBE3 to get “unconstrained” motion • Cylinder under pressure • Which Grid(s) do you pick to constrain out Rigid body motion.

reference grid cannot be SPC’d) – Apply SPC to reference grid Slide 41 .Example 4: Use RBE3 for Unconstrained Motion • Solution: – Use RBE3 – Move dependent DOF from reference grid to selected master grids with UM option on RBE3 (otherwise.

forming a nice triangle for best numerical conditioning – Select a total of 6 DOF over the three UM grids to determine the 6 rigid body motions of the RBE3 – Note: “M” is the NASTRAN DOF set name for dependent DOF Slide 42 . we must assign 6 “UM” DOF to a set of master grids – Pick 3 points.Example 4: Use RBE3 for Unconstrained Motion • Since reference grid has 6 DOF.

Example 4: Use RBE3 for Unconstrained Motion “UM” Grids Slide 43 .

it’s convenient to use a cylindrical coordinate system for the master grids.Example 4: Use RBE3 for Unconstrained Motion • For circular geometry. – Put THETA and Z DOF in UM set for each of the three UM grids to determine RBE3 rigid body motion Slide 44 .

Example 4: Use RBE3 for Unconstrained Motion • Result is free expansion due to internal pressure. (note: poisson effect causes shortening) Slide 45 .

Example 4: Use RBE3 for Unconstrained Motion • Resulting MPC Forces are numeric zeroes verifying that no stiffness has been added. Slide 46 .

Slide 47 .Example 5 • Connect 3D model to stick model • 3D model with 7 psi internal pressure • Use RBE3 instead of RBE2 so that 3D model can expand naturally at interface. – RBE3 will also allow warping and other 3D effects at the interface.

Example 5: 3D to Stick Model Connection • • • 120” diameter cylinder 7 psi internal pressure 10000 Lb. Master Grids with 3 translations • Slide 48 . transverse load on stick model RBE3: Reference grid at center with 6 DOF.

Example 5: 3D to Stick Model Connection Slide 49 .

Example 5: 3D to Stick Model Connection • Undeformed/Deformed plot shows continuity in motion of 3D and Beam model Slide 50 .

Example 5: 3D to Stick Model Connection • MPC forces at interface show effect of both the tip shear and interface moment. Slide 51 .

Example 5: 3D to Stick Model Connection • Shell outer fiber stresses at interface slightly higher than beam bending stresses – 3D effects – Shell model under internal pressure and not bound by beam theory assumptions Slide 52 .

Example 6 • Use RBE3 to see “beam” type modes from a complex model • Sometimes it’s difficult to identify and describe modes of complex structures • Solution: – Connect complex structure down to centerline grids with RBE3. – Connect centerline grids with PLOTELs Slide 53 .

Example 6: Using RBE3 to Visualize “Beam” Modes • Generic engine courtesy of Pratt & Whitney Slide 54 .

• Each component’s centerline grids connected by it’s own set of PLOTELs Slide 55 .Example 6: Using RBE3 to Visualize “Beam” Modes • RBE3’s used to connect various components to centerline.

Example 6: Using RBE3 to Visualize “Beam” Modes • Complex Mode Animation Slide 56 .

Example 6: Using RBE3 to Visualize “Beam” Modes • Animation of the PLOTEL segments shows that this is a whirl mode • Relative motion of various components more clearly seen Slide 57 .

Example 7 • Use RBE3 to connect incompatible elements – Beam to plate – Beam to solid – Plate to solid • Alternative to RSSCON Slide 58 .

Example 7: RBE3 Connection of Incompatible Elements Slide 59 .

Example 7: RBE3 Connection of Incompatible Elements • Use RBE3 to connect beams to plates at two corners • Use RBE3 to connect beams to solids at two corners • Use RBE3 to connect plates to solid – Plate thickness is same as solid thickness in this example Slide 60 .

beam “footprint” should be similar to RBE3 “footprint”. otherwise joint will be too stiff Slide 61 .Example 7: RBE3 Connection of Incompatible Elements • RBE3 connection of beams to plates – Map 6 DOF of beam into plate translation DOF – For best results.

beam “footprint” should be similar to RBE3 “footprint”.Example 7: RBE3 Connection of Incompatible Elements • RBE3 connection of beams to solids – Map 6 DOF of beam into solid translation DOF – For best results. otherwise joint will be too stiff Slide 62 .

**Example 7: RBE3 Connection of Incompatible Elements
**

• RBE3 connection of plates to solids

– Coupling of plate drilling rotation to solid not recommended – Plate and solid grids can be equivalent, coincident, or disjoint (as shown)

Slide 63

Example 7: RBE3 Connection of Incompatible Elements • Deformation contours show continuity at RBE3 interfaces

Slide 64

Example 7: RBE3 Connection of Incompatible Elements • Bending stress contours consistent across RBE3 interface

Slide 65

RBE3 Usage Guidelines • Do not specify rotational DOF for master grids except when necessary to avoid singularity caused by a linear set of master grids • Using rotational DOF on master grids can result in implausible results (see next two slides) Slide 66 .

RBE3 Usage Guidelines • Example: What can happen if master rotations included? – Modified RBE3 from Example 5 – Displacements clearly incorrect when all 6 DOF listed for master grids (next page) Slide 67 .

RBE3 Usage Guidelines • Deformation with all 6 DOF specified for master grids at interface • Deformation with 3 translation DOF specified for master grids (same loads/BC’s) Slide 68 .

CHECKOUT.Nastran Reference Manual (V68) – EMH printout should be numeric zeroes (no grounding) – No MAXRATIO error messages from decomposition of Rgmm and Rmmm matrices (numerically stable) • Perform grounding check of at least KGG and KNN matrix – V2001: Case control command – V70.RBE3 Usage Guidelines • Make check run with PARAM.4.N))=YES Slide 69 .1 of MSC.YES – Section 9.7 and earlier: • Use CHECKA alters from SSSALTER library • GROUNDCHECK (SET=(G.

mechsolutions.html Slide 70 .com/support/knowbase/index.RBE3: Additional Reading • Much RBE3 information has been posted on MSC’s Knowledge Base – http://www.

5. – TAN#: 3280 RBE3 ELEMENT CHANGES IN VERSION 70. improved diagnostics – TAN#: 4155 RBE3 ELEMENT CHANGES IN VERSION 70.The Interpolation Element.RBE3: Additional Reading • Recommended TANs – TAN#: 2402 RBE3 .7 – TAN#: 4494 Mathematical Specification of the Modern RBE3 Element – TAN#: 4497 AN ECONOMICAL METHOD TO EVALUATE RBE3 ELEMENTS IN LARGE-SIZE MODELS Slide 71 .

User-Input based “Rigid” Elements • MPCs – Most general-purpose way to define motion-based relationships – Could be used in place of ALL other RBEi • Lack of geometry makes this impractical – Can be changed between SUBCASEs Slide 72 .

MPC Definition • “Rigid” elements – Definition: The motion of a DOF dependent on the motion of (at least one) other DOF • Linear Relationship • One (1) dependent DOF • “n” independent DOF (n >= 1) ajXi = a1X1 + a2X2 + a3X3+…+ anXn Slide 73 .

General Approach For Use of MPCs • Write out desired displacement equality relationship on a per DOF level – Dependent motion = ( your equation goes here) 2 1 Ux2 = Ux1 • Re-arrange so left-hand side is zero • List dependent term first 0 = .Ux2 + Ux1 Slide 74 .

)UX2 + (+1.) UX1 A1 -1.UX2 + UX1 = (-1.0 G2 1 C2 1 A2 +1.0 Slide 75 .MPC Format • For example: – Set X motion of GRID 2 = X motion of GRID 1 2 1 UX2 = UX1 MPC MPC SID 535 G1 2 C1 1 0 = .

General Approach to MPCs • Write down relationship you want to impose on a per DOF level: ajXi = a1X1 + a2X2 +…+ anXn st • Move dependent term to 1 term on right hand side: 0 = -aiXi + a1X1 + a2X2+…+ anXn Slide 76 .

Why would I want to use an MPC? • Tie GRIDs together (RBEi) • Determine relative motion between GRIDs • Maintain separation between GRIDs • Determine average motion between GRIDs • Model bell-crank or control system • Units conversion Slide 77 .

Use of MPC to tie GRIDs together • Write down relationship you want to impose on a per DOF level: UX2 = UX1 UY2 = UY2 UZ3 = UZ3 2 1 X2 = X1 Y2 = Y1 Z2 = Z1 Slide 78 .

1. 535.Use of MPC to tie GRIDs together • Move dependent term to 1st term on right hand side: 0 = -UX2 + UX1 0 = -UY2 + UY2 0 = -UZ3 + UZ3 0 = -X2 + X1 0 = -Y2 + Y1 0 = -Z2 + Z1 MPC. 535.0 Slide 79 . +1. 1. 535. -1.0 MPC. 2. -1. 2.0 MPC. 1. 1. 6. -1.0. 1. 535.0 MPC. 535. 2.0. +1. 2. -1. 3. +1.0. 6. 5. 1. 2.0 MPC.0. 3. 2. 2.0. 5. 2. 1. +1. 1. -1.0 MPC.0. -1. +1. 4. +1. 4. 535.

Use of MPC to tie GRIDs together • Use CAUTION when tying non-coincident GRIDs together! • Watch for how those rotations and translations couple! UX2 = UX1 2 1 Z2 = Z1 Slide 80 .

MPCs for Relative Motion • What’s the relative motion between GRIDs 1 and 2? 1 ? 2 Slide 81 .

MPCs for Relative Motion • Introduce “placeholder” variable – Good use for SPOINTs • Write out desired relationship as before U1000 = UX2 – UX1 1 ?2 • Move dependent term to RHS 0 = .U1000 + UX2 – UX1 Slide 82 .

0 -1.0 2 1 +1.0 Slide 83 .MPCs for Relative Motion • Write out MPCs 0 = -U1000 + UX2 – UX1 1 ?2 SPOINT 1000 MPC + 535 1000 1 1 1 -1.

MPCs for Relative GAP • What is the gap between GRIDs 1 and 2? 1 2 Initial gap Slide 84 .

MPCs for Relative GAP • Write equation: – Introduce new placeholder variable for initial gap 1 2 UGAP = UINIT + UX2 – UX1 0 = -UGAP + UINIT + UX2 – UX1 Slide 85 .

**MPCs for Relative GAP • Set initial gap value via SPC!
**

0 = -U1000 + U1001 + UX2 – UX1

1

2

SPOINT, 1000 SPOINT, 1001 MPC, +, SPC,

$ Gap value $ Initial Gap

535, 1000, 1, -1., 1001, 1, +1. , 2, 1, +1., 1, 1, -1. 2002, 1001,1,0.5 $ Set initial gap

Slide 86

**MPC used to Maintain Separation • Enforce a separation between GRIDs
**

– Similar to using a gap – Changes which DOF are dependent/independent

• Example:

– Initially 1” apart – Keep separation = 0.25”

1 0.25 2

Slide 87

**MPC used to Maintain Separation
**

1

1.00

0.25 2

**U1 = U2 + (desired – initial) 0 = -U1 + U2 + U1000
**

SPOINT,1000 MPC, 535, 1, 2, -1.0, +, , 1000, 1, +1.0 SPC, 2002, 1000, 1, -.75

Slide 88

2, 2, +1.0

Use of MPCs for AVERAGE Motion • Determine average motion of DOFs 4 5 U1000 = (U1+ U2 + U3 + U4 +U5 +U6) /6 Z 3 2 6 0 = -6*U1000 + U1+ U2 + U3 + U4 +U5 +U6 1 Slide 89 .

65*U2 + U1 MPC MPC 1.65 0 = -1.0 .1.65 G2 1 C2 1 A2 +1.MPCs as Bell-crank or Control System • Output of 1 DOF scales another 1 2 U2 = U1/1.65 00 SID 535 G1 2 C1 1 Slide 90 A1 -1.

37 * X2 = X1 Slide 91 .29578 39.Units Conversion • Somewhat frivolous application. but why not? – Convert radians to degrees – Convert inches to meters 2 = 1 * 57.

– COMMON ERROR • The MPCFORCEs are associated with GRID IDs. be sure the set is for GRID IDs. the output is requested by MPCFORCE case control command. not Element IDs. not Element IDs. So when selecting a SET for output. Slide 92 .Rigid Element Output • Since Rigid elements are a specialized input of MPC equations.

Guidelines for “Rigid” Elements • Linear ONLY – Relationships calculated based on initial geometry • Can cause internal constraints for thermal conditions • Be careful that independent GRID has 6 DOF Slide 93 .

MPCs and RBEs • Off the shelf – RBAR – RBE2 • Customizable – RBE3 • Handmade – MPC Add them to your modeling arsenal today! Slide 94 .

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