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Unit F: Muscular System

Program Area:

Health Occupations Education

Course Title:

Medical Sciences I

Number: 7221

Unit Title:

Muscular System

Suggested

Time for

Instruction:

5 class periods (90 minute classes) 11 class periods (55 minute classes)

Course Percent:

6 %

Unit Evaluation:

100 % Cognitive

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Competency:

MD06. Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the muscles.

Specific Objectives:

MD06.01

Describe the structure of the muscles.

MD06.02

Analyze the function of the muscular system.

MD06.03

Analyze characteristics and treatment of common muscle disorders.

Summer 2005

F.1

Unit F Master Outline

  • F. Muscular System

MD06.01

Describe the structure of the muscles

  • A. Muscles

 
 

1.

Nearly half our weight comes from muscle tissue

2.

There are 650 different muscles in the human body

3.

Muscles give shape and form

4.

Muscles produce body heat

 
  • B. Types of muscles

 

1.

Voluntary

 

a.

Skeletal – muscles attached to bone

b.

The sarcolemma is the cell membrane

 

2.

Involuntary

 

a.

Smooth (visceral) – found in internal organs

b.

Cardiac – found in heart

 

3.

Sphincter – circular muscles in openings between esophagus and

 

stomach, anus and urethra

 
  • C. Principal skeletal muscles

1.

Biceps brachii

2.

Brachioradialis

3.

Buccinator

4.

Deltoid

5.

Diaphragm

6.

External oblique

7.

Hamstrings

8.

Gastrocnemius

9.

Gluteus maximus

10.

Gluteus medius

11.

Intercostal muscles

12.

Latissiumus dorsi

13.

Masseter

14.

Pectoralis major

15.

Quadriceps femoris

16.

Rectus abdominus

17.

Rectus femoris

18.

Sartorius

19.

Soleus major

20.

Sternocleidomastoid

21.

Tibialis anterior

22.

Trapezius

23.

Triceps brachii

24.

Vastus lateralis

25.

Vastus medialis

MD06.02

Analyze the function of the muscular system

  • A. Responsible for:

    • 1. Body movement

    • 2. Posture

    • 3. Body heat

Summer 2005

F.2

 
  • B. Characteristics

 

1.

Contractibility – muscle becomes shorter and thicker causing muscle

 

movement

 

2.

Excitability – respond to stimuli

3.

Extensibility – ability to stretch muscles

4.

Elasticity – ability to return to original length

  • C. Movement

 

1.

Muscles move bones by pulling on them

2.

Groups of muscles usually contract to produce a single movement

 

1.

Motor unit – a motor neuron plus all the muscle fibers it stimulates

2.

Neuromuscular junction – junction between the motor neuron’s fiber which transmits the impulse, and the muscle cell membrane

3.

Acetylcholine – chemical neurotransmitter, diffuses across the synaptic cleft (carries impulse across synaptic cleft)

4.

Muscle fatigue – caused by the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles

5.

Oxygen debt – after exercise, the amount of oxygen needed by the muscle to change lactic acid back to glucose

 

3.

Diaphragm – dome-shaped muscle, separates abdominal and thoracic cavity, aids in breathing

  • D. Muscle tone – muscles slightly contracted and ready

  • E. Exercise and training

MD06.03

Identify characteristics and treatment of common muscle disorders

  • A. Conditions

 
 

1.

Atrophy – wasting away of muscle due to lack of use

2.

Hypertrophy – an increase in the size of the muscle cell

3.

Contracture – tightening or shortening of a muscle

4.

Flat feet (talipes) – weakening of leg muscles that support arch, downward pressure on foot flattens arches, Rx with exercise, massage and corrective shoes.

5.

Hernia – organs protrude through weak muscle

6.

Muscular dystrophy – group of diseases in which muscle cells deteriorate

7.

Myasthenia gravis – progressive muscular weakness and paralysis, sometimes death, cause unknown, fatal when respiratory muscles are paralyzed

8.

Tetanus (Lockjaw) Infectious disease, continuous spasms of voluntary muscles, bacteria enters body through puncture wound, prevent by anti- toxoid vaccine

9.

Torticollis (Wry neck) – inflammation of trapezius and/or sternocleidomastoid muscle

 
  • B. Injury and overuse

 

1.

Strain – muscle tear, symps are pain and swelling, Rx – ice packs

2.

Muscle spasm (cramp) – sustained contraction of muscle

3.

Myalgia – muscle pain

4.

Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon

  • C. Treatment

 

1.

Massage

2.

IM injections

Summer 2005

F.3

Unit F:

Competency MD06:

Muscular System

Analyze the anatomy and physiology of the muscles.

Materials/Resources

Scott, Ann Senisi and Elizabeth Fong. Body Structures & Functions. Delmar Publishers, 9 th Edition, 1998. www.DelmarAlliedHealth.com

National HOSA Handbook: Section B. Published by HOSA, Flower Mound, Texas. Current Edition.

www.hosa.org

Teaching/Learning Indicators:

The following letters are used to indicate specific

skills/areas required in the instructional activity.

R

Reading

SS

Social Studies

W

Writing

S

Science

M

Math

A

The Arts

H

Health professional/parent/community involvement

Summer 2005

F.4

Objective MD06.01

Describe the structure of the muscles.

Teaching/Learning Activities

Basic Skills

S

Working alone, in pairs, and in small groups, have students complete the activities on the “Reading Guide” (Appendix MD06.01B) for the Muscular System. Students are to work at their own pace. Pairs and teams need to be assigned prior to starting the activities.

Cognitive

S

 

Have students color the muscle diagram (Appendix MD06.01C).

Basic Skills

S, R, A

Have students write a story about their favorite hobby or sports activity using the terms from the Muscle System terminology list. (Appendix MD06.01A) Students should NOT tell what the activity is, but should write a short story that describes the muscles they use as they do their activity.

Then, have students read their stories in class, and see if classmates can guess what their hobby is.

HOSA

S

Have each student write five fill-in-the-blank questions related to the structure of the muscles. Then, using HOSA Bowl guidelines, play HOSA Bowl. Note: If you do not have a buzzer system you may substitute a bell.

Cognitive S

Have students use 10 of 30 given terms (Appendix MD06.01A) to form a crossword puzzle. Use definitions as the clues and terms as the answers.

Special Needs

Each student will reach the highest level of mastery in the least restrictive environment as recommended in the student’s IEP.

Summer 2005

F.5

Objective MD06.02

Analyze the function of the muscular system.

Teaching/Learning Activities

Cognitive

S

Have students participate in a teacher-led discussion of the function of the muscular system. (Transparency masters)

Have students complete the “Muscle Function Matching”. (Appendix MD06.02A)

Critical Thinking

S

Have students create a game dealing with the topic “muscular function.” Included in the game should be instructions and materials necessary to play the game. Upon completion, students will bring the game to class for fellow classmates to play.

Basic Skills

S, M

Answer the muscle math worksheet found in the appendix. (Appendix MD06.02B)

Team Work

S

Working in pairs, have students perform exercises as listed in “The Power System.” (Appendix MD06.02C) Students should alternate reading and performing tasks.

Critical Thinking

S, A

Teacher or students can take a dance and write the instructions using movement terms, muscles, and bones. It works out well for students or teachers to write the instructions and then cut up the instructions giving each student a different step or movement of the dance. Each student demonstrates their movement. Finally you put the steps in order, add the music and dance!

(An example of this with the Macarena is included in Appendix MD06.02D)

Special Needs

Each student will reach the highest level of mastery in the least restrictive environment as recommended in the student’s IEP.

Summer 2005

F.6

Objective MD06.03

Analyze characteristics and treatment of common muscle disorders.

Teaching/Learning Activities

Employability

S, H

Invite a chiropractor, massage therapist, physical therapist or local health spa representative to speak to your class. Discuss common muscle disorders.

Teamwork

S, W

Divide students into teams of 4 and provide time for teams to visit the media center to find information on genetic testing and muscular dystrophy.

Allow students to debate the topic in class, with 2 teams to debate at a time. One team will be pro and one will be con. Debate the following topic: According to genetic testing, you carry the defective gene for muscular dystrophy. Gene manipulation costs $100,000 and is experimental. What do you do? What if this person was a family member?

Critical Thinking

S

Divide students into groups of 2-3 members. Assign each group one of the following muscular system diseases/conditions:

Sprain

Muscular dystrophy

Tennis elbow

Strain

Myalgia

Shin splints

Muscle spasm

Rotator cuff disease

Give groups an assigned amount of time to revi ew their disease/condition. Then, let one group at a time go in front of the class. Allow the class at large to ask them 5 questions of the yes/no variety. The class may not ask for the name of the disease/condition, but questions should lead to discovery of disease. For example: Are you an injury?

Technology S

Take students to the school’s technology lab to review the MDA web site and complete the Muscular Dystrophy review worksheet. (MD06.03A)

HOSA

S, W, H

Have students research various careers related to the muscular system (physical therapist, orthopedist, athletic trainer, chiropractor, exercise physiologist, occupational therapist, massage therapist, etc.)

Using the HOSA Competitive Events Guidelines, have student work in pairs and create a career health display, This display should have information about the education, duties, job opportunities, etc. of the selected career.

Special Needs

Each student will reach the highest level of mastery in the least restrictive environment as recommended in the student’s IEP.

Summer 2005

F.7

Daily Lesson Plans

Unit F:

Muscular System

Lessons:

5

Hours:

7 1/2 clock hours

 

Steps

Lesson #1

Lesson #2

Lesson #3

Focus and

In groups, have students

Go around the room and have

Use the “Muscle Function

Correct the quiz in class.

Review

brainstorm the relationship

students ask the questions they

Matching” assignment as a

between the skeletal and muscular systems. (This is a thinking activity.)

wrote down at the end of class yesterday. See if fellow students can figure out the

quiz.

correct answers. Help and clarify as necessary.

Collect index card assignment.

Statement

Objective MD06.01

Describe

Objective MD06.02 Analyze

Objective MD06.03

Analyze

of

the structure of the muscles.

the function of the muscular

characteristics and treatment of

Objectives

system.

common muscle disorders.

Teacher

Assign students in pairs. Have

Using the overheads, review

Review major diseases and

Input

pairs complete the Reading Guide for the muscular system.

muscle anatomy. Students should follow along with the

disorders of the muscular

When all teams are finished with their reading guide, the teacher should use the overheads to review the muscular system while students correct their work.

model they illustrated for homework. If there is a muscle chart or model in the classroom, students should be asked to point out muscles as they are discussed.

system using overhead transparency masters.

Guided

When teams complete the

(MD06.01C)

Have students write an

Go to the school’s Internet lab.

Practice

Reading Guide assignment,

explanation of their favorite

Have students complete the

have them begin work on the muscle ID assignment.

sport or hobby, using muscle anatomy and physiology to describe the movements. Let them read their short stories in class while classmates guess the sport or hobby.

Muscular Dystrophy Web Review assignment.

Independent

 

Write 10 fill-in-the blank

Assign groups in pairs to use

Practice

Complete the muscle ID assignment.

questions from this unit or from the skeletal system. These questions should be written on one side of a 3X5” index card with the correct answer on the back.

the HOSA CHD guidelines and research a health career related to the muscular system. In their presentation, they should talk about how the chosen professional treats muscular disorders.

Closure

Ask students to think about what they learned today, and write down one question they have about the muscular system.

Have students stand and point to a muscle as the teacher calls out the muscle term.

Tell students they will be having a guest speaker tomorrow. Have each student write 3 questions they expect to have answered about the guest

Materials

Handouts – Reading Guide and Muscle ID Colored pencils Overheads

Overheads

speaker’s profession. Handouts – Muscle Function Matching and MD Web Review Assignment CHD Guidelines

 

Summer 2005

F.8

Unit F:

Muscular System (Continued)

Steps

Lesson #4

Lesson #5

 

Focus and

Ask questions from index cards

Ask 5 review questions from

 

Review

that students created during lesson #2.

the speaker.

Statement

Objective MD06.03

Analyze

Objective MD06.03

Analyze

 

of

characteristics and treatment of

characteristics and treatment of

Objectives

common muscle disorders.

common muscle disorders.

Teacher

Guest speaker for

Allow students to give CHD

 

Input

approximately 30 minutes. Allow a student to introduce the speaker.

presentations modified to allow for a 5 minute explanation of

Students should have the questions they wrote in front of them, and fill in the answers as they are given by the speaker. They may ask any questions not answered following the speakers presentation.

the career and related muscular disorders. (This will take the first half of class.)

Guided

Allow students remaining class

TEST – Muscular System

 

Practice

time to work on Career Health

Displays.

If time permits, grade test in class.

Independent

Allow students remaining class

Allow students to correct test

 

Practice

time to work on Career Health Displays.

and turn it in for a reward or bonus points.

Closure

Remind students about Career Health Display presentations and Test.

If time permits, play HOSA Bowl with index card questions.

 

Materials

Guest speaker intro information

Test CHD rating sheet

 

Summer 2005

F.9

Unit F: Muscular System Terminology List

  • 1. acetylcholine

22.

muscle fatigue

  • 2. biceps brachii

23.

muscle tone

  • 3. brachioradialis

24.

neuromuscular junction

  • 4. buccinator

25.

oxygen debt

  • 5. cardiac muscle

26.

rectus femoris

  • 6. contractability

27.

pectoralis major

  • 7. deltoid

28.

quadriceps femoris

  • 8. diaphragm

29.

rectus abdominis

  • 9. elasticity

30.

sarcolemma

  • 10. excitability

31.

sartorius

  • 11. extensibility

32.

skeletal muscle

  • 12. external oblique

33.

smooth muscle

  • 13. hamstrings

34.

soleus major

  • 14. gastrocnemius

35.

sphincter

  • 15. gluteus maximus

36.

sternocleidomastoid

  • 16. gluteus medius

37.

tibialis anterior

  • 17. intercostal muscles

38.

trapezius

  • 18. involuntary

39.

triceps brachii

  • 19. latissimus dorsi

40.

vastus lateralis

  • 20. masseter

41.

vastus medialis

  • 21. motor unit

42.

voluntary

Disorders and Related Terminology

  • 1. atrophy

9. myalgia

  • 2. contractures

10.

myasthenia gravis

  • 3. flat feet (talipes)

11.

spasm

  • 4. hernia

12.

strain

  • 5. hypertrophy

13.

tendonitis

  • 6. intramuscular injection

14.

tetanus

  • 7. massage

15.

torticollis

  • 8. muscular dystrophy

Appendix MD06.01A

Summer 2005

F.10

Name ___________________________________________

Date _________________

Reading Guide: The Muscular System

 

Alone

+

Pairs

χ

Small Groups

Whole Class

Skim quickly through pages 92 - 111 in your Body Structures and Functions book. Look at pictures and headings. Write down what you think this section will be about. (10 pts.)

+

Discuss and write down all you already know about the following topics before you began your reading.

 
  • 1. What are the 3 types of muscle? (2 pts.)

 
  • 2. How are the types of muscles alike and how are they different? (2 pts.)

  • 3. How do skeletal muscles work? (2 pts.)

 

+

Whisper read (read softly together) pages 93 to the top of page 97 (stop when you get to the section “ Sources of Energy and Heat.”) (4 pts.)

With your hand on your biceps, bend your arm upward at the elbow. Describe what you feel related to the biceps muscle. (5 pts.)

Summer 2005

F.11

χ

Design your own skeletal muscle on a piece of 8” x 10” white paper. Label and define its parts including: origin, insertion, body, and tendons. Describe what movements your muscle will cause. (20 pts.)

Read pages 97 to the top of page 99. (5 pts.)

+

Review with your partner information on these pages. Be sure to have a clear understanding of the following vocabulary words: (2 pts. each)

motor unit

neuromuscular junction

acetylcholine

muscle fatigue

muscle tone

isotonic contractions

isometric contractions

Jake has decided to improve his appearance by exercising. He would like to build up his chest and shoulder muscles so he looks better in the tank tops he is fond of wearing. He has decided to play racquetball everyday as his primary training program because he knows that he will use his upper body muscles in this sport. After his first game of racquetball, you ask him how he likes his new sport and he can hardly answer you - he seems out of breath.

Is Jake’s plan likely to help him meet his goal? How do you explain his breathing difficulties? (10 pts.)

Summer 2005

F.12

+

One of you needs to stand in a doorway and with your palms against the doorjamb for 2 minutes. After the 2 minutes is up, have your partner step away and relax their arms (let them go limp.) What happened and why do you think it did happen? (10 pts.)

Congratulations! The four or five of you at the Muscular Moving Ad Agency have been hired to produce a brochure which will provide a luxury tour through the Muscular System. You must highlight the trendy spots, spotlight the exciting activities, and also warn the prospective guest of any dangers or special precautions they might need to take. You may us drawings, computer graphics, photographs from magazines, etc.

Whenever possible, type all written parts of the brochure. BE CREATIVE! You will present you brochure to the class and they will vote on which team gets the contract. Include a lot of your vocabulary words. (20 pts.)

Summer 2005

F.13

Appendix MD06.01B

Muscle Anatomy

Color the following structures – and be sure to identify your color scheme.

Vastus medialis

Tibialis anterior

Trapezius

Sartorius

Biceps brachii

Triceps brachii

Rectus femoris

Rectus abdominis

Deltoid

Pectoralis major

Sternocleidomastoid

Brachioradialis

External oblique

Vastus lateralis

Gastrocnemius

Soleus major

Muscle Anatomy Color the following structures – and be sure to identify your color scheme. Vastus

Appendix MD06.01C

Summer 2005

F.14

Muscle Function Matching

1

Extends

femur and rotates it

A. gluteus medius

2

Flexes

thigh and extends leg

B. sartoris

3

points

toes and flexes lower leg

C. rectus abdominis

4

Helps

with breathing

D. deltoid

5

Raises

ribs and helps with breathing

E. biceps brachii

6

Flexes

and rotates thigh and leg

F. gluteus maximus

7

Extends

the lower arm

G. sternocleidomastoid

8

Abducts

the upper arm

H. diaphragm

9

Abducts

and rotates thigh

I. rectus femoris

10

Compresses

abdomen

J. gastrocnemius

11

Flexes

upper arm and helps abduct it

K. trapezius

12

Compresses

and closes lips

L. intercostals

13

Flexes

and rotates the head

M. orbicularis oris

14

Moves

the shoulder and extends the head

N. triceps brachii

15

Flexes

lower arm

O. pectoralis major

Summer 2005

F.15

Appendix MD06.02A

Answer Key to Muscle Function Matching Exercise 1. F 2. I 3. J 4. H 5.

Answer Key to Muscle Function Matching Exercise

  • 1. F

  • 2. I

  • 3. J

  • 4. H

  • 5. L

6.B

  • 7. N

  • 8. D

  • 9. A

    • 10. C

    • 11. O

    • 12. M

    • 13. G

    • 14. K

    • 15. E

Summer 2005

F.16

Muscle Math

Round answers to the nearest whole number.

  • 1. What percentage of muscle weight would you have if 60 pounds out of 140 pounds is muscle weight?

  • 2. If you know out of 140 pounds, 60 pounds is muscle weight, what is the muscle weight of a 200 pound male?

  • 3. What would the muscle weight be on an 80 pound female? (Use information from #1)

  • 4. If muscle weight is 90 pounds, how much does the person weigh?

  • 5. If muscle weight is 45 pounds, how much does the person weigh?

Summer 2005

F.17

Appendix MD06.02B

Answers to Muscle Math 1. 451 2. 86 pounds 3. 34 pounds 4. 210 pounds 5.

Answers to Muscle Math

  • 1. 451

  • 2. 86 pounds

  • 3. 34 pounds

  • 4. 210 pounds

  • 5. 105 pounds

Summer 2005

F.18

The Muscular System “The Power System”

Working in pairs, perform the following exercises. Alternate one reading the task and the other performing it. Make sure both of you could demonstrate these tasks in front of the class if asked to. You may use your textbook if you need a reference for the muscles.

  • 1. Abduct fingers.

12.

Extend foot.

  • 2. Flex right forearm

13.

Flex pectoralis major.

  • 3. Adduct arm

14.

Contract gastrocnemius.

  • 4. Flex leg.

15.

Contract tibialis anterior.

  • 5. Extend leg.

16.

Extend quadriceps.

  • 6. Flex fingers

17.

Flex biceps.

  • 7. Contract diaphragm.

18.

Contract abdominal muscles

  • 8. Contract diaphragm.

19.

Flex and rotate sartorius.

  • 9. Contract masseter.

20.

Extend/contract gluteal

  • 10. Flex masseter.

21.

maximus. Extend trapezius.

  • 11. Flex foot.

22.

Contract/abduct deltoid.

The Muscular System “The Power System” Working in pairs, perform the following exercises. Alternate one reading

Summer 2005

F.19

Appendix MD06.02C

Skeletal System and Muscle System Review

The Macarena

  • 1. Extend right Latissimus Dorsi and Triceps and abduct to the front of your body. Metacarpals , carpals, and phalanges should be pronated.

  • 2. Extend left Latissimus Dorsi and Triceps and abduct to the front of your body. Metacarpals, carpals, and phalanges should be pronated.

  • 3. Extend right Latissimus Dorsi and Triceps and abduct to the front of your body. Metacarpals, carpals, and phalanges should be in supination.

  • 4. Extend left Latissimus Dorsi and Triceps and abduct to the front of your body. Metacarpals, carpals, and phalanges should be in supination.

  • 5. Flex right Biceps and place right phalanges and metacarpals on left scapula.

  • 6. Flex left Biceps and place left phalanges and metacarpals on right scapula.

  • 7. Rotate right arm about 90 degrees, flex right biceps, and place right metacarpals and phalanges on occipital bone.

  • 8. Rotate left arm about 90 degrees, flex left biceps, and place left metacarpals and phalanges on occipital bone.

  • 9. Extend right Latissimus Dorsi and with right Biceps slightly flexed, adduct and place right metacarpals and phalanges on left ilium.

    • 10. Extend left Latissimus Dorsi and with left Biceps slightly flexed, adduct andplace left metacarpals and phalanges on right ilium.

    • 11. Extend right Latissimus Dorsi and with right Biceps slightly flexed, rotate the right Deltoid 90 degrees and place right metacarpals and phalanges on right gluteus medius.

    • 12. Extend left Latissimus Dorsi and with left Biceps slightly flexed, rotate the left Deltoid 90 degrees and place left metacarpals and phalanges on left gluteus medius.

    • 13. Rotate gluteus maximus and gluteus minimus as well as the entire pelvis three times.

    • 14. Plantar-flex bilateral metatarsals and phalanges. Flex hamstring muscles bilateral while rotating self a quarter turn to the side. Extend quadriceps group and start over.

Appendix MD06.02D

Summer 2005

F.20

Web Review

Muscular Dystrophy

Web Review Muscular Dystrophy Go to the web site of the Muscular Dystrophy Association at www.mda.org

Go to the web site of the Muscular Dystrophy Association at www.mda.org

  • 1. How many types of Muscular Dystrophy are there? ___________

  • 2. Which type is also known as Pseudohypertrophic MD? _____________________________________________________

  • 3. What causes congenital muscular dystrophy? ________________________________

  • 4. What are some recent research developments that have occurred as a result MDA contributions? ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

  • 5. What is the national magazine for MDA? ____________________________________

  • 6. What MDA clinic is nearest to your home? ___________________________________

  • 7. What type of Muscular Dystrophy occurs usually in adults over age 40? _____________________________________________________________________

  • 8. What symptom do all types of Muscular Dystrophy have in common? _____________________________________________________________________

  • 9. Marilla is 19 years old and is diagnosed with a type of Muscular Dystrophy that causes weakness in her shoulders and hips. Her physician assures her that she will likely live long enough to join the AARP.

Is that possible? If so, what type of MD does she have?

_______________________________________________________________

  • 10. Carlotta is a 21 year old college student who has been diagnosed with Becker Muscular Dystrophy. What health professional can be helpful in helping her stay in school and meet the demands of her college schedule? ________________________________________________________________

  • 11. True or False? Muscular Dystrophy is incurable? ______________________________

  • 12. True or False? Muscular Dystrophy is untreatable? ____________________________

  • 13. What are the goals of rehabilitation for someone with Muscular Dystrophy? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Summer 2005

F.21

MD06.03A

Web Review Answer Key Muscular Dystrophy 1. How many types of Muscular Dystrophy are there? 9

Web Review Answer Key

Muscular Dystrophy

  • 1. How many types of Muscular Dystrophy are there?

9

  • 2. Which type is also known as Pseudohypertrophic MD?

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

  • 3. What causes congenital muscular dystrophy? genetic

  • 4. What are some recent research developments that have occurred as a result MDA contributions? Answer varies

  • 5. What is the national magazine for MDA? Quest

  • 6. What MDA clinic is nearest to your home? Answer varies

  • 7. What type of Muscular Dystrophy occurs usually in adults over age 40? Distal Muscular Dystrophy

  • 8. What symptom do all types of Muscular Dystrophy have in common? Muscle weakness

  • 9. Marilla is 19 years old and is diagnosed with a type of Muscular Dystrophy that causes weakness in her shoulders and hips. Her physician assures her that she will likely live long enough to join the AARP. Yes – Limb-Girdle MD

Is that possible? If so, what type of MD does she have?

  • 10. Carlotta is a 21 year old college student who has been diagnosed with Becker Muscular Dystrophy. What health professional can be helpful in helping her stay in school and meet the demands of her college schedule? Occupational Therapist

  • 11. True or False? Muscular Dystrophy is incurable? True

  • 12. True or False? Muscular Dystrophy is untreatable? False

  • 13. What are the goals of rehabilitation for someone with Muscular Dystrophy? The goals of rehabilitation in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) are to maximize and prolong independent function and locomotion, inhibit physical deformity, and provide access to full integration into society

Summer 2005

F.22

Unit F: Muscular System

OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCY MASTERS
OVERHEAD
TRANSPARENCY
MASTERS

Summer 2005

F.23

MUSCULAR SYSTEM “the power system” • Nearly half our weight comes from muscle tissue. • There

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

“the power system”

Nearly half our weight comes from muscle tissue.

There are 650 different muscles in the human body.

Muscles give us form and shape.

Muscles produce most of our body heat.

THREE MAIN FUNCTIONS

  • 1. Responsible for all body movement.

  • 2. Responsible for body form and shape (posture)

  • 3. Responsible for body heat and maintaining body temperature.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM “the power system” • Nearly half our weight comes from muscle tissue. • There

SKELETAL

SMOOTH

TYPES OF MUSCLES

CARDIAC

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Skeletal Muscle

Attached to bone

Striated (striped) appearance

VOLUNTARY

Multinucleated muscle cell bundles (muscle cells

= muscle fibers) SARCOLEMMA = cell membrane

Contract quickly, fatigue easily, can’t maintain contraction for long period of time

Smooth Muscle

Visceral (organ) muscle

Found in walls of digestive system, uterus and

blood vessels Cells small and spindle-shaped

INVOLUNTARY

 

Controlled by autonomic nervous system

 

Act

slowly,

do

not

tire

easily,

can

remain

contracted for long time

Cardiac Muscle

Found only in the heart

 

Striated and branched

Involuntary

Cells are fused

– when

one contracts, they all

contract Involuntary

 

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= special circular muscles in openings of esophagus and stomach, stomach and small intestine, anus, urethra

= special circular muscles in openings of esophagus and stomach, stomach and small intestine, anus, urethra and mouth.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLES

CONTRACTIBILITY – the ability of a muscle to reduce the distance between the parts of its contents or the space it surrounds.

EXCITEABILITY (IRRITABILITY) – the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing impulses.

EXTENSIBILITY – the ability to be stretched.

ELASTICITY – ability of muscle to return to its original length when relaxing.

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MOVEMENT

1. Muscles move bones by pulling on them.

As a muscle contracts, it pulls the insertion bone closer to the origin bone. Movement occurs at the joint between the origin and the insertion.

Rule: A muscle’s insertion bone moves toward its origin bone.

2.

Groups of muscles usually contract to produce a single movement.

MOTOR UNIT – a motor neuron plus all the muscle fibers it stimulates.

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION – the junction between the motor neuron’s fiber which transmits the impulse – and the muscle cell membrane.

ACETYLCHOLINE – chemical neurotransmitter, diffuses across the synaptic cleft (carries impulse across synaptic cleft)

MUSCLE FATIGUE – caused by the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles.

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OXYGEN DEBT – after exercise, the amount of oxygen needed by the muscle to change lactic acid back to glucose.

MUSCLE TONE - When muscles are slightly contracted and ready to pull.

DIAPHRAGM – Dome-shaped muscle that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities, aids in breathing

• OXYGEN DEBT – after exercise, the amount of oxygen needed by the muscle to change
• OXYGEN DEBT – after exercise, the amount of oxygen needed by the muscle to change

Diaphragm flattens when you breathe in.

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Disorders and Related Terminology

ATROPHY – wasting away of muscle due to lack of use.

HYPERTROPHY – an increase in the size of the muscle cell.

STRAIN – tear in the muscle resulting from excessive use. Bleeding inside the muscle can result in pain and swelling. Ice packs will help stop bleeding and reduce swelling.

MUSCLE SPASM (cramp) – sustained contraction of the muscle, usually because of overuse.

MYALGIA – muscle pain

HERNIA – organs can protrude through this week muscle.

FLAT FEET (TALIPES) – weakening of leg muscles that support the arch, downward pressure on the foot eventually flattens out the arches. Condition can be helped by exercise, massage and corrective shoes.

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TETANUS (lockjaw) – Infectious disease, continuous spasms of voluntary muscles, caused by a toxin from the bacillus clostridium tetani, enters the body through puncture wound. Prevented by an anti-toxoid vaccine.

TORTICOLLIS (wry neck) – may be due to an inflammation of the trapezius and/or sternocleidomastoid muscle.

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY – group of diseases in which muscle cells deteriorate. Most common is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, caused by a genetic defect.

MYASTHENIA GRAVIS – progressive muscular weakness and paralysis, sometimes death. Cause unknown. Fatal when respiratory muscles are paralyzed.

TENDONITIS – inflammation of a tendon

CONTRACTURE – tightening or shortening of a muscle.

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