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List of content No.of

Road geometry
Traffic equipment and road furniture
Roads map
List of references

Firstly, I would like to express gratitude to Allah for all His Divine
Guidance. Alhamdulillah, this task was successfully completed with the idea, the grace
and guidance that has given him.

Peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and to his family, next to his
companions and predecessors, the religious scholars and to all the servants of
God who follow in their footsteps.
Thank you very gratitude to our parents who educate and nurture us from
childhood until today in the days of innocence to Allah
Next to the lecturers who taught us.To Madam Rosmaizul bt Mustapha, who has
provided support,encouragement and stimulus to continue fully to complete this task.
Without your guidance and strong so exact from her, which we maybe able to produce
a good task.
Not forgetting our thanks also to Ipoh for the PWD to cooperate with us in
providing the information detailed and very useful to us. He is Mr Syahrol Faizal bin Yaakob
Heartfelt appreciation also goes to all the others who are involved directly or indirectly in
making this work. Do not forget to appreciate our friends for the support and
encouragement as well as ideas that good idea.To Mustakim,Nasharudin, Halil Husairi,
Nizam, Atifah, Farhana,Liyana, Saedah and any other names that may be involved.
Thank you
I ntroduction
In this project,we have choose road FTO1 from Kuala Lumpur to Ipoh,it is from north to south,at jalan
medan gopeng 2we have choose this road because it have many facilities on it,like flyover,road
furniture,maintainance and many other.
The road is under construction of JKR Ipoh,then we had a appointment with Encik Shahrul Faizal bin
Yaacob as a Engineer from JKR .He tells us a little bit the road that we choose.
The road is a major road at Ipoh,from the many past year,it has a rural and urban road on
it.Because of that Jkr made a traffic census to determine the traffic flow on that road.After they had
a researches for a past month they have decide to construct a flyover on it to minimize the traffic
flow and provide facilities to the user.
The main road is using a flexible pavement,the foundation is on the base of the road.This layer
forms the upper of the pavement foundation and provides a regulated working platform at a
consistent strength on which to transport, place and compact the bound layers of pavement and
Road base is a main structural element that purposes to spreadinduced by repeated wheel loads over
the foundation and to with standinternal stresses without excessive deformation.In other hand,
Surfacing is done in order to provide acceptable running surface of adequate skid resistance and to
reduce water penetration to underlying layer.

Illustration of layered the main road.
The drainage is construct along the road to Highway to intercept and remove rainfall from short
duration, high intensity events with return periods of 1 year (for no surcharge of piped systems or
road-edge channels) or 5 years for no flooding of the carriageway. Flood flows from natural
catchments can have durations of several hours so the potential for traffic disruption is greater than
that produced by runoff from paved surfaces lasting only a few minutes. For this reason, it is
recommended that flow rates from natural catchments without defined watercourses should be
assessed for design storms with a return period of 75 years (see Appendix B for background on the
choice of this return


After the Jkr made a traffic census to determine the traffic flow on that road,they have decide to
make flyover on this road to manimise the traffic flow.The flyover are made beginning 1 september
2001 and the project should be ready at 27 february 2004 but its already done at 15 february 2005
because of the technical problem.
The contractor that involve on the construction of the highway is Maraputra Sdn Bhd and it is
made under the professional engineer IR.C.Vijaya Kumar and under the consultant is Runhill
consulting sdn.bhd.
They construct the flyover by using the Jerman Technology it is because that year the
technology in Malaysia is not suitable to construct that Flyover.the Long of the flyover is 1.5 km and
has a 54115.3kg as is weight.
The design of embeded walls differs from backfilled retaining walls with spread footings, as
the engineer does not have a choice of the retained material. Therefore, earth pressures generated
by whatever retained soil is in situ have to be accommodated. A further distinction is that embedded
walls usually have a more stringent service ability condition imposed upon them because of the
greater risk of damage to existing neighbouring structures, carriageways and underground services
since they will be closer to such items.
Besides that, each structure or part of a structure is required fulfil design performance
requirements of stability, strength and stiffness. These requirements are expressed in terms of limit
modes, and whenever a structure, or part of a structure, fails to satisfy one of these modes, it is said
to have reached a limit state. The design life of all permanent structures shall be taken as 120 years.
So they are decide to built the reinforcement earth wall at the flyover based on Standard follows a
limit state partial factor approach to design as expressed in Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design: Part 1:
General rules (BSI, 1995) and in BS 8002:1994, but there are differences in the details of application.
The Standard applies to structures for retaining earth which are built up of individual elements to
form a series of box-like cells into which infill is placed to form an integral part of the structure.
However, some types of crib structure are not covered by the Standard by reason of size, inclination
or loading conditions, and other forms of box-like structure into which fill is placed, such as gabions
and bin walls, are excluded.
For the purposes of occupants, the carriageway width is taken to be the running surface which
includes all traffic lanes, hard shoulders, hard strips and marker strips, between raised kerbs. In the
absence of raised kerbs it is the width between safety fences, less the amount of set-back required
for these fences, being not less than 0.6m nor more than 1.0m from the traffic face of each fence.
The carriageway width shall be measured in a direction at right angles to the line of the raised kerbs,
lane marks or edge marking.

Traffic equipment and road

Road signs are the most important type of road furniture. They guide and help control traffic.
Directional signs advise the driver of distances and directions to towns and cities. Informational signs
indicate the location of hospitals, gas stations, restaurants and rest areas. Regulatory signs, such as
speed limit signs, indicate laws that drivers must obey. Caution or warning signs indicate hazardous
or unusual road conditions like sharp curves, low shoulders or icy roads.

All traffic signs shall be mounted approximately at right angles to the direction of and facing the
traffic that they are to serve, 870 tilt if the sign is erected 5m or more away from the roadway edge,
or 930 tilt if the sign is erected less than 5m away from the roadway edge. Where mirror reflection
from the sign face is encountered in such degree as to reduce legibility, the sign beturned slightly
away from the road. Where signs are offset 9m or more fromthe roadway edge, signs should
generally be turned toward the road. At curved alignments, the angle of placement determined by
the course of approaching traffic rather than by the roadway edge at the point where the sign is
located. Sign faces normally vertical, but on grades it may be desirable to tilt a sign forward or
backward from the vertical to improve the viewing angle.
Warning signs are generally diamond in shape (square with one diagonal vertical), however, there
are a few which are rectangular. The colours shall be black symbols and borders onyellow
background except for the signs AWAS, and OBSTRUCTION MARKER.
Then,they put the Safety barriers physically stop or prevent out-of-control vehicles from leaving the
roadway. The simplest are guardrails made of metal or wire rope. Heavy vehicle barricades withstand
higher intensity impacts and greater weight loads. Crash cushions protect passengers from collisions
into highway obstacles such as concrete construction barriers and bridge piers.
In other hand,they provide the Light poles feature a raised light source designed to illuminate
roads and walkways at night. Photosensitive cells automatically trigger the lights to turn on and off at
dusk and dawn or during inclement weather. Single rows of utility poles support electrical power
lines and telecommunications cables safely above streets, roads and highways.


Firstly,we are very grateful for having completed this task within the sharp
time.During carry out this task, a lot of knowledge, lessons and values we have learned.
To do this task we can identify the type of road in Medan Gopeng 2 .That
is rigid Pavement. The rigid characteristic of the pavement are associated with rigidity or
flexural strength or slab action so the load is distributed over a wide area of subgrade soil.
Rigid pavement is laid in slabs with steel reinforcement.
Besides,we are also able to identify the types of street furniture used.Street furniture is
a collective term (used mainly in the United Kingdom for objects and pieces of equipment
installed on streets and roads for various purposes. It includes benches, traffic
barriers, bollards, post boxes, phone boxes, streetlamps, traffic lights,traffic signs, bus
stops,tram stops, taxi stands, public lavatories, fountains, watering
troughs, memorials, public sculptures, and waste receptacles. An important consideration in
the design of street furniture is how it affects road safety.The street furniture used on t
Medan Gopeng two street is traffic lights, signs, street lights and safety Barriers.
Then, we can know the purpose construction of this flyover.The purpose of flyover
construction is to relieve congestion on this road as a vehicle to accommodate tens of
thousands at a time.
Proper road maintenance contributes to reliable transport at reduced cost, as there is a
direct link between road condition and vehicle operating costs (VOC). Maintenance that
carried out on the road is Medan Gopeng 2 one time in ten years.



- Engineer Jabatan Kerja Raya : Mr Syahrol Faizal bin Yaakob