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Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.

in)
By
Dr. Rajiv Tiwari
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 781039
Under AICTE Sponsored QIP Short Term Course on
Theory & Practice of Rotor Dynamics
(15-19 Dec 2008)
IIT Guwahati
ANALYSIS OF
SIMPLE ROTOR SYSTEMS
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
INTRODUCTION
Rotating machines are extensively used in diverse
engineering applications, such as
power stations
marine propulsion systems
aircraft engines
machine tools
automobiles and
household accessories
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Single Spindle Counter Rotating Gundrill
Electrical motor
Rotor of an electrical motor
Rolling bearing
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
CNC machine equipped with 12 rotating tools and two spindles.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Different stages of a turbomachinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Different stages of a turbomachinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Balancing of a big rotating machinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dynamic balancing center
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
A turbo-machinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Pumps, motors and rotating machines can be monitored for signs of
poor lubrication, shaft misalignment or bearing failure.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The design trend of such systems in modern
engineering is towards
lower weight
operating at super critical speeds
Of the many published works, the most extensive
portion of the literature on rotor dynamics is concerned
with determining
critical speeds
natural whirl frequencies
instability thresholds and
imbalance response
INTRODUCTION
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
SINGLE MASS ROTOR MODELS
For understanding basic phenomena of any dynamic
system requires adequate modeling of the system.
The rotor is considered as single mass in the form of a
point mass, a rigid disc or a long rigid shaft.
In this section we present simple rotor models and
analyze them to illustrate their behavior.
Single DOF Rotor Model
Rankine Rotor Model
Jeffcott Rotor Model
Rigid Rotor Supported on Flexible Bearings
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The simplest model of the rotor system
can be single DOF.
Two types of rotor model are shown here
In Figure 1.1(a) the bearing (support) is
assumed to be rigid (simply supported)
and the shaft as flexible.
The mass of the rotor is considered as
that of rigid disc that is mounted on the
massless flexible shaft.
In Figure 1.1(b) the bearing is
assumed to be flexible and the rotor as
rigid.
Both the cases can be idealized as a
single DOF as shown in Figure 1.1(c).
1.1 Single DOF Rotor Model
Fig 1.1(b)
A rigid rotor
mounted on flexible
bearings
Fig 1.1(a)
A flexible rotor
mounted on rigid
bearings
Fig 1.1(c)
An equivalent
single degree of
freedom spring-
mass system
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
If the rotor is perfectly balanced then theoretically
speaking there will not be any imbalance force as
shown in Figure 1.2(a). In actual practice it is
impossible to have a perfectly balanced rotor.
The rotor imbalance gives a sinusoidal force at the
rotor rotational frequency. Thus, the imbalance
force is modeled as sinusoidal force
where m is the mass of the rotor, is the spin
speed of the rotor and e is the eccentricity of the
rotor
When the rotor is not eccentric, however, a small
imbalance mass, is attached at a relatively
larger radius of (see Figure 1.2(c)), the
imbalance force can be written as
For the case when the rotor is eccentric and a
small imbalance mass is attached as shown in
Figure 1.2(d), the imbalance force will be
where is the phase difference between the
vectors of imbalance forces due to the rotor
eccentricity and the imbalance mass

i
r i
m
t e m t F sin ) (
2
=
(1)
t r m t F
i i
sin ) (
2
=
(2)
) sin( sin ) (
2 2
+ + = t r m t e m t F
i i
(3)

No imbalance
Fig 1.2(a)
Rotor geometrical centre and
centre of gravity coincident
Fig 1.2(b)
Rotor geometrical centre
and centre of gravity not
coincident
Imbalance force =
mass of rotor eccentricity
square of spin speed
Imbalance force =
mass of rotor radius
square of spin speed
Fig 1.2(c)
Rotor geometrical centre,
centre of gravity and an
additional imbalance mass
Imbalance force is the
vector addition of forces
due to the rotor and
imbalance forces
Fig 1.2(d)
Rotor geometrical center, centre of
gravity and imbalance mass
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
o

y
At time, t = 0
C
G
x
y
x o
At time, t

G
C
Fig 1.3 The unbalance location on a rotor system
Figure 1.3 shows the unbalance location on a rotor system.
For a constant angular velocity of the rotor, , the location of the unbalance
is given as t =
=t
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On application of the Newtons law on the free
body of the rotor mass as shown in Figure 1.1(d),
i.e. equating sum of external forces to the mass of
the rotor multiplied by the acceleration of the
center of gravity of the rotor mass, we have
where is the effective stiffness of the rotor
system
Equation (4) is a standard equation of motion of a
single DOF spring-mass system and can be
written as
For the free vibration, when the external
imbalance force is absent, the rotor mass will be
having oscillation and that will be given by
where is the frequency of oscillation during
the free vibration and that is called the natural
frequency of the system. On substituting equation
(6) into the homogeneous part of equation of
motion (5), it gives
Fig 1.1(d) Free body diagram
of the disc mass
y m t e m y k
eff
= + sin
2
(4)
eff
k
t e m y k y m
eff
sin
2
= +
(5)
) sin( ) ( t Y t y
n
= (6)
n

0 ) sin( ) (
2
= + t Y k m
n eff n

(7)
y
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
For the non-trivial solution of equation (7), the natural frequency of the system can
be written as
The steady state forced response can be modeled as
where Y is the amplitude of displacement and is the phase lag of the
displacement with respect to the imbalance force.
On substituting equation (9) into equation (5), the steady state forced response
amplitude can be written as
with
From equation (10) it should be noted that when the spin speed is equal to the
natural frequency of the system as given in equation (8), the undamped steady
state forced response amplitude tends to infinity. This is a resonance condition and
the spin speed corresponding to the resonance is defined as critical speed. Since
damping is not considered in the analysis phase angle, , becomes zero.
/
n eff
k m =
(8)
) sin( ) ( = t Y t y (9)

2
2

m k
me
Y
eff

=
0 =
(10)

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)


The analysis presented in this section can be applied to the
transverse, torsional and axial vibrations of rotors and accordingly
critical speed can be termed by prefixing respective names of
vibrations.
For torsional vibrations care should be taken that mass will be
replaced by the polar mass moment of inertia of rotor and stiffness will
be the torsional stiffness.
Similarly, for axial vibrations mass will remain same as transverse
vibration, however, the stiffness will be the axial stiffness.
The critical speed is given by
1
cr
=
/
cr eff nf
k m = =
or
(11)
The
sign represent that the rotor will have critical speed while rotating in
either clockwise or counter clockwise.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.4 Non-dimensional unbalance
response versus frequency ratio
(a) Linear plot
(b) Semi-log plot
% Non-dimensional unbalance response wrt to
freq ratio "Figure_1_4.m"
% Copywriters: Dr R Tiwari,
Dept of Mechanical Engg., IIT Guwahati.
% 13-01-2005
clear all;
deta_freq=0.005;
freq_ratio(1)=deta_freq;
N_pt=1000;
for ii = 1:1:N_pt
y_resp(ii)=freq_ratio(ii)^2/(1-freq_ratio(ii)^2);
if(ii<N_pt)
freq_ratio(ii+1)=freq_ratio(ii)+deta_freq;
end
end
figure(1)
plot(freq_ratio,abs(y_resp), 'k-', [0 5], [1 1], 'k--');
xlabel('w/wn ---->');
ylabel('y/e ---->');
figure(2)
semilogy(freq_ratio,abs(y_resp), 'k-', [0 5], [1 1], 'k--');
xlabel('w/wn ---->');
ylabel('y/e ---->');
Y
/
e
Y
/
e
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The unbalance response can be reduced by the following methods.
Correction at source i.e. balancing the rotor:
Balancing the rotor is the most direct approach, since it attacks the
problem at source.
However, in practice a rotor cannot be balanced perfectly and that
the best achievable state of balance tends to degrade during
operation of a rotor (e.g. turbomachinery).
There are two type of unbalances
Static unbalance: : The principal axis of the polar mass moment of
inertia of the rotor is parallel to the centerline of the shaft as shown in
Figure 1.5b. The rotor can be balanced by a single plane balancing
Dynamic unbalance: The principal axis of the polar mass moment of
inertia of the rotor is inclined to the centerline of the shaft as shown in
Figure 1.5c & d. For balancing such rotors minimum of two planes are
required.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.5 Classification of unbalances for a short rigid rotor
F
G
G
M
G M
G
(a) Perfectly balance (No force and moment) (b) Static unbalance (pure radial force)
(c) Dynamic unbalance (pure moment) (d) Dynamic unbalance (both force and moment)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Operate rotor away from the critical speed:
(i.e. during design itself or during operation by providing
temporary auxiliary support)
Moving the machine operating speed farther away from the critical
speed can be achieved by changing the rotor operational speed or
by changing the critical speed itself.
The critical speed can be changed either at the design stage or
during operation.
At design stage changing rotor mass or its distributions and
dimensions of the rotor and its support lengths can alter the critical
speed.
During operation auxiliary support can be provided to increase the
effective stiffness of the rotor, which in turn increases the critical
speed
By this arrangement the actual rotor critical speed can be safely
traversed and then the auxiliary support can be withdrawn which
brings the critical speed of the rotor below the operation speed.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Add damping to the system or active control of the rotor:
If a critical speed must be traversed slowly or repeatedly, or
if machine operation near a critical speed can not be
avoided, then the most effective way to reduce the
amplitude of the synchronous whirl is to add damping.
The squeeze film and magnetic bearings are often used to
control the dynamics of such systems.
o Squeeze-film bearings (SFB) are, in effect, fluid-film bearings in
which both the journal and bearing are non-rotating.
o In recent years, advanced development of electromagnetic bearing
technology has enabled the active control of rotor bearing systems
through active magnetic bearings (AMB).
With the development of smart fluids (for example electro
and magneto-rheological fluids) now new controllable
bearings are in the primitive development stage.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Schematics of typical passive and active (i.e. smart or controllable) squeeze
film dampers and active magnetic bearings are shown in Figure 1.6.
Bearing bush
Outer raceway of
rolling bearing (can
displace radially and
constraint not to
rotate.
Squeeze film
Rotor
Oil feed groove
Rotor
Rolling bearing
Electrodes
Teflon
Sensor
Rotor
Power Amplifier Electromagnet
Controller
Fig 1.6 (a) Schematic diagram of squeeze film dampers
Fig 1.6 (b) Smart (active) fluid-film dampers
Fig 1.6 (c) Basic principle of active magnetic bearings
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The single DOF rotor model has
limitations that it cannot represent the
orbital motion of the rotor in two
transverse directions.
Rankine (1869) used a two DOF model
to describe the motion of the rotor in
two transverse directions as shown in
Figure 1.7(a).
The shape of orbit produced depends
upon the relative amplitude and phase
of the motions in two transverse
directions and the orbit could be of
circular, elliptical or straight line,
inclined to x and y axis, as shown in
Figure 1.8.
Fig 1.7(a)
Two degree of freedom spring
mass rotor model
Fig 1.8 (a)
Circular motion
Fig 1.8 (b)
Elliptical motion
Fig 1.8 (c)
Straight line motion
1.2 RANKINE ROTOR MODEL
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
However, as shown in Figure 1.7(b) the free
body diagram the radius of whirling of the
rotor center will increase parabolically with
spin speeds and will be given as
where is the centrifugal force
It can be physically also visualized as there
will not be any resonance condition, as found
in the single DOF model, when the spin
speed is increased gradually. This is a
serious limitation of the Rankine model.
Moreover, this model does not represent the
realistic rotating imbalance force.
Fig 1.7(b)
Free body diagram of the model
k F r
c
/ =
(11)
c
F
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1.3 JEFFCOTT ROTOR MODEL
Figure 1.9 shows a typical Jeffcott rotor.
It consists of a simply supported flexible
massless shaft with a rigid disc mounted
at the mid-span.
The disc center of rotation, C, and its
center of gravity, G, is offset by a
distance, e.
The shaft spin speed is and the shaft
whirls about the bearing axis with whirl
frequency is, . For present case
synchronous condition has been
assumed I.e. = (see Figure 1.10a).
The stiffness of the shaft is expressed as
Fig 1.9(a)
A Jeffcott rotor model
Fig 1.9(b)
A Jeffcott rotor model in y-z
plane
Fig 1.9(c)
Free body diagram of the
disc in x-y plane

3
load/deflection 48 / k EI L = =
(12)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Coordinates to define the position of the
center of rotation of the rotor are and .
The location of the imbalance is given by .
Thus, three dofs are needed to define the
position of the Jeffcott rotor.
From Figure 1.9(c) the force balance in ,
and directions can be written as
and
x
u

y
u

x
u
( )
2
2
cos
x x x
d
ku cu m u e
dt
= +
(13)
( )
2
2
sin
y y y
d
ku cu mg m u e
dt
= +
(14)
cos
d
mge I =

(15)
y
u
Shaft spin
direction
Shaft whirling
direction
Shaft
Shaft spin
direction
Shaft whirling
direction
Shaft
Fig 1.10(a) Synchronous whirl
Fig 1.10(b) Anti-synchronous whirl
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Apart from restoring force contribution from the shaft, the damping
force is also considered. The damping force is idealized as viscous
damper and it is mainly coming from the support and aerodynamic
forces at disc.
The material damping of the shaft will not contribute viscous damping
and it may leads to instability in the rotor and it is not considered here.
For the case i.e. when the disc is rotating at constant spin
speed, the Jeffcott rotor model is reduces to two DOF rotor model.
Neglecting the effect of gravity force, equations of motion in the x and
y can be written as
and
( )
2
2
cos
x x x
d
ku cu m u e t
dt
= +

(16)
t =
( )
2
2
sin
y y y
d
ku cu m u e t
dt
= +

(17)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Equations of motion can be written in the standard from as
It should be noted that equations of motion are uncoupled and motion
can be analyzed independently in two transverse planes.
Noting equation (8), from the undamped free vibration analyses it can
be seen that since the rotor is symmetric rotor hence it will be having
two natural frequencies that are equal and given as
The damping does not affect the natural frequency of the system
appreciably. However, their effect is more predominate for
suppressing the resonance amplitude.
2
cos
x x x
mu cu ku m e t + + =

(18)
2
sin
y y y
mu cu ku m e t + + =

(19)
1,2
/
nf
k m =
(20)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The steady state forced response can be written as
where and are the steady state forced response amplitudes in the
x and y directions, respectively. is the phase lag of the x-direction
displacement with respect to the imbalance force.
The phase difference between the two direction responses will be of
90
0
as two directions are orthogonal to each other. For the direction of
whirling shown in Figure 1.5 i.e. counter clockwise (ccw) for the
present axis system the response in the y direction will lead the x
direction response by radians. Hence the lead of the y direction
response with respect to the force will be .
On taking the first and second derivatives of the response with
respect to time, t, we get
and
x
u
sin( )
cos( )
x x
y y
u U t
u U t


=
=

(22, 23)
y
u

/ 2
/ 2
2
2
cos( )
sin( )
x x
y y
u U t
u U t


=
=

[ ]
cos( )
cos ( ( / 2 ) sin( )
x x
y y y
u U t
u U t U t


=
= + =
(21)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equations (21) to (23) into equation (18) and
separating the in-phase (i.e. ) and quadrature (i.e. ) terms,
we get
Equation (25) gives
which gives
and
cos t
2 2
cos sin cos
x x x
m U cU kU m e + + =
(24)
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
cos
k m
k m c

=
+
( )
( )
2
2
2
sin
c
k m c


=
+
2
sin cos sin 0
x x x
m U cU kU + =
2
tan
c
k m

sin t
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Substituting equations (27) and (28) into equation (24), we get
Similarly, we can obtain response amplitude in the y-direction from
equation (19) as
From equations (29) and (30) it can be seen that because of the
symmetry of the rotor the orbit is circular in nature. An alternative
approach that is very popular in rotor dynamics analyses is to use the
complex algebra to define the whirl radius as
where
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
x
m e
U
k m c


=
+
(29)
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
y
m e
U
k m c


=
+
(30)
r x y
u u ju = +
(31)
1 j =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On multiplying equation (19) by j and adding to equation (18), we get
The steady state response can be assumed as
where is the whirl amplitude (it is a real quantity), is the phase lag
of response with respect to the imbalance force.
On differentiating equation (33) with respect to time, t, we get
On substituting equations (33) and (34) into equation (32), we get
2
e
j t
r r r
mu cu ku me

+ + =
(32)
( )
e
j t
r r
u U

=
(33)

r
U
( ) 2 ( )
e ; e
j t j t
r r r r
u j U u U



= =

(34)
( )
2 2
e
j
r
k m j c U me

(
+ =

(35)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Equation (35) can be written as
On separating the real and imaginary parts of equation (36), we get
From equation (38), we get the phase
On substitution of phase from equations (39) to (37) the whirl
amplitude can be written as
( )
( )
2 2
cos sin
r r
k m j c U jU me
(
+ =

(36)
2 2
( ) cos sin
r r
k m U cU me + =
(37)
2
tan
c
k m

(39)
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
r
m e
U
k m c


=
+
(40)
2
( ) sin cos 0
r r
k m U cU + =
(38)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
;
with
where
is the frequency ratio,
is the natural frequency of non-rotating rotor,
is the damping ratio and
is the critical damping of the system for which the damping ratio is
equal to unity.
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
/
1 2
r r
U U e


= =
+
(41, 42)
/ ; / ; / ; 2
n n c c
k m c c c km = = = =
(43)
n

c
c

Equations (39) and (40) are similar to previous results i.e. equations
(26) to (30). The non-dimensional form of equations (39) and (40) can be
written as
2
2
tan
1

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)


Fig 1.11(a)
Variation of the non-
dimensional response versus
frequency ratio for different
damping ratios
Figure 1.11(a) shows that the maximum
amplitude occurs at slightly higher frequency
than when the damping is present in the
system, however maximum amplitude occurs
at
n
for the undamped case.
The increase in the damping results in
increase in the critical speed, however
damping is the most important parameter for
reducing the whirl amplitude at critical speed.
Since the measurement of the amplitude of
vibration at critical speed is difficult, hence
determination of the precise critical speed is
difficult.
To overcome this problem the measurement
of the phase is advantageous at least to
determine the undamped natural frequency
of the system.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.11(b)
Variation of the phase versus
frequency ratio for different
damping ratios
As it can be seen from Figure 1.11(b) the
phase angle is 90
0
at frequency even for the
case of damped system.
For lightly underdamped system the phase
angle changes from 0
0
to 90
0
as the spin
speed is increased and becomes 180
0
as the
spin speed is increased to higher frequency
ratio.
For very high-overdamped system the phase
angle always remain at 90
0
before and after
the resonance, which may be a physically
unrealistic case.
As the spin speed crosses the critical speed
the center of the mass of the disc of Jeffcott
rotor comes inside of the whirl orbit and rotor
tries to rotate about the center of gravity.
As can be seen from the graph at the spin
speed approaches infinity the displacement of
the shaft tends to the equal to the disc
eccentricity.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The change in phase between the force and the response is also shown
in Figure 1.7 for three difference spin speeds i.e. below the critical
speed, at the critical speed and above the critical speed.
Fig 1.12(a)
Phase angles between the
force and response vectors
below critical speed
Fig 1.12(b)
Phase angles between the
force and response vectors
at critical speed
Fig 1.12(c)
Phase angles between the
force and response vectors
above critical speed
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
With the development in the software, which can handle complex matrices, the
following procedure may be very helpful for numerical simulation of even very
complicated rotor systems also.
Equations (18) and (19) can be combined in the matrix form as
The force vector in equation (44) is expressed as
where the represents the real part of the quantity inside the parenthesis
and are the imbalance force components in x and y directions,
respectively.
2
2
0 0 0
cos
0 0 0
sin
x x x
y y y
u u u
m c k
m e t
u u u
m c k
m e t



( ( (
+ + =
` ` ` `
( ( (

) ) ) )


(44)
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
cos sin
cos
Re Re Re
sin cos
sin
j t
x
j t
j t
y
me e
F
m e t j t
m e t
e
F
m e t j t
m e t
me je







+

= = =
` ` ` `


) ) )
)
(45)
y x
imb imb
F jF =
(46)
x
imb
F
y
imb
F
Re(.)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equation (45) into equation (44) and henceforth for
brevity the symbol Re(.) will be removed and it can be written as
The relationship (46) is true for the
present axis system and the direction
of whirling of the imbalance force vector
chosen (see Figure 1.8(a)). For this case
leads by 90
0
.
For the direction of whirl opposite to
the axis system as shown in Figure (8(b))
the following relationship will hold
in which case the lags by 90
0
.
0 0 0
0 0 0
x
y
imb
x x x
j t
y y y imb
F
u u u
m c k
e
u u u F m c k



( ( (

+ + =
` ` ` `
( ( (

) ) )
)


(47)
y x
imb imb
F jF =
(48)
Fig 1.8(a)
The direction of whirl same as the
positive axis direction
y
imb
F
x
imb
F
y
imb
F
x
imb
F Fig 1.8(b)
The direction of whirl opposite
to the positive axis direction
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Equation (47) can be written in more compact form as
The solution can be chosen as
where the vector elements are, in general, complex quantity.
The above equation gives
On substituting equations (50) and (51) into equation (49), we get
The above equation can be written as
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
j t
imb
M u C u K u F e

+ + =
(49)
{ } { } { } { }
2
and
j t j t
u j U e u U e

= =
(51)
{ } { }
j t
u U e

=
} {
U
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
{ } { }
2
imb
M K j C U F + + =
(50)
(52)
[ ]{ } { }
imb
Z U F =
(53)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
with
where is the dynamic stiffness matrix.
The response can be obtained as
where the vector elements are, in general, complex.
The above method is quite general in nature and it can be applied to
multi-dof systems once equations of motion in the standard form are
available.
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
Z M K j C = + +
(54)
{ } [ ] { }
1
imb
U Z F

=
} {
x
U
[ ]
Z
(55)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Obtain the response for the following form of equations of motion
and
The first equation can be written as
with
in which the real part of the right hand side term has meaning. The
solution can be assumed as
where in general is a complex quantity. The above equation gives
On substituting in equation of motion, we get
j t
x x
u U e

=
2
x
F me =
j t
x x x
mu ku F e

+ =
2
cos
x x
mu ku m e t + =
2
sin
y y
mu ku m e t + =
x
U
2 j t
x x
u U e

=
( )
2 2
x x
m U kU me + =
Example
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
which gives
Hence the solution becomes
Similarly for the second equation of motion can be written as
with
in which the real part of the right hand side term only has meaning.
The solution can be assumed as
where in general is a complex quantity. The above equation
gives
j t
y y
u U e

=
2
y
F jme =
j t
y y y
mu ku F e

+ =
2
2
x
me
U
k m

2 2 2
2 2 2
Re (cos sin ) cos
j t
x
me me me
u e t j t t
k m k m k m




| |
= = + =
|

\ .
y
U
2 j t
y y
u U e

=
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting in equation of motion, we get
which gives
Hence the solution becomes
(Answer)
( )
2
y y y
m U kU F + =
2
y
y
F
U
k m
=

2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
(cos sin )
Re ( cos sin ) sin
y j t j t
y
F
jme jme
u e e t j t
k m k m k m
me me
j t t t
k m k m








= = = +

| |
= + =
|

\ .
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.14(b)
Free body diagram of the disc
in the x-y plane
More generalized model of Jeffcott rotor
Disc offset from the midspan in the y-z plane
Fig 1.14(a)
A Jeffcott rotor with a disc
offset from the midspan in
the y-z plane
Fig 1.14(c)
Free body diagram of the disc
in the y-z plane
Fig 1.14(d)
Free body diagram of the shaft
in the y-z plane
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Disc offset from the midspan in the z-x plane
Fig 1.15(a)
A Jeffcott rotor with a disc offset
from the midspan in the z-x plane
More generalized model of Jeffcott rotor
Fig 1.15(b)
Free body diagram of the
shaft in the z-x plane
Fig 1.15(c)
Free body diagram of the
disc in the z-x plane
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
More generalized Jeffcott Rotor Model
Figures 14 and 15 show a more general case of Jeffcott rotor when
the rigid disc is placed with some offset from the mid-span,
respectively in y-z and x-z planes.
For such rotors apart from two transverse displacements of center of
the disc i.e. and , the tilting of the disc about the x and y axis i.e.
and , also occurs and makes the rotor system as four dofs.
In figure the point C is the geometrical center and G is the center of
gravity of the disc.
From geometry the component, we can have the following relations
From Figure 9(b) equations of motion of the disc can be written as
and
x
u
(56)
cos ; sin
x y
e e t e e t = =
y
u
y

(57, 58)
( )
2
2
cos
y d y y x
d
F m u e
dt
= +
yz x x
M I =

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
From above equations it can be observed that equations are coupled
with titling component of the displacement,
Similarly, from Figure 10(b) we can write equations of motion as
and
Equations (59) and (60) are coupled with titling component of the
displacement,
However, two transverse plane motions are not coupled and that will
allow two-plane motion to analyze independent of each other i.e. set of
equations (57 and 58) and equations (59 and 60) can be solved
independent of each other.
The analyses can be further simplified with the assumption of small
tilting angle i.e. and equations (57 and 59) can be
simplified as
x

(59, 60)
zx y y
M I =

( )
2
2
cos
x d x x y
d
F m u e
dt
= +
y

cos cos 1
x y
=
2
sin
d y y d
m u F m e t + =

(61)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
and
Equations (61, 58, 62, 60) can be assembled as
which can be written in matrix notation as
with
where is the reaction force/moment vector.
2
cos
d x x d
m u F m e t + =

(62)
2
2
0 0 0
sin
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
cos
0 0 0
0
d y
y
d
x x
yz
d x
x
d
y y
zx
m u
F
m e t
I
M
m u
F
m e t
I
M

(
(

(
+ =
` ` `
(

(

(
) ) )

(63)
[ ]{ } { } { }
imb
M u R f + = (64, 65)
[ ]
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
d
x
d
y
m
I
M
m
I
(
(
(
=
(
(
(

{ }
R
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The reaction forces and moments onto the shaft can be expressed in
terms of the shaft displacements at disc location with the help of
influence coefficients as
where represent the displacement at station due to a unit force
at station.
Equation (66) can be written in the matrix form as
which gives
where is the stiffness coefficients and defined as force at station
due to a unit displacement at station.
11 12
21 22
x x zx
y x zx
u F M
F M


= +
= +
(66)
ij

th
i
th
j
11 12
21 22
x x
y zx
u
F
M



(
=
` `
(
)
)
(67)
1
11 12 11 12
21 22 21 22
x x x
y y zx
u u
F k k
M k k



( (
= =
` ` `
( (
)
) )
ij

th
i
th
j
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Similarly, since the shaft is symmetric about its rotational axis, we can
obtain
Equations (67) and (68) can be combined as
which can be written in matrix notation as
with
11 12
21 22
y
y
yz
x
F
u k k
M
k k

(
=
` `
(
)
)
(68)
11 12
21 22
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
y y
x
yz
x
x
y
zx
u F k k
M k k
u
F k k
M k k


(

(

(
=
` `
(

(

)
)
(69)
{ } [ ]{ }
R K u =
(70, 71)
[ ]
11 12
21 22
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
k k
k k
K
k k
k k
(
(
(
=
(
(

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting reaction forces and moments from equations (70) into
equations of motion i.e. equation (64), we get
In general, for the simple harmonic vibration, we can write
On substituting in equation (73), we get the response as
with
where is the dynamic stiffness matrix, in general, elements of this
matrix are complex quantity, however, since the damping is not
considered here they are real quantities.
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
imb
M u K u f + =
(72)
{ } { }
2
u u =
(73)
{ } [ ] { }
1
imb
u Z f

=
(74, 75)
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
Z K M =
[ ]
Z
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Finding the bearing critical speed of a rotor system shown in Figure 1.16
Take E = 2.110
11
N/m
2
.
Fig 1.16
Solution:
Fig 1.17
The influence coefficient is given as
( )
2 2 2
( )
, ( )
6
bx l x b
y x
x a
F EIL


= =
8
1 11
1 1
2316.83 rad/s
10 1.863 10
n
m


= = =

2 2 2
8
0.6
11 11
0.4
11 4
0.4 0.6 1 0.6 0.4
1.863 10 m/N
6 2.1 10 (0.1) 1
64
x a
b

= =
=
(

= = =

Then calculate the natural frequency as
For obtaining
11

we have x =0.6 m, l = 1.0 m and b = 0.4 m.


Example 1:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 2:
Obtain the transverse critical speeds of a Jeffcot rotor system as shown in Figure 1.
Take the mass of the disc, m = 10 kg, the diametral mass moment of inertia, I
d
= 0.02
kg-m2 and the disc is placed at 0.25 m from the right support. The shaft is having
diameter of 10 mm and total length of the span of 1 m. The shaft is assumed to be
massless. Use one of these methods (i) mechanical Impedance or (ii) dynamic
stiffness. Take shaft Youngs modulus E = 2.1 1011 N/m2. Neglect the gyroscopic
effects. Take one plane motion only.
Figure 1.18 A Jeffcott rotor system
2 2
4
11
1.137 10
3
a b
EIl


= =
( )
2 3 2 4
12
3 2 3 3.03 10 a l a al EIl

= =
4
21
( ) 3 3.03 10 ab b a EIl

= =
( )
2 2 3
22
3 3 3 1.41 10 al a l EIl

= =
For the present problem only single plane
motion is considered. For free vibration, from
equation (70), we get
1
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
d
m x x
I

( (
+
` ` `
( (
) ) )

Since it will execute the SHM, we have


1
11 12 2
21 22
0 0
0 0
nf
d
m x
I

| |
( (
| + =
` `
( (
|
) )
\ .
Solution:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Previous equation is an eigen value problem. For non-trial solution, we have
1
11 12 2
21 22
0
0
0
nf
d
m
I

| |
( (
| + =
( (
|

\ .
which gives a frequency equation in the form of a polynomial, as
( )
( )
4 2 2
11 22 12 11 22
1 0
d nf nf d
mI m I + + =
On substituting the present problem parameters values, it gives
4 4 2 7
8.505 10 7.3 10 0
nf nf
+ =
4 . 29
1
=
n

290
2
=
n

It can be solved to give two natural frequency of the system as


rad/sec and rad/sec
Example 2 contd
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 3:
The rotor of a turbine 13.6 kg in mass is supported at the mid span of a shaft
with bearings 0.4064 m. apart. The rotor is known to have an unbalance of
0.2879 kg-cm. Determine the forces exerted on the bearings at speed of 6000
rpm if the diameter of the steel shaft is 2.54 cm. Assume the shaft to be
simply supported at the bearings. Take E = 200 GNm-2.
Solution:
The following data are available
U = me = 0.2879 kg-cm,
M = 13.6 kg;
e = 0.0211 cm,
= 6000 rpm,
D = 2.54 cm,
E = 200109 N/m2
( )
2
2 3
2 6000
0.2879 10 113.66N
60
me


= = =
56.83cos 200 = 56.83cos 200 133.4 N
56.83sin 200 N
F t mg t
x
F t
y
= + +
=
(i). For rigid rotor & rigid bearings.
Unbalance force
Force at each bearing (amplitude)
= 113.66/2 = 56.83 N
The component of forces in vertical &
horizontal directions are given
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
/ 2 / 2
A B y
R R F ky = = =
( ) ( ) ( )
4 3
3 11 6
48 / 48 2.0 10 0.0254 / 0.4064 2.92 10 N/m
64
k EI l

= = =
`
)
2
me ky my =
2
y y =
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
4

2 2
6
0.2879 10 200
4.64 10 m
2.92 10 13.6 200
me
y
k m


= = =


(ii) For flexible rotor and rigid bearings.
The bearing reaction forces can be written as
since F
y
= ky (A)
EOM of the disc,
from the free body diagram of the disc is given as
For simple harmonic motion
The above equation can be written as
The stiffness is given as
Figure 1.20
( )
6 4
/ 2 2.92 10 4.64 10 / 2 677.6 N
A
R ky

= = =
677.6 cos200 133.4 N and 677.7 sin200 N
A A
x y
R t R t = + =
From the equation (A), we have
The component of the forces in the vertical
& horizontal direction can be obtained as
Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
(iii) From EOM of the disc,
we have
( )
2
y
F m y e = +
2 2 4
13.6 (200) [0.0211 10 ( 4.64 10 ] 1358.4 N

= + =
/ 2 679.2 N
A B y
R R F = = =
2 2
11 12
11
2
21 22
21
0
A
B
R C C
C me me
R C C
C me

( (
= =
` ` (
(
) )
[ ][ ][ ]{ } [ ]{ } P K Z F C F = =
Hence bearing forces are
(iv) Bearing forces are given as
1 1 2 1 0.4064
[ ]
1 1 2 1 0.4064
b l l
P
a l l

( (
= =
( (

( ) ( )
2 2 2 3 2
3
11 22 12 21
- 3 - 3 - - 3 - 2 -
( - )
; , 0; 0
48 3 (12 ) 3 3
al a l a l a al
l l ab b a
EI EIl EI EIl EIl
= = = = = = =
where
Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1
3 6
11 11 12
5
12 22
22
1 0
48 / 0 2.92 10 0
[ ]
0 1
0 12 / 0 1.21 10
EI l
K
EI l

(
( ( (
( = = = =
( ( (

(


[ ]
1 1
2
2 2
11
11 12 11
2 2
21 22 22
2
22
7
6
1
0
0
1 0
0
4.08 10 0
0 1.369 10
d d
d
k m
k m k k m
Z
k k I k I
k I

(
(
( (
(
= =
( (
(

(


(
=
(


[ ]
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
11 11
22
2
22
11 22
11
2 2
2
11
11
22
22
11 22
2
2 2
22
11 22
1
0
0
1
[ ] [ ] [ ]
1 1 0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
d
d
d
d
k
k m b l l
C P K Z
a l l k
k I
k b l k l
k
k m k I
k m b l l
k a l l
k a l k l
k I
k m k I


(
(
(

(
(
( = =
(
(
(


(


(
(
(
(


(
(
(
= =
(
(
(

(
(

(



Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting from equation (10), we have
( )
( )
11 2 2 2 2
11
;
11 21
2
2
11
11
A B
k a l
k a l
R C me me R C me me
k m
k m




= = = =
` `

)
)
From above equations, we have
6
2 2
6 2
2.92 10 (1/ 2)
(0.2879 10 ) (200 ) 677.6 N
2.92 10 13.6 (200 )
677.6 N
A
B
R
R


= =

=
Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 4.
Find the transverse natural frequency of a rotor system as shown in Figure
1.21. Consider shaft as massless and is made of steel with 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 of
Youngs modulus, E, and 7800 kg/m3 of mass density, . The disc has 10 kg
of mass. The shaft is simply supported at ends (In the diagram all dimensions are
in cm).
Solution:
Fig 1.21
Fig 1.22
Considering only linear displacement, first we will obtain the stiffness (or
influence coefficients ) for the present problem using energy method.
11

On taking force and moment balance, we have


0 0
v A B
F F F F + = + =

0 1 0.6 0
A B
M F F + = =

which gives reaction forces as


0.6 and 0.4
B A
F F F F = =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.23 Free body diagram of shaft segment
for 0 x 0.6
Bending moments are obtained at various segments of the shaft to get the
strain energy of the system. On taking the moment balance in the free body
diagram as shown above of the shaft segment for 0.0 x 0.6, we get
1 1
0 0.4 0; or 0.4 , 0 0.6
A x x
M M Fx M Fx x = = =

Fig 1.24 Free body diagram of shaft segment


for 0.6 x 1.0
On taking the moment balance in the free body diagram as shown above of the shaft
segment for 0.6 x 1.0, we get
2
2
0 ( 0.6) 0.4 0 or 0.6 (1 ); 0.6 1.0
x x x
M M F x Fx M F x x = + = =

Example 4 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1 1
0.6 1.0
2 2
1 1
0 0.6
2 2
x x
M dx M dx
U
EI EI
= + } }
( )
( )
2
1
1 2
0.6 0.6
0 0
1
2
/
/
x
x
x
x
M M F dx
M M F dx
U
F
EI EI

= = +

} }
{ }{ }
0.6 1
1 2 1 2
0 0.6
0.6 (1 ) ( 0.6(1 )
( 0.4 )( 0.4 ) 0.01152 0.00768
F x x dx
Fx x dx
F
EI EI EI EI

| |

= + = +
|
\ .
} }
The strain energy is expressed as
The linear displacement is expressed as
On substituting bending moment expression obtained earlier, we get
The stiffness is given as
1
7

0.01152 0.00768
8.45 10 N/m
1 2
F
k
EI EI

(
= = + = (
(

Example 4 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
11 2 4 6 4 3 4 4
; ;
2
1
2 10 N/m 0.1 4.907 10 m 0.3 3.976 10 m
64 64
E I I


= = = = =
7
8.45 10
2906.81 rad/s
10
k
p
m

= = =
where
which gives natural frequency as
It should be noted that the tilting motion of the disc has not considered
Example 4 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
More general form of the Jeffcott rotor response is equation(75) , the
forcing is assumed to be from the imbalance only and then it can be
expressed as
with
where superscripts and represent the terms real and imaginary,
respectively. The vector contains amplitude and phase
information of the imbalance forcing with respect to some convenient
shaft location and is the total dofs of the system.
The solution can be written as
The response can be obtained as
with
{ } { }
j t
imb imb
f F e

= (76, 77)
{ } { }
j t
u U e

=
N
k k k
r i
imb imb imb
F F jF = + 1, 2. , k N =
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
Z K M =
(78)
{ }
imb
F
i
r
{ }
1
[ ] { }
j t
imb
u Z F e

=
(79, 80)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Similar to the force amplitude vector, the response vector will also
have complex quantities and can be written as
which will give amplitude and phase information, as
and
If displacement is defined, as
and
Equations of motion (72) can be written as
with
r i
k k k
U U jU = +
(81)
1, 2, , k N =
( ) ( )
2 2
amp r i
k k k
U U U = +
(82, 83)
( )
1
tan /
phase i k
k k k
U U U

=
r x y
u u ju = +
(84, 85)
r y x
j = +
2
11 12
j t
d r r r d
m u k u k m e e

+ + =
(86)
21 22
0
d r r r
I k u k + + =

(87)
d x y
I I I = =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Let the solution be
and
where and are whirl amplitude and phase respectively, so that
and
On substituting above solutions into equations of motion (86-87), we
get
Equation (90) can be expressed as
On substituting the above equation into equation (89), we get
( )
u
r
j t
r r
u U e

=
(88)
( )
r
j t
r r
e


=
( )
2 u
r
j t
r r
u U e

( )
2
r
j t
r r
e




=

r
U r

( )
( )
2 2
11 12
u
r r
j j t
d r r d
k m U e k e m e




+ =
(89)
( )
( )
2
21 22
0
u
r r
j j t
r r r
k U e k I e


+ =
(90)
( )
( )
21
2
22
u
r r
j t j
r r
r
k
e U e
k I

(91)
( )( )
( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
2
2
22
u
r
d r j
r d
r
k m k I k k
U e m e
k I

(

( =
(

(92)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On equating the real and imaginary parts of both sides of equation
(92), we get
and
From the second equation, we get
which means there will not be any phase difference.
On substituting phase information in equation (93), we get
which is the whirl amplitude.
( )( )
( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
2
2
22
cos
r
d r
r u d
r
k m k I k k
U m e
k I

(

( =
(

(93)
( )( )
( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
2
22
sin 0
r
d r
r u
r
k m k I k k
U
k I

(

( =
(

(94)
sin 0; i.e. 0
r r
u u
= =
( )
( )( )
2 2
22
2 2
11 22 12 21
d r
r
d r
m e k I
U
k m k I k k

=

(95)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The condition of resonance can be obtained by equating denominator
of equation (95) to zero
By defining
and
Equation (96) can be written as
The solution of the above polynomial can be expressed as
which represents the critical speeds of the rotor system.
It can be seen that term inside the square root is always positive i.e.
which can be written as
( )( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
0
d cr r cr
k m k I k k =
(96)
2
11
,
u
d
k
m
=
(97)
( ) ( )
4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
cr u cr u u u
+ + =
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
4 0
u u u u
+ >
(100)
2
22
r
k
I

=
2
21
u
r
k
I

=
2
12
u
d
k
m

=
(98)
( ) ( ) ( )
1,2
2
1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
4
cr u u u u u
= + +
(99)
( )
2
2 2 2 2
4 0
u u u
+ >
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
It can be seen that above condition be always true since all individual
terms , , , and are real quantity. However, the following term
inside the square root can be
which gives two critical speeds. The above term can be
which gives only one critical speed since one pair root will be complex
conjugate. Figure 1.11 gives these two cases.
( )
2 2 2 2
0
u u u
>
(101)
u

( )
2 2 2 2
0
u u u
<
(102)
( ) 0
2 2 2 2
>


u u u
Figure 1.25(a)
( ) 0
2 2 2 2
<


u u u
Figure 1.25(b)
Term inside the sqrt is less than outside
Term inside the sqrt is more than outside
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
12 21
0 k k = =
( )
( )( ) ( )
2 2
2
22
2 2 2
11 22 11
d r
d
r
d r d
m e k I
m e
U
k m k I k m


= =

For the disc at the center of the shaft span, we have
which gives
which is same as discussed in the previous section for Jeffcott rotor.
The response is shown in Figure 1.25(c).
Fig 1.25(c) Amplitude versus spin speed for
12 21
0 k k = =
(103)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
( )
( )
( )( )
2 2
22
21
2
2 2
22
11 22 12 21
r
d r j
r
r
d r
m e k I
k
e
k I
k m k I k k

=
(



sin 0; i.e. 0
r r

= =
( )( )
2
21
2 2
11 22 12 21
d
r
d r
m ek
k m k I k k


=
(


On substituting equation (95) into equation (91), we get
From the above equation, we get
which means there will not be any phase difference. On substituting phase
information in equation (104), we get
(104)
(105)
(106)
which is the whirl amplitude of angular displacement and the condition
of resonance can be obtained by equating the denominator of equation
(106) to zero, which is same as the previous case. For disc at the center
of the shaft span, we have
12 21
0 k k = = , which gives
0
r
=
(107)
which is very obvious since when the disc is at the center of the shaft
span, it will not produce any moments and hence there will not be tilting of
the disc take place.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Bearing reaction forces:
The forces transmitted through bearings are those are related to the
deflection of the shaft.
Fig 1.26 Bearing reaction forces on the shaft
1
0 0 or
A ya yz B B y yz
a
M F M R l R F M
l l
= = =

1
0 0 or
B A y yz A y yz
b
M R l F b M R F M
l l
= = = +

On taking moment about ends A and B of the shaft,


we have
(108)
(109)
From above equations, the bearing reaction forces at A and B are related
to the loading on the shaft Fy and Myz, in matrix form as follows
1
1
y
A
yz
B
F
R b l l
M
R a l l

(
=
` `
(

)
)
(110)
or {R} = [D] {p} with [ ]
1
1
b l l
D
a l l
(
=
(


(111)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Using equations (70) and (80), equation (111) can be written as
{R} = [D] [K] {d}=[D] [K] [Z] {f}=[C] {f}
(112)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
11 12 22 21 12 22
12 12
11
2
2
21 22 21
11 21 22 21 12 22
0
d
A
B
d
bk k k I k bk k
R C C
me C me me
R C C l me C
ak k k I k ak k



+ +
(

= = =
` ` ` `
(

) ) )
)
with
( )( )
2 2
11 22 12 21 d cr r cr
k m k I k k =
which can be expanded as
(113)
Bearing reaction forces will be having similar variation as of the
response, since it has the same denominator,
It can be shown from equation (113) that the forces transmitted through
the bearings are also a maximum at the system critical speed. These
forces are dynamic forces and are superimposed on any steady loads,
which may be present, due to gravity loading for example.

as that of the response.


Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1.4 Symmetrical rigid shaft in flexible anisotropic bearings
In systems where the bearings are far more flexible than the shaft it is the
bearings, which will have the greatest influence on the motion of the rotor.
Such rotors may be idealized as rigid rotor.
Fig 1.28(b) Positive conversions of angular displacements.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
It is assumed that the shaft has no flexibility
The bearings are assumed to behave as linear springs having a stiffness
kx in the horizontal direction and ky in the vertical direction. m is the rotor
mass.
The center of gravity is offset from geometrical center by distances e and d
as shown in Figure 1.28(a). x and y are the linear displacements of the rotor
(geometrical center) in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively.
and are the angular displacement of the rotor (geometrical center line)
in the z-x and y-z planes, respectively.
Since for the present case there is no coupling between various
displacements i.e. x, y, and . Hence free body diagrams and equations of
motion have been obtained by giving such displacements independent of
each other.
Assumptions:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
2
cos -
x
me t k x mx =

2
sin
y
me t k y my =

2 2
cos
x d
me d t k l I =

2 2
sin
y d
me d t k l I =

EOM in the x and y directions are
and
EOM in the and directions are
and
(117)
(116)
(115)
(114)
Fig 1.29(a) Free body diagram of the rotor in y-z plane
Fig 1.29(b) Free body diagram of the
rotor in x-y plane
Fig 1.29(c) Free body diagram of the
rotor in z-x plane
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
For sinusoidal vibrations, we can write
2 2 2 2
, , and x x y y = = = =


2 2
2 2
cos cos ; sin sin
x y
me me
x t X t y t Y t
k m k m



= = = =

2 2
2 2 2 2
cos cos and sin sin
x d y d
me d me d
t t t t
k l I k l I



= = = =

Substituting equation (118) into equations (114) to (117),
the unbalance response can be expressed as
(118)
(119)
Critical speeds can be written as
1 2 3 4
2
2
; ; ; and
y y
x x
cr cr cr cr
d d
k k l
k k l
m m I I
= = = =
(120)
From equation (119) on squaring x and y and adding, it gives
2 2
2 2
1
x y
X Y
+ =
(121)
(It is an equation of ellipse. )
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Similarly from equation (119), we get
2 2
2 2
1

+ =

(122)
Equation (122), relating to the angular motion of the rotor, is also the equation of
an ellipse.
o This means that there is an elliptical orbital trajectory of the rotor ends due
to angular motion of the rotor.
o This rotor motion is caused by the imbalance couple me
2
d acting on the
rotor, and it is superimposed on the lateral motion described previously.
o A reversal of the direction of the orbit associated with this motion also
occurs, between two critical speeds associated with angular motion of the
rotor (i.e.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Figure 1.30 Whirl directions with respect to the shaft spin frequency
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Figure 1.31 Mode Shapes for a rigid rotor mounted on flexible bearings
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The amplitude of the force transmitted to the bearings is different in
horizontal and vertical directions, as well as at each end of the rotor.
The force transmitted is that which causes the bearings to deform
and is given by the product of spring stiffness and rotor deflection at
the bearing.
The bearing force amplitudes are
in horizontal and vertical direction respectively.
The + sign refers to the angular motion of the rotor causes the rotor
end to deflect in the same direction to the lateral deflections of the
rotor and the - sign refers to the angular motion of the rotor causes
the rotor end to deflection in the opposite direction to the lateral
deflections of the rotor.
These bearing forces must take on maximum values when the
system is operated at the critical speeds, where x, y, and are
maximum.
( ) ( )
; and
2 2
y
x
x y
k
k
F x l F y l = =
(125)
Important Notes:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 8.
A long rigid symmetric rotor is supported at ends by two identical
bearings. Let the shaft has the diameter of 0.2 m, the length of shaft
is 1 m and the mass density of the shaft material equal to 7800
kg/m3. The bearing dynamic characteristics are as follows: kxx = kyy
= 1 kN/mm with rest of the stiffness and damping terms equal to zero.
By considering the gyroscopic effect negligible also, obtain the
natural frequencies of the system.
Since cross-coupled stiffness coefficients is x and y directions are zero
and no gyroscopic effect is considered, hence single plane motion can be
considered one at a time. For the present analysis there is no coupling is
considered between the linear and rotational displacements and since
stiffness in x and y direction is same hence natural frequencies in these
directions can be written as
Similarly natural frequencies corresponding to the tilting motion can be
written as
1,2
6
2 2 1 10
90.34 rad/s
245.04
k
m


= = =
2 2 2
3,4
1 10 1
154.184 rad/s
2 2 21.0326
d
kl
I


= = =

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)


Example 9:
Find the bending critical speed of the system shown in Figure 1.32 in
which the disc is made of solid steel with a diameter of 127 mm, and a
thickness of 25.4 mm. The mass density of the steel is 7800 kg/m3. The
disc D is placed in the middle of a shaft and the total length of the steel
shaft between bearings is 508 mm, and its diameter is 12.7 mm. The
bearings have equal flexibility in all directions, the constant for either one
of them being k = 175 N/m. (b) Solve the same problem as part (a)
except that the bearings have different vertical and horizontal flexibilities:
khoz = 175 N/m and khoz = 350 N/m for each of the bearings. Neglect
the cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and the mass of the shaft and
treat it as rigid.
Fig 1.32 A rigid rotor on flexible support
2
0 and 0
x d x
mx k x I k l + = + =

2
x
k k =
2
2 0 and 0
d
mx kx I kl + = + =

EOM can be written as


Since , we have
Solution (a):
2

7800 (0.127) (0.0254) 2.51 kg


4
m = = ( )
2
1 1 2 2
2 2
2.51 0.127 / 2 0.00504 kg-m
d
I mr = = =
1 2
2
2 2
11.836 rad/s and 133.87 rad/s
n n
k kl
m m
= = = =
The mass and mass moment of inertia of the disc are given as
;
The natural frequencies are given as
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
With different stiffness properties in horizontal & vertical directions, the
natural frequencies are given as
1 2
3 4
2 2
2 2
16.73 rad/s; 11.84 rad/s
2 2
189.32 rad/s; and 133.87 rad/s
ver hoz
n n
ver hoz
n n
d d
k k
m m
k l k l
I I


= = = =
= = = =
Answer
Solution (b):
Example 9 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 10:
Find critical speeds of a rotor system as shown in Figure 1.33
1.1 kN/mm
A
x
k =
1.8 kN/mm
A
y
k = 3.1 kN/mm
B
k
x
=
3.8 kN/mm
B
y
k =
Take the bearing stiffness properties as:
;
;
and
.
2 2
cos and sin
A B A B
x x y y
me t k x k x mx me t k y k y my = =
2 2 2
sin and
A B
y y d
me d t k l k l I =

Solution:
Equations of motion in x & y directions are
Equations of motion in and directions are
2 2 2
sin
A B
y y d
me d t k l k l I =

The steady state force vibration responses
can be obtain as
2
2
2
cos ; sin
2
A B A B
x x y y
me me
x t y t
k k m k k m



= =
+ +
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2

cos ; sin

A B A B
x x d y y d
me d me d
t t
k k l I k k l I

= =
+ +
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On equating determinates of responses, critical speeds can be obtained as
( )
( )
6
1
6
2
2
6 2
3
2
6 2
4
(1.1 3.1) 10
648 rad/s;
10
(1.8 3.8) 10
748.3 rad/s
10
(1.1 3.1) 10 1
6480.7 rad/s;
0.1
(1.8 3.8) 10 1
748.3 rad/s
0.1
A B
A B
A B
A B
x x
y y
x x
d
y y
d
p
m
p
m
l
p
I
l
p
I
k k
k k
k k
k k
+
= = =
+
= = =
+
= = =
+
= = =
+
+
+
+
Answer
Example 10 contd..:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1.5 Symmetrical rigid shaft in flexible anisotropic
bearings with damping and cross coupling
For the case of oil-film lubricated bearings the bearing have associated
damping properties as well as spring stiffness properties.
Furthermore in case of hydrodynamic bearings the shaft motion in the
horizontal direction is coupled with that in the vertical direction.
However, coupling between the translational and tilting motion has not
been considered since the rotor is symmetric.
In most applications the properties of such bearings are described in
terms of the eight linearised bearing stiffness and damping coefficients.
Symmetrical rigid shaft in flexible anisotropic bearings will be identical to Fig 1.28
with cross-coupled terms. The EOM for rotor are given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
-
-
x xx xy xx xy
y yx yy yx yy
xz xx xy xx xy d
yz yx yy yx yy d
F k x k y c x c y mx
F k x k y c x c y my
M k l k l c l c l I
M k l k l c l c l I


=
=
=
=




(126)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
It is assumed that there is no coupling between the linear (i.e. x and y) and
angular displacements (i.e. and ) due to symmetry of the rotor.
The imbalance force me
2
is located same distance from the rotor
geometrical center.
Out of balance forces in the horizontal and vertical directions may then be
written as
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
cos Re Re
t t
x x
F me t me e F e

= = =
2

x
F me =
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
sin Re j Re
t t
y y
F me t me e F e

= = =
2
j
y
F me =
with
with
(127)
x
F
y
F where
and
are complex forces (which contains amplitude and
phase informations) in the x and y directions. These forces are acting at
the center of gravity.
Moments about the rotor geometrical center caused by these forces are
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
cos Re Re
t t
xz xz
M me d t me de M e

= = =
2

xz
M me d =
with
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
sin Re j Re
t t
yz yz
M me d t me de M e

= = =
2
-j
yz
M me d =
with
(128)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The response can be assumed as
j j j j
; ; ; =
t t t t
x Xe y Ye e e

= = =
where X, Y, and are complex displacements.
Equations of motion (126) can be written as
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
( ) M x C x K x f t + + =
[ ] [ ] [ ]
{ } { }
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
; C ; ;
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
( ) ; ( )
xx xy xx xy
yx yy yx yy
xx xy xx xy d
yx yy yx yy d
x
y
xz
c c k k m
c c k k m
M K
l c l c l k l k I
l c l c l k l k I
F
x
F y
x t f t
M

( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
( ( (
( (




= =
`


) yz
M



`


)
The response takes the following form
{ } { } { } { } { } { }
j j 2 j
; so that j and
t t t
x X e x X e x X e

= = =
(129)
(130)
(131)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equations (127), (128) and (131) into equations of motion (130),
we get
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
{ } { }
2
j M C K X F + + =
with
{ } { }
;
x
y
xz
yz
F X
F Y
X F
M
M





= =
` `

)
)
[ ]{ } { }
D X F = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
j D K M C = +
which can be written as with
The response can be obtained as {X} = [D]-1 {F}
The displacement amplitude of the rotor will be given by
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, , ,
r i r i r i r i
X X X Y Y Y = + = + = + = +
(132)
(133)
(134)
(135)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Phase lag will be given by
-1 -1 -1 -1
tan , tan , tan , tan
i i i i
r r r r
X Y
X Y

| | | | | | | |

= = = =
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .
The resulting shaft whirl orbit can be plotted using equation (129) and (134)
j j
and
t t
x Xe y Ye

= =
and in general will be found to take the form as shown in Figure 1.34.
Fig 1.34 Rotor whirl orbit
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 11.
Obtain the bending critical speeds and mode shapes of a rigid rotor,
consist of massless rigid shaft of 2 m of span, 5 kg mass and diametral
mass moment of inertia of 0.1 kg-m2, supported by flexible bearings as
shown in Figure 128. The bearing properties are: kxx = 2.0 104 N/m, kyy
= 8.8 104 N/m, kxy = 1.0 103 N/m, kyx = 1.5 103 N/m, cxx = 1.0 N-s/m, cyy
= 1.0 N-s/m, cxy = 1.0 10-1 N-s/m and kxx = 1.0 10-1 N-s/m. Obtain the
unbalance response (amplitude and phase) at bearing locations when the
radial eccentricity of 0.1 mm and axial eccentricity of 1 mm is present in
the rotor and locate critical speeds.
Solution:
Fig 1.35 shows the unbalance responses both for the linear and
angular displacements. Both the amplitude and phase has been
plotted. It can be observed that in the plot of linear and angular
displacement two peaks appears and they correspond to the critical
speeds of the system. Since the linear and angular displacements are
uncoupled for the present case and hence corresponding critical
speeds appears in respective plots. There are four critical speeds: 70
rad/s, 120 rad/s, 480 rad/s and 920 rad/s
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.35 Amplitude and phase variation with respect to spin speeds
Example 11 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Exercise Problem E1.6.
Obtain the critical speeds for transverse vibrations of rotor-bearing
system as shown in Figure E1.6. Consider shaft as rigid. The shaft is of 1
m of span and the diameter is 0.05 m with the mass density of 7800
kg/m3. The shaft is supported at ends by flexible bearings. Consider the
motion in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Take the following
bearing properties:
For bearing A: kxx = 20 MN/m, kyy = 15 MN/m, kxy = -1.5 MN/m, kyx = 25
MN/m, cxx = 200 kN-s/m, cxy = 150 kN-s/m, cyx = 140 kN-s/m, cyy = 400
kN-s/m,
For bearing B: kxx = 24 MN/m, kyy = 17 MN/m, kxy = -2.5 MN/m, kyx =
30 MN/m, cxx = 210 kN-s/m, cxy = 160 kN-s/m, cyx = 135 kN-s/m, cyy =
380 kN-s/m.
Bearing forces:
The forces, which are transmitted to the bearings, are those, which
deform the bearing lubricant film, and do not include rotor inertia terms.
In general bearing forces will lag behind the imbalance force such that
the bearing horizontal and vertical force components, at one end A of the
machine, can be represented as
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
A bx A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx A xy
A by A yx A yy A yx A yy A yx A yy A yx A yy
B bx B xx B xy B xx B xy B xx B xy B xx B xy
B by B yx B yy B y
f k x k y c x c y k l k l c l c l
f k x k y c x c y k l k l c l c l
f k x k y c x c y k l k l c l c l
f k x k y c



= + + + + + + +
= + + + + + + +
= + + + + + + +
= + +






x B yy B yx B yy B yx B yy
x c y k l k l c l c l + + + + +


where
2, 2
A xx xx B xx xx
k k k k = =
, etc.
Equation (137) is for more general case, which can be written in matrix form as
{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
b b b
f c x k x = +

{ } { } { }
[ ] [ ]
; ; ;
;
A bx
A by
b
B bx
B by
A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx
A yx A yy A yx A yy
b b
B xx B xy B xx B xy
B yx B yy B yx B yy
f
x x
f
y y
f x x
f
f
c c c l c l k k k
c c c l c l
c k
c c c l c l
c c c l c l







= = =
` ` `


) )
)
(
(
(
= =
(
(
(

A xy
A yx A yy A yx A yy
B xx B xy B xx B xy
B yx B yy B yx B yy
l k l
k k k l k l
k k k l k l
k k k l k l
(
(
(
(
(
(

with
(137)
(138)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equation (139) into equation (138), we get
{ } [ ] [ ] ( ){ }
j
b b b
F k c X = +
This can be used to evaluate bearing forces.
The amplitude of forces transmitted to bearings are then given by
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
; ; ;
r i r i r i r i
A bx A bx A bx A by A by A by B bx B bx B bx B by B by B by
F F F F F F F F F F F F + + + + = = = =
with corresponding phase angles are given by
1 1 1 1
tan ; tan ; tan ; tan
i i i i
r r r r
A bx A by B bx B by
A bx A by B bx B by
F F F F
F F F F


( ( ( (
= = = =
( ( ( (
( ( ( (

(140)
(141)
(139)
{ } { } { } { } { } { }
j j j
; j ;
t t t
b b
x X e x X e f F e

= = =

Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)


1.6 Asymmetrical flexible shaft in flexible anistropic bearings
with damping and cross coupling
Fig 1.36
A flexible shaft in flexible bearings
For the present case both the shaft and bearings are flexible.
The analysis allows for different instantaneous displacements of the shaft
at the disc and at bearings.
The system will behave in a similar manner to that described in previous
section, except that the flexibility of shaft will increase the overall flexibility
of the support system as seen by the disc.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
An equivalent set of system stiffness and damping coefficients is first
evaluated, which allows for the flexibility of the shaft in addition to that of
bearings, and is used in place of the bearing coefficients in previous
section analysis.
The total deflection of the disc is the vector sum of the deflection of the
disc relative to the shaft ends plus that of the shaft ends to the
foundation. For disc we observe the displacement of geometrical center
of the disc.
The deflection of shaft ends in bearings is related to the force
transmitted through bearings by the bearing stiffness and damping
coefficients as
bx xx xy xx xy
by yx yy yx yy
f k m k n c m c n
f k m k n c m c n
= + + +
= + + +


where m and n are instantaneous displacements of shaft ends relative to
bearings in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, and take the
form
j j
;
t t
m Me n Ne

= = (143)
(142)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
j j
;
t t
bx bx by by
f F e f F e

= =
j j
j j
bx xx xy xx xy
by yx yy yx yy
F k M k N c M c N
F k M k N c M c N


= + + +
= + + +
{ } [ ]{ }
b
F K V =
The bearing forces have the following form
On substituting in equation of motion (59), we get
which can be written in matrix form as for both bearings A and B as
{ } [ ]
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
{ }
j j 0 0
j j 0 0
;
0 0 j j
0 0 j j
xx xx xy xy
A
A
A bx
yx yx yy yy
A by A A
b
B bx
xx xx xy xy
B
B
B by
yx yx yy yy
B B
T
A A B B
k c k c
F
k c k c
F
F K
F
k c k c
F
k c k c
V M N M N




(
+ +
(
(
+ +

(
= =
`
(
+ +

(

) (
+ +

=
(

with
(145)
(146)
(147)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The magnitude of reaction forces transmitted by bearings can also be
evaluated in terms of the forces applied to the shaft by the rotor. (Hence shaft
is not assumed to be rigid and moment balance is considered).
Fig 1.37 Free body diagram of the shaft
0 ( )
B A by y yz
M l f F l d M = =

( ) ( )
1 1
A by y yz
f d l F l M =
0
A B by y yz
M l f dF M = = +

( ) ( )
1
B by y yz
f d l F l M = +
or
(148)
or
(149)
( ) ( )
1- 1
A bx x xz
f d l F l M = +
( ) ( )
1
B bx x xz
f d l F l M = +
Similarly forces in the horizontal direction may be written as
(150)
(151)
Equations (148-151) can be combined in the matrix form as
{ } [ ]{ }
b s
f A f =
(152)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
{ } { } { } { }
j j
and
t t
b b s s
f F e f F e

= =
{ } [ ]{ }
b s
F A F =
For an unbalance excitation, we have
On substituting equation (153) in equation (147), we get
where subscript b refers to the bearing and s refers to the shaft.
In above equation bearing forces are related to reaction forces at the shaft
Equating equation (147) and (154), we get
[K] {V} = [A]{F
s
} or {V} = [K]
-1
[A] {F
s
} (155)
(153)
(154)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The deflection at the location of the disc due to movement of the
shaft end can be obtained as follows.
Consider the shaft to be rigid for some instant and assuming shaft end
deflections in horizontal direction be
A
m and
B
m at ends A and B,
respectively as shown in Figure 1.38.
Fig 1.38 Rigid body movement of the shaft in z-x plane
Slope in x-z plane of the shaft will be
( )
1-
B A
A A B
m m
d d
x m d m m
l l l

| | | |
= + = +
| |
\ . \ .
( )
-
B A
m m l =
For motion in y- direction and y-z plane,
we have
( ) ( )
1-
A B
y d l m d l m = +
( )
-
A B
n n l =
Equations (156-159) can be combined in a matrix form as
{ } [ ]{ }
1
s
u B v =
(156)
(157)
(158)
(159)
(160)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
{ } { }
{ } { }
1 1
j j
and
t t
s s
u U e v V e

= =
{ }
[ ]{ }
1
s
B U V =
{ }
[ ][ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
1
1
s s
B A
s
U K F C F

= =
For unbalance excitation (or for free vibration analysis), shaft
displacements at bearing locations and at disc center vary sinusoidally such
that
On substituting in equation (160), we have
Substituting equation (155) in above equation, we get
(161)
(162)
(163)
11 12
21 22
x
xy
F
x
M



(
=
` `
(
)
)
11 12
21 22
y
yz
F
y
M



(
=
` `
(
)
)
The deflection associated with flexure of the shaft alone in x-direction &
x-z direction plane and in y-direction & y-z plane, respectively
(164)
{ }
[ ]{ }
2
s s
u f =
{ }
{ } [ ]
2
11 12
21 22
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
; ;
0 0
0 0
X
y
s s
xz
yz
F
x
F
y
u f
M
M



(
(

(
= = =
` `
(

(

)
)
or
with
(165)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
For unbalance excitation (or for free vibration analysis), shaft reaction forces
at disc location and displacement at disc center vary sinusoidally such that
{ } { }
{ } { }
2 2
j j
and
t t
s s s s
u U e f F e

= =
(166)
{ }
[ ]{ }
2
s s
U F =
{ }
{ } { }
1 2
s s
U U U = + [ ] [ ] ( ){ } [ ]{ }
s s
C F D F = + =
{ } [ ] { } [ ]{ }
1
s
F D U E U

= =
2
cos
x
me t F mx =
-
xz d
M I =

2
sin
x
me t F my = -
yz d
M I =

On substituting above equations in equation (165), we get
The net deflection of the rotor that caused by deflection of the bearings plus
that due to flexure of the shaft is then given by
The above equation describes the displacement of the shaft at the disc under the
action of sinusoidal forces and moments applied at the disc (identical to the
influence coefficient matrix). Equation (168) can be written as
EOM of the disc can be written in the x-direction and on the x-z plane, as
and
Similarly the EOM in the y-direction and the y-z plane
and
(167)
(168)
(169)
(170)
(171)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.39 Free body diagram of the disc
[ ]{ } { } { }
s
M u f f + =
[ ] { } { } { } { }
2
2
j j
0 0 0
0 0 0
j
; ; ;
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
0
x
y
t t
s
xz d
yz d
F m x
me
F m y
me
M u f f e F e
M I
M I

(
(


(
= = = = =
` ` `
(

(

) ) )
Equations of motion of the disc can be written in matrix form as
With
Above equations of motion take the form (noting eqn (169))
{ } [ ] [ ] ( )
{ }
1
2
U M E F

= +
(175)
where
[ ] [ ] ( )
1
2
M E

+
is the equivalent bearing stiffness & damping coefficients
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The net displacement of the disc is given by the vector sum of
(i) disc displacement relative to the shaft ends,
(ii) that of the shaft ends relative to the bearing,
(iii) that of bearing relative to space.
1.7 Effects of flexible foundations
{ } [ ]{ }
b
f K v =
{ } [ ]{ }
b
F K V =
The relationship between the force transmitted through bearings and displacements of
the shaft ends is governed by the bearing stiffness & damping coefficients and is given by
or
The bearing will respond in the horizontal direction for an external force f
bx
by equation
bx fx fx b
f k a c a m a =
The response of the bearing in the vertical direction to a force f
by
is
by fy fy b
f k b c b m b =

(178)
(177)
(176)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
{ }
{ }
[ ]
[ ]
{ }
{ }
0
0
A b A A
B b B B
F D e
F D e
(

=
` ` (

) )
{ } [ ]{ }
b
F D E =
{ } [ ] { }
1
b
E D F

=
{ } { } [ ] { } [ ]{ }
1
1
{ } [ ]
b b
W V E K D F K F


(
= + = + =

For both bearings equations of the form as equation (180), can be combined as
Which gives relative displacements between the bearing and foundation, as
The total displacement of the shaft ends under the action of an applied force {F
b
} is
given by summation of individual displacements {V} and {E} i.e.
fx fx fx
f k a c a = +
fy fy fy
f k b c b = +

The force transmitted to the foundation are given as
and
For unbalance excitation or free vibration analysis, we have
j j
and
t t
fx fx fy fy
f F e f F e

= =
On substituting above equations into equation (184), we get
0 0
0 0
x x x
y x x
f f f
f f f
F c c
A
j
F c c B

| | ( (


| = +
( ( ` `
|
) ( (

) \ .
(185)
(184)
(183)
(182)
(181)
1 2 1
, ,
fx fx fy
F F F
2
fy
F
Amplitude and phase of the force transmitted through the foundation can be obtained from
and
as usual.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Thank you Thank you Thank you Thank you