in)
By
Dr. Rajiv Tiwari
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 781039
Under AICTE Sponsored QIP Short Term Course on
Theory & Practice of Rotor Dynamics
(1519 Dec 2008)
IIT Guwahati
ANALYSIS OF
SIMPLE ROTOR SYSTEMS
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
INTRODUCTION
Rotating machines are extensively used in diverse
engineering applications, such as
power stations
marine propulsion systems
aircraft engines
machine tools
automobiles and
household accessories
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Single Spindle Counter Rotating Gundrill
Electrical motor
Rotor of an electrical motor
Rolling bearing
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
CNC machine equipped with 12 rotating tools and two spindles.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Different stages of a turbomachinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Different stages of a turbomachinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Balancing of a big rotating machinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Dynamic balancing center
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
A turbomachinery
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Pumps, motors and rotating machines can be monitored for signs of
poor lubrication, shaft misalignment or bearing failure.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The design trend of such systems in modern
engineering is towards
lower weight
operating at super critical speeds
Of the many published works, the most extensive
portion of the literature on rotor dynamics is concerned
with determining
critical speeds
natural whirl frequencies
instability thresholds and
imbalance response
INTRODUCTION
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
SINGLE MASS ROTOR MODELS
For understanding basic phenomena of any dynamic
system requires adequate modeling of the system.
The rotor is considered as single mass in the form of a
point mass, a rigid disc or a long rigid shaft.
In this section we present simple rotor models and
analyze them to illustrate their behavior.
Single DOF Rotor Model
Rankine Rotor Model
Jeffcott Rotor Model
Rigid Rotor Supported on Flexible Bearings
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The simplest model of the rotor system
can be single DOF.
Two types of rotor model are shown here
In Figure 1.1(a) the bearing (support) is
assumed to be rigid (simply supported)
and the shaft as flexible.
The mass of the rotor is considered as
that of rigid disc that is mounted on the
massless flexible shaft.
In Figure 1.1(b) the bearing is
assumed to be flexible and the rotor as
rigid.
Both the cases can be idealized as a
single DOF as shown in Figure 1.1(c).
1.1 Single DOF Rotor Model
Fig 1.1(b)
A rigid rotor
mounted on flexible
bearings
Fig 1.1(a)
A flexible rotor
mounted on rigid
bearings
Fig 1.1(c)
An equivalent
single degree of
freedom spring
mass system
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
If the rotor is perfectly balanced then theoretically
speaking there will not be any imbalance force as
shown in Figure 1.2(a). In actual practice it is
impossible to have a perfectly balanced rotor.
The rotor imbalance gives a sinusoidal force at the
rotor rotational frequency. Thus, the imbalance
force is modeled as sinusoidal force
where m is the mass of the rotor, is the spin
speed of the rotor and e is the eccentricity of the
rotor
When the rotor is not eccentric, however, a small
imbalance mass, is attached at a relatively
larger radius of (see Figure 1.2(c)), the
imbalance force can be written as
For the case when the rotor is eccentric and a
small imbalance mass is attached as shown in
Figure 1.2(d), the imbalance force will be
where is the phase difference between the
vectors of imbalance forces due to the rotor
eccentricity and the imbalance mass
i
r i
m
t e m t F sin ) (
2
=
(1)
t r m t F
i i
sin ) (
2
=
(2)
) sin( sin ) (
2 2
+ + = t r m t e m t F
i i
(3)
No imbalance
Fig 1.2(a)
Rotor geometrical centre and
centre of gravity coincident
Fig 1.2(b)
Rotor geometrical centre
and centre of gravity not
coincident
Imbalance force =
mass of rotor eccentricity
square of spin speed
Imbalance force =
mass of rotor radius
square of spin speed
Fig 1.2(c)
Rotor geometrical centre,
centre of gravity and an
additional imbalance mass
Imbalance force is the
vector addition of forces
due to the rotor and
imbalance forces
Fig 1.2(d)
Rotor geometrical center, centre of
gravity and imbalance mass
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
o
y
At time, t = 0
C
G
x
y
x o
At time, t
G
C
Fig 1.3 The unbalance location on a rotor system
Figure 1.3 shows the unbalance location on a rotor system.
For a constant angular velocity of the rotor, , the location of the unbalance
is given as t =
=t
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On application of the Newtons law on the free
body of the rotor mass as shown in Figure 1.1(d),
i.e. equating sum of external forces to the mass of
the rotor multiplied by the acceleration of the
center of gravity of the rotor mass, we have
where is the effective stiffness of the rotor
system
Equation (4) is a standard equation of motion of a
single DOF springmass system and can be
written as
For the free vibration, when the external
imbalance force is absent, the rotor mass will be
having oscillation and that will be given by
where is the frequency of oscillation during
the free vibration and that is called the natural
frequency of the system. On substituting equation
(6) into the homogeneous part of equation of
motion (5), it gives
Fig 1.1(d) Free body diagram
of the disc mass
y m t e m y k
eff
= + sin
2
(4)
eff
k
t e m y k y m
eff
sin
2
= +
(5)
) sin( ) ( t Y t y
n
= (6)
n
0 ) sin( ) (
2
= + t Y k m
n eff n
(7)
y
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
For the nontrivial solution of equation (7), the natural frequency of the system can
be written as
The steady state forced response can be modeled as
where Y is the amplitude of displacement and is the phase lag of the
displacement with respect to the imbalance force.
On substituting equation (9) into equation (5), the steady state forced response
amplitude can be written as
with
From equation (10) it should be noted that when the spin speed is equal to the
natural frequency of the system as given in equation (8), the undamped steady
state forced response amplitude tends to infinity. This is a resonance condition and
the spin speed corresponding to the resonance is defined as critical speed. Since
damping is not considered in the analysis phase angle, , becomes zero.
/
n eff
k m =
(8)
) sin( ) ( = t Y t y (9)
2
2
m k
me
Y
eff
=
0 =
(10)
3
load/deflection 48 / k EI L = =
(12)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Coordinates to define the position of the
center of rotation of the rotor are and .
The location of the imbalance is given by .
Thus, three dofs are needed to define the
position of the Jeffcott rotor.
From Figure 1.9(c) the force balance in ,
and directions can be written as
and
x
u
y
u
x
u
( )
2
2
cos
x x x
d
ku cu m u e
dt
= +
(13)
( )
2
2
sin
y y y
d
ku cu mg m u e
dt
= +
(14)
cos
d
mge I =
(15)
y
u
Shaft spin
direction
Shaft whirling
direction
Shaft
Shaft spin
direction
Shaft whirling
direction
Shaft
Fig 1.10(a) Synchronous whirl
Fig 1.10(b) Antisynchronous whirl
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Apart from restoring force contribution from the shaft, the damping
force is also considered. The damping force is idealized as viscous
damper and it is mainly coming from the support and aerodynamic
forces at disc.
The material damping of the shaft will not contribute viscous damping
and it may leads to instability in the rotor and it is not considered here.
For the case i.e. when the disc is rotating at constant spin
speed, the Jeffcott rotor model is reduces to two DOF rotor model.
Neglecting the effect of gravity force, equations of motion in the x and
y can be written as
and
( )
2
2
cos
x x x
d
ku cu m u e t
dt
= +
(16)
t =
( )
2
2
sin
y y y
d
ku cu m u e t
dt
= +
(17)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Equations of motion can be written in the standard from as
It should be noted that equations of motion are uncoupled and motion
can be analyzed independently in two transverse planes.
Noting equation (8), from the undamped free vibration analyses it can
be seen that since the rotor is symmetric rotor hence it will be having
two natural frequencies that are equal and given as
The damping does not affect the natural frequency of the system
appreciably. However, their effect is more predominate for
suppressing the resonance amplitude.
2
cos
x x x
mu cu ku m e t + + =
(18)
2
sin
y y y
mu cu ku m e t + + =
(19)
1,2
/
nf
k m =
(20)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The steady state forced response can be written as
where and are the steady state forced response amplitudes in the
x and y directions, respectively. is the phase lag of the xdirection
displacement with respect to the imbalance force.
The phase difference between the two direction responses will be of
90
0
as two directions are orthogonal to each other. For the direction of
whirling shown in Figure 1.5 i.e. counter clockwise (ccw) for the
present axis system the response in the y direction will lead the x
direction response by radians. Hence the lead of the y direction
response with respect to the force will be .
On taking the first and second derivatives of the response with
respect to time, t, we get
and
x
u
sin( )
cos( )
x x
y y
u U t
u U t
=
=
(22, 23)
y
u
/ 2
/ 2
2
2
cos( )
sin( )
x x
y y
u U t
u U t
=
=
[ ]
cos( )
cos ( ( / 2 ) sin( )
x x
y y y
u U t
u U t U t
=
= + =
(21)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equations (21) to (23) into equation (18) and
separating the inphase (i.e. ) and quadrature (i.e. ) terms,
we get
Equation (25) gives
which gives
and
cos t
2 2
cos sin cos
x x x
m U cU kU m e + + =
(24)
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
cos
k m
k m c
=
+
( )
( )
2
2
2
sin
c
k m c
=
+
2
sin cos sin 0
x x x
m U cU kU + =
2
tan
c
k m
sin t
(25)
(26)
(27)
(28)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Substituting equations (27) and (28) into equation (24), we get
Similarly, we can obtain response amplitude in the ydirection from
equation (19) as
From equations (29) and (30) it can be seen that because of the
symmetry of the rotor the orbit is circular in nature. An alternative
approach that is very popular in rotor dynamics analyses is to use the
complex algebra to define the whirl radius as
where
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
x
m e
U
k m c
=
+
(29)
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
y
m e
U
k m c
=
+
(30)
r x y
u u ju = +
(31)
1 j =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On multiplying equation (19) by j and adding to equation (18), we get
The steady state response can be assumed as
where is the whirl amplitude (it is a real quantity), is the phase lag
of response with respect to the imbalance force.
On differentiating equation (33) with respect to time, t, we get
On substituting equations (33) and (34) into equation (32), we get
2
e
j t
r r r
mu cu ku me
+ + =
(32)
( )
e
j t
r r
u U
=
(33)
r
U
( ) 2 ( )
e ; e
j t j t
r r r r
u j U u U
= =
(34)
( )
2 2
e
j
r
k m j c U me
(
+ =
(35)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Equation (35) can be written as
On separating the real and imaginary parts of equation (36), we get
From equation (38), we get the phase
On substitution of phase from equations (39) to (37) the whirl
amplitude can be written as
( )
( )
2 2
cos sin
r r
k m j c U jU me
(
+ =
(36)
2 2
( ) cos sin
r r
k m U cU me + =
(37)
2
tan
c
k m
(39)
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
r
m e
U
k m c
=
+
(40)
2
( ) sin cos 0
r r
k m U cU + =
(38)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
;
with
where
is the frequency ratio,
is the natural frequency of nonrotating rotor,
is the damping ratio and
is the critical damping of the system for which the damping ratio is
equal to unity.
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
/
1 2
r r
U U e
= =
+
(41, 42)
/ ; / ; / ; 2
n n c c
k m c c c km = = = =
(43)
n
c
c
Equations (39) and (40) are similar to previous results i.e. equations
(26) to (30). The nondimensional form of equations (39) and (40) can be
written as
2
2
tan
1
+
= = =
` ` ` `
) ) )
)
(45)
y x
imb imb
F jF =
(46)
x
imb
F
y
imb
F
Re(.)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equation (45) into equation (44) and henceforth for
brevity the symbol Re(.) will be removed and it can be written as
The relationship (46) is true for the
present axis system and the direction
of whirling of the imbalance force vector
chosen (see Figure 1.8(a)). For this case
leads by 90
0
.
For the direction of whirl opposite to
the axis system as shown in Figure (8(b))
the following relationship will hold
in which case the lags by 90
0
.
0 0 0
0 0 0
x
y
imb
x x x
j t
y y y imb
F
u u u
m c k
e
u u u F m c k
( ( (
+ + =
` ` ` `
( ( (
) ) )
)
(47)
y x
imb imb
F jF =
(48)
Fig 1.8(a)
The direction of whirl same as the
positive axis direction
y
imb
F
x
imb
F
y
imb
F
x
imb
F Fig 1.8(b)
The direction of whirl opposite
to the positive axis direction
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Equation (47) can be written in more compact form as
The solution can be chosen as
where the vector elements are, in general, complex quantity.
The above equation gives
On substituting equations (50) and (51) into equation (49), we get
The above equation can be written as
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
j t
imb
M u C u K u F e
+ + =
(49)
{ } { } { } { }
2
and
j t j t
u j U e u U e
= =
(51)
{ } { }
j t
u U e
=
} {
U
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
{ } { }
2
imb
M K j C U F + + =
(50)
(52)
[ ]{ } { }
imb
Z U F =
(53)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
with
where is the dynamic stiffness matrix.
The response can be obtained as
where the vector elements are, in general, complex.
The above method is quite general in nature and it can be applied to
multidof systems once equations of motion in the standard form are
available.
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
Z M K j C = + +
(54)
{ } [ ] { }
1
imb
U Z F
=
} {
x
U
[ ]
Z
(55)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Obtain the response for the following form of equations of motion
and
The first equation can be written as
with
in which the real part of the right hand side term has meaning. The
solution can be assumed as
where in general is a complex quantity. The above equation gives
On substituting in equation of motion, we get
j t
x x
u U e
=
2
x
F me =
j t
x x x
mu ku F e
+ =
2
cos
x x
mu ku m e t + =
2
sin
y y
mu ku m e t + =
x
U
2 j t
x x
u U e
=
( )
2 2
x x
m U kU me + =
Example
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
which gives
Hence the solution becomes
Similarly for the second equation of motion can be written as
with
in which the real part of the right hand side term only has meaning.
The solution can be assumed as
where in general is a complex quantity. The above equation
gives
j t
y y
u U e
=
2
y
F jme =
j t
y y y
mu ku F e
+ =
2
2
x
me
U
k m
2 2 2
2 2 2
Re (cos sin ) cos
j t
x
me me me
u e t j t t
k m k m k m
 
= = + =

\ .
y
U
2 j t
y y
u U e
=
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting in equation of motion, we get
which gives
Hence the solution becomes
(Answer)
( )
2
y y y
m U kU F + =
2
y
y
F
U
k m
=
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
(cos sin )
Re ( cos sin ) sin
y j t j t
y
F
jme jme
u e e t j t
k m k m k m
me me
j t t t
k m k m
= = = +
 
= + =

\ .
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.14(b)
Free body diagram of the disc
in the xy plane
More generalized model of Jeffcott rotor
Disc offset from the midspan in the yz plane
Fig 1.14(a)
A Jeffcott rotor with a disc
offset from the midspan in
the yz plane
Fig 1.14(c)
Free body diagram of the disc
in the yz plane
Fig 1.14(d)
Free body diagram of the shaft
in the yz plane
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Disc offset from the midspan in the zx plane
Fig 1.15(a)
A Jeffcott rotor with a disc offset
from the midspan in the zx plane
More generalized model of Jeffcott rotor
Fig 1.15(b)
Free body diagram of the
shaft in the zx plane
Fig 1.15(c)
Free body diagram of the
disc in the zx plane
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
More generalized Jeffcott Rotor Model
Figures 14 and 15 show a more general case of Jeffcott rotor when
the rigid disc is placed with some offset from the midspan,
respectively in yz and xz planes.
For such rotors apart from two transverse displacements of center of
the disc i.e. and , the tilting of the disc about the x and y axis i.e.
and , also occurs and makes the rotor system as four dofs.
In figure the point C is the geometrical center and G is the center of
gravity of the disc.
From geometry the component, we can have the following relations
From Figure 9(b) equations of motion of the disc can be written as
and
x
u
(56)
cos ; sin
x y
e e t e e t = =
y
u
y
(57, 58)
( )
2
2
cos
y d y y x
d
F m u e
dt
= +
yz x x
M I =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
From above equations it can be observed that equations are coupled
with titling component of the displacement,
Similarly, from Figure 10(b) we can write equations of motion as
and
Equations (59) and (60) are coupled with titling component of the
displacement,
However, two transverse plane motions are not coupled and that will
allow twoplane motion to analyze independent of each other i.e. set of
equations (57 and 58) and equations (59 and 60) can be solved
independent of each other.
The analyses can be further simplified with the assumption of small
tilting angle i.e. and equations (57 and 59) can be
simplified as
x
(59, 60)
zx y y
M I =
( )
2
2
cos
x d x x y
d
F m u e
dt
= +
y
cos cos 1
x y
=
2
sin
d y y d
m u F m e t + =
(61)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
and
Equations (61, 58, 62, 60) can be assembled as
which can be written in matrix notation as
with
where is the reaction force/moment vector.
2
cos
d x x d
m u F m e t + =
(62)
2
2
0 0 0
sin
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
cos
0 0 0
0
d y
y
d
x x
yz
d x
x
d
y y
zx
m u
F
m e t
I
M
m u
F
m e t
I
M
(
(
(
+ =
` ` `
(
(
(
) ) )
(63)
[ ]{ } { } { }
imb
M u R f + = (64, 65)
[ ]
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
d
x
d
y
m
I
M
m
I
(
(
(
=
(
(
(
{ }
R
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The reaction forces and moments onto the shaft can be expressed in
terms of the shaft displacements at disc location with the help of
influence coefficients as
where represent the displacement at station due to a unit force
at station.
Equation (66) can be written in the matrix form as
which gives
where is the stiffness coefficients and defined as force at station
due to a unit displacement at station.
11 12
21 22
x x zx
y x zx
u F M
F M
= +
= +
(66)
ij
th
i
th
j
11 12
21 22
x x
y zx
u
F
M
(
=
` `
(
)
)
(67)
1
11 12 11 12
21 22 21 22
x x x
y y zx
u u
F k k
M k k
( (
= =
` ` `
( (
)
) )
ij
th
i
th
j
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Similarly, since the shaft is symmetric about its rotational axis, we can
obtain
Equations (67) and (68) can be combined as
which can be written in matrix notation as
with
11 12
21 22
y
y
yz
x
F
u k k
M
k k
(
=
` `
(
)
)
(68)
11 12
21 22
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
y y
x
yz
x
x
y
zx
u F k k
M k k
u
F k k
M k k
(
(
(
=
` `
(
(
)
)
(69)
{ } [ ]{ }
R K u =
(70, 71)
[ ]
11 12
21 22
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
k k
k k
K
k k
k k
(
(
(
=
(
(
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting reaction forces and moments from equations (70) into
equations of motion i.e. equation (64), we get
In general, for the simple harmonic vibration, we can write
On substituting in equation (73), we get the response as
with
where is the dynamic stiffness matrix, in general, elements of this
matrix are complex quantity, however, since the damping is not
considered here they are real quantities.
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
imb
M u K u f + =
(72)
{ } { }
2
u u =
(73)
{ } [ ] { }
1
imb
u Z f
=
(74, 75)
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
Z K M =
[ ]
Z
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Finding the bearing critical speed of a rotor system shown in Figure 1.16
Take E = 2.110
11
N/m
2
.
Fig 1.16
Solution:
Fig 1.17
The influence coefficient is given as
( )
2 2 2
( )
, ( )
6
bx l x b
y x
x a
F EIL
= =
8
1 11
1 1
2316.83 rad/s
10 1.863 10
n
m
= = =
2 2 2
8
0.6
11 11
0.4
11 4
0.4 0.6 1 0.6 0.4
1.863 10 m/N
6 2.1 10 (0.1) 1
64
x a
b
= =
=
(
= = =
Then calculate the natural frequency as
For obtaining
11
= =
( )
2 3 2 4
12
3 2 3 3.03 10 a l a al EIl
= =
4
21
( ) 3 3.03 10 ab b a EIl
= =
( )
2 2 3
22
3 3 3 1.41 10 al a l EIl
= =
For the present problem only single plane
motion is considered. For free vibration, from
equation (70), we get
1
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
d
m x x
I
( (
+
` ` `
( (
) ) )
 
( (
 + =
` `
( (

) )
\ .
Solution:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Previous equation is an eigen value problem. For nontrial solution, we have
1
11 12 2
21 22
0
0
0
nf
d
m
I
 
( (
 + =
( (

\ .
which gives a frequency equation in the form of a polynomial, as
( )
( )
4 2 2
11 22 12 11 22
1 0
d nf nf d
mI m I + + =
On substituting the present problem parameters values, it gives
4 4 2 7
8.505 10 7.3 10 0
nf nf
+ =
4 . 29
1
=
n
290
2
=
n
= = =
(ii) For flexible rotor and rigid bearings.
The bearing reaction forces can be written as
since F
y
= ky (A)
EOM of the disc,
from the free body diagram of the disc is given as
For simple harmonic motion
The above equation can be written as
The stiffness is given as
Figure 1.20
( )
6 4
/ 2 2.92 10 4.64 10 / 2 677.6 N
A
R ky
= = =
677.6 cos200 133.4 N and 677.7 sin200 N
A A
x y
R t R t = + =
From the equation (A), we have
The component of the forces in the vertical
& horizontal direction can be obtained as
Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
(iii) From EOM of the disc,
we have
( )
2
y
F m y e = +
2 2 4
13.6 (200) [0.0211 10 ( 4.64 10 ] 1358.4 N
= + =
/ 2 679.2 N
A B y
R R F = = =
2 2
11 12
11
2
21 22
21
0
A
B
R C C
C me me
R C C
C me
( (
= =
` ` (
(
) )
[ ][ ][ ]{ } [ ]{ } P K Z F C F = =
Hence bearing forces are
(iv) Bearing forces are given as
1 1 2 1 0.4064
[ ]
1 1 2 1 0.4064
b l l
P
a l l
( (
= =
( (
( ) ( )
2 2 2 3 2
3
11 22 12 21
 3  3   3  2 
(  )
; , 0; 0
48 3 (12 ) 3 3
al a l a l a al
l l ab b a
EI EIl EI EIl EIl
= = = = = = =
where
Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1
3 6
11 11 12
5
12 22
22
1 0
48 / 0 2.92 10 0
[ ]
0 1
0 12 / 0 1.21 10
EI l
K
EI l
(
( ( (
( = = = =
( ( (
(
[ ]
1 1
2
2 2
11
11 12 11
2 2
21 22 22
2
22
7
6
1
0
0
1 0
0
4.08 10 0
0 1.369 10
d d
d
k m
k m k k m
Z
k k I k I
k I
(
(
( (
(
= =
( (
(
(
(
=
(
[ ]
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
11 11
22
2
22
11 22
11
2 2
2
11
11
22
22
11 22
2
2 2
22
11 22
1
0
0
1
[ ] [ ] [ ]
1 1 0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
d
d
d
d
k
k m b l l
C P K Z
a l l k
k I
k b l k l
k
k m k I
k m b l l
k a l l
k a l k l
k I
k m k I
(
(
(
(
(
( = =
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
= =
(
(
(
(
(
(
Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting from equation (10), we have
( )
( )
11 2 2 2 2
11
;
11 21
2
2
11
11
A B
k a l
k a l
R C me me R C me me
k m
k m
= = = =
` `
)
)
From above equations, we have
6
2 2
6 2
2.92 10 (1/ 2)
(0.2879 10 ) (200 ) 677.6 N
2.92 10 13.6 (200 )
677.6 N
A
B
R
R
= =
=
Example 3 contd..
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 4.
Find the transverse natural frequency of a rotor system as shown in Figure
1.21. Consider shaft as massless and is made of steel with 2.1 (10)11 N/m2 of
Youngs modulus, E, and 7800 kg/m3 of mass density, . The disc has 10 kg
of mass. The shaft is simply supported at ends (In the diagram all dimensions are
in cm).
Solution:
Fig 1.21
Fig 1.22
Considering only linear displacement, first we will obtain the stiffness (or
influence coefficients ) for the present problem using energy method.
11
0 1 0.6 0
A B
M F F + = =
Example 4 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1 1
0.6 1.0
2 2
1 1
0 0.6
2 2
x x
M dx M dx
U
EI EI
= + } }
( )
( )
2
1
1 2
0.6 0.6
0 0
1
2
/
/
x
x
x
x
M M F dx
M M F dx
U
F
EI EI
= = +
} }
{ }{ }
0.6 1
1 2 1 2
0 0.6
0.6 (1 ) ( 0.6(1 )
( 0.4 )( 0.4 ) 0.01152 0.00768
F x x dx
Fx x dx
F
EI EI EI EI
 
= + = +

\ .
} }
The strain energy is expressed as
The linear displacement is expressed as
On substituting bending moment expression obtained earlier, we get
The stiffness is given as
1
7
0.01152 0.00768
8.45 10 N/m
1 2
F
k
EI EI
(
= = + = (
(
Example 4 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
11 2 4 6 4 3 4 4
; ;
2
1
2 10 N/m 0.1 4.907 10 m 0.3 3.976 10 m
64 64
E I I
= = = = =
7
8.45 10
2906.81 rad/s
10
k
p
m
= = =
where
which gives natural frequency as
It should be noted that the tilting motion of the disc has not considered
Example 4 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
More general form of the Jeffcott rotor response is equation(75) , the
forcing is assumed to be from the imbalance only and then it can be
expressed as
with
where superscripts and represent the terms real and imaginary,
respectively. The vector contains amplitude and phase
information of the imbalance forcing with respect to some convenient
shaft location and is the total dofs of the system.
The solution can be written as
The response can be obtained as
with
{ } { }
j t
imb imb
f F e
= (76, 77)
{ } { }
j t
u U e
=
N
k k k
r i
imb imb imb
F F jF = + 1, 2. , k N =
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
Z K M =
(78)
{ }
imb
F
i
r
{ }
1
[ ] { }
j t
imb
u Z F e
=
(79, 80)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Similar to the force amplitude vector, the response vector will also
have complex quantities and can be written as
which will give amplitude and phase information, as
and
If displacement is defined, as
and
Equations of motion (72) can be written as
with
r i
k k k
U U jU = +
(81)
1, 2, , k N =
( ) ( )
2 2
amp r i
k k k
U U U = +
(82, 83)
( )
1
tan /
phase i k
k k k
U U U
=
r x y
u u ju = +
(84, 85)
r y x
j = +
2
11 12
j t
d r r r d
m u k u k m e e
+ + =
(86)
21 22
0
d r r r
I k u k + + =
(87)
d x y
I I I = =
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Let the solution be
and
where and are whirl amplitude and phase respectively, so that
and
On substituting above solutions into equations of motion (8687), we
get
Equation (90) can be expressed as
On substituting the above equation into equation (89), we get
( )
u
r
j t
r r
u U e
=
(88)
( )
r
j t
r r
e
=
( )
2 u
r
j t
r r
u U e
( )
2
r
j t
r r
e
=
r
U r
( )
( )
2 2
11 12
u
r r
j j t
d r r d
k m U e k e m e
+ =
(89)
( )
( )
2
21 22
0
u
r r
j j t
r r r
k U e k I e
+ =
(90)
( )
( )
21
2
22
u
r r
j t j
r r
r
k
e U e
k I
(91)
( )( )
( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
2
2
22
u
r
d r j
r d
r
k m k I k k
U e m e
k I
(
( =
(
(92)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On equating the real and imaginary parts of both sides of equation
(92), we get
and
From the second equation, we get
which means there will not be any phase difference.
On substituting phase information in equation (93), we get
which is the whirl amplitude.
( )( )
( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
2
2
22
cos
r
d r
r u d
r
k m k I k k
U m e
k I
(
( =
(
(93)
( )( )
( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
2
22
sin 0
r
d r
r u
r
k m k I k k
U
k I
(
( =
(
(94)
sin 0; i.e. 0
r r
u u
= =
( )
( )( )
2 2
22
2 2
11 22 12 21
d r
r
d r
m e k I
U
k m k I k k
=
(95)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The condition of resonance can be obtained by equating denominator
of equation (95) to zero
By defining
and
Equation (96) can be written as
The solution of the above polynomial can be expressed as
which represents the critical speeds of the rotor system.
It can be seen that term inside the square root is always positive i.e.
which can be written as
( )( )
2 2
11 22 12 21
0
d cr r cr
k m k I k k =
(96)
2
11
,
u
d
k
m
=
(97)
( ) ( )
4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
cr u cr u u u
+ + =
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
4 0
u u u u
+ >
(100)
2
22
r
k
I
=
2
21
u
r
k
I
=
2
12
u
d
k
m
=
(98)
( ) ( ) ( )
1,2
2
1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
4
cr u u u u u
= + +
(99)
( )
2
2 2 2 2
4 0
u u u
+ >
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
It can be seen that above condition be always true since all individual
terms , , , and are real quantity. However, the following term
inside the square root can be
which gives two critical speeds. The above term can be
which gives only one critical speed since one pair root will be complex
conjugate. Figure 1.11 gives these two cases.
( )
2 2 2 2
0
u u u
>
(101)
u
( )
2 2 2 2
0
u u u
<
(102)
( ) 0
2 2 2 2
>
u u u
Figure 1.25(a)
( ) 0
2 2 2 2
<
u u u
Figure 1.25(b)
Term inside the sqrt is less than outside
Term inside the sqrt is more than outside
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
12 21
0 k k = =
( )
( )( ) ( )
2 2
2
22
2 2 2
11 22 11
d r
d
r
d r d
m e k I
m e
U
k m k I k m
= =
For the disc at the center of the shaft span, we have
which gives
which is same as discussed in the previous section for Jeffcott rotor.
The response is shown in Figure 1.25(c).
Fig 1.25(c) Amplitude versus spin speed for
12 21
0 k k = =
(103)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
( )
( )
( )( )
2 2
22
21
2
2 2
22
11 22 12 21
r
d r j
r
r
d r
m e k I
k
e
k I
k m k I k k
=
(
sin 0; i.e. 0
r r
= =
( )( )
2
21
2 2
11 22 12 21
d
r
d r
m ek
k m k I k k
=
(
On substituting equation (95) into equation (91), we get
From the above equation, we get
which means there will not be any phase difference. On substituting phase
information in equation (104), we get
(104)
(105)
(106)
which is the whirl amplitude of angular displacement and the condition
of resonance can be obtained by equating the denominator of equation
(106) to zero, which is same as the previous case. For disc at the center
of the shaft span, we have
12 21
0 k k = = , which gives
0
r
=
(107)
which is very obvious since when the disc is at the center of the shaft
span, it will not produce any moments and hence there will not be tilting of
the disc take place.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Bearing reaction forces:
The forces transmitted through bearings are those are related to the
deflection of the shaft.
Fig 1.26 Bearing reaction forces on the shaft
1
0 0 or
A ya yz B B y yz
a
M F M R l R F M
l l
= = =
1
0 0 or
B A y yz A y yz
b
M R l F b M R F M
l l
= = = +
)
)
(110)
or {R} = [D] {p} with [ ]
1
1
b l l
D
a l l
(
=
(
(111)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Using equations (70) and (80), equation (111) can be written as
{R} = [D] [K] {d}=[D] [K] [Z] {f}=[C] {f}
(112)
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
11 12 22 21 12 22
12 12
11
2
2
21 22 21
11 21 22 21 12 22
0
d
A
B
d
bk k k I k bk k
R C C
me C me me
R C C l me C
ak k k I k ak k
+ +
(
= = =
` ` ` `
(
) ) )
)
with
( )( )
2 2
11 22 12 21 d cr r cr
k m k I k k =
which can be expanded as
(113)
Bearing reaction forces will be having similar variation as of the
response, since it has the same denominator,
It can be shown from equation (113) that the forces transmitted through
the bearings are also a maximum at the system critical speed. These
forces are dynamic forces and are superimposed on any steady loads,
which may be present, due to gravity loading for example.
2 2
2 2
cos cos ; sin sin
x y
me me
x t X t y t Y t
k m k m
= = = =
2 2
2 2 2 2
cos cos and sin sin
x d y d
me d me d
t t t t
k l I k l I
= = = =
Substituting equation (118) into equations (114) to (117),
the unbalance response can be expressed as
(118)
(119)
Critical speeds can be written as
1 2 3 4
2
2
; ; ; and
y y
x x
cr cr cr cr
d d
k k l
k k l
m m I I
= = = =
(120)
From equation (119) on squaring x and y and adding, it gives
2 2
2 2
1
x y
X Y
+ =
(121)
(It is an equation of ellipse. )
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Similarly from equation (119), we get
2 2
2 2
1
+ =
(122)
Equation (122), relating to the angular motion of the rotor, is also the equation of
an ellipse.
o This means that there is an elliptical orbital trajectory of the rotor ends due
to angular motion of the rotor.
o This rotor motion is caused by the imbalance couple me
2
d acting on the
rotor, and it is superimposed on the lateral motion described previously.
o A reversal of the direction of the orbit associated with this motion also
occurs, between two critical speeds associated with angular motion of the
rotor (i.e.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Figure 1.30 Whirl directions with respect to the shaft spin frequency
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Figure 1.31 Mode Shapes for a rigid rotor mounted on flexible bearings
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The amplitude of the force transmitted to the bearings is different in
horizontal and vertical directions, as well as at each end of the rotor.
The force transmitted is that which causes the bearings to deform
and is given by the product of spring stiffness and rotor deflection at
the bearing.
The bearing force amplitudes are
in horizontal and vertical direction respectively.
The + sign refers to the angular motion of the rotor causes the rotor
end to deflect in the same direction to the lateral deflections of the
rotor and the  sign refers to the angular motion of the rotor causes
the rotor end to deflection in the opposite direction to the lateral
deflections of the rotor.
These bearing forces must take on maximum values when the
system is operated at the critical speeds, where x, y, and are
maximum.
( ) ( )
; and
2 2
y
x
x y
k
k
F x l F y l = =
(125)
Important Notes:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 8.
A long rigid symmetric rotor is supported at ends by two identical
bearings. Let the shaft has the diameter of 0.2 m, the length of shaft
is 1 m and the mass density of the shaft material equal to 7800
kg/m3. The bearing dynamic characteristics are as follows: kxx = kyy
= 1 kN/mm with rest of the stiffness and damping terms equal to zero.
By considering the gyroscopic effect negligible also, obtain the
natural frequencies of the system.
Since crosscoupled stiffness coefficients is x and y directions are zero
and no gyroscopic effect is considered, hence single plane motion can be
considered one at a time. For the present analysis there is no coupling is
considered between the linear and rotational displacements and since
stiffness in x and y direction is same hence natural frequencies in these
directions can be written as
Similarly natural frequencies corresponding to the tilting motion can be
written as
1,2
6
2 2 1 10
90.34 rad/s
245.04
k
m
= = =
2 2 2
3,4
1 10 1
154.184 rad/s
2 2 21.0326
d
kl
I
= = =
2
x
k k =
2
2 0 and 0
d
mx kx I kl + = + =
= =
+ +
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On equating determinates of responses, critical speeds can be obtained as
( )
( )
6
1
6
2
2
6 2
3
2
6 2
4
(1.1 3.1) 10
648 rad/s;
10
(1.8 3.8) 10
748.3 rad/s
10
(1.1 3.1) 10 1
6480.7 rad/s;
0.1
(1.8 3.8) 10 1
748.3 rad/s
0.1
A B
A B
A B
A B
x x
y y
x x
d
y y
d
p
m
p
m
l
p
I
l
p
I
k k
k k
k k
k k
+
= = =
+
= = =
+
= = =
+
= = =
+
+
+
+
Answer
Example 10 contd..:
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
1.5 Symmetrical rigid shaft in flexible anisotropic
bearings with damping and cross coupling
For the case of oilfilm lubricated bearings the bearing have associated
damping properties as well as spring stiffness properties.
Furthermore in case of hydrodynamic bearings the shaft motion in the
horizontal direction is coupled with that in the vertical direction.
However, coupling between the translational and tilting motion has not
been considered since the rotor is symmetric.
In most applications the properties of such bearings are described in
terms of the eight linearised bearing stiffness and damping coefficients.
Symmetrical rigid shaft in flexible anisotropic bearings will be identical to Fig 1.28
with crosscoupled terms. The EOM for rotor are given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2


x xx xy xx xy
y yx yy yx yy
xz xx xy xx xy d
yz yx yy yx yy d
F k x k y c x c y mx
F k x k y c x c y my
M k l k l c l c l I
M k l k l c l c l I
=
=
=
=
(126)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
It is assumed that there is no coupling between the linear (i.e. x and y) and
angular displacements (i.e. and ) due to symmetry of the rotor.
The imbalance force me
2
is located same distance from the rotor
geometrical center.
Out of balance forces in the horizontal and vertical directions may then be
written as
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
cos Re Re
t t
x x
F me t me e F e
= = =
2
x
F me =
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
sin Re j Re
t t
y y
F me t me e F e
= = =
2
j
y
F me =
with
with
(127)
x
F
y
F where
and
are complex forces (which contains amplitude and
phase informations) in the x and y directions. These forces are acting at
the center of gravity.
Moments about the rotor geometrical center caused by these forces are
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
cos Re Re
t t
xz xz
M me d t me de M e
= = =
2
xz
M me d =
with
( ) ( )
2 2 j j
sin Re j Re
t t
yz yz
M me d t me de M e
= = =
2
j
yz
M me d =
with
(128)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The response can be assumed as
j j j j
; ; ; =
t t t t
x Xe y Ye e e
= = =
where X, Y, and are complex displacements.
Equations of motion (126) can be written as
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ } { }
( ) M x C x K x f t + + =
[ ] [ ] [ ]
{ } { }
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
; C ; ;
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
( ) ; ( )
xx xy xx xy
yx yy yx yy
xx xy xx xy d
yx yy yx yy d
x
y
xz
c c k k m
c c k k m
M K
l c l c l k l k I
l c l c l k l k I
F
x
F y
x t f t
M
( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
( ( (
( (
= =
`
) yz
M
`
)
The response takes the following form
{ } { } { } { } { } { }
j j 2 j
; so that j and
t t t
x X e x X e x X e
= = =
(129)
(130)
(131)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equations (127), (128) and (131) into equations of motion (130),
we get
[ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
{ } { }
2
j M C K X F + + =
with
{ } { }
;
x
y
xz
yz
F X
F Y
X F
M
M
= =
` `
)
)
[ ]{ } { }
D X F = [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
( )
2
j D K M C = +
which can be written as with
The response can be obtained as {X} = [D]1 {F}
The displacement amplitude of the rotor will be given by
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
, , ,
r i r i r i r i
X X X Y Y Y = + = + = + = +
(132)
(133)
(134)
(135)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Phase lag will be given by
1 1 1 1
tan , tan , tan , tan
i i i i
r r r r
X Y
X Y
       
= = = =
   
\ . \ . \ . \ .
The resulting shaft whirl orbit can be plotted using equation (129) and (134)
j j
and
t t
x Xe y Ye
= =
and in general will be found to take the form as shown in Figure 1.34.
Fig 1.34 Rotor whirl orbit
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Example 11.
Obtain the bending critical speeds and mode shapes of a rigid rotor,
consist of massless rigid shaft of 2 m of span, 5 kg mass and diametral
mass moment of inertia of 0.1 kgm2, supported by flexible bearings as
shown in Figure 128. The bearing properties are: kxx = 2.0 104 N/m, kyy
= 8.8 104 N/m, kxy = 1.0 103 N/m, kyx = 1.5 103 N/m, cxx = 1.0 Ns/m, cyy
= 1.0 Ns/m, cxy = 1.0 101 Ns/m and kxx = 1.0 101 Ns/m. Obtain the
unbalance response (amplitude and phase) at bearing locations when the
radial eccentricity of 0.1 mm and axial eccentricity of 1 mm is present in
the rotor and locate critical speeds.
Solution:
Fig 1.35 shows the unbalance responses both for the linear and
angular displacements. Both the amplitude and phase has been
plotted. It can be observed that in the plot of linear and angular
displacement two peaks appears and they correspond to the critical
speeds of the system. Since the linear and angular displacements are
uncoupled for the present case and hence corresponding critical
speeds appears in respective plots. There are four critical speeds: 70
rad/s, 120 rad/s, 480 rad/s and 920 rad/s
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.35 Amplitude and phase variation with respect to spin speeds
Example 11 contd...
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Exercise Problem E1.6.
Obtain the critical speeds for transverse vibrations of rotorbearing
system as shown in Figure E1.6. Consider shaft as rigid. The shaft is of 1
m of span and the diameter is 0.05 m with the mass density of 7800
kg/m3. The shaft is supported at ends by flexible bearings. Consider the
motion in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Take the following
bearing properties:
For bearing A: kxx = 20 MN/m, kyy = 15 MN/m, kxy = 1.5 MN/m, kyx = 25
MN/m, cxx = 200 kNs/m, cxy = 150 kNs/m, cyx = 140 kNs/m, cyy = 400
kNs/m,
For bearing B: kxx = 24 MN/m, kyy = 17 MN/m, kxy = 2.5 MN/m, kyx =
30 MN/m, cxx = 210 kNs/m, cxy = 160 kNs/m, cyx = 135 kNs/m, cyy =
380 kNs/m.
Bearing forces:
The forces, which are transmitted to the bearings, are those, which
deform the bearing lubricant film, and do not include rotor inertia terms.
In general bearing forces will lag behind the imbalance force such that
the bearing horizontal and vertical force components, at one end A of the
machine, can be represented as
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
A bx A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx A xy
A by A yx A yy A yx A yy A yx A yy A yx A yy
B bx B xx B xy B xx B xy B xx B xy B xx B xy
B by B yx B yy B y
f k x k y c x c y k l k l c l c l
f k x k y c x c y k l k l c l c l
f k x k y c x c y k l k l c l c l
f k x k y c
= + + + + + + +
= + + + + + + +
= + + + + + + +
= + +
x B yy B yx B yy B yx B yy
x c y k l k l c l c l + + + + +
where
2, 2
A xx xx B xx xx
k k k k = =
, etc.
Equation (137) is for more general case, which can be written in matrix form as
{ } [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
b b b
f c x k x = +
{ } { } { }
[ ] [ ]
; ; ;
;
A bx
A by
b
B bx
B by
A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx A xy A xx
A yx A yy A yx A yy
b b
B xx B xy B xx B xy
B yx B yy B yx B yy
f
x x
f
y y
f x x
f
f
c c c l c l k k k
c c c l c l
c k
c c c l c l
c c c l c l
= = =
` ` `
) )
)
(
(
(
= =
(
(
(
A xy
A yx A yy A yx A yy
B xx B xy B xx B xy
B yx B yy B yx B yy
l k l
k k k l k l
k k k l k l
k k k l k l
(
(
(
(
(
(
with
(137)
(138)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
On substituting equation (139) into equation (138), we get
{ } [ ] [ ] ( ){ }
j
b b b
F k c X = +
This can be used to evaluate bearing forces.
The amplitude of forces transmitted to bearings are then given by
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
; ; ;
r i r i r i r i
A bx A bx A bx A by A by A by B bx B bx B bx B by B by B by
F F F F F F F F F F F F + + + + = = = =
with corresponding phase angles are given by
1 1 1 1
tan ; tan ; tan ; tan
i i i i
r r r r
A bx A by B bx B by
A bx A by B bx B by
F F F F
F F F F
( ( ( (
= = = =
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
(140)
(141)
(139)
{ } { } { } { } { } { }
j j j
; j ;
t t t
b b
x X e x X e f F e
= = =
( ) ( )
1 1
A by y yz
f d l F l M =
0
A B by y yz
M l f dF M = = +
( ) ( )
1
B by y yz
f d l F l M = +
or
(148)
or
(149)
( ) ( )
1 1
A bx x xz
f d l F l M = +
( ) ( )
1
B bx x xz
f d l F l M = +
Similarly forces in the horizontal direction may be written as
(150)
(151)
Equations (148151) can be combined in the matrix form as
{ } [ ]{ }
b s
f A f =
(152)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
{ } { } { } { }
j j
and
t t
b b s s
f F e f F e
= =
{ } [ ]{ }
b s
F A F =
For an unbalance excitation, we have
On substituting equation (153) in equation (147), we get
where subscript b refers to the bearing and s refers to the shaft.
In above equation bearing forces are related to reaction forces at the shaft
Equating equation (147) and (154), we get
[K] {V} = [A]{F
s
} or {V} = [K]
1
[A] {F
s
} (155)
(153)
(154)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The deflection at the location of the disc due to movement of the
shaft end can be obtained as follows.
Consider the shaft to be rigid for some instant and assuming shaft end
deflections in horizontal direction be
A
m and
B
m at ends A and B,
respectively as shown in Figure 1.38.
Fig 1.38 Rigid body movement of the shaft in zx plane
Slope in xz plane of the shaft will be
( )
1
B A
A A B
m m
d d
x m d m m
l l l
   
= + = +
 
\ . \ .
( )

B A
m m l =
For motion in y direction and yz plane,
we have
( ) ( )
1
A B
y d l m d l m = +
( )

A B
n n l =
Equations (156159) can be combined in a matrix form as
{ } [ ]{ }
1
s
u B v =
(156)
(157)
(158)
(159)
(160)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
{ } { }
{ } { }
1 1
j j
and
t t
s s
u U e v V e
= =
{ }
[ ]{ }
1
s
B U V =
{ }
[ ][ ] [ ]{ } [ ]{ }
1
1
s s
B A
s
U K F C F
= =
For unbalance excitation (or for free vibration analysis), shaft
displacements at bearing locations and at disc center vary sinusoidally such
that
On substituting in equation (160), we have
Substituting equation (155) in above equation, we get
(161)
(162)
(163)
11 12
21 22
x
xy
F
x
M
(
=
` `
(
)
)
11 12
21 22
y
yz
F
y
M
(
=
` `
(
)
)
The deflection associated with flexure of the shaft alone in xdirection &
xz direction plane and in ydirection & yz plane, respectively
(164)
{ }
[ ]{ }
2
s s
u f =
{ }
{ } [ ]
2
11 12
21 22
11 12
21 22
0 0
0 0
; ;
0 0
0 0
X
y
s s
xz
yz
F
x
F
y
u f
M
M
(
(
(
= = =
` `
(
(
)
)
or
with
(165)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
For unbalance excitation (or for free vibration analysis), shaft reaction forces
at disc location and displacement at disc center vary sinusoidally such that
{ } { }
{ } { }
2 2
j j
and
t t
s s s s
u U e f F e
= =
(166)
{ }
[ ]{ }
2
s s
U F =
{ }
{ } { }
1 2
s s
U U U = + [ ] [ ] ( ){ } [ ]{ }
s s
C F D F = + =
{ } [ ] { } [ ]{ }
1
s
F D U E U
= =
2
cos
x
me t F mx =

xz d
M I =
2
sin
x
me t F my = 
yz d
M I =
On substituting above equations in equation (165), we get
The net deflection of the rotor that caused by deflection of the bearings plus
that due to flexure of the shaft is then given by
The above equation describes the displacement of the shaft at the disc under the
action of sinusoidal forces and moments applied at the disc (identical to the
influence coefficient matrix). Equation (168) can be written as
EOM of the disc can be written in the xdirection and on the xz plane, as
and
Similarly the EOM in the ydirection and the yz plane
and
(167)
(168)
(169)
(170)
(171)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Fig 1.39 Free body diagram of the disc
[ ]{ } { } { }
s
M u f f + =
[ ] { } { } { } { }
2
2
j j
0 0 0
0 0 0
j
; ; ;
0 0 0
0
0 0 0
0
x
y
t t
s
xz d
yz d
F m x
me
F m y
me
M u f f e F e
M I
M I
(
(
(
= = = = =
` ` `
(
(
) ) )
Equations of motion of the disc can be written in matrix form as
With
Above equations of motion take the form (noting eqn (169))
{ } [ ] [ ] ( )
{ }
1
2
U M E F
= +
(175)
where
[ ] [ ] ( )
1
2
M E
+
is the equivalent bearing stiffness & damping coefficients
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
The net displacement of the disc is given by the vector sum of
(i) disc displacement relative to the shaft ends,
(ii) that of the shaft ends relative to the bearing,
(iii) that of bearing relative to space.
1.7 Effects of flexible foundations
{ } [ ]{ }
b
f K v =
{ } [ ]{ }
b
F K V =
The relationship between the force transmitted through bearings and displacements of
the shaft ends is governed by the bearing stiffness & damping coefficients and is given by
or
The bearing will respond in the horizontal direction for an external force f
bx
by equation
bx fx fx b
f k a c a m a =
The response of the bearing in the vertical direction to a force f
by
is
by fy fy b
f k b c b m b =
(178)
(177)
(176)
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
{ }
{ }
[ ]
[ ]
{ }
{ }
0
0
A b A A
B b B B
F D e
F D e
(
=
` ` (
) )
{ } [ ]{ }
b
F D E =
{ } [ ] { }
1
b
E D F
=
{ } { } [ ] { } [ ]{ }
1
1
{ } [ ]
b b
W V E K D F K F
(
= + = + =
For both bearings equations of the form as equation (180), can be combined as
Which gives relative displacements between the bearing and foundation, as
The total displacement of the shaft ends under the action of an applied force {F
b
} is
given by summation of individual displacements {V} and {E} i.e.
fx fx fx
f k a c a = +
fy fy fy
f k b c b = +
The force transmitted to the foundation are given as
and
For unbalance excitation or free vibration analysis, we have
j j
and
t t
fx fx fy fy
f F e f F e
= =
On substituting above equations into equation (184), we get
0 0
0 0
x x x
y x x
f f f
f f f
F c c
A
j
F c c B
  ( (
 = +
( ( ` `

) ( (
) \ .
(185)
(184)
(183)
(182)
(181)
1 2 1
, ,
fx fx fy
F F F
2
fy
F
Amplitude and phase of the force transmitted through the foundation can be obtained from
and
as usual.
Dr. R. Tiwari (rtiwari@iitg.ernet.in)
Thank you Thank you Thank you Thank you