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Ban Zhao – Classic of Poetry – Lu Hsiang 99

Ban  Zhao,  Lessons  for  Women  (c.  100  CE)  
Education  in  the  Confucian  classics  increasingly  became  one  of  several  avenues  to  a  position  of  social  and  political   power  in  Han  China.  Confucian  doctrine,  however,  did  not  accord  women  a  status  equal  to  that  of  men,  because   women  were  generally  regarded  as  unworthy  or  incapable  of  a  literary  education.  In  fact,  the  Confucian  classics  say   little   about   women,   which   shows   how   little   they   mattered   in   the   scheme   of   Confucian   values.   Most   Confucians   accepted   the   subservience   of   women   to   men   as   natural   and   proper.   In   their   view,   failure   to   maintain   a   proper   relationship  between  two  such  obviously  unequal  people  as  a  husband  and  wife  or  brother  and  sister  would  result   in  social  disharmony  and  a  breakdown  of  all  the  rules  of  propriety.   Yet  this  was  only  part  of  the  traditional  Chinese  view  of  women.  Both  Confucian  doctrine  and  Chinese  society  at   large   accorded   women,   as   both   mothers   and   mothers-­‐in-­‐law,   a   good   deal   of   honor,   and   with   that   honor   came   power  within  the  family  structure.  In  every  age,  moreover,  a  handful  of  extraordinary  women  managed  to  acquire   literary  educations  or  otherwise  achieve  positions  of  far-­‐ranging  influence  and  authority  despite  social  constraints.   The   foremost   female   Confucian   of   the   age   of   Han   was   Ban   Zhao   (ca.   45–116   CE),   younger   sister   of   the   court   historian  Ban  Gu  (32–92).  Upon  Gu's  death,  Zhao  served  as  imperial  historian  under  Emperor  Han  Hedi  (r.  88–105)   and   completed   her   brother's  Han   Annals,   a   history   of   the   Former   Han   Dynasty,   which   is   generally   regarded   as   second  only  to  the  historical  work  of  Sima  Qian.  Ban  Zhao  also  served  as  an  adviser  on  state  matters  to  the  Empress   Deng,  who  assumed  power  as  regent  for  her  infant  son  in  106.   Madame  Ban  was  the  daughter  of  the  widely  respected  writer  and  administrator  Ban  Biao  (3–54)  and  received   her  elementary  education  from  her  literate  mother  while  still  a  child  in  her  father's  house.  Otherwise,  her  early  life   appears   to   have   been   quite   conventional.   She   married   at   the   age   of   14,   thereby   becoming   the   lowest-­‐ranking   member  of  her  husband's  family,  and  bore  children.  Although  her  husband  died  young,  Ban  Zhao  never  remarried,   devoting  herself  instead  to  literary  pursuits  and  acquiring  a  reputation  for  scholarship  and  compositional  grace  that   eventually  brought  her  to  the  imperial.   Among  her  many  literary  works,  Ban  Zhao  composed  a  commentary  on  the  popular   Lives  of  Admirable  Women   by  Liu  Kiang  (77–6   BCE)   and,  later   in   life,  produced  her  most  famous  work,  the   Nüjie,  or  Lessons   for   Women,  which   purports  to  be  an  instructional  manual  on  feminine  behavior  and  virtue  for  her  daughters.  In  fact,  she  intended  it   for   a   much   wider   audience.   Realizing   that   Confucian   texts   contained   little   in   the   way   of   specific   and   practical   guidelines  for  a  woman's  everyday  life,  Ban  Zhao  sought  to  fill  that  void  with  a  coherent  set  of  rules  for  women,   especially  young  women.     From:  Nancy  Lee  Swann,  transl.  1932.  Pan  Chao:  Foremost  Woman  Scholar  of  China.  New  York:  Century.  Pp.  82-­‐90.     Repr.  in  Alfred  J.  Andrea  and  James  H.  Overfield,  eds.  1994.  The  Human  Record:  Sources  of  Global  History,  2nd  ed.   Boston:  Houghton  Mifflin.  Vol.  1,  pp.  148-­‐53.    (Introduction  above  by  A.J.  Andrea.)       Preface   confessing   weariness.   Now   and   hereafter,   however,   I   know  how  to  escape  from  such  fears.   I,   the   unworthy   writer,   am   unsophisticated,   Being   careless,   and   by   nature   stupid,   I   taught   and   unenlightened,   and   by   nature   unintelligent,   but   I   am   trained   my   children   without   system.   Consequently   I   fortunate  both  to  have  received  not  a  little  favor  from   fear   that   my   son   Gu   may   bring   disgrace   upon   the   my   scholarly   father,   and   to   have   had   a   cultured   Imperial   Dynasty   by   whose   Holy   Grace   he   has   mother   and   instructresses   upon   whom   to   rely   for   a   unprecedentedly   received   the   extraordinary   privilege   literary   education   as   well   as   for   training   in   good   of  wearing  the  Gold  and  the  Purple,  a  privilege  for  the   manners.   More   than   forty   years   have   passed   since   at   attainment   of   which   by   my   son,   I   a   humble   subject   the   age   of   fourteen   I   took   up   the   dustpan   and   the   never  even  hoped.  Nevertheless,  now  that  he  is  a  man   broom   in   the   Cao   family   [the   family   into   which   she   and   able   to   plan   his   own   life,   I   need   not   again   have   married].   During   this   time   with   trembling   heart   I   concern   for   him.   But   I   do   grieve   that   you,   my   feared   constantly   that   I   might   disgrace   my   parents,   daughters,  just  now  at  the  age  for  marriage,  have  not   and   that   I   might   multiply   difficulties   for   both   the   at  this  time  had  gradual  training  and  advice;  that  you   women  and  the  men  of  my  husband's  family.  Day  and   still  have  not  learned  the  proper  customs  for  married   night   I   was   distressed   in   heart,   but   I   labored   without  


  Let   her   cleanse   and   purify   and   arrange   in   order   the   wine   and  the  food  for  the  offerings  to  the  ancestors.   and   should   regard   it   as   her   primary  duty  to  humble  herself  before  others.   Therefore   the   Rites   [The   Classic   of   Rites]   honor   union   of   man   and   woman.   and   attend   to   her   own   affairs.   then   she   may   be   said  to  be  industrious.   Humility   On   the   third   day   after   the   birth   of   a   girl   the   ancients   observed  three  customs:  first  to  place  the  baby  below   the   bed.   then   she   may  be  said  to  continue  ancestral  worship.  Always  let  her  seem  to  tremble  and  to  fear.  the  soft  yielding  feminine  element.   the   hard   aggressive   male   element.  how  can  she  but  bring  disgrace   upon  herself?   Husband  and  Wife   The  Way  of  husband  and  wife  is  intimately  connected   with   Yin   and   Yang   [the   two   basic   elements   of   the   Universe:   Yin.   my   daughters.   For   these   reasons   the   relationships  cannot  but  be  an  important  one.  To  announce  her  birth   before   her   ancestors   clearly   meant   that   she   ought   to   esteem   as   her   primary   duty   the   continuation   of   the   observance  of  worship  in  the  home.  herself  last.   second   to   give   her   a   potsherd   [a   piece   of   broken   pottery]   with   which   to   play.  Truly  it  is  the  great  principle  of  Heaven  and   Earth.  it  is  the  rule  to  begin  to  teach   children  to  read  at  the  age  of  eight  years.   then   she   possesses   nothing   with   which   to   serve   her   husband.100 Monsters and Scapegoats women.   then   she  may  be  said  to  humble  herself  before  others.   No  woman  who  observes  these  three  fundamentals   of  life  has  ever  had  a  bad  reputation  or  has  fallen  into   disgrace.   then   he   possesses   nothing   by   which   to   control   his   wife.  As  I   have  thought  of  you  all  in  so  untrained  a  state.   tidily.   and   that   the   husband's   rules   of   conduct   manifesting   his   authority   must   be   established.   That   which   must   be   done.   At   hours   of   leisure   I   have  composed  .   I   wish   every   one   of   you.   These   three   ancient   customs   epitomize   a   woman's   ordinary   way   of   life   and   the   teachings   of   the   traditional   ceremonial   rites   and   regulations.   how   can   her  name  be  honored.   When   a   woman   follows   such   rules   as   these.  .   Now   examine   the   gentlemen   of   the   present   age.  let  her  even  endure  when  others  speak  or  do   evil  to  her.   and   systematically.   Yet  only  to  teach  men  and  not  to  teach  women—is   that  not  ignoring  the  essential  relation  between  them?   According  to  the   Rites.   Let   her   bear   disgrace.   From  this  time  on  every  one  of  you  strive  to  practice   these  lessons.  When   a   woman   observes   such   principles   as   these.   They   only   know   that   wives   must   be   controlled.   Let   a   woman   modestly   yield   to   others.   If   a   husband   does   not   control   his   wife.  should  she   do   something.  I  have   been   uneasy   many   a   time   for   you.  Let   her   not   refuse   to   perform   domestic   duties   whether   easy   or   difficult.   and   the   great   basis   of   human   relationships.   Every   substance   contains   both   elements   in   varying   proportions].  let  her  put  others  first.   and   third   to   announce   her   birth   to   her   ancestors   by   an   offering.   Now   to   lay   the   baby   below   the   bed   plainly   indicated   that   she   is   lowly   and   weak.   When   a   woman   follows   such   maxims   as   these.  Let  her  live  in   purity   and   quietness   of   spirit.   let   her   finish   completely.  and   Yang.   and   in   the   Book   of   Poetry   [The   Classic  of  Odes]  the  "First  Ode"  [see  below]  manifests   the   principle   of   marriage.  and  by  the   age   of   fifteen   years   they   ought   then   to   be   ready   for   cultural   training.   each   to   write   out   a   copy  for  yourself.   Only   why   should   it   not   be   that   girls'   education   as   well   as   boys'   be   according   to   this   principle?     .   They   therefore   teach   their  boys  to  read  books  and  study  histories.   If   a   woman   fails   to   observe   them.   Let   her   love   not   gossip   and   silly   laughter.  let  her  nor  dread  tasks  by  day  or  by  night.  But  they   do   not   in   the   least   understand   that   husbands   and   masters   must   also   be   served.  I  am  now  seriously  ill.   As   a   matter   of   fact   the   purpose   of   these   two   [the   controlling   of   women  by  men.   Let   a   woman   be   correct   in   manner   and   upright   in   character  in  order  to  serve  her  husband.  I  fear  that  by  failure  in  good  manners  in  other   families   you   will   humiliate   both   your   ancestors   and   your  clan.  let  her  not  mention  it.  .  To  give   her  potsherds  with  which  to  play  indubitably  signified   that   she   should   practice   labor   and   consider   it   her   primary  duty  to  be  industrious.  and  the  serving  of  men  by  women]  is   the  same.   If   a   wife   does   not   serve   her   husband.   If   a   husband   be   unworthy.   and   that   the   proper   relationship  and  the  rites  should  be  maintained.   but   rise   early   to   duties.   "Lessons   for   Women.  Should  she   do  something  good.  these  instructions  under  the  title.   then   the   rules   of   conduct   manifesting   his   authority   are   abandoned   and   broken.   Let   a   woman   retire   late   to   bed.   bad   let   her   not   deny   it.   then   the   proper   relationship   between   men   and   women   and   the   natural   order   of   things   are   neglected   and   destroyed.   let   her   respect   others.   If   a   wife   be   unworthy.   and   relates   the   individual   to   gods   and   ancestors.  life  is  uncertain."   In   order   that   you   may   have   something   wherewith   to   benefit   your   persons.

  become   a   weak   monstrosity.  and  honor  and  serve  them.  then  they  will  lust  after  and  take  liberties   with   one   another."   and   if   what   she   says   is   right.   (3)   womanly   bearing.   then   they   are   certain   to   beat   their   wives.  Such  docility  may  be  called  obedience  which   sacrifices   personal   opinion.   The   distinctive   quality   of   the   Yang   is   rigidity.  In  fact  they  are  very  easy  to  possess  if  a   woman  only  treasure  them  in  her  heart.  a  woman  though  born  like  a  mouse  may.   So   respect   may   be   defined  as  nothing  other  than  holding  on  to  that  which   is   permanent.   to   control   circumspectly  her  behavior.  Consequently  it  can  be  said  that  the  Way   of   respect   and   acquiescence   is   woman's   most   important   principle   of   conduct.   These   four   qualifications   characterize   the   greatest   virtue   of   a   woman.   unquestionably   the   daughter-­‐in-­‐law   obeys."  even  if  what  she  says  is  wrong.   To   guard   carefully   her   chastity.   to   wash   the   head   and   bathe  the  body  regularly.   Such   a   result   comes   from   not   knowing   that   one  should  stay  in  one's  proper  place.   Womanly   appearance   requires   neither   a   pretty   nor   a   perfect   face   and   form.   To   wash   and   scrub   filth   away.   If   husband   and   wife   have   the   habit   of   staying   together.   Should   actual   blows   be   dealt.   may  be  called  the  characteristics  of  womanly  work.  and  conjugal  love  is  grounded   in   proper   union.   If   there   are  really  accusations  and  quarrels.   so   man   and   woman   have   different   characteristics.   to   speak   at   appropriate   times.   Therefore   the   ancient   book.   words   may   be   either   right   or   wrong.   and   following   each   other   around   within   the   limited   space   of   their   own  rooms.Ban Zhao – Classic of Poetry – Lu Hsiang 101 Respect  and  Caution   As   Yin   and   Yang   are   not   of   the   same   nature.   Such   a   result   comes   from   not   esteeming   others.   crookedness   cannot   but   lead   to   accusation.  says:  "If  a  daughter-­‐in-­‐law   who   follows   the   wishes   of  her  parents-­‐in-­‐law   is   like   an   echo  and  shadow.   then  husband  and  wife  are  divided.   then   love   is   at   hand!"   So   can   it   be   said   of   these   qualifications.  The  ancients   had   a   saying:   "Is   love   afar   off?   If   I   desire   love.   Implicit  Obedience   Whenever   the   mother-­‐in-­‐law   says.   Man   is   honored   for   strength.   Furthermore.   it   is   feared.   To   counteract   firmness   nothing   equals   compliance.  .  .   (2)   womanly   words.   to   love  not   gossip   and   silly   laughter.  .  A  Pattern  for  Women.   and   not   to   weary   others   with   much   conversation.   it  is  feared.  how  could  conjugal  love  exist?   If   love   and   proper   relationship   both   be   destroyed.   But   of   licentiousness   will   be   born   a   heart   of   disrespect   to   the   husband.   those   who   are   liberal   and   generous   esteem   others.  still  the   daughter-­‐in-­‐law   submits   unfailingly   to   the   command.   to   avoid   vulgar   language.   the   function   of   the   Yin   is   yielding.   and   (4)   womanly   work.   and   acquiescence   nothing   other   than   being  liberal  and  generous.   Womanly   work   need   not   be   work   done   more   skillfully   than   that   of   others.   If  wives  suppress  not  contempt  for  husbands.   Let   a   woman   not   act   contrary   to   the   wishes   and   the   opinions   of   parents-­‐in-­‐law   about   right   and   wrong.   If   husbands   stop   not   short   of   anger.  in  every  motion  to  exhibit   modesty.   The   correct   relationship  between  husband  and  wife  is  based  upon   harmony  and  intimacy.   Now   what   is   called   womanly   virtue   need   not   be   brilliant   ability.   to   keep   clothes   and   ornaments   fresh   and   clean.   this  is  womanly  virtue.  how  could  she  not  be  praised?"         .   Whenever   the   mother-­‐in-­‐law   says.   Straightforwardness   cannot   but   lead   to   quarreling.  become  a  tigress.   Womanly   words   need   be   neither   clever   in   debate   nor   keen   in   conversation.  then  undoubtedly   there   will   be   angry   affairs.   a   woman   is   beautiful   on   account   of   her   gentleness.   and   not   honoring   and   serving   them.   never   leaving   one   another.  Those  who  are  steadfast  in   devotion   know   that   they   should   stay   in   their   proper   places.   exceptionally   different   from   others.  may  be  called  the  characteristics   of  womanly  bearing.   may   be   called   the  characteristics  of  womanly  words.   From   such   action   improper   language   will   arise   between   the   two   this   kind   of   discussion   may   lead   co   licentiousness."   Now   for   self-­‐culture   nothing   equals   respect   for   others.   let   her   not   dispute   with   them   what   is   straight   and   what   is   crooked.   With  whole-­‐hearted  devotion  to  sew  and  to  weave.  "Do  that.   and   to   model   each   act   on   the   best   usage.  then  it   follows   that   such   wives   rebuke   and   scold   their   husbands.   how   could   matrimonial   relationship   be   preserved?   Should   sharp  words  be  spoken.   Womanly  Qualifications   A   woman   ought   to   have   four   qualifications:   (1)   womanly   virtue.  and  to  keep  the  person  free   from  disgraceful  filth.   No   woman   can   afford   to   be   without  them.   Hence  there  arose  the  common  saying:  "A  man  though   born   like   a   wolf   may.   in   cleanliness   and   order   to   prepare   the   wine   and   food   for   serving   guests.   affairs   may   be   either   crooked   or   straight.   "Do   not   do   that.   To   choose   her   words   with   care.

  Gentle  maiden.     Watercress  grows  here  and  there.    One  morning.   .     The   gatekeeper   did   not   strike   the   double-­‐ hour.   she   is   picking   the   edible   water   plants—because   she   "possesses   the   關關雎鳩,在河之洲。窈窕淑女,君子好逑。 參差荇菜,左右流之。窈窕淑女,寤寐求之。 求之不得,寤寐思服。悠哉悠哉,輾轉反側。 參差荇菜,左右采之。窈窕淑女,琴瑟友之。 參差荇菜,左右芼之。窈窕淑女,鍾鼓樂之。   Transl.   King   Kang   of   Zhou   continued   the   prosperity  of  King  Wen.  Stephen  Owen  (1996)   The  fishhawks  sing  gwan  gwan     on  sandbars  of  the  stream   Gentle  maiden.   85   BCE).   Han  shu  (The  Book   of   Han.   .   .   with  harps  we  bring  her  company.   wanted  waking  and  asleep.   he  tossed  from  one  side  to  another.   .  Hou   Han   ji   (Later   Han   Records):   In   antiquity.  .  .   right  and  left  we  gather  it.   then   fathers  and  sons  will  maintain  familial  relations.     Wanting.  In   lines   three   and   four   the   'young   lady'   is   King   Wen's   queen.   and   there   is   nothing   on   which   she   does  not  accord  with  him.   .   right  and  left  we  pick  it  out.   like   the   ospreys   in   their   separation.     [However.  Analects  III:20:   In  the  "Guan  ju"  there  is  joy  without  wantonness  and   sorrow  without  hurt  or  pain.   The  Lu  school  reading   Si-­‐ma   Qian   (c.   on  and  on  he  thought  of  her.   as   to   jade   girdle-­‐pendants   chiming   late:   "Guan   ju"   sighs   over   it.  pure  and  fair.  .     "Guan   ju"   was   composed.   aware   of   the   danger   to   one's   nature   and   shortening   of   years   occasioned   by   fondness  for  sex.  and  Ban  Zhao.   Gentle  maiden.   who   possesses   the   virtue   of   the   ospreys   by   living  in  seclusion  and  thus  making  a  suitable  mate  for   the   ruler.     Watercress  grows  here  and  there.     Only   afterward   can  her  influence  transform  the  world.     The   poet   of   "Guan   ju"   perceived   the   germ   of   disorder  and  wrote.  thought  of  her.   in   Si-­‐ma's   own   Records   the   period   in   question   is   described   as   being   very  peaceful:  no  punishments  needed  to  be  levied  for   over  forty  years.  he  was  late  to   rise.   The  Confucian  reading   Confucius  (551–479  BCE).   with  bells  and  drums  do  her  delight.  pure  and  fair.  In  the  first  two  lines.   Hence.   or   History   of   the   Former   Han   Dynasty)   (92– 111):   Following   the   traces   of   the   final   generations   of   the   Three   Dynasties   .   the     .  sought  her.   100   CE).   Lun   heng   (Critical   Essays):   King   Kang's   virtue   was   found   lacking   with   respect   to   his  quarters.    When  husband   and   wives   observe   the   separation   of   the   sexes.   "Great   Preface"   to   the   Classic   of   Poetry   (first  ct  CE):   Guan-­‐guan   is   the   cry   of   birds   responding   to   each   other.   fit  pair  for  a  prince.   The  Mao  school  reading   Wei   Hong.     Yuan   Hong   (328–376).  pure  and  fair.   right  and  left  we  pull  it.  pure  and  fair.     Watercress  grows  here  and  there.   In   the   second   stanza.  the  song  was  composed.  nor  is  she  wanton  about  her   beauty.102 Monsters and Scapegoats Classic  of  Poetry   Classic  of  Poetry  1  "Guan  ju"   This   is   referred   to   as   the   "First   Ode"   by   Ban   Zhao   above.     The   Lady   did   not   chime   her   jade   crescent   pendants.   was   it   ever   the   case   that   misfortune   and   calamity   did   not   derive   from   female   character?   Hence.  and  this  variety  observes  the  separation  of  the   sexes.  had  her  not.  A  grand  minister  criticized  his  being  late.     Ban  Biao.    Her  prudence  is  firm  and  her  seclusion  deep.   waking.   Gentle  maiden.]     Wang   Chong   (27–c.   145–c.  sleeping.  Ban  Gu.   Shiji   (The   Records   of   the  Grand  Historian):   Alas!   When   the   house   of   Zhou   was   in   decline.  the  queen  takes  joy  in  the   virtue   of   her   lord.

"   Biographies  of  Women   The   important   Han   text   Lieh-­‐nü   chuan   (Biographies   of   Women)   represents   women   in   their   roles   as   mother   and   wife.  1891.  abundant  and  rich  the  Tao  it  puts  into  practice.   I   cannot   suffer   degradation.  by  which  all  under  heaven  was   transformed  and  relations  between  husband  and  wife   were  ordered.  it  is  the  very  foundation  of  Heaven  and  Earth.   in   her   virtue   and   jealousy-­‐free   seclusion.     The  "Lesser"  Mao  Preface  (?  first  ct  CE):   "Guan   ju"   speaks   of   the   virtue   of   the   queen.  refusal   of   [saving]   one   hand.   and   her   family   pressed   her   to   marry   again.    Although  the  text  is  attributed  to  Liu  Hsiang  (79-­‐8  BCE).  .  gave  her  medicine  for   her   wound.   It   is   the   beginning  of  the  "Airs".   she   severed   her   arm   from   her   body.   and   the   matter   was   the   practise   of   modesty   and   humility.  They  are  purity.   should   die.   thus   it   is   she   who   tosses   and  turns  until  finding  them.   and   the   reported   to   the   chief   magistrate   of   the   place.  .   always  been  poor.   One  evening  she  stopped  at  an  inn  on  the  route.   As   darkness   was   to   death   with   the   head   of   the   clan.   who   suffered   coming  on.  .   Now   in   its   relation   to   people.   who   regulation  of  life  by  the  rules  of  propriety.  and  he  left  a  wife  and  two  sons  of   tender   age.  looking  up  to  heaven.C.     Si-­‐ma   Qian   (c.  75]  Ling  Nin  was  left  a  childless  widow  when  very   with  the  remains  of  her  husband.  Shanghai:  Kelly  and  Walsh.     From:  A.  "Why  is  'Guan  ju'  made  to  begin  the  Airs  of   the  States?"   Confucius   said.  but   more  especially  as  all  her  husband's  relatives  were  put   the   landlord   refused   to   let   her   stay.   the   right   government   of   her   household.   Even   to   ten   [Ch.  Typical  Women  of  China.       Zheng  Xuan  (127–200):   The   "pure   young   lady"   refers   not   to   the   queen   herself.  Safford.  she  lingered  [in  the  court]  and  pressed  for     .  .   PURITY.  she  cried   aloud:   "I.  .   this   deed   of   the   office.  92  represent  woman  as  paragons  of  virtue.  Then.  transl.   Oh   great  is  the  way  of  'Guan  ju'!  It  is  that  which  connects   all   things   and   on   which   the   life   of   human   beings   is   dependent!  .  .   Its   transformations   are   like   those   of   the   supernatural   dragon.   and   started   on   the   homeward   journey   [Ch.   The   bystanders   sighed   and   wept.  without  being  wanton  about  her   beauty.   being   [a   weak]   woman.   is   seeking   as   additional   mates   for   the   king.Ban Zhao – Classic of Poetry – Lu Hsiang 103 virtue   of   the   ospreys"   she   can   begin   preparations   for   the  ancestral  sacrifices.   away   from   his   native   place.   The   landlord   was   beaten   for   his   crime."   Zixia  sighed  deeply  and  said.   145–c.   'Guan   ju'   above   is   like   Heaven.   It   is   complete   in   its   brilliancy   and   order.   when   the   innkeeper   seized   her   arm   to   Woman's  Virtues   lead  her  outside.   85   BCE).   says   the   Lady   Ts'ao.   and   a   man   has   grasped   this   hand.  The  "Guan  ju"  takes  joy  in  obtaining   a  pure  young  lady  as  a  mate  for  the  lord  and  is  anxious   to  present  her  worth.  .  its  author  is  probably  better  characterized  as   anonymous.   took   SECOND  MARRIAGE.   Shiji   (The   Records   of   the  Grand  Historian):   Zixia  asked.   her   two   sons.   young.  77]  The  magistrate  of  a  certain  district  had  died  in   thousand   ages   of   heaven   and   earth.  "Great  indeed  is  'Guan   ju'.   could   not   protect   Woman's   virtues.       admittance.   The   former.   treated  her  with  much  kindness.  the  others  as  examples  of   depravity.   For   the   sake   conspicuous  or  brilliant  order.   are   not   of   a   myself.  Mysterious  and  dark  is  the  De  it   hides.   but   rather   to   palace   ladies   whom   their   mistress.   and   deeply   commiserated   her   troubles.   His   family   had   Lady  Li  shall  be  remembered.   "'Guan   ju'   is   perfection.    Of  the  total  125  biographies  of  women.   below  it  is  like  Earth.   a   lady   of   the   Li   family."   of  a  second  marriage  if  her  betrothed  or  her  husband   And   seizing   an   ax.

  halting   a   little   outside   the   east  gate  of  the  city."  .   63]   The   lady   Poh   Ki   was   the   wife   of   the   duke   of   Sung.   [Ch."   said   the   king   [to   his   courtiers].   its   salutary   bitterness   reminded  them  to  be  attentive  to  their  lessons.     [Ch.   95]   Chung   Ying's   mother   was   strict   and   economical  in  her  method  of  family  government.   but  I  received  no  instructions  to  look  at  you.   She   refused.  and  held  in   the   mouth.  The   whole   family.  and  his  mother  was  satisfied.   not   swallowed.   why   should   the   tumor   be   a   matter   of   shame   to   me?"   The   king   pronounced   her   to   be   a   woman   of   ability   and  virtue.  next  cut  off  her  ears.  This   pill.   did   not   so   much   as   turn   her   head   to   look  at  the  monarch.  "  This  is  a   suitable  home  for  my  son.   I   shall   await   that   officer.  93]  The  mother  of  Mencius  lived  near  a  graveyard   until   she   found   her   little   son   playing   that   he   was   burying  people.   will   it   wait?   "   all   cried.     She  had  a  plan  for  enforcing  diligence  in  study  upon   her   sons.       He   was   astonished   at   this.   and   how   then   could  I  serve  Your  Majesty  properly?"   The  king.   She   made   reply:   "   I   was   instructed   by   my   parents   to   gather   mulberry   leaves.   [Ch.   MODESTY.  saying:  "  It   is   the   rule   that   the   senior   officer   of   the   household   being   absent.   and   attend   to   business   diligently.  returned  home.  and  finally  her   nose.   Said   one:   "The   lives   of   men   are   like   the   light   dust   that   lies   on   the   fading   grass:   why   have   you   increased  your  troubles?"   HOUSEHOLD  GOVERNMENT."   The   woman   spoke   again:   "My   duty   is   to   cultivate   virtue   carefully.   in   these   words:   "If   I   should   go   without   the   knowledge   of   my   parents."   "This   is   a   remarkable   woman.   and.  in  pitiable   plight.   "better   to   do   so.  and  she  perished  in  the  flames."   "But   the   fire.   after   which   she   was   presumably   safe.  saying.  greatly  mortified.   and   keep   the   rule   of   righteousness.   and   who   was   picking   mulberry   leaves   near   by.   62]   A   king   of   Tsi   went   out   once   on   a   short   pleasure   excursion.  that  all  women   under  heaven  may  be  stimulated  to  observe  the  laws   of  propriety.   I   should   be   a   runaway   daughter.   Ling   Nin   shaved  her  head.  the  country  people  all  paused  to   gaze  at  him.  and   a  pattern  to  all  the  families  of  the  gentry  and  literati.   Pretty   soon   the   boy   played   at   buying   and   selling   goods.   Only   one   woman   who   was   disfigured   by   a   large   tumor   on   her   neck."   she   thought."   She   waited.   who   died   when   they   had   been   married   ten   years.  and  commanded  her  to  follow  him  [to  the   palace].   "This   is   no   place   for   my   son.  the  great   king.   but   the   officer  came  not.   and   moved   once   more.   escape  from  the  fire!"  But  Poh  Ki  declined.104 Monsters and Scapegoats capital   punishment   for   some   state   offense.   than   to   transgress   it   and   live.  Then  she  removed  to  a  residence  near   a   market-­‐place.  assembled  around   the  bed  where  she  lay  after  the  last  injury.       .  mixed  with  a  little  bear's  gall.   ''   what   a   pity   she   is   afflicted   with   such   a   tumor.   [Ch.   Mencius   began   to   imitate   in   his   plays   the   various   rites   he   saw   performed   at   this   temple.   obeying   your   will.   and   had   her   called.  if  I  am  destined  to  live  here  and  serve  in  this   way.   and   the   flames   finally   caught   on   her   house.   PROPRIETY.  .  and  sent   messengers   with   a   proper   betrothal   present   of   silver.  there  was  a  great  fire  in  the  place  of   Ki's   residence.  After  this.  .  .  The   "Historical  Classic"  relates  her  virtues."   answered   Poh   Ki.  .   no   woman   shall   leave   the   palace   at   night.   which   consisted   in   administering   to   them   every  night  a  pill  compounded  of  powder  made  from  a   certain  bitter  root.  greatly  excited  and  afflicted.  .   On   every   side   the   people   called   to   her:   "Lady.   to   a   place   near   a   Confucian   temple.   "I   can   but   die.   that   he   might   inquire   the   reason.   so  taking  her  as  his  queen.  being  given  just  at  their  hour  for  study.