Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

Statue of Al-Khwārizmī Born c. 780 Died c. 850 Ethnicity Persian[1][2][3] Known for Treatises on algebra and Indian numerals Influenced Abu Kamil Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1] (c. 780, Khwārizm[2][4][5] – c. 850) was a Persian[1][2][3] mathematician, astronomer and geographer during the Abbasid Empire, a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. The word al-Khwarizmi is pronounced in classical Arabic as AlKhwarithmi hence the Latin transliteration. In the twelfth century, Latin translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.[5] His Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic. In Renaissance Europe, he was considered the original inventor of algebra, although it is now known that his work is based on older Indian or Greek sources.[6] He revised Ptolemy's Geography and wrote on astronomy and astrology. Some words reflect the importance of al-Khwarizmi's contributions to mathematics. "Algebra" is derived from al-jabr, one of the two operations he used to solve quadratic equations. Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of his name.[7] His name is also the origin of (Spanish) guarismo[8] and of (Portuguese) algarismo, both meaning digit.

He was born in a Persian family, and his birthplace is given as Chorasmia by Ibn alNadim. Few details of al-Khwārizmī's life are known with certainty. His name may indicate that he came from Khwarezm (Khiva), then in Greater Khorasan, which occupied the eastern part of the Greater Iran, now Xorazm Province in Uzbekistan. Abu Rayhan Biruni calls the people of [10] Khwarizm "a branch of the Persian tree". Al-Tabari gave his name as Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwārizmī al-Majousi al-Katarbali (‫ب ن محمد‬ ‫و م مو سى‬ ‫م وس‬ ‫ب‬ ). The epithet al-Qutrubbulli could indicate he might instead have [11] [12] come from Qutrubbul (Qatrabbul), a viticulture district near Baghdad. However, Rashed suggests:
[1][2][3] [9]

There is no need to be an expert on the period or a philologist to see that al-Tabari's second citation should read ―Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmī and al-Majūsi al-Qutrubbulli,‖ and that there are two people (al-Khwārizmī and al-Majūsi al-Qutrubbulli) between whom the letter wa [Arabic ‗‫ ‘و‬for the article ‗and‘] has been omitted in an early copy. This would not be worth mentioning if a series of errors concerning the personality of al-Khwārizmī, occasionally even the origins of his knowledge, had not been made. Recently, G. J. Toomer ... with naive confidence constructed an entire fantasy on the error which cannot be denied the merit of amusing the reader. Regarding al-Khwārizmī's religion, Toomer writes: Another epithet given to him by al-Ṭabarī, "al-Majūsī," would seem to indicate that he was an adherent of the old Zoroastrian religion. This would still have been possible at that time for a man of Iranian origin, but the pious preface to al-Khwārizmī's Algebra shows that he was an orthodox Muslim, so al-Ṭabarī's epithet could mean no more than that his forebears, and perhaps he in his [1] youth, had been Zoroastrians. Ibn al-Nadīm's Kitāb al-Fihrist includes a short biography on al-Khwārizmī, together with a list of the books he wrote. Al-Khwārizmī accomplished most of his work in the period between 813 and 833. After the Islamic conquest of Persia, Baghdad became the centre of scientific studies and trade, and many merchants and scientists from as far as China and India traveled to this city, as did Al-Khwārizmī. He worked in Baghdad as a scholar at the House of Wisdom established by Caliph al-Maʾmūn, where he studied the sciences and mathematics, which included the translation of Greek and Sanskrit scientific manuscripts. D. M. Dunlop suggests that it may have been possible that Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī was in fact the same person as Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, the eldest of the three Banū Mūsā.[13][year missing]

A page from al-Khwārizmī's Algebra Al-Khwārizmī's contributions to mathematics, geography, astronomy, and cartography established the basis for innovation in algebra and trigonometry. His systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations led to algebra, a word derived from the title of his 830 book on the subject, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" (al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa'l-muqabala‫ك تاب‬ ‫م تص‬ ‫ح ساب ف‬ ‫ب‬ ‫)و م اب ة‬. On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written about 825, was principally responsible for spreading the Indian system of numeration throughout the Middle East and Europe. It was translated into Latin as Algoritmi de numero Indorum. Al-Khwārizmī, rendered as (Latin) Algoritmi, led to the term "algorithm". Some of his work was based on Persian and Babylonian astronomy, Indian numbers, and Greek mathematics. Al-Khwārizmī systematized and corrected Ptolemy's data for Africa and the Middle east. Another major book was Kitab surat al-ard ("The Image of the Earth"; translated as Geography), presenting the coordinates of places based on those in the Geography of Ptolemy but with improved values for the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, and Africa. He also wrote on mechanical devices like the astrolabe and sundial. He assisted a project to determine the circumference of the Earth and in making a world map for alMa'mun, the caliph, overseeing 70 geographers.[14]

When, in the 12th century, his works spread to Europe through Latin translations, it had a profound impact on the advance of mathematics in Europe. He introduced Arabic numerals into the [15] Latin West, based on a place-value decimal system developed from Indian sources. Carl Friedrich Gauss From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Gauss" redirects here. For things named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, see List of things named after Carl Friedrich Gauss. For other persons or things named Gauss, see Gauss (disambiguation).

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855), painted by

Christian Albrecht Jensen
30 Born April 1777 Braunschweig, Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel,

Holy Roman Empire
Died Residence Nationality Fields Institutions 23 February 1855 (aged 77) Göttingen, Kingdom of

Alma mater Doctoral advisor

Hanover Kingdom of Hanover German Mathematics and physics University of Göttingen University of Helmstedt Johann Friedrich Pfaff

including number theory. astronomy and optics. Gauss had a remarkable influence in many fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history's [2] [3] most influential mathematicians. geophysics.Johann Other academic advisors Bartels Christian Martin Doctoral students Other notable students Known for Influenced Notable awards Christoph Gudermann Christian Ludwig Gerling Richard Dedekind Johann Listing Bernhard Riemann Christian Peters Moritz Cantor Johann Encke Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet Gotthold Eisenstein Carl Wolfgang Benjamin Goldschmidt Gustav Kirchhoff Ernst Kummer August Ferdinand Möbius L. geodesy. statistics. C. algebra. [1] Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum (Latin. analysis. electrostatics. differential geometry. Latin: Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physical scientist who contributed significantly to many fields. Schnürlein Julius Weisbach See full list Sophie Germain Ferdinand Minding Copley Medal (1838) Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (/ɡaʊs/. German: Gauß. "the Prince of Mathematicians" or "the foremost of mathematicians") and "greatest mathematician since antiquity". pronounced [ɡaʊs] ( listen). Early years (1777–1798) . He referred to mathematics as "the queen of sciences".

deriving methods to compute the date in [5] both past and future years. There are many anecdotes about his precocity while a toddler. Gauss was so pleased by this result that he requested that a regular heptadecagon be inscribed on his tombstone. He further advanced modular arithmetic. [7] Gauss independently rediscovered several important theorems. remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday. He was christened and confirmed in a church near the school he [6] attended as a child. his mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth. gives a good understanding of how the prime numbers are distributed among the integers. Indeed. Gauss also discovered that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most three . Gauss was a child prodigy. which itself occurs 40 days after Easter. This remarkably general law allows mathematicians to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic. The year 1796 was most productive for both Gauss and number theory. consequently. Gauss would later solve this puzzle about his birthdate in the context of finding the date of Easter. [2] Gauss's intellectual abilities attracted the attention of the Duke of Braunschweig. The prime number theorem. though it was not published until 1801. The stonemason declined. who sent him to the Collegium Carolinum (now Technische Universität Braunschweig). and to the University of Göttingen from 1795 to 1798. his magnum opus. This work was fundamental in consolidating number theory as a discipline and has shaped the field to the present day. While at university. in the Duchy of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel.[ On 8 April he became the first to prove the quadratic reciprocity law. those polygons with any number of sides which is the product of distinct Fermat primes and a power of 2) can be constructed by compass and straightedge. This was a major discovery in an important field of mathematics. He discovered a construction [9] of the heptadecagon on 30 March. stating that [8] the difficult construction would essentially look like a circle. construction problems had occupied mathematicians since the days of the Ancient Greeks. He completed Disquisitiones Arithmeticae.Statue of Gauss at his birthplace. and he made his first ground-breaking mathematical discoveries while still a teenager. Germany. as the son of poor [4] working-class parents. his breakthrough occurred in 1796 when he showed that any regular polygon with a number of sides which is a Fermat prime (and. greatly simplifying citation needed] manipulations in number theory. in 1798 at the age of 21. conjectured on 31 May. which he attended from 1792 to 1795. and the discovery ultimately led Gauss to choose mathematics instead of philology as a career. eight days before the Feast of the Ascension. now part of Lower Saxony. Braunschweig Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Braunschweig (Brunswick).

among things. His attempts clarified the concept of complex numbers considerably along the way. Gauss also made important contributions to number theory with his 1801 book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Latin. Theoria Interpolationis Methodo Nova Tractata . the last one in 1849 being generally rigorous. heard about the problem and tackled it. Gauss. which is itself moving on an ellipse. contained the first two proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity. The solution sought is then separated from the remaining six based on physical conditions. Title page of Gauss's Disquisitiones Arithmeticae In that same year. (July 2012) In his 1799 doctorate in absentia. Gauss proved the fundamental theorem of algebra which states that every non-constant single-variable polynomial with complex coefficients has at least one complex root. to the planet) and given the time it takes the planet to traverse the arcs determined by these lines (from which the lengths of the arcs can be calculated by Kepler's Second Law). In this work [10] Gauss used comprehensive approximation methods which he created for that purpose. Gauss developed it as a trigonometric interpolation method. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. which 150 years later led to the Weil conjectures. While this method is traditionally attributed to a 1965 paper by J. Cooley and J. Arithmetical Investigations). W. the Earth's orbit. Ironically. of which one solution. This problem leads to an equation of the eighth degree. Piazzi could only track Ceres for a few months. Then it disappeared temporarily behind the glare of the Sun. he predicted a position for Ceres in December 1801—just about a year after its first sighting— and this turned out to be accurate within a half-degree when it was rediscovered by Franz Xaver von Zach on 31 December at Gotha. After three months of intense work. Tukey. introduced the symbol ≡ for congruence and used it in a clean presentation of modular arithmetic. and showed that a regular heptadecagon (17-sided polygon) can be constructed with straightedge and compass. he subsequently produced three other proofs. Middle years (1799–1830) This section needs additional citations for verification. developed the theories of binary and ternary quadratic forms. by today's standard. Gauss's own attempt is not acceptable. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. is known. W. However. who was 23 at the time. and one day later by Heinrich Olbers in Bremen. On October 1 he published a result on the number of solutions of polynomials with coefficients in finite fields. stated the class number problem for them. which. One such method was the fast Fourier transform. Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the dwarf planet Ceres. owing to implicit use of the Jordan curve theorem. Mathematicians including Jean le Rond d'Alembert had produced false proofs before him. when Ceres should have reappeared. and Gauss's dissertation contains a critique of d'Alembert's work. Several months later. given one focus (the Sun) and the conic's intersection with three given lines (lines of sight from the Earth. following it for three degrees across the night sky. Piazzi could not locate it: the mathematical tools of the time were not able to extrapolate a position from such a scant amount of data—three degrees represent less than 1% of the total orbit.triangular numbers on 10 July and then jotted down in his diary the famous note: "ΕΥΡΗΚΑ! num = Δ + Δ + Δ". Gauss's method involved determining a conic section in space. was only . A new proof of the theorem that every integral rational algebraic function of one variable can be resolved into real factors of the first or second degree. His paper.

Though Gauss had up to that point been financially supported by his stipend from the Duke.published posthumously in Volume 3 of his collected works.[ It introduced the Gaussian gravitational constant. he so streamlined the cumbersome mathematics of 18th century orbital citation needed] prediction that his work remains a cornerstone of astronomical computation. The discovery of Ceres led Gauss to his work on a theory of the motion of planetoids disturbed by large planets. he doubted the security of this arrangement. eventually published in 1809 as Theoria motus corporum coelestium in sectionibus conicis solem ambientum (Theory of motion of the celestial bodies moving in conic sections around the Sun). Gauss proved the method under the assumption of normally distributed errors (see Gauss–Markov theorem. see also Gaussian). Thus he sought a position in astronomy. but Gauss claimed that he had been using it since citation needed] 1795. In the process.[ Thales Thales of Miletus Thales Born c. and in 1807 was appointed Professor of Astronomy and Director of the astronomical observatory in Göttingen. and also did not believe pure mathematics to be important enough to deserve support. a post he held for the remainder of his life. 624 BC . The method had been described earlier by Adrien-Marie Legendre in 1805. a procedure used in all sciences to this day to minimize the impact of measurement error. Zach noted that "without the intelligent work and calculations of Doctor Gauss we might not have found Ceres again". and contained an influential treatment of the method of least squares. This paper predates the first [11] presentation by Joseph Fourier on the subject in 1807.

regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition. but in the sixth an eclipse of the Sun (mentioned above) spontaneously halted a battle in progress (the Battle of Halys). Total eclipse of the Sun It seems that Thales had predicted this solar eclipse. Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. "Western philosophy begins with Thales. over the issue of refuge the Lydians had given to some Scythian soldiers of fortune inimical to the Medes. Thalēs.c. Mathematics. Almost all of the other Pre-Socratic philosophers follow him in attempting to provide an explanation of ultimate substance. he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. Whether Thales was present at the battle is not known. 624 BC – c. most notably Aristotle."[2] Thales attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythology and was tremendously influential in this respect.[10] The Lydians were at war with the Medes. and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. though it is argued that Democritus is actually more deserving of this title. He was also the first to define general principles and set forth hypotheses. who was somewhat too aggressive for the size of his army. by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. 547–546 BC Ionian. Notable ideas intercept theorem Died School Influenced by[show] Influenced[show] Thales of Miletus (/ˈθeɪliːz/. Many. who were then new to the region. Croesus. a remnant of the first wave of Iranians in the region. and as a result has been dubbed the "Father of Science".[3][4] In mathematics. Milesian school. He had conquered most of the states of coastal Anatolia. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry. including the cities of the Ionians.[5] Thales‘ political life had mainly to do with the involvement of the Ionians in the defense of Anatolia against the growing power of the Persians. Metaphysics. and eventually Thales' rejection of mythological explanations became an essential idea for the scientific revolution. The story is told in Herodotus. Main interests Astronomy Water is the arche. but based on it the Lydians and Medes made peace immediately. 546 BC) was a preSocratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor. As a result.[1] According to Bertrand Russell. The war endured for five years. A king had come to power in neighboring Lydia. The Medes were dependencies of the Persians under Cyrus. change. He . another sage. Those philosophers were also influential. Croesus now sided with the Medes against the Persians and marched in the direction of Iran (with far fewer men than he needed). and the existence of the world—without reference to mythology. Naturalism Ethics. Greek: Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήζιος). The Seven Sages were most likely already in existence. c. Thales' theorem. nor are the exact terms of the prediction. swearing a blood oath. as Croesus was also heavily influenced by Solon of Athens.

however. This has sometimes been interpreted as an alliance. Diogenes Laertius[11] tells us that Thales gained fame as a counselor when he advised the Milesians not to engage in a symmachia. The two armies engaged at Pteria in Cappadocia. and in any case did not consort with noble lawmakers such as Solon. The others remained in an Ionian League of 12 cities (excluding Miletus now). we must reject these stories and the tempting date if we are to believe that Thales was a native of Miletus. dismissed his mercenaries and sent emissaries to his dependents and allies to ask them to dispatch fresh troops to Sardis. It was fairly certain that he came from a wealthy and established family. The same story. the king gave the problem to him. a "fighting together".was stopped by the river Halys. rather than assuming that earthquakes were the result of supernatural processes. Herodotus says that Thales advised them to form an Ionian state. aimed to explain natural phenomena via a rational explanation that referenced natural processes themselves. and the wealthy customarily educated their children. Much as we would like to have a date on the seven sages. who subsequently spared Miletus because it had taken no action.[14] It is unclear whether the interpretation that he treated matter as being alive might have been mistaken for his thinking the properties of nature arise directly from material processes. Thales. As he was not known to have been athletic. a bouleuterion (―deliberative body‖) to be located at Teos in the center of Ionia. could not afford the grand tour in Egypt. asserts that Thales emigrated to Miletus. related . The channels ran around both sides of the camp. The Ionians were now free. perhaps by invitation. with the Lydians. that is. Physis (θύζις) comes from phyein (θύειν). or ―districts‖. While Herodotus reported that most of his fellow Greeks believe that Thales did divert the river Halys to assist King Croesus' military endeavors. more consistent with modern ideas of how properties arise as emergent characteristics of complex systems involved in the processes of evolution and developmental change. Thales attempted to explain earthquakes by hypothesizing that the Earth floats on water. The Ionian cities should be demoi. according to Aristotle. and were subjugated by the Persians. Croesus marched home. This time he had Thales with him. his event was probably declamation. unless he was a seafaring man or a merchant. There is also a report that he did not become a student of nature until after his political career. then unbridged. asked what was the nature (Greek Arche) of the object so that it would behave in its characteristic way. Whatever his status. however. the ordinary citizen. making it possible to ford the river. and he got the army across by digging a diversion upstream so as to reduce the flow. predicted the eclipse. he himself finds it doubtful. Cyrus was so impressed by Croesus‘ wisdom and his connection with the sages that he spared him and took his advice on various matters. Croesus was defeated before the city of Sardis by Cyrus. For example. however. and was with Croesus in the campaign against Cyrus. Theories The Greeks often invoked idiosyncratic explanations of natural phenomena by reference to the will of anthropomorphic gods and heroes. Moreover. but a ruler does not ally with his subjects. The issue became more pressing when the Persian army showed up at Sardis. most likely Panhellenic. He dedicated it to Apollo at Delphi. "to grow". and it may have been victory in some specific phase of this event that led to his being designated sage. and that earthquakes occur when the Earth is rocked by waves. at which he won a bowl twice. As the battle was indecisive but paralyzing to both sides.[12] The Ionic Stoa on the Sacred Way in Miletus Diogenes Laertius[13] tells us that the Seven Sages were created in the archonship of Damasius at Athens about 582 BC and that Thales was the first sage. Thales had instruction from Egyptian priest. received favorable terms from Cyrus. Thales was a Hylozoist (those who think matter is alive). He did participate in some games. Miletus. Thales.

[16] again with the stamp of what it is in itself. "matter" is hyle ("wood" or "matter"."[20] Practice and Theory . What Aristotle is really saying is that the first philosophers were trying to define the substance(s) of which all material objects are composed.) "That from which is everything that exists and from which it first becomes and into which it is rendered at last.. but are constituents of it. Aristotle conjectured that Thales reached his conclusion by contemplating that the "nourishment of all things is moist and that even the hot is created from the wet and lives by it. his statement that Thales held it was water is generally accepted as genuinely originating with Thales and he is seen as an incipient matter-and-formist. where "principle" is arche.[15] (G)natura is the way a thing is "born". either one or more than one. Thales the founder of this type of philosophy says that it is water. which dominates it. "material") and "form" is eidos. in pluralism objects are composed of earth. but acquires or loses different qualities (πάθη. As a matter of fact. which comes down to use through a passage from Aristotle's Metaphysics. but those elements do not disappear with the production of the object. If the arche is taken to be an origin. They remain as archai within it. but the two words do not have precisely the same meaning. 17-21 (The passage contains words that were later adopted by science with quite different meanings. Heraclitus Homericus[19] states that Thales drew his conclusion from seeing moist substance turn into air. The archai that Aristotle had in mind in his well-known passage on the first Greek scientists are not necessarily chronologically prior to their objects. who held that everything was composed of air. Aristotle considered Thales‘ position to be roughly the equivalent to the later ideas of Anaximenes. from which become the other things of the object being saved. in Metaphysics 983 b6 8-11. then specific causality is implied. Aristotle laid out his own thinking about matter and form which may shed some light on the ideas of Thales. its substance remaining under it. B is supposed to be characteristically B just because it comes from A. slime and earth. that is exactly what modern scientists are attempting to accomplish in nuclear physics. but transforming in qualities. Aristotle then proceeded to proffer a number of conjectures based on his own observations to lend some credence to why Thales may have advanced this idea (though Aristotle didn‘t hold it himself).[18] In the work Aristotle unequivocally reported Thales‘ hypothesis about the nature of matter – that the originating principle of nature was a single material substance: water. that they say is the element and principle of things that our word "be". An arche (from ἄρτειν." While Aristotle‘s conjecture on why Thales held water was the originating principle of water is his own thinking. It seems likely that Thales viewed the Earth as solidifying from the water on which it floated and which surrounded Ocean. Writing centuries later Diogenes Laertius also states that Thales taught "Water constituted (ὑπεζηήζαηο." In this quote we see Aristotle's depiction of the problem of change and the definition of substance . that is. is it the same or different? In either case how can there be a change from one to the other? The answer is that the substance "is saved". Aristotle[17] characterizes most of the philosophers "at first" (πρῶηον) as thinking that the "principles in the form of matter were the only principles of all things". the things you "experience"). which is a second reason why Thales is described as the first western scientist. Arche is translated as "principle". fire and water. He ask if an object changes. as do the atoms of the atomists.. For example. "to rule") dominates an object in some way. A principle of something is merely prior (related to pro-) to it either chronologically or logically. 'stood under') the principle of all things. air. …For it is necessary that there be some nature (θύζις). Water as a first principle Thales most famous philosophical position was his cosmological thesis.

cotangents require the same units for run and rise (base and perpendicular). One stick goes vertically into the ground. This story indicates that he was familiar with the Egyptian seked. Thales‘ Theorem is stated in another article. one having to do with a triangle inscribed in a circle and having the circle's diameter as one leg. cit. According to Kirk & Raven (reference cited below). things have a position. A right triangle with two equal legs is a 45-degree right triangle. The seked is a measure of the angle. resulting in different (but still characteristic) numbers.) In addition Eudemus attributed to him the discovery that a circle is bisected by its diameter. More practically Thales used the same method to measure the distances of ships at sea. 57. (Actually there are two theorems called Theorem of Thales. which preceded Thales by about 1000 years. the other theorem being also called the intercept theorem. Within this extension. For example. planes and solids related by distances and angles follow from this presumption. and what is more. What is the rise in cubits? The run is 70 cubits. he said: Megiston topos: hapanta gar chorei (Μέγιζηον ηόπος· άπανηα γαρ τωρεί) ‖Space is the greatest thing. Knowledge of two angles (the seked and a right angle) and an enclosed leg (the altitude) allows you to determine by similar triangles the second leg. 59 and 60 of the Rhind papyrus . means that he was the first to define trigonometry is a matter of opinion. In present day trigonometry. used that knowledge in practical ways.25 seked. We would go on to calculate the cotangent as 70 divided by 931⁄3 to get 3/4 or . all you need for this feat is three straight sticks pinned at one end and knowledge of your altitude. or seqed . 58. Thales understood similar triangles and right triangles.25 or 931⁄3 cubits. The length of the pyramid‘s shadow measured from the center of the pyramid at that moment must have been equal to its height. X. all of which are similar. 490 palms. Thales probably had his own equipment rigged and recorded his own sekeds. These figures sufficed for the Egyptians and Thales. but the papyrus uses cubits for rise and palms for run. which is the distance. that the base angles of an isosceles triangle . Since there were 7 palms in a cubit. the seked was 7 times the cotangent.) that he measured the height of the pyramids by their shadows at the moment when his own shadow was equal to his height. The seked is at the base of problems 56. With the third you sight the ship and calculate the seked from the height of the stick and its distance from the point of insertion to the line of sight. His understanding was theoretical as well as practical. but that is only a guess. suppose the base of a pyramid is 140 cubits and the angle of rise 5. said Eudemus as reported by Proclus (―in Euclidem‖). The Egyptians expressed their fractions as the sum of fractions. as it contains all things‖ Topos is in Newtonian-style space. lines.75 and looking that up in a table of cotangents find that the angle of rise is a few minutes over 53 degrees. Points. chorei. The story is told in DL (loc. but the decimals are sufficient for the ancient Egyptian mathematics document. which is extension. or spreading out to make room for them. is 490 divided by 5. Whether the ability to use the seked. Thales' Theorem: To use an example often quoted in modern reference works.Thales was known for his innovative use of geometry. since the verb. has the connotation of yielding before things.the ratio of the run to the rise of a slope (cotangent). A second is made level. the rise.

about 495 BC)[1][2] was an Ionian Greek philosopher. 570 BC Born Samos c.are equal and that vertical angles are equal. 495 BC (aged around 75) Died Metapontum Ancient philosophy Era Western philosophy Region Pythagoreanism School Metaphysics. he observed that whenever the Egyptians drew two intersecting lines. Pythagoras Pythagoras (Πσθαγόρας) Bust of Pythagoras of Samos in the Capitoline Museums. they would measure the vertical angles to make sure that they were equal.[26] when Thales visited Egypt. Politics Musica universalis. and founder of the religious movement called Pythagoreanism. It would be hard to imagine civilization without these theorems. He was born on the . Main interests Ethics. According to a historical Note. Rome c. b. so very little reliable information is known about him. or simply Πσθαγόρας. about 570 – d. Thales concluded that one could prove that all vertical angles are equal if one accepted some general notions such as: all straight angles are equal. Pythagorean tuning. Golden [citation needed] . equals added to equals are equal. Notable ideas ratio Pythagorean theorem Influenced by[show] Influenced[show] Pythagoras of Samos (Ancient Greek: Πσθαγόρας ὁ ΢άμιος [Πσθαγόρης in Ionian Greek] Pythagóras ho Sámios "Pythagoras the Samian". Most of the information about Pythagoras was written down centuries after he lived. and equals subtracted from equals are equal. Music. mathematician. Mathematics.

His name led him to be associated with Pythian Apollo. one can give only a tentative account of his teachings. It was said that he was the first man to call himself a philosopher. the Greek island in the eastern Aegean. and most information concerning him is of so late a date.[6] His disciples Dicaearchus. Around 530 BC." and Iamblichus tells the story that the Pythia prophesied that his pregnant mother would give birth to a man supremely beautiful.[7] Life Bust of Pythagoras. he moved to Croton.[8] His father was a gem-engraver or a merchant. and Iamblichus for the biographical details. and beneficial to humankind. "He spoke (agor-) the truth no less than did the Pythian (Pyth-). Vatican Herodotus. and Heraclides Ponticus had written on the same subject. and Pythagoras was forced to flee the city. These writers. but he is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. and other early writers all agree that Pythagoras was born on Samos. Aristoxenus. his range of activity would be impossibly vast. but who were uncritical concerning anything which related to the gods or which was considered divine.[9] A late source gives his mother's name as Pythais. Herodotus. Aristippus explained his name by saying. Whether or not his disciples believed that everything was related to mathematics and that numbers were the ultimate reality is unknown.[5] With the exception of a few remarks by Xenophanes. Hence historians are often reduced to considering the statements based on their inherent probability. which unfortunately has not survived. He is often revered as a great mathematician.[4] Thus many myths were created – such as that Apollo was his father. but even then. Plato. mystic and scientist. were among the best sources from whom Porphyry and Iamblichus drew. Aristotle had written a separate work on the Pythagoreans. and might have travelled widely in his youth. that he was seen in different places at one and the same time. meant that invention took the place of facts. Many of the accomplishments credited to Pythagoras may actually have been accomplishments of his colleagues and successors. [3] and Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato.[10] As to the date of his birth. a Greek colony in southern Italy. and so untrustworthy. He is said to have died in Metapontum. Isocrates. Aristoxenus . and Isocrates. that Pythagoras gleamed with a supernatural brightness. Biographical sources Accurate facts about the life of Pythagoras are so few. all of Western philosophy. that Abaris came flying to him on a golden arrow. besides the legendary accounts and their own inventions. and through him. The society took an active role in the politics of Croton. visiting Egypt and other places seeking knowledge. The stories which were created were eagerly sought by the Neoplatonist writers who provide most of the details about Pythagoras. Aristotle. Porphyry. The lack of information by contemporary writers. However. Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religious teaching in the late 6th century BC. we are mainly dependent on Diogenes Laërtius. because legend and obfuscation cloud his work even more than that of the other pre-Socratic philosophers. and there set up a religious sect. Heraclitus. His followers pursued the religious rites and practices developed by Pythagoras. or lover of wisdom. The Pythagorean meeting-places were burned. and studied his philosophical theories. that he had a golden thigh. wise. together with the secrecy which surrounded the Pythagorean brotherhood. and some have questioned whether he contributed much to mathematics and natural philosophy.island of Samos. late as they are. but this eventually led to their downfall. if all the credible stories concerning Pythagoras were supposed true. and we also learn that Pythagoras was the son of Mnesarchus. that it is impossible to provide more than a vague outline of his life.

After his travels. and especially to learn information concerning the secret or mystic cults of the gods.[23] or the Delphic oracle. but to the Pythagoreans. to which Pythagoras ventured after feeling overburdened in Samos. or indeed.[31] and medicine. His later admirers claimed that Pythagoras was so overburdened .[27] In his book The Life of Apollonius of Tyana.[35] Croton on the southern coast of Italy.[22] It is not easy to say how much Pythagoras learned from the Egyptian priests. a huge range of teachers were assigned to Pythagoras. Phlius. Judaea.[29] as well as discoveries in the field of music.[30] astronomy. in the Trojan war.[14] and Pherecydes of Syros. and even India. Even the ancient authorities note the similarities between the religious and ascetic peculiarities of Pythagoras with the Orphic or Cretan mysteries. Some made his training almost entirely Greek. which would give a date of birth around 570 BC. a courtesan.[16][17] The Egyptians are said to have taught him geometry. Pherecydes is mentioned most often. Pythagoras moved (around 530 BC) to Croton. etc. Possibly the tyranny of Polycrates in Samos made it difficult for him to achieve his schemes there.[26] Xenophanes mentions the story of his interceding on behalf of a dog that was being beaten.[25] and Xenophanes claimed that he believed in the transmigration of souls.[33] and he was said to have practised divination and prophecy. Sparta. The secret religious rites of the Pythagoreans exhibited nothing but what might have been adopted in the spirit of Greek religion. a tradesman.[34] In the visits to various places in Greece – Delos. but also who he had been. and had visited not only Egypt. for the purpose of collecting all available knowledge. which are ascribed to him. Everything of the kind mentioned by Plato and Aristotle is attributed not to Pythagoras. whether he learned anything at all from them. Pythagoras received instruction from the Egyptian priest Oenuphis of Heliopolis. the son of Panthus. professing to recognise in its cries the voice of a departed friend. or else as a lawgiver.[12] Thales. in Italy (Magna Graecia). There was nothing in the symbolism which the Pythagoreans adopted which showed the distinct traces of Egypt. or as to his definite philosophical views.[12] Anaximander.[21] Enough of Egypt was known to attract the curiosity of an inquiring Greek. In the absence of reliable information. Heraclitus stated that he was a man of extensive learning.stated that Pythagoras left Samos in the reign of Polycrates. Philostratus wrote that Pythagoras knew not only who he was himself. who introduced him to the principles of ethics. however.[18] Of the various claims regarding his Greek teachers. but Arabia. Diogenes Laertius reported that Pythagoras had undertaken extensive travels. Pythagoras is supposed to have claimed that he had been Euphorbus. by those who knew nothing of Egyptian mysteries.[24] There is little direct evidence as to the kind and amount of knowledge which Pythagoras acquired.[13] Bias. Crete. The philosophy and the institutions of Pythagoras might easily have been developed by a Greek mind exposed to the ordinary influences of the age. and contact between Samos and other parts of Greece with Egypt is mentioned.[32] But it was the religious element which made the profoundest impression upon his contemporaries. including his famous theorem. at the age of 40.[12] Hermodamas of Samos. to have been taught by a Delphic priestess named Themistoclea. Phoenicia.[20] Other ancient writers asserted his visit to Egypt.[11] It was natural for the ancient biographers to inquire as to the origins of Pythagoras' remarkable system. he usually appears either in his religious or priestly guise.[15] He is said too. Thus the people of Croton were supposed to have identified him with the Hyperborean Apollo. the Chaldeans astronomy. the Magians the principles of religion and practical maxims for the conduct of life. the Phoenicians arithmetic.[28] Many mathematical and scientific discoveries were attributed to Pythagoras.[19] Plutarch asserted in his book On Isis and Osiris that during his visit to Egypt. Babylon. etc. others exclusively Egyptian and Oriental. We find mentioned as his instructors Creophylus. as well as various other characters.

and this seems to have led to its destruction. while individuals.[42] Similar commotions ensued in the other cities of Magna Graecia in which Pythagorean clubs had been formed.[40] The club was in practice at once "a philosophical school. a religious brotherhood. was unsuccessfully resisted by the Pythagoreans. he quickly attained extensive influence."[41] Pythagoras.with public duties in Samos. the former of whom is said to have been irritated by his exclusion from the brotherhood. acquired now and then great political influence.[37] His followers established a select brotherhood or club for the purpose of pursuing the religious and ascetic practices developed by their master. and Myia. The circumstances. the members of which kept up among themselves their religious observances and scientific pursuits. however. depicted on a 3rd-century coin Such an aristocratic and exclusive club could easily have made many people in Croton jealous and hostile. only the younger and more active escaping. and there starved himself to death. and that. being driven from there. After the decisive victory by Croton. Telauges. are uncertain. a lady of Croton. Some say that he perished in the temple with his disciples. Later biographers tell fantastical stories of the effects of his eloquent speech in leading the people of Croton to abandon their luxurious and corrupt way of life and devote themselves to the purer system which he came to introduce. a proposal for establishing a more democratic constitution. he escaped to Metapontum. and many of the assembled members perished. An attack was made upon them while assembled either in the house of Milo. Concerning the fate of Pythagoras himself.[44] His tomb was shown at Metapontum in the time of Cicero. and a political association. Conflict seems to have broken out between the towns of Sybaris and Croton. that he moved to Croton. and three daughters. as in the case of Archytas. headed by Cylon and Ninon.[38] Temperance of all kinds seems to have been strictly urged. Writings No texts by Pythagoras are known to have survived. or in some other meeting-place. The esoteric teachings may have concerned the secret religious doctrines and usages. and did not again revive. and may have been connected with the worship of Apollo. Ancient Pythagoreans usually quoted their master's doctrines with the phrase autos ephe ("he himself said") — emphasizing the essentially oral nature of his teaching. Damo. and many people began to follow him. because of the high estimation in which he was held by his fellowcitizens. Their enemies. Still the Pythagoreans continued to exist as a sect. The accounts agree that what was done and taught among the members was kept a profound secret. Mathematics . although forgeries under his name — a few of which remain extant — did circulate in antiquity.[43] others that he fled first to Tarentum.[36] On his arrival in Croton. The forces of Croton were headed by the Pythagorean Milo. Their children are variously stated to have included a son. There is disagreement among the biographers as to whether Pythagoras forbade all animal food. As an active and organised brotherhood the Pythagorean order was everywhere suppressed. and it is likely that the members of the brotherhood took a prominent part. which were undoubtedly prominent in the Pythagorean system. The building was set on fire.[39] or only certain types. the accounts varied.[45] According to some accounts Pythagoras married Theano. Arignote. Critical ancient sources like Aristotle and Aristoxenus cast doubt on these writings. roused the populace against them.

For that matter. which resonate well with the ideas they attributed to Pythagoras. he. he discovered that it was because the hammers were "simple ratios of each other.[48][49] However. however. The so-called Pythagoreans. are often said to have constructed the first proof. there is no evidence that Pythagoras himself worked on or proved this theorem. the way Pythagoras discovered that musical notes could be translated into mathematical equations was when one day he passed blacksmiths at work. . one was half the size of the first. but saturated with it. He went to the blacksmiths to learn how this had happened by looking at their tools. not only advanced this subject. It must. While the theorem that now bears his name was known and previously utilized by the Babylonians and Indians.The Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c). be stressed that the way in which the Babylonians handled Pythagorean numbers implies that they knew that the principle was generally applicable. [47] The earliest known mention of Pythagoras's name in connection with the theorem occurred five centuries after his death. 350 BC Pythagorean theorem A visual proof of the Pythagorean theorem Since the fourth century AD. there is no evidence that he worked on any mathematical or meta-mathematical problems. it may be that Pythagoras was indeed responsible for discovering these properties of string length. —Aristotle. in the writings of Cicero and Plutarch. and not to hammer weight. Musical theories and investigations Medieval woodcut showing Pythagoras with bells and other instruments in Pythagorean tuning See also: Pythagorean tuning and Pythagorean hammers According to legend. a theorem in geometry that states that in a right-angled triangle the area of the square on the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares of the other two sides—that is. . Pythagoras has commonly been given credit for discovering the Pythagorean theorem." This legend has since proven to be false by virtue of the fact that these ratios are only relevant to string length (such as the string of a monochord). and so on.[46] Because of the secretive nature of his school and the custom of its students to attribute everything to their teacher. cc. This attribution has stuck down the centuries up to modern times. mainly to bolster the case for Platonic meta-physics. Metaphysics 1–5 . who were the first to take up mathematics. another was 2/3 the size. they fancied that the principles of mathematics were the principles of all things. Some attribute it as a carefully constructed myth by followers of Plato over two centuries after the death of Pythagoras. or his students. which has not yet been found in the (still largely unpublished) cuneiform sources. and knew some kind of proof. and thought that the sounds emanating from their anvils being hit were beautiful and harmonious and decided that whatever scientific law caused this to happen must be mathematical and could be applied to music.

1776 – August 14. the German educator involved with issues of reform in the schools. His education then continued at Jena. whereupon he studied philosophy and came to disagree with his teacher Fichte precisely because Fichte had taught him to think in a logical manner. and remained there as professor of philosophy till his death. 1841) was a German philosopher. Kingdom of Hanover 19th-century philosophy Western philosophy Influenced by[show] Influenced[show] Johann Friedrich Herbart (May 4. Here he also established and conducted a seminary of pedagogy till 1833. During these three years. whence he removed in 1809 to occupy the chair formerly held by Kant at Königsberg. He gave his first philosophical lectures at Göttingen around 1805. and showed interest in philosophy. Growing up as a fragile child because of an unfortunate accident. Herbart went on to study Greek and mathematics at Bremen for three years. psychologist. That does not take into account his thought on education. While tutoring in Switzerland. he tutored the children of Herr von Steiger. Herbart was taught by his mother at home until the age of 12. who was the Governor of Interlaken. this in particular in relation to aesthetics. criticizing the works of Schelling and advocating his contention for the German idealism promoted by others like Kant at the time. and Kant's work involving the nature of knowledge obtained from experience with reality. Herbart was born at Oldenburg. and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. Herbart met and came to know Pestalozzi. While there. Herbart is now remembered amongst the post-Kantian philosophers mostly as making the greatest contrast to Hegel. He composed a few essays. Resigning from his tutoring position. logic. Leaving Jena after three years. which he had given to Fichte during his years at Jena. He continued his schooling at the Gymnasium for six years. when he returned once more to Göttingen. Herbart gave his last lecture in perfectly . Duchy of Oldenburg 14 August 1841 (aged 65) Göttingen.Johann Friedrich Herbart Johann Friedrich Herbart Born Died Era Region 4 May 1776 Oldenburg. and then eventually moved on to attend Göttingen from 1801 to 1809. he received a privat-docent for his endeavors in educational studies after receiving his doctoral degree. his tutoring job sparked his interest in educational reform.

e. the philosophic treatment of these conceptions falls to Aesthetic. He became acquainted with her and asked her for her hand in marriage. and in being independent of the reality of their objects. and expressed himself in the main at one with Kantians such as Fries and Krug. That which we are compelled to posit. while logic denies it. no other course being open to us. or metaphysics. we must assume that N results from a combination of Ms. And yet that these forms are given to us. though we could doubt whether the given is what it appears. Herbart was very much focused on his studies. we cannot doubt that it is something. for. its three primary divisions being determined by as many distinct forms of elaboration. for we should have to use these unlegitimated conceptions in the course of it. Metaphysics As a metaphysician he starts from what he terms the higher scepticism of the Hume-Kantian sphere of thought. begins with reflection upon our empirical conceptions. however. we must posit several Ms. to which our scepticism had already led us. To attempt at this stage a psychological inquiry into the origin of these conceptions would be doubly a mistake. But some conceptions are such that the more distinct they are made the more contradictory their elements become. he insisted strongly on its purely formal character. which stands first. or our procedure will be arbitrary. and the task of clearing up their contradictions would still remain. We are thus driven to the assumption that the conception is contradictory because incomplete. is that which is. For to do either is forbidden by experience. and so it being impossible for one and the same M to sustain these contradictory positions there is but one way open to us. another is not. which cannot be sublated. The validity of even the forms of experience is called in question on account of the contradictions they are found to involve. There is still a class of conceptions requiring more than a logical treatment. But how are we to set about this task? We have given to us a conception A uniting among its constituent marks two that prove to be contradictory. and ―he barely saw the world outside his study and the classrooms‖ making ―his world the world of books and only books‖. They lived a happy life with Mary supporting all of her husband‘s pursuits and contributions to the fields of pedagogy and psychology. and yet to do nothing is forbidden by logic. he met an eighteen-year-old English girl named Mary Drake one night when playing a game of charades. the beginnings of which he discerns in Locke's perplexity about the idea of substance. whether we succeeded in our enquiry or not. He is buried in Albanifriedhof Cemetery in Göttingen. for every M must be both thinkable and valid. and we can neither deny the unity nor reject one of the contradictory members. this is what we must do. Logic.good health and then unexpectedly died two days later from apoplexy. as truly as sensations are. Experience asserts that M is the same (i. We may. In the Ontology this method is employed to determine what in reality corresponds to the empirical conceptions of substance and cause. Philosophy Philosophy. and in the recognition of this lies the simple conception of . so to change and supplement these as to make them at length thinkable is the problem of the second part of philosophy. and again. But even now we cannot say one of these Ms is the same as N. Logic In Herbart's writings logic receives comparatively meagre notice. and consists in the reformation and elaboration of these. the conceptions that embody our judgments of approval and disapproval. but how are we to supplement it? What we have must point the way to what we want. has to render our conceptions and the judgments and reasonings arising from them clear and distinct. or rather of inherence and change.[1] Regardless of his relentless studying. This is Herbart's method of relations. But first we must analyse this notion of reality itself. take the Ms not singly but together. according to Herbart. but differing from the last in not involving latent contradictions. the counterpart in his system of the Hegelian dialectic. a mark of the same concept) as N. the conception of the real thus consists of the two conceptions of being and quality. follows beyond doubt when we consider that we are as little able to control the one as the other. say M and N.

Keeping fast hold of this idea of absolute position. Pune. when each is conditioned by the other and their position is no longer absolute. for if it contain two determinations. were never bound against our will to endure the persistence of a presentation. His works include the Āryabhaṭīya (499 CE. or they are not. A and B. and is not absolute. any image of Aryabhata originates from an artist's conception. i. The doctrine here developed is the first cardinal point of Herbart's system. All quantitative conceptions are excluded. when he was 23 years old)[5] and the Arya-siddhanta. we should never know what being is. But there may be a plurality of reals. If we were without sensations. for quantity implies parts. and has obtained for it the name of pluralistic realism. But when is a thing thus posited? When it is posited as we usually posit the things we see and taste and handle. IAST: Āryabhaṭa) or Aryabhata I[1][2] (476–550 CE)[3][4] was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.being.e. for non-A sublates instead of positing. and these are incompatible with simplicity. then either these are reducible to one. As there is no known information regarding his appearance. Astronomy Āryabhaṭīya. Herbart leads us next to the quality of the real: This must exclude everything negative. Arya-siddhanta Aryabhata (Sanskrit: आययभट listen (help·info). Aryabhata Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA. albeit the mere conception of being can tell us nothing as to this. but relative to A. Ashmaka 550 CE Gupta era India Mathematics. The real must be absolutely simple. . which is the true quality. Born Died Era Region Main interests Major works 476 CE prob. .

It also contains continued fractions.The works of Aryabhata dealt with mainly mathematics and astronomy. Varahamihira. was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī.[6] Time and place of birth Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhatiya that it was composed 3. and a table of sines. This work appears to be based on the older Surya Siddhanta and uses the midnight-day reckoning.[6] including Brahmagupta's references to him "in more than a hundred places by name". possibly angle-measuring devices. some of which are lost. when he was 23 years old. as well as Bhāskara I (CE 629). and water clocks of at least two types. a compendium of mathematics and astronomy. plane trigonometry. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic. but his "Lanka" is an abstraction. It claims that it is a translation by Aryabhata. and.[10] For instance. This corresponds to 499 CE. because the university of Nalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory. Aryabhata mentions "Lanka" on several occasions in the Aryabhatiya.[8] Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition.[6] A verse mentions that Aryabhata was the head of an institution (kulapati) at Kusumapura. at some point. and implies that he was born in 476. it is mentioned by the Persian scholar and chronicler of India. but it may have been in the area known in ancient texts as Ashmaka India which may have been Maharashtra or Dhaka.[11] Works Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy.[12] A third text. Aryabhatiya. Biography Name While there is a tendency to misspell his name as "Aryabhatta" by analogy with other names having the "bhatta" suffix. including Brahmagupta and Bhaskara I. and spherical trigonometry. but the Sanskrit name of this work is not known. Probably dating from the 9th century.630 years into the Kali Yuga. a lot work on astronomical computations.[7] Furthermore. one hypothesis was that aśmaka (Sanskrit for "stone") may be the region in Kerala that is now known as Koṭuṅṅallūr. is known through the writings of Aryabhata's contemporary. which may have survived in the Arabic translation. semicircular and circular (dhanur-yantra / chakrayantra). he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time.[12] . a shadow instrument (chhAyAyantra). based on the belief that it was earlier known as Koṭum-Kal-l-ūr ("city of hard stones"). his name is properly spelled Aryabhata: every astronomical text spells his name thus. however. Similarly. an umbrella-shaped device called the chhatra-yantra. in most instances "Aryabhatta" does not fit the metre either. the fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from Kerala were used to suggest that it was Aryabhata's main place of life and activity. bow-shaped and cylindrical. modern Patna. old records show that the city was actually Koṭum-kol-ūr ("city of strict governance"). identify Kusumapura as Pāṭaliputra. sums-of-power series. His major work.[4] Aryabhata's birthplace is uncertain. The Arya-siddhanta. a cylindrical stick yasti-yantra.[6] Aryabhata is also reputed to have set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana. however.[9] Other hypotheses Some archeological evidence suggests that Aryabhata could have originated from the present day Kodungallur which was the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala. as opposed to sunrise in Aryabhatiya. It also contained a description of several astronomical instruments: the gnomon (shanku-yantra). algebra.[6] Education It is fairly certain that. quadratic equations. is Al ntf or Al-nanf. standing for a point on the equator at the same longitude as his Ujjayini. He also worked on the approximation for pi. it is speculated that Aryabhata might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well. and later mathematicians and commentators. many commentaries have come from outside Kerala. Bihar.

simultaneous. In the second part of the Aryabhatiyam (gaṇitapāda 10).Aryabhatiya Main article: Aryabhatiya Direct details of Aryabhata's work are known only from the Aryabhatiya. He was not only the first to find the radius of the earth but was the only one in ancient time including the Greeks and the Romans to find the volume of the earth. and yuga—which present a cosmology different from earlier texts such as Lagadha's Vedanga Jyotisha (c. Continuing the Sanskritic tradition from Vedic times.[14] Approximation of π Aryabhata worked on the approximation for pi ( ). which is accurate to five significant figures. and is divided into four pādas or chapters: Gitikapada: (13 verses): large units of time—kalpa.1416. given in a single verse. (1465 CE). manvantra. expressing quantities. calculations concerning the intercalary month (adhikamAsa). celestial equator. to mean that not only is this an approximation but that the value is incommensurable (or irrational). His disciple Bhaskara I calls it Ashmakatantra (or the treatise from the Ashmaka). There is also a table of sines (jya). and a seven-day week with names for the days of week. Ganitapada (33 verses): covering mensuration (kṣetra vyāvahāra). It is written in the very terse style typical of sutra literature. kShaya-tithis. shape of the earth.000. in which each line is an aid to memory for a complex system. While he did not use a symbol for zero. he writes: caturadhikam śatamaṣṭaguṇam dvāṣaṣṭistathā sahasrāṇām ayutadvayaviṣkambhasyāsanno vṛttapariṇāhaḥ. cause of day and night. By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20. gnomon / shadows (shanku-chhAyA). "Add four to 100. extolling the virtues of the work. The text consists of the 108 verses and 13 introductory verses. it is quite a .[citation needed] Mathematics Place value system and zero The place-value system. It is speculated that Aryabhata used the word āsanna (approaching). etc. he used letters of the alphabet to denote numbers. such as the table of sines in a mnemonic form. The Aryabhatiya presented a number of innovations in mathematics and astronomy in verse form. quadratic. 1st century BCE). arithmetic and geometric progressions. The duration of the planetary revolutions during a mahayuga is given as 4. 600 CE) and by Nilakantha Somayaji in his Aryabhatiya Bhasya. and may have come to the conclusion that is irrational. etc. first seen in the 3rd-century Bakhshali Manuscript. multiply by eight. If this is correct. node. and indeterminate equations Kalakriyapada (25 verses): different units of time and a method for determining the positions of planets for a given day. the explication of meaning is due to commentators. The name "Aryabhatiya" is due to later commentators. Aryabhata's 108). which were influential for many centuries. It is also occasionally referred to as Aryashatas-aShTa (literally. features of the ecliptic.000 can be approached. because there are 108 verses in the text. was clearly in place in his work. some versions cite a few colophons added at the end. and then add 62. c. Aryabhata himself may not have given it a name.32 million years. Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi numerals. simple. rising of zodiacal signs on horizon." [15] This implies that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is ((4 + 100) × 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3. The extreme brevity of the text was elaborated in commentaries by his disciple Bhaskara I (Bhashya. the French mathematician Georges Ifrah explains that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata's place-value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients[13] However. In addition. Thus. Golapada (50 verses): Geometric/trigonometric aspects of the celestial sphere.

[16] After Aryabhatiya was translated into Arabic (c. (In Arabic. His alphabetic code is commonly known as the Aryabhata cipher. dawn at lanka or "equator".[18] Indeterminate equations A problem of great interest to Indian mathematicians since ancient times has been to find integer solutions to equations that have the form ax + by = c. meaning "pocket" or "fold (in a garment)". 2006. he replaced the Arabic jaib with its Latin counterpart. which apparently proposed a second model (or ardha-rAtrikA. and it was abbreviated as jb. which literally means "half-chord". Aryabhata's method of solving such problems is called the kuṭṭaka ( ) method. Alphabetic code has been used by him to define a set of increments."[17] Aryabhata discussed the concept of sine in his work by the name of ardha-jya. If we use Aryabhata's table and calculate the value of sin(30) (corresponding to hasjha) which is 1719/3438 = 0. It turns out that the smallest value for N is 85. can be notoriously difficult. because the irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761 by Lambert. vowels are omitted.[21][22] Motions of the solar system . When Arabic writers translated his works from Sanskrit into Arabic. Later writers substituted it with jaib. people started calling it jya. thence comes the English sine. sinus. midnight) are lost but can be partly reconstructed from the discussion in Brahmagupta's khanDakhAdyaka. they referred it as jiba. He may have believed that the planet's orbits as elliptical rather than circular. focused on the kuttaka method and earlier work in the Sulbasutras. in Arabic writings. whose more ancient parts might date to 800 BCE. when Gherardo of Cremona translated these writings from Arabic into Latin. Algebra In Aryabhatiya Aryabhata provided elegant results for the summation of series of squares and cubes:[20] and Astronomy Aryabhata's system of astronomy was called the audAyaka system. 4 as the remainder when divided by 9. a topic that has come to be known as diophantine equations. They were discussed extensively in ancient Vedic text Sulba Sutras.sophisticated insight.[19] The diophantine equations are of interest in cryptology. However. diophantine equations. the value is correct. For simplicity. In general. is the standard method for solving first-order diophantine equations and is often referred to as the Aryabhata algorithm. jiba is a meaningless word. and the RSA Conference. In some texts. such as this. elaborated by Bhaskara in 621 CE. in which days are reckoned from uday. Today this algorithm. the result of a perpendicular with the half-side is the area. and 1 as the remainder when divided by 7 That is. find N = 8x+5 = 9y+4 = 7z+1.) Later in the 12th century. he seems to ascribe the apparent motions of the heavens to the Earth's rotation.5. and the method involves a recursive algorithm for writing the original factors in smaller numbers.[12] Trigonometry In Ganitapada 6. This is an example from Bhāskara's commentary on Aryabhatiya: Find the number which gives 5 as the remainder when divided by 8. Aryabhata gives the area of a triangle as tribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah that translates to: "for a triangle. 820 CE) this approximation was mentioned in AlKhwarizmi's book on algebra. Kuttaka means "pulverizing" or "breaking into small pieces". which means "cove" or "bay". Some of his later writings on astronomy.

in which the Sun and Moon are each carried by epicycles. during a visit to Pondicherry. 12 minutes. constantly pushed by the cosmic wind. Mars. They in turn revolve around the Earth. and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the earth. India. This is indicated in the first chapter of the Aryabhatiya. In the case of Mercury and Venus. is seen by some historians as a sign of an underlying heliocentric model. In the case of Mars. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu. a smaller manda (slow) and a larger śīghra (fast). Aryabhata calculated the sidereal rotation (the rotation of the earth referencing the fixed stars) as 23 hours. [25] The order of the planets in terms of distance from earth is taken as: the Moon. the motions of the planets are each governed by two epicycles. His model also gave corrections (the śīgra anomaly) for the speeds of the planets in the sky in terms of the mean speed of the sun. Later Indian astronomers improved on the calculations. His computational paradigm was so accurate that 18th-century scientist Guillaume Le Gentil.[36] The general consensus is that a synodic anomaly (depending on the position of the sun) does not imply a physically heliocentric orbit (such ."[12] The positions and periods of the planets was calculated relative to uniformly moving points. Aryabhata described a geocentric model of the solar system. found the Indian computations of the duration of the lunar eclipse of 30 August 1765 to be short by 41 seconds. his value for the length of the sidereal year at 365 days. whereas his charts (by Tobias Mayer. but Aryabhata's methods provided the core. which is also found in the Paitāmahasiddhānta (c. representing each planet's motion through the zodiac. so [someone] on the equator sees the unmoving stars going uniformly westward. the basic planetary period in relation to the Sun. the śīghrocca. Jupiter.[34] It has also been suggested that aspects of Aryabhata's system may have been derived from an earlier. contrary to the thenprevailing view in other parts of the world. The cause of rising and setting [is that] the sphere of the stars together with the planets [apparently?] turns due west at the equator.091. He states that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. CE 425). they move around the Earth at the same mean speed as the Sun.1 seconds. where he gives the number of rotations of the earth in a yuga.[26] Another element in Aryabhata's model.[31][32][33] though this has been rebutted. that the sky rotated.Aryabhata correctly insisted that the earth rotates about its axis daily.38 –48) and then provides the computation and the size of the eclipsed part during an eclipse. Venus. heliocentric model of which Indian astronomers were unaware. the lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters into the Earth's shadow (verse gola. Thus. and 30 seconds (365. He discusses at length the size and extent of the Earth's shadow (verses gola. likely pre-Ptolemaic Greek. Thus. Aryabhata advocated an astronomical model in which the Earth turns on its own axis. Saturn.[23] and made more explicit in his gola chapter:[24] In the same way that someone in a boat going forward sees an unmoving [object] going backward.[12] Sidereal periods Considered in modern English units of time.[35] though the evidence is scant. they move around the Earth at specific speeds. he explains eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth. Mercury. In this model.25636 days). Jupiter. Similarly. 56 minutes. the Sun. and Saturn. Most historians of astronomy consider that this two-epicycle model reflects elements of pre-Ptolemaic Greek astronomy. and the asterisms. and 4.25858 days)[29] is an error of 3 minutes and 20 seconds over the length of a year (365. 1752) were long by 68 seconds.[27] Eclipses Solar and lunar eclipses were scientifically explained by Aryabhata. in which the planets orbit the Sun.[28] the modern value is 23:56:4.[30] Heliocentrism As mentioned. it has been suggested that Aryabhata's calculations were based on an underlying heliocentric model.37). 6 hours.

India. Aryabhatta Knowledge University (AKU). The inter-school Aryabhata Maths Competition is also named after him. as in Aryabhata and earlier Siddhanta calendars. to an accuracy of 4 decimal places. which means "fold in a garment". In the Islamic world. versine (utkrama-jya).[39] versions of which (modified in 1925) are the national calendars in use in Iran and Afghanistan today. they came to be widely used in the Islamic world and used to compute many Arabic astronomical tables (zijes). seasonal errors were less in the Jalali calendar than in the Gregorian calendar. Along with the trigonometric tables. The university is governed by Bihar State University Act 2008.[37] Legacy India's first satellite named after Aryabhata Aryabhata's work was of great influence in the Indian astronomical tradition and influenced several neighbouring cultures through translations. 1150). An Institute for conducting research in astronomy. He assumed that jiba was the Arabic word jaib. and inverse sine (otkram jya) influenced the birth of trigonometry. 820 CE). cosine (kojya). was particularly influenced. they formed the basis of the Jalali calendar introduced in 1073 CE by a group of astronomers including Omar Khayyam.[40] as is Bacillus aryabhata. India's first satellite Aryabhata and the lunar crater Aryabhata are named in his honour. management and allied professional education in his honour. As mentioned. modern names "sine" and "cosine" are mistranscriptions of the words jya and kojya as introduced by Aryabhata. sinus (c. Although dates were difficult to compute. This type of calendar requires an ephemeris for calculating dates. in 3.corrections being also present in late Babylonian astronomical texts). The dates of the Jalali calendar are based on actual solar transit. L. Some of his results are cited by Al-Khwarizmi and in the 10th century Al-Biruni stated that Aryabhata's followers believed that the Earth rotated on its axis. Calendric calculations devised by Aryabhata and his followers have been in continuous use in India for the practical purposes of fixing the Panchangam (the Hindu calendar). In particular. and that Aryabhata's system was not explicitly heliocentric. In fact.75° intervals from 0° to 90°. The Arabic translation during the Islamic Golden Age (c. astrophysics and atmospheric sciences is the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIOS) near Nainital. the astronomical tables in the work of the Arabic Spain scientist Al-Zarqali (11th century) were translated into Latin as the Tables of Toledo (12th century) and remained the most accurate ephemeris used in Europe for centuries. Patna has been established by Government of Bihar for the development and management of educational infrastructure related to technical. medical.[41] . He was also the first to specify sine and versine (1 − cos x) tables. His definitions of sine (jya).[38] Aryabhata's astronomical calculation methods were also very influential. they were translated as jiba and kojiba in Arabic and then misunderstood by Gerard of Cremona while translating an Arabic geometry text to Latin. a species of bacteria discovered by ISRO scientists in 2009.

as the author of Elements. 300 BC.Euclid Euclid in Raphael's School of Athens Unknown Unknown Alexandria. meaning "Good Glory". Egypt Mathematics Euclidean geometry Known for Euclid's Elements Euclid (/ˈjuːklɪd/ EWK-lid. "Euclid" is the anglicized version of the Greek name Εὐκλείδης. by Proclus and Pappus of Alexandria. often referred to as the "Father of Geometry". The few historical references to Euclid were written centuries after he lived. "Euclid replied there is no Born Died Residence Fields . Euclid deduced the principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. He was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). also known as Euclid of Alexandria. and only roughly estimated in proximity to contemporary figures mentioned in references. Euclid also wrote works on perspective. number theory and rigor. fl. His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics. serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. that he was mentioned by Archimedes. The date and place of Euclid's birth and the date and circumstances of his death are unknown. conic sections. Ancient Greek: Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs).[5] Proclus introduces Euclid only briefly in his fifth-century Commentary on the Elements.[4] Contents 1 Life 2 Elements 3 Other works 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Life Little is known about Euclid's life. and that when King Ptolemy asked if there was a shorter path to learning geometry than Euclid's Elements. as there are only a handful of references to him. was a Greek mathematician. spherical geometry.[1][2][3] In the Elements.

the infinitude of prime numbers. The geometrical system described in the Elements was long known simply as geometry. making it easy to use and easy to reference. and the Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two numbers.royal road to geometry. and was considered to be the only geometry possible. it is still believed that Euclid wrote his works before those of Archimedes. 29). and most of the copies say they are "from the edition of Theon" or the "lectures of Theon". The diagram accompanies Book II. the "royal road" anecdote is questionable since it is similar to a story told about Menaechmus and Alexander the Great. including a system of rigorous mathematical proofs that remains the basis of mathematics 23 centuries later. one of Euclid's accomplishments was to present them in a single."[6] Although the purported citation of Euclid by Archimedes has been judged to be an interpolation by later editors of his works. Pappus briefly mentioned in the fourth century that Apollonius "spent a very long time with the pupils of Euclid at Alexandria. Oxy.[10] In the only other key reference to Euclid. who briefly in his Commentary on the Elements ascribes Euclid as its author. however. Euclid's lemma on factorization (which leads to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic on uniqueness of prime factorizations).[14] while the text considered to be primary. logically coherent framework. held by the Vatican.[13] There is no mention of Euclid in the earliest remaining copies of the Elements. Today. found at Oxyrhynchus and dated to circa AD 100 (P. that system is often referred to as Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from other so-called non-Euclidean geometries that mathematicians discovered in the 19th century. mentions no author. Proposition 5. and it was thus that he acquired such a scientific habit of thought. the Elements also includes number theory. Although best known for its geometric results.[7][8][9] In addition.[12] Main article: Euclid's Elements Although many of the results in Elements originated with earlier mathematicians. It considers the connection between perfect numbers and Mersenne primes. The only reference that historians rely on of Euclid having written the Elements was from Proclus. Other works Euclid's construction of a regular dodecahedron ."[11] Elements One of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid's Elements.

which survives only partially in Arabic translation. It is similar to a third century AD work by Heron of Alexandria. Proposition 45 is interesting. Surface Loci concerned either loci (sets of points) on surfaces or loci which were themselves surfaces. and four propositions. These three works complement each other in such a way that it has been suggested that they are remnants of a single treatise on mechanics written by Euclid. Euclid relates the apparent size of an object to its distance from the eye and investigates the apparent shapes of cylinders and cones when viewed from different angles. a compendium of smaller works to be studied before the Syntaxis (Almagest) of Claudius Ptolemy. but the exact meaning of the title is controversial. According to Pappus." In the 36 propositions that follow. Pseudaria. while those under equal angles appear equal. having completed Euclid's four books of conics and added four others. . They follow the same logical structure as Elements. contains four propositions. Several works on mechanics are attributed to Euclid by Arabic sources.Construction of a dodecahedron basing on a cube In addition to the Elements. but have been lost. along with his Phaenomena. Pappus believed these results to be important in astronomy and included Euclid's Optics. In its definitions Euclid follows the Platonic tradition that vision is caused by discrete rays which emanate from the eye. One important definition is the fourth: "Things seen under a greater angle appear greater. at least five works of Euclid have survived to the present day. it has been hypothesized that the work might have dealt with quadric surfaces. The attribution is held to be anachronistic however by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson who name Theon of Alexandria as a more likely author. there is a point from which the two appear equal. "Apollonius. survives in Greek. on the circles described by the ends of a moving lever. with definitions and proved propositions. On Divisions of Figures. in nine definitions and five propositions. the subject matter is closely related to the first four books of the Elements.[15] Phaenomena. containing one definition. under the latter interpretation. which concerns the mathematical theory of mirrors." The Conics of Apollonius quickly supplanted the former work. On the Heavy and the Light contains. Porisms might have been an outgrowth of Euclid's work with conic sections. Other works are credibly attributed to Euclid. Data deals with the nature and implications of "given" information in geometrical problems. in the Little Astronomy. proving that for any two unequal magnitudes. Catoptrics. Aristotelian notions of moving bodies and the concept of specific gravity. It is likely that the first four books of Apollonius's work come directly from Euclid. Euclid's work was already lost. and by the time of Pappus. On the Balance treats the theory of the lever in a similarly Euclidean manner. two axioms. or Book of Fallacies. handed down eight volumes of conics. it is quite similar to On the Moving Sphere by Autolycus of Pitane. was an elementary text about errors in reasoning. concerns the division of geometrical figures into two or more equal parts or into parts in given ratios. A third fragment. Statue of Euclid in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History Optics is the earliest surviving Greek treatise on perspective. a treatise on spherical astronomy. and those under a lesser angle less. particularly the images formed in plane and spherical concave mirrors. Conics was a work on conic sections that was later extended by Apollonius of Perga into his famous work on the subject. who flourished around 310 BC.

and in his Brahmasphutasiddhanta is found one of the earliest attested schisms among Indian mathematicians. Brahmagupta used negative numbers and zero for computing. The difference between rupas. Brahmagupta was the first to use zero as a number. 18. In ancient times Bhillamala was the seat of power of the Gurjars. where rupas represents constants. [The result is] the unknown. the teacher from Bhillamala. and consequently has a poetic ring to it. Brahmagupta is often referred to as Bhillamalacharya. The modern rule that two negative numbers multiplied together equals a positive number first appears in Brahmasputa siddhanta. The division was primarily about the application of mathematics to the physical world. His father was Jisnugupta. The rupas are [subtracted on the side] below that from which the square and the unknown are to be subtracted. the Khandakhadyaka in 665. the disagreements stemmed largely from the choice of astronomical parameters and theories.45. 18. and the Durkeamynarda in 672. rather than about the mathematics itself.[1] Life and work Brahmagupta is believed to have been born in 598 AD in Bhinmal city in the state of Rajasthan of Northwest India.[3] Mathematics Algebra Brahmagupta gave the solution of the general linear equation in chapter eighteen of Brahmasphutasiddhanta. He was the head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain. As no proofs are given. diminish that by half the unknown [and] divide [the remainder] by its square.[5] . Whatever is the square-root of the rupas multiplied by the square [and] increased by the square of half the unknown. 1050) in his book Tariq al-Hind states that the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun had an embassy in India and from India a book was brought to Baghdad which was translated into Arabic as Sindhind. The Brahmasphutasiddhanta (Corrected Treatise of Brahma) is arguably his most famous work. written in 628 in Bhinmal.[2] He likely lived most of his life in Bhillamala (modern Bhinmal in Rajasthan) during the reign (and possibly under the patronage) of King Vyaghramukha. and during his tenure there wrote four texts on mathematics and astronomy: the Cadamekela in 624. [The result is] the middle [number]. Its 25 chapters contain several unprecedented mathematical results. divide the remainder by twice the square.[4] Although Brahmagupta was familiar with the works of astronomers following the tradition of Aryabhatiya. that is. He further gave two equivalent solutions to the general quadratic equation. it is not known if he was familiar with the work of Bhaskara I. It is generally presumed that Sindhind is none other than Brahmagupta's Brahmasphuta-siddhanta. His best known work is the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta (Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma).44.Brahmagupta Brahmagupta (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मगप् ु त. a contemporary. listen (help·info)) (597–668 AD) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote many important works on mathematics and astronomy.[5] which is a solution equivalent to . it is not known how Brahmagupta's mathematics was derived.[3] As a result. as was common practice in Indian mathematics. is the unknown in the equation. In Brahmagupta's case. It is composed in elliptic verse. The historian al-Biruni (c. when inverted and divided by the difference of the unknowns.[3] Critiques of rival theories appear throughout the first ten astronomical chapters and the eleventh chapter is entirely devoted to criticism of these theories. He gave rules to compute with zero. Diminish by the middle [number] the square-root of the rupas multiplied by four times the square and increased by the square of the middle [number].[3] Brahmagupta had a plethora of criticism directed towards the work of rival astronomers. although no criticisms appear in the twelfth and eighteenth chapters. the Brahmasphutasiddhanta in 628.

and He went on to solve systems of simultaneous indeterminate equations stating that the desired variable must first be isolated.51. Zero plus a positive number is the positive number and negative . is not known and it is possible that both Greek and Indian syncopation may be derived from a common Babylonian source. [7] Indian arithmetic was known in Medieval Europe as "Modus Indoram" meaning method of the Indians. subtraction. evolution. . and division by placing the divisor below the dividend. Or the multiplicand is repeated as many times as there are component parts in the multiplier‖. He then gives rules for dealing with five types of combinations of fractions. hence Brahmagupta is considered the first to formulate the concept of zero. Brahmagupta details operations on fractions.[9] Here Brahmagupta found the result in terms of the sum of the first n integers. 12. as often as there are integrant portions in the multiplier and is repeatedly multiplied by them and the products are added together. In particular.[6] Arithmetic Four fundamental operations (addition. .[5] Like the algebra of Diophantus. The sum of the cubes is the square of that [sum] Piles of these with identical balls [can also be computed]. Brahmagupta describes the multiplication as thus ―The multiplicand is repeated like a string for cattle. Multiplication was named Gomutrika.[8] Series Brahmagupta then goes on to give the sum of the squares and cubes of the first n integers. . If there are many [colors]. It is multiplication. rather than in terms of n as is the modern practice. Addition was indicated by placing the numbers side by side.20. respectively.[6] The extent of Greek influence on this syncopation. if any. Multiplication.which are. the algebra of Brahmagupta was syncopated. the pulverizer [is to be used]. and unknown quantities were represented by abbreviations of appropriate terms. entitled Calculation. This current system is based on the Hindu Arabic number system and first appeared in Brahmasputa siddhanta. In BrahmasputhaSiddhanta. [The remainder] divided by the first [color's coefficient] is the measure of the first. similar to our notation but without the bar. . [and so on] repeatedly. Zero Brahmagupta's Brahmasphuṭasiddhanta is the first book that mentions zero as a number. solutions equivalent to. he recommended using "the pulverizer" to solve equations with multiple unknowns. He gave rules of using zero with negative and positive numbers. multiplication and division) were known to many cultures before Brahmagupta. The sum of the squares is that [sum] multiplied by twice the [number of] step[s] increased by one [and] divided by three.[10] He gives the sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers as n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 and the sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers as (n(n+1)/2)². although he explains how to find the cube and cube-root of an integer and later gives rules facilitating the computation of squares and square roots. 18. The reader is expected to know the basic arithmetic operations as far as taking the square root. Subtract the colors different from the first color. In the beginning of chapter twelve of his Brahmasphutasiddhanta. subtraction by placing a dot over the subtrahend. [Terms] two by two [are] considered [when reduced to] similar divisors. and then the equation must be divided by the desired variable's coefficient. and .

are the additive rupas. 12. if they are equal it is zero. The square of a negative or of a positive is positive. [that] of a positive and zero positive. 18. is the last computed.[9] Pell's equation Brahmagupta went on to give a recurrence relation for generating solutions to certain instances of Diophantine equations of the second degree such as (called Pell's equation) by using the Euclidean algorithm. it is not erased..] 18. The Euclidean algorithm was known to him as the "pulverizer" since it breaks numbers down into ever smaller pieces. His rules for arithmetic on negative numbers and zero are quite close to the modern understanding.[5] Here Brahmagupta states that and as for the question of where he did not commit [11] himself. He first describes addition and subtraction.39.[5] But his description of division by zero differs from our modern understanding. The sum of the thunderbolt products is the first. The two square-roots. The additive is equal to the product of the additives. 18.[5] The key to his solution was the identity.30. rather than as simply a placeholder digit in representing another number as was done by the Babylonians or as a symbol for a lack of quantity as was done by Ptolemy and the Romans. a. The height of a mountain multiplied by a given multiplier is the distance to a city. divided by the additive or the subtractive. A negative or a positive divided by zero has that [zero] as its divisor.[12] The nature of squares: 18. 18. a positive [minus zero] positive. zero [minus zero] is zero. A negative minus zero is negative. of zero and a positive. . [the square] of zero is zero. Diophantine analysis Pythagorean triples In chapter twelve of his Brahmasphutasiddhanta. of two negatives negative. for a given length m and an arbitrary multiplier x. and of positives positive. a positive divided by a negative is negative. A positive divided by a positive or a negative divided by a negative is positive. Then m. [Put down] twice the square-root of a given square by a multiplier and increased or diminished by an arbitrary [number].34.number plus zero is a negative number etc. or zero divided by a negative or a positive [has that negative or positive as its divisor].33. let a = mx and b = m + mx/(x + 2). and b form a Pythagorean triple. or of two zeros is zero. of a positive and a negative [the sum] is their difference. Brahmagupta describes operations on negative numbers. Brahmagupta finds Pythagorean triples. 18. of two negatives positive. The sum of a negative and zero is negative.[13] which is a generalization of an identity that was discovered by Diophantus. The Brahmasphutasiddhanta is the earliest known text to treat zero as a number in its own right. with the product of the last [pair]. [and that] of two zeros zero. [. the product of zero and a negative. except that in modern mathematics division by zero is left undefined. The product of a negative and a positive is negative.65. When it is divided by the multiplier increased by two it is the leap of one of the two who make the same journey..64. When a positive is to be subtracted from a negative or a negative from a positive. [The sum] of two positives is positives. then it is to be added. The product of the first [pair].32. That of which [the square] is the square is [its] square-root. a negative divided by a positive is [also] negative.[5] He goes on to describe multiplication. multiplied by the multiplier. a zero divided by a zero is zero.35. In chapter eighteen of his Brahmasphutasiddhanta. 18.[9] or in other words.

is a solution to able to find integral solutions to if then and are and . q. Unfortunately. The accurate [area] is the square root from the product of the halves of the sums of the sides diminished by [each] side of the quadrilateral. and w. rather he was only able to show that if has an integral solution for k = ±1. v. ±2.[13] Geometry Brahmagupta's formula Diagram for reference Main article: Brahmagupta's formula Brahmagupta's most famous result in geometry is his formula for cyclic quadrilaterals. A triangle with rational sides a. letting .[14] Heron's formula is a special case of this formula and it can be derived by setting one of the sides equal to zero. c and rational area is of the form: for some rational numbers u. 12. respectively. One theorem states that the two lengths of a triangle's base when divided by its altitude then follows. Brahmagupta gave an approximate and an exact formula for the figure's area. then has a solution.[15] Brahmagupta's theorem Main article: Brahmagupta theorem . the exact area is Although Brahmagupta does not explicitly state that these quadrilaterals are cyclic. The approximate area is the product of the halves of the sums of the sides and opposite sides of a triangle and a quadrilateral. when divided by two they are the true segments. or ±4. the approximate area is while.21.Using his identity and the fact that solutions to the equations . The solution of the general Pell's equation would have to wait for Bhaskara II in c. The base decreased and increased by the difference between the squares of the sides divided by the base. Triangles Brahmagupta dedicated a substantial portion of his work to geometry. he was the Pell's equation through a series of equations of the form .22.[9] So given the lengths p.[9] Thus the lengths of the two segments are . 1150 CE. it is apparent from his rules that this is the case. b. He further gives a theorem on rational triangles. The perpendicular [altitude] is the square-root from the square of a side diminished by the square of its segment. 12. Brahmagupta was not able to apply his solution uniformly for all possible values of N. r and s of a cyclic quadrilateral. Given the lengths of the sides of any cyclic quadrilateral.

The two [lower segments] of the two diagonals are two sides in a triangle. For the volume of a frustum of a pyramid. arrows. He essentially manipulated right triangles to produce isosceles triangles. five. and so on. The accurate [values] are the square-roots from the squares of those two multiplied by ten. The diameter and the square of the radius [each] multiplied by 3 are [respectively] the practical circumference and the area [of a circle].[16] Trigonometry Sine table In Chapter 2 of his Brahmasphutasiddhanta. fires. The square of the diagonal is diminished by the square of half the sum of the base and the top. Brahmagupta continues. "Vedas" refers to the 4 Vedas or 4. the base [of the quadrilateral is the base of the triangle]. and he gives the "superficial" volume as the depth times their mean area. the moon. and the frustum of a square pyramid. the gods.23. Progenitors represents the 14 Progenitors ("Manu") in Indian cosmology or 14. dice represents the number of sides of the tradition die or 6. he gives the "pragmatic" value as the depth times the square of the mean of the edges of the top and bottom faces. "twins" means 2. Brahmagupta gives constructions of various figures with arbitrary sides. suns [. such as finding volumes and surface areas (or empty spaces dug out of solids). the upper portion of the [central] perpendicular is half of the sum of the [sides] perpendiculars diminished by the lower [portion of the central perpendicular]. "Ursa Major" represents the seven stars of Ursa Major or 7. He further finds the average depth of a series of pits.[9] Pi In verse 40. Its perpendicular is the lower portion of the [central] perpendicular. This information can be translated into the list of sines. 214. The square-root of the sum of the two products of the sides and opposite sides of a non-unequal quadrilateral is the diagonal. the gods. 427. He finds the volume of rectangular prisms. twins. flavors. isosceles trapezoids with three equal sides. the sky. the length of each diagonal is . dice. pyramids. The sines: The Progenitors. 638. the two diagonals are the two bases..30-31. the moon. and the lengths of diagonals in a scalene cyclic quadrilateral. Brahmagupta presents a sine table: 2.Brahmagupta's theorem states that AF = FD. and as an "accurate" value of π. This leads up to Brahmagupta's famous theorem. 12.. entitled Planetary True Longitudes. and a scalene cyclic quadrilateral. rectangles. He continues to give formulas for the lengths and areas of geometric figures. After giving the value of pi. 12. Imaging two triangles within [a cyclic quadrilateral] with unequal sides. isosceles trapezoids. 12.][17] Here Brahmagupta uses names of objects to represent the digits of place-value numerals. Their two segments are separately the upper and lower segments [formed] at the intersection of the diagonals.[9] So. six. Measurements and constructions In some of the verses before verse 40. an isosceles trapezoid).[9] So Brahmagupta uses 3 as a "practical" value of π. such as the circumradius of an isosceles trapezoid and a scalene quadrilateral. he gives values of π. twins. the moon. in a "non-unequal" cyclic quadrilateral (that is. the square-root is the perpendicular [altitudes].40. . scalene triangles. as was common with numerical data in Sanskrit treatises. he deals with the geometry of plane figures and solids.2-5. the Vedas. Ursa Major.

1251. 2933. 930 India) was an Indian mathematician. with the radius being 3270. measures. Sridhara is known as the author of two mathematical treatises. 870. 3159. 1446. natural number. i. However. and 3270. India – c.846. His major work Patiganitasara was named Trisatika because it was written in three hundred slokas.[19] The formula gives an estimate for the value of a function at a value a + xh of its argument (with h > 0 and −1 ≤ x ≤ 1) when its value is already known at a − h. 2156.[18] Interpolation formula See main article: Brahmagupta's interpolation formula In 665 Brahmagupta devised and used a special case of the Newton–Stirling interpolation formula of the second-order to interpolate new values of the sine function from other values already tabulated. Sridhara (c. His father's name was Baladevacharya and mother's name was Acchoka. Works He was known for two treatises: Trisatika (sometimes called the Patiganitasara) and the Patiganita. 3021. He has said nothing about division of any number by 0(zero). a date which is deduced from seeing which other pieces of mathematics he was familiar with and also seeing which later mathematicians were familiar with his work. Some historians give Bengal as the place of his birth while other historians believe that Sridhara was born in southern India. He found the formula :(Multiply by 4a) Biography Sridhara is now believed to have lived in the ninth and tenth centuries. 2312. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. namely the Trisatika (sometimes called the Patiganitasara ) and the Patiganita. cubes. 1459. 3207. 3096. Of all the Hindu Acharyas the exposition of Sridharacharya on zero is the most explicit. 1635. 1991. 1051. Sridhara From Wikipedia.the sum is the same number. The best present estimate is that he wrote around 900 AD. If 0(zero) is multiplied by any number. He has written. fraction. For the Telugu surname. The formula for the estimate is: where Δ is the first-order forward-difference operator. search This page deals with the Bengali Mathematician.the product is 0(zero)". interest-calculation. 1817. The book discusses counting of numbers. In the case of dividing a fraction he has found out the method of multiplying the fraction by the reciprocal of the divisor. If 0(zero) is subtracted from any number. "If 0(zero) is added to any number.the number remains unchanged. 2594. a and a + h. However at least three other works have been . 2719. 3263. there has been much dispute over his date and in different works the dates of the life of Sridhara have been placed from the seventh century to the eleventh century. joint business or partnership and mensuration. division. rule of three. 3242.e. squares. He was born in Hooghly district in the 10th Century AD. multiplication. He wrote on practical applications of algebra separated algebra from arithmetic He was one of the first to give a formula for solving quadratic equations. see Sridhara (surname). zero. 2832.

attributed to him. Navasati. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. the original is lost and we have to rely on a quotation of Sridhara's rule from Bhaskara II:Multiply both sides of the equation by a known quantity equal to four times the coefficient of the square of the unknown. Shukla states that the rules given there are different from those given by other Hindu mathematicians. then take the square root. and Brhatpati. . Nelson Mandela Mandela in May 2008 . Sridhara was one of the first mathematicians to give a rule to solve a quadratic equation. To see what this means take Multiply both sides by 4a to get Then add b2 to both sides to get Taking the square root Failed to parse (lexing error): 2ax + b = √(4ac + b^2) Nelson Mandela From Wikipedia. which Sridhara gives in the Patiganita. and Raghavabhatta (writing in 1493).S. K. Information about these books was given the works of Bhaskara II (writing around 1150). as we indicated above. Failed to parse (lexing error): Nx^2 ± C = y^2 . Shukla examined Sridhara's method for finding rational solutions of Failed to parse (lexing error): Nx^2 ± 1 = y^2 . Makkibhatta (writing in 1377). Unfortunately. search "Mandela" redirects here. add to both sides a known quantity equal to the square of the coefficient of the unknown. see Mandela (disambiguation). namely the Bijaganita. For other uses.

born 18 July 1918) is a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician who served as . Johannesburg. W. Residence Gauteng. Union of South Africa Nationality South African Political African National Congress party Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957) Spouse(s) Winnie Madikizela (1957–1996) Graça Machel (1998–present) Madiba Thembekile Makgatho Lewanika Makaziwe Children Maki Zenani Zindziswa Houghton Estate.President of South Africa In office 10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999 Thabo Mbeki Deputy F. de Klerk Preceded F. South Africa University of Fort Hare University of London External Alma System mater University of South Africa University of the Witwatersrand Christianity (Methodism) Religion Signature www. de Klerk by Succeeded Thabo Mbeki by Personal details Rolihlahla Mandela 18 July 1918 (age 94) Born Mvezo. W. Cape Website Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (Xhosa pronunciation: [xoˈliːɬaɬa manˈdeːla].nelsonmandela.

Living in Johannesburg. focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation. first on Robben Island. Internationally. he rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign. and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. poverty and inequality. while introducing policies to encourage land reform. Internationally. Mandela published his autobiography and led negotiations with President F. in association with the South African Communist Party he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961. Politically a democratic socialist. he served as the President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League. leading a bombing campaign against government targets. convicted of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. Becoming ANC President. he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and. He was the first black South African to hold the office. in which he led the ANC to victory. he established a new constitution and initiated the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses.W. In 1962 he was arrested. with the ANC leadership. was prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961 but was found not guilty. subsequently becoming an elder statesman. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism. and was succeeded by his deputy Thabo Mbeki. An international campaign lobbied for his release. he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial. right-wing critics denounced Mandela as a terrorist and communist sympathiser. Mandela served 27 years in prison. Although initially committed to non-violent protest. was elected President of the Transvaal ANC Branch and oversaw the 1955 Congress of the People. He declined to run for a second term. which was granted in 1990. he became involved in anti-colonial politics. and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. multiracial election. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multi-racial elections in 1994. and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. He was elected President and formed a Government of National Unity. where he studied law. A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family. combat poverty and expand healthcare services. He has nevertheless received international acclaim for his anti-colonial and anti-apartheid stance. As President. Mandela attended Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand. and the first elected in a fully representative. Working as a lawyer. and fostering racial reconciliation. Mandela was the Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. Controversial for much of his life. After the Afrikaner nationalists of the National Party came to power in 1948 and began implementing the policy of apartheid. having received over .President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.

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