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Sir Isaac Newton
Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46). 25 December 1642 Born
[NS: 4 January 1643]
Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England 20 March 1727 (aged 84)
[OS: 20 March 1726  NS: 31 March 1727]
Resting place Residence Nationality Fields
Kensington, Middlesex, England, Great Britain Westminster Abbey England English (later British) Physics
laid . Cambridge Isaac Barrow Academic advisors Benjamin Pulleyn Roger Cotes Notable students William Whiston Newtonian mechanics Universal gravitation Infinitesimal calculus Known for Optics Binomial series Principia Newton's method Johannes Kepler Henry More Polish Brethren Robert Boyle Nicolas Fatio de Duillier John Keill Influences Influenced Signature Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.Natural philosophy Mathematics Astronomy Alchemy Christian theology Economics University of Cambridge Institutions Royal Society Royal Mint Alma mater Trinity College. first published in 1687. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy").
generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents. as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian and. In addition to his work on the calculus. named in Newton's honour. In his later life. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. . He also served the British government as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint. Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. this is expressed as Since the law applies only to systems of constant mass. The SI unit of force is the newton. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular. but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. and developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. Mathematically. they may be at rest). Newton became president of the Royal Society. Newton's Second Law states that an applied force. unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. It also demonstrated that the motion of objects on the Earth and that of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles.the foundations for most of classical mechanics. in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the cosmos. the equation can be written in the iconic form The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle. he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England. Newton also dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology. . Main article: Newton's laws of motion In the Principia. m can be brought out of the derivative operator. stated here in modern form. perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of trinitarianism. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. By substitution using the definition of acceleration. In addition to his work on the mathematical sciences. . Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus. Newton gives the famous three laws of motion. with time. on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum.
the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Kingdom of Prussia Born . Gustav Kirchhoff From Wikipedia. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil).Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. search Gustav Kirchhoff 1 Gustav Kirchhoff Gustav Robert Kirchhoff 12 March 1824 Königsberg. Another example is the recoil of a firearm. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass.
He coined the term "black body" radiation in 1862. and two sets of independent concepts in both circuit theory and thermal emission are named "Kirchhoff's laws" after him. (See also: emission spectrum) A hot solid object surrounded by a cool tenuous gas (i. Kirchhoff's law of thermochemistry .e. as well as a law of thermochemistry. Died Kirchhoff's three laws of spectroscopy A hot solid object produces light with a continuous spectrum.e. The existence of discrete spectral lines was later explained by the Bohr model of the atom.17 October 1887 (aged 63) Berlin. (See also: absorption spectrum) Kirchhoff did not know about the existence of energy levels in atoms. which helped lead to quantum mechanics. Robert Bunsen. specific colors) which depend on the energy levels of the atoms in the gas. cooler than the hot object) produces light with an almost continuous spectrum which has gaps at discrete wavelengths depending on the energy levels of the atoms in the gas. A hot tenuous gas produces light with spectral lines at discrete wavelengths (i. The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after him and his colleague. spectroscopy. Kingdom of Prussia Residence Prussia/German Empire Nationality Prussian Physics Fields Chemistry University of Berlin Institutions University of Breslau University of Heidelberg Alma mater University of Königsberg Doctoral advisor Franz Ernst Neumann Max Noether Doctoral students Ernst Schröder Kirchhoff's circuit laws Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation Known for Kirchhoff's laws of spectroscopy Kirchhoff's law of thermochemistry Notable awards Rumford medal Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits. and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
search Charles Wheatstone Wheatstone. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images). was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era. including the English concertina. drawn by Samuel Laurence in 1868 6 February 1802 Gloucester. Integration of this equation permits the evaluation of the heat of reaction at one temperature from measurements at another temperature. Charles Wheatstone From Wikipedia. France Residence United Kingdom Fields Physics Wheatstone bridge. Playfair cipher. Known for early contributions to Spectroscopy and Telegraphy Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875). England 19 October 1875 (aged 73) Died Paris.Kirchhoff showed in 1858 that the variation of the heat of a chemical reaction is given by the difference in heat capacity between products and reactants: dΔH / dT = ΔCp. and the Playfair cipher (an Born .
Both of Kirchhoff's laws can be understood as corollaries of the Maxwell equations in the lowfrequency limit -. originally invented by Samuel Hunter Christie. Widely used in electrical engineering. the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node. The principle of conservation of electric charge implies that: At any node (junction) in an electrical circuit. and as a major figure in Kirchhoff's circuit laws From Wikipedia. Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) The current entering any junction is equal to the current leaving that junction. i2 + i3 = i1 + i4 This law is also called Kirchhoff's first law. which is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance. Recalling that current is a signed (positive or negative) quantity reflecting direction towards or away from a node. However. Wheatstone is best known for his contributions in the development of the Wheatstone bridge. this principle can be stated as: n is the total number of branches with currents flowing towards or away from the node. they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws (see also Kirchhoff's laws for other meanings of that term).encryption technique). This formula is valid for complex currents: . They serve as first approximations for AC circuits. or: The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. search Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two approximate equalities that deal with the current and voltage in electrical circuits. They were first described in 1845 by Gustav Kirchhoff. Kirchhoff's point rule. or Kirchhoff's junction rule (or nodal rule). This generalized the work of Georg Ohm and preceded the work of Maxwell.conventionally called "DC" circuits.
Similarly to KCL. Uses A matrix version of Kirchhoff's current law is the basis of most circuit simulation software. which directly contradicts KVL. it can be stated as: Here. This is not a safe assumption for AC circuits. which tells us that the voltage drop around any closed loop is equal to the rate-ofchange of the flux threading the loop. Routine engineering techniques -. and Kirchhoff's second rule. n is the total number of voltages measured. and/or the magnetic field is slowly changing. even in situations where it otherwise would not have been. The amount of flux depends on the area of the loop and on the magnetic field strength. namely the Maxwell-Faraday law of induction. such as SPICE. It may be possible to salvage the form of KVL by considering "parasitic inductances" (including mutual inductances) distributed along the conductors. Limitations KVL is based on the assumption that there is no fluctuating magnetic field linking the closed loop. Therefore it cannot be the gradient of any potential.The law is based on the conservation of charge whereby the charge (measured in coulombs) is the product of the current (in amperes) and the time (in seconds). Kirchhoff's loop (or mesh) rule. The Maxwell equations tell us that the loop voltage will be small if the area of the loop is small. Kirchhoff's current law combined with Ohm's Law is used in nodal analysis. Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) The sum of all the voltages around the loop is equal to zero. the line integral of the electric field around the loop is not zero. These are treated as imaginary circuit . The voltages may also be complex: This law is based on one of the Maxwell equations.can be used to minimize stray magnetic fields and minimize the area of vulnerable loops. In the presence of a changing magnetic field the electric field is not a conservative vector field. That is to say. In this way things can be arranged so that KVL becomes a good approximation.such as the use of coaxial cable and twisted pairs -. v1 + v2 + v3 .v4 = 0 This law is also called Kirchhoff's second law. KVL says the loop voltage is zero. the magnetic field is weak.
the idea that the physical and geometrical layout of the circuit does not matter. i. the deviations from Kirchhoff's laws cannot be neglected. These can be treated as the arcs and nodes of formal graph theory.elements that produce a voltage drop equal to the rate-of-change of the flux. powerful simplification. and/or high-frequency work. Topological circuit diagrams The approximations that lead to Kirchhoff's circuit laws are part of a package that also leads to topological circuit diagrams. Generalization In the DC limit. For highpower.e. because it determines the magnitude of the parasitic capacitances and inductances. In the low-frequency limit. . the voltage drop around any loop is zero. However. This has practical application in situations involving "static electricity".not limited to the loops delineated by the circuit elements and conductors. The physical and geometrical layout of the circuit matters. This is a very useful. this is a corollary of Faraday's law of induction (which is one of the Maxwell equations). This works fine in the DC limit. but it is only a first approximation for AC circuits. Kirchhoff's laws say it suffices to use a circuit diagram that is purely schematic. this greatly detracts from the simplicity of KVL and invalidates the notion of topological circuit diagram. the only thing that matters is the topology as determined by the conductors and circuit elements connected to the nodes. In other words. high-precision. This includes imaginary loops arranged arbitrarily in space -.
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