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© Copyright 2009, 2011, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH.
Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon/Carbon Composite Aircraft Disk Brakes
Yicheng Peter Pan1, Tsuchin Philip Chu1, Peter Filip1 and Ondrej Stonwawski2
Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Process 1230 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901 (618) 453-7049; fax (618) 354-7658; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org EISENMANN Corporation 150 East Dartmoor Drive, Crystal Lake, IL 60014 (815) 477-3339; fax (815) 455-1018; e-mail email@example.com
ABSTRACT Air-coupled ultrasonic inspection has a great potential for non-contact and nondestructive inspection of various materials. The couplant contamination-free testing offers a great advantage to industry dealing with composite materials and especially CC composites. The air-coupled ultrasonic through transmission testing was performed on several commercial CC aircraft brake discs and CC materials to determine the minimum defect size, resolution and the signal penetration depth. The through transmission testing utilized the 120 and 225 KHz point focus transducers. The thickness of the tested discs was from 18 mm to 36.33 mm. The small specimens with the thickness of 30 mm contained flat bottom drilled blind holes and side drilled holes of various depths. The drilled hole diameters were from 1.588 mm to 12.7 mm. The test results proved the presence of a large delamination on one of the commercial discs. The signal leakage greatly affects the reliability of measured data around the edges of the tested specimens. The influence of the fiber orientation needs to be more investigated. INTRODUCTION Aircraft brake system is multiple disk brakes of rotors sandwiched between stators. The braking action between rotating and stationary disks causes them to heat up to around 500 °C with surface temperatures reaching as high as 2000 °C as the kinetic energy of the aircraft is absorbed . Therefore, the materials used in this environment must have a good thermal shock resistance. The high thermal conductivity and very low coefficient of thermal expansion of C/C composites make it an ideal choice . The main reason is its unique properties at elevated temperatures, such as strength, stiffness, corrosion, fatigue, density, high thermal conductivity and weight benefits which other materials do not match. These properties make C/C composites ideal for brake applications along with other high temp applications . The manufacturing process for the C/C dick brake is relatively complex and tedious compared to other carbon based material processes due to the multiple steps involved in the carbonization and densification cycle which improves the density and thermal conductivity of the material . In one manufacturing approach the C/C dick brake are first made by producing pre-forms from either one of the two different carbon fibers (polyacrylonitrile(PAN)-based/pitch-based) which is placed in a pre-form to create the desired shape and carbonized, and then densified by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process [2,4]. Pre-forms of the carbon fibers can be random, organized and even stitched to obtain the desired characteristics needed for the C/C’s application. The CVI process is carried out on the C/C at high temperatures (around 1000 ºC) causing the C/C to become dense the longer the material is in the CVI furnace. Densification is repeatedly carried out until a desired density of the C/C dick brake is reached. The C/C material will reach a point were the matrix is so impervious to the vapor that no more carbon can be deposited on the fibers. Over-crusting and pore blockage occur during the CVI process due to pressure gradient, therefore surface need to be machined in between densification processes. Using the CVI process to obtain the desired density is a time consuming process taking upwards to 1000 hours . After material properties of the C/C are met, the piece will be machined to the final dimensions and heat-treated if high thermal properties are desired. Heat treatment (HT) can hugely increase the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of C/C dick brake, due to the allowing of the carbon molecules to arrange is a manner that changes the characteristics the materials thermal properties. Heat treatment can be range from 1600 ºC - 2500 ºC, and the higher the temperature the larger the thermal conductivity and diffusivity values can be obtained. In general, the total manufacturing process time is cost 6 months. Defects in the C/C material can be detrimental causing structural degradation, and thermal irregularities. Defects within carbon disk brakes typically consist of delaminations, voids, inclusions, porosity, and impact damage. To ensure safety and reliability right after the production process, NDE methods are needed for inspection of C/C composite disk brakes . For
same diameter of 1. CVI infiltrated C/C composite disk brake material with heat treated and non-heat treated. Analyses will be conduct two type defects which are production (Specimen Group II)) and artificial (Specimen Group I) defects on C/C composite disk brakes.5 mm and 1 mm. All Small Samples from the Specimen Group I are non-heat treated disk brake material. 8]. The schematics with dimensions of the specimens and the photograph of surface material structure are shown in Figure 1. this reasons. The samples were produced and previously used for the Infra-red Thermography testing .5 mm to 2 mm.7 mm. This research focused on the feasibility of testing the C/C composite material by non-contact air-coupled ultrasound. 2011. Third. Recent advancements in the field of non-contact piezoceramic ultrasound transducers have partially overcome such limitation in the use of lower ultrasound frequencies starting from 50 kHz and made the evaluation not only possible but even practical. October 2009]: pp 165-173. Second.516 kg/cm3.5 166 . First. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. Columbus.88 mm and the C/C thickness of between the C/C the material between the of the specimen. there is no required contamination from a liquid couplant which also suggests the versatility of laboratory and field application with proper equipment. Final. The thickness of the C/C material between the undrilled surface of SS1 and the face of the drilled hole is from 0. determined the appropriate frequency range and scan increment the current minimum detectable defect size for air-coupled ultrasonic NDE testing of C/C composites and perform C-scanning of the specimen 1 of Specimen Group II. The depth of the holes is 9.is Small 4to (SS4) contains holes the same diameter of with 1. Illinois. an inexpensive and easy to implement and operate NDE method for C/C Composites is an essential component to the industry. Specimen Group I — Defect Mapping Samples were obtained and sets of artificial defects were produced by drilling flat bottom holes to various depths from the surface as well as various diameters. The Specimen Group II samples are commercial aircraft disk brakes with heat treated and non-heat treated that apply on aircraft braking system and donated by certain C/C composite disk brake manufacturer corporation.5 mm 5 mm. EXPERIMENTS and EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Sample Descriptions and Preparation The sample material used in this study was a 3D Ex-PAN-based and needle felt needle stitched in the z-direction. Specimen Group I and Specimen Group II.52 mm and the thicknesses are in various depths from 0. Carbondale. It has been produced and provided by the Center for Advanced Friction Studies’ (CAFS) CVI Laboratory. The thickness of the C/C material between the undrilled surface of SS2 and the face of the drilled hole is 0. Small Sample (SS2) contains two flat-bottom drilled holes with diameter of 12.35 mm.175 in mm the vicinity of the top surface surface of the specimen.588 mm. Small five Sample 4 with (SS4) contains five holes the top surface of SS3 is the from 0. OH.5 mm toof 5 SS3 mm. Theholes depth the mm holes is the 15. Small Sample 1 (SS1) contains three flat-bottom drilled holes with diameter of 6.588 mm.175 in the vicinity of the top Small Sample 3 (SS3) six side drilled holes with the same of 3. perform the air-coupled ultrasonic testing on thick discs from specimen 2 of Specimen Group II.88 and thickness of the material drilled hole and the drilled hole and top surface fromSample 0. The main advantage of air-coupled ultrasonic NDE is clear just from the definition. This requires the selection of proper technique. development of the test stand and the actual data evaluation to detect delaminations and defects in C/C materials. The depth of the is of 15. using Specimen Group I samples. The testing specimens were divided into two categories. The systematic condition monitoring of C/C components using low cost non-contact ultrasonic NDE could lead to the extension of the service life of the C/C composite disk brakes. SIUC.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus. determine the current minimum detectable defect size by air-coupled ultrasonic NDE. Previous work by Barnard and Hsu stated that main limitation of air coupling is the enormous acoustic impedance mismatch of the air and the measured C/C material [7. Figure 1: Blind Hole Defects – Schematics and Dimensions of SS1 and SS2 Small Sample 3 contains (SS3) contains six side drilled holes with thediameter same diameter of mm 3. © Copyright 2009. (a) SS1 (b) SS2 a) SS1 b) SS2 Figure 1: Blind hole defects – schematics and dimensions of SS1 and SS2. evaluate the results and state the conclusions and recommendations. OH. The material density is 1.
butto the do not collide. after the signal passes through the sample. 31.698 kg/cm3. Columbus. The depth of the holes is are shown in Figure 2. Figure 5: Figure 5: Figure 5: Through Transmission (TT) Schematics Through Transmission (TT) Schematics 167 Through Transmission (TT) Schematics . Visual inspection was not seen in the delamination until the disk was in final machining stages of the manufacturing process.with Small Sample 5 (SS5) contains six holes with the same diameter of mm 6. It has an outer diameter of 478. there is an overlap. view mm to 4 mm. but the holes do not collide.5 mm to 4 mm.35 mm. It is also the specimen with highest thickness that was tested in this research.33 mm. From the top view. From the top view. (a) SS3 (b) SS4 (c)SS5 Figure 2: Side drilled hole defects – schematics and dimensions of SS3. the signal is emitted from one transducer (transmitter) and received by the other transducer (receiver). © Copyright 2009. It has a production defect around the outer diameter.6 mm and the thickness of 36. OH.703 kg/cm3. Figure 3: Image of specimen 1 of Specimen Group II.of depths from 0.5 and mmthe to 5 mm.52 mm and the thicknesses are in various depths from 0.75 mm and the thicknesses are in various depths from 0. Test Description For the through transmission method. The specific dimension of the specimens and the view of the surface material structure are to shown in Small FigureSample 2. OH. The material density is 1. The depth of the holes is 31. 2011. there is an overlap.75 the thicknesses are holes in various 31.35 mm. Figure 4: Image of specimen 2 of Specimen Group II.35and mm. but the holes do not collide. specific dimension of theshown specimens and the of the surface material structure the specimens and do the view of the The surface in Figure 2.75 mm and the thicknesses are in various depths from 0. From the top view. SS4 and SS5.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus. 5 (SS5) contains six holes with the same diameter of 6. The sample has a diameter of 450. It has a large delamination visible from the outer diameter. October 2009]: pp 165-173. The specific but the holes not collide. The specimen 2 of Specimen Group II is presented in Figure 4. there is an overlap. Specimen Group II — Commercial Disks Mapping The specimen 1 of Specimen Group II is shown in Figure 3.5 mm to 5 mm. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. From are the in top view.8 mm and 20 mm thickness. The depth of the is contains holes the same diameter of 6. The depth of the holes is 9.75 mm thicknesses various depths from 0. Small Sample 5 (SS5) material contains structure six holes are with the same diameter of 6.5 mm 5 holes mm.35 mm. Small Sample 5 (SS5) mm six to 4 mm. The specific dimension of the specimens and the view of the surface material structure are shown in Figure 2. mm 4 mm. as shown in the Figure 5.5 mm to 5 mm. The depth of the holes is 31. there is dimension an overlap. The material density is 1.
The configuration of the test stand is shown in Figure 6. The narrowband signal tone-bursts are emitted from the point focused transmitter. the sample.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus. testing of the Specimen was performed in the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) at Iowa State University in Ames. Transducers with sphere focusing (also referred to as point focusing) are used for increasing the transmitted energy in the sample’s entry point. © Copyright 2009. see Figure 5. OH. the minimum detectable defect size. Iowa. Intensity and time of flight (TOF) evaluation of the signal will provide attenuation of the material which is related to material properties. This approach allows larger penetration depths – greater thickness of the sample. The photograph of the test stand is shown in Figure 7. Experimental setup of air-coupled ultrasonic PCI card Oscilloscope Winspect data acquisition and evaluation software UTEX motion controller Figure 6: Configuration of air-coupled ultrasonic testing. The Panametrics 5058 PR is used as an external signal source for the air-couple ultrasonic scan system. The preliminary tests have revealed that the system with the existing equipment in the current configuration of SIUC is not capable of testing C/C materials. A density and TOF distribution map in the form of a C-scan image can be obtained. There is a very large attenuation of the signal in the carbon-carbon material. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. 2011. the air and are received by receiver with built in preamplifier. 168 . Therefore. Columbus. The air-coupled ultrasonic testing of the carbon-carbon specimens was performed to answer three major tasks. Figure 5: Through Transmission (TT) Schematics Figure 5: Through transmission (TT) schematics. transducers. The CNDE has fine tuned system from QMI comprising of Sonda 007 CX. There is a great signal energy loss due to the enormous acoustic impedance mismatch between the air and the tested specimen. OH. The precise motion of the test stand is controlled by the UTEX industrial computer. The signal then goes to Sonda 007 CX. computer controlled test stand from UTEX with built in PCI oscilloscope and WinspectTM data acquisition and processing software. Changes in amplitude of the received signal are indications of the material’s heterogeneity and possible inconsistency such as crack or delamination. October 2009]: pp 165-173. where it is processed. determine the appropriate frequency range. and the maximum thickness of the sample that can be evaluated by air coupled ultrasound. The data recording and evaluation software is also handled by UTEX. pass through the air. The air-coupled ultrasonic testing requires large narrow-band burst of energy in order for the signal to penetrate the tested specimen.
05 in. This 169 . © Copyright 2009.) to 1. The step increment resolution comparison is provided in the following Figure 10. All of them were point focused with the focusing length of 1. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Appropriate Frequency Range and Scan Increment Test frequency and step increment considerations often dictate the inspection technique required. OH. there was a testing with ultrasonic frequencies of 120 kHz and 225 kHz performed on the C/C composite disk brake with the large delamination. Columbus.1 in. Figure 7: CNDE test stand picture.27 mm (0. In order to figure out the appropriate frequency range for inspection. Figure 8: Focused transducers and receivers. Figure 9: Transducers frequency comparison – 120 kHz vs 225 kHz.). the testing progressed to 225 kHz. The ultrasonic evaluation at CNDE started with testing of brake discs in the frequency range of 120 kHz and then the testing progressed to 225 kHz.2 in. The transducers in the frequencies of 120 kHz and 225 kHz were used. The blue colored are receivers and the red ones are transmitters. The scan increment was set from 2. 2011. The Styrofoam was used as a signal leakage stopper around the edges of the specimens. The transducers are shown in Figure 8.54 mm (0. OH. October 2009]: pp 165-173. The resulting C-scan images of 120 k/hz and 225 kHz testing of the same sections are presented in Figure 9. The ultrasonic evaluation at CNDE The with ultrasonic at CNDE with testing of brake discs in the range ofto 120 kHz and then started testingevaluation of brake discs in the started frequency range of 120 kHz and then the frequency testing progressed 225 kHz. The set up of the test remained the same. The only change was in the resolution.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus.
Figure 12 comprises of C-scan images of received signal amplitude. Based on the results.) was composed of C-scans. indicating lower amplitude regions may also be caused by low material density (without heat 170 . The samples were placed into cut out holes in the Styrofoam to reduce the amount of signal by-passing the specimens to increase the uninfluenced inspected area. American Society for Nondestructive Testing.54 mm (0. The edges of the dark blue shaped areas are in good agreement. the 225 kHz is used for follow-up inspection and evaluation. Figure 10: C-scanning step size increment comparison. the more time the signal requires to pass through the specimen. There is a large resemblance in the compared figures. Minimum Detectable Defect Size Previously prepared samples for the infra-red thermography with drilled flat-bottom holes of varying diameters and depths were used to determine minimum detectable defects. The C-scanned sections of the disk were the same as in Figure 9. The lower resolution scanning is 4 times faster. OH. comparison joins three independent measurements in the 120 kHz frequency range. but 120. although it comes with the appearance of many unnecessary reflections. The dotted line indicates the merger of individual overlaps. The right image with the resolution of 2. the transmitter. OH. © Copyright 2009. This comparison also shows the validity of independently measured data. There is a resemblance of the surface pattern on the specimen and the blue lines pattern on the resulting C-scans. the higher testing frequency (225 kHz) had better resolution and smaller detectable defect. The defect locations and dimensions correspond to the front. The regions of lower amplitude may indicate delamination or porosity. Figure 11: Specimen group I A-C-UT SS samples set up.).1 in. Thus. Truly delaminated region corresponds to the indications of the C-scans.508 mm (0.02 in. side. There are other regions of the outside disk diameter in the upper sections of the C-scans that indicate defect. October 2009]: pp 165-173. 225 kHz testing and the visual inspection did not confirm any cracks or delaminations. The blue lines.27 mm (0. The left image has the step increment of 1.05 in.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus. the second is time of flight image and the third is the inverted image of the specimen from the receiver side. The results of the testing show that signal is penetrating the 20 mm thick C/C heat treated disk. 2011. In the case of TOF C-scans. The samples were tested using 225 kHz point focused transducers. Columbus.) in x and y direction. The resolution of the testing was set to 0. but mostly due to the fact that the defect location is known. The defects are recognizable. Figure 11 present the Specimen Group I samples used for inspection. The black encircled locations correspond to the defects on the sample. This testing was performed to demonstrate the impact of the change of testing frequency. the redder the resulting C-scan image. while the major outlines remain the same.
The main reason is the whole testing calibration and gate selection are base on sample SS2. That resulted in the suggestion for future work in the effective signal by-pass blocker design. The Styrofoam was attached from the outside diameter of the tested disc.35 mm diameter holes in different depths from the tested surface. The signal amplitude C-scan of the section 1 and the corresponding photograph is shown in Figure 13. OH. the signal amplitude and the time of flight (TOF) C-scans. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. 171 . which decreases the reliably tested area. ultrasonic wave signal is easier by-pass in defect area in small diameter. There are also other low amplitude lines resembling the drilled defects that are probably caused by material properties.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus. The SS3 side drilled holes of 3. The disc was clamped to the test stand steel frame. Partially glued paper label in the left upper corner of the specimen formed additional interface that blocked the through transmitted signal. It provided certain partial blockage of the by-passing signal. The best results were obtained with the sample SS2. (d) SS4 (e) SS5 Testing on Thick Discs The specimen 2 of Specimen Group II is a commercial carbon-carbon composite disc brake rotor with out heat treatment. The flat bottom drilled holes of 12. surface texture and fiber orientation. However. The Specimen SS4 drew attention to signal by-pass around the edges of the tested specimen. the roughness of the surface texture may cause uneven signal dispersion and the amount of signal that passes through the specimen may be influenced by this phenomena. treatment). The flat bottom drilled holes of do = 6. Columbus. The actual photograph of the experimental set up is shown in Figure 7. The testing was divided into three sections. Sections 1 to 3 were tested first with certain overlapping area. This result may also indicate that the detection of defect is not significantly influenced by the increasing depth from the surface of the specimen’s transmitter side. for side drilled holes defect. (a) SS1 (b) SS2 (c) SS3 Figure 12: C-scan image of Specimen Group I samples. 2011. Specimen SS5 contained overlapping side drilled 6. OH. The settings remained the same for all of the tested sections. To determine the defect one had to combine both.35 mm were visible in the SS1.175 mm diameter were visible to some extent mainly due to their known location. Furthermore. such as fiber orientation. October 2009]: pp 165-173. The holes and overlaping areas are clearly visible on the amplitude C-scans. © Copyright 2009.7 mm in diameter were clearly visible.
indicating lower amplitude regions on the signal amplitude C-scans may be also caused by material density (with out heat treatment).testing The area is encircled in Figure 13. OH.35 mm.54 is 4 times faster. density (with 2 out heat treatment).27 mm. Section 3 transducers and the reduction the actually scanned area. the material property and carbon fiber orientation are very important factor for air-coupled ultrasonic NDE. surface and carbon fiber orientation. There is a resemblance of the surface pattern on the specimen and the blue lines pattern on the resulting C-scans. The back side revealed a surface area with slightly different fiber orientation. Regions with not usual color were not visually different from the “normal colored” regions. section of the disc were attached after the testing to ensure as precise measurement results as possible.1 testing showed that testing frequency of 120 kHz provides very transparent C-scans.” number on the X-axis scale. OH. The tape labels the inner on the inner section of the disc attached after the to ensure as precise measurement results ason possible. CONCLUSION Results of the section 3. Figure 13: C-scan image image of II Sample Figure 13: C-scan of Specimen Specimen 2 2 of of Group Group II sample. The circumferential lines and regions indicating amplitude changes on the signal amplitude C-scans may be also caused by the surface texture of the specimen. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. © Copyright 2009.54 mm and 1. created by the machining process.7 mm diameter flat bottom drilled holes were reliably detectable using 225 kHz transducers. Columbus. the scanning speed of increment 2. surface texture and fiber orientation of the specimen. The present red regions within the friction area at signal Amplitude C-scan indicate higher amplitude regions and the friction area at caused the signal C-scan indicate amplitude regions and texture are probably caused by low material are probably by amplitude low material density (withhigher out heat treatment). The imbedded production defect was present in the section 1. Thethe signal amplitude C-scanand indicates the by-passing of the signal from the focused the by-passing of of the signal from focused transducers the reduction of the actually scanned area. The2signal Amplitude C-scan indicates hole with the diameter 6. In order to increasing detectable ability.35 mm. The tape labels The imbedded production defect was were present in the section 1. The vertical and horizontal blue lines.2 indicated that the 12. Section 3 mm. but the resulting image was smoother with the 225 kHz frequency.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus. However. The fiber orientation will definitely play a significant role in the signal penetration through the tested specimen. calibration is essential for measurement. The results of the section 3. The back There side revealed visual defect on the front side.the There a blue region inthe thex-axis vicinity of the holewas below “12defect in. also contained through drilled hole with of thethe diameter also contained a through of drilled hole with the diameter of 6. The same disc section with delamination was C-scanned with 120 kHz frequency transducers with scanning step increment of 2. The roughness of the surface texture may cause uneven signal dispersion and the amount of signal that passes through the specimen may be influenced by this phenomena.35 mm. The red regions within area. October 2009]: pp 165-173. Scanning increment step comparison was performed. Therefore. was no below “12 is inch” number on scale. The resulting images contain matching edges of the confirmed delamination and the resulting C-scan color texture of the disc was also very similar. There is a resemblance of the surface pattern on the specimen and the blue lines pattern on the resulting C-scans. The flat bottom drilled holes and the side drilled holes of 6. There were no other There were no other visible defects present either on the friction surface or at the outside diameter circumferential visible defects either on the friction surface or the at the outside diameter circumferential area. 2011. surface texture and carbon fiber orientation. The area is encircled in Figure 13. There no the visual on the front side.35 mm in diameter were detectable on the final C-scan images of 225 kHz testing mainly due to the known locations of the defects. Different 172 . Section contained one through drilled Section contained one through drilled hole with the diameter of 6.35 There is a a blue region in the vicinity hole of 6.
3 testing showed that the defect of 36. combination of the signal amplitude and the TOF C-scans is necessary for reliable defect detection. Vol. Also.A. 6.” 10th Asia-Pacific Conference on Non-Destructive Testing Conference Proceedings. sample material property should have different setting and calibration. 5. Yang. 2006.” Key Engineering Materials.. Im.” SAMPE Journal. The effective by-pass signal blocker is necessary for increasing the scanned area around the edges without the influence of the by-passing signal. 2001.Y. 173 . 2008. K. Choi. pp163-190. “NDE Method for Carbon-Carbon Composite Disk Brakes Using Infrared Thermography. 1988. 8. “NDE Applications of Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Transducers. 4. Park and J. Fitzer. “Inspecting Composites with Airborne Ultrasound: Through Thick and Thin.W. pp. 7. G.W. Fortunko. Proc. Grandia. American Society for Nondestructive Testing. 1987. D.” Thermosetting and Thermoplastic Polymers. K. D. where the measured data were influenced by the by-passing signal. “Inspection of Inhomogeneities in Carbon/Phenolic Matrix Composite Materials Using NDE Techniques. “Nondestructive Characterisation of Carbon/Carbon Brake Disks Using Ultrasonics. Vols. October 2009]: pp 165-173. OH. J. “Changes in Microstructure and Mechanical properties of Stabilized Fiber Reinforced Phenolic Resin Composites During Pyrolysis to Carbon/Carbon Composites..H. New York: Chapman & Hall Inc.. and J. Hsu. Lee. Southern Illinois University Carbondale and Center for Nondestructive Evaluation. thesis. Results of the section 3.H. © Copyright 2009.” AIP Conference Proceedings. 1992.K.K. 2.” M. 1993. pp553. Ko. Carbon-Carbon Composites Brake Materials. 9. Iowa State University in Ames.H.S. Savage. 820. K.S.. W.L. 2004. for their support and for acting as technical monitor. The simple air-paper-air-paper-air interface should be sufficient to decrease the by-passing signal below the present noise level. Columbus. 697-709.. pp 1799-1805. S. “Effect of Surface Treatment and Sizing of Carbon-Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of CFR.. J. Miller. 270 – 273. Barnard. Awasthi.H.J. 9(7-8). 2011. Kim. OH. R.A.ASNT Fall Conference and Quality Testing Show 2009 [Columbus. C. 3. Hone. E. Hsu. 991-998. T.” 1995 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium. Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. 1995. even though the defect location was in the vicinity of the outer diameter. Ceramic Engineering Sci. Wood. 28. S. Vol. and D.H. I. Acknowledgments Reference The authors thank the Center for Advanced Friction Studies.. J.H. 25. 1. pp 17-23. pp.M.33 mm thick disk brake has been detected.. Byun.