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.............com ISSN 1726-5479 Editorial Sensors Systems Need Smart Sensors: SENSOR+TEST 2009 at a Glance Sergey Y............. Sivashanmugam ....... S....... C............... Munna Khan.................................................. D................... Bijnan... M.... N........................ Design and Modeling a New Optical Modulator Mohammad Mezaael ............. Mahfoozur Rehman........................ Designing of Water Quality Detector Using pH Sensor Pavika Sharma........ Bera and D.... Accurate Measurement of ‘Q’ Factor of An Inductive Coil Using a Modified Maxwell Wein Bridge Network Subrata Chattopadhyay.................... Study of a Modified Design of a Potential Transformer S..... Alvi............................. Ashok K............................. Rong-Moo Hong .................... Maity and Sagarika Pal.. Shirsat and A........ PPY-PVA Blend Thin Films as a Ammines Gas Sensor D.......... I Research Articles Development of an Intelligent Capacitive Mass Sensor Based on Co-axial Cylindrical Capacitor Amir Abu_Al_Aish................ Jyh-Shyan Chiu......... Arindam Bhakta and Sagarika Pal .... Yurish……………………………………………………………………………………………......................... Phil Ozmun. Dongna Shen and Dong-Joo Kim....... and P............... A................................. Zain................... Modeling and Analysis of a Bimorph PZT Cantilever Beam Based Micropower Generator Jyoti Ajitsaria....... Development of Hardware Dual Modality Tomography System R......... Song-Yul Choe........... M......................sensorsportal.... Utpal Chakraborty............. Simulation Study of IMC and Fuzzy Controller for HVAC System Umamaheshwari and P.......... R...Sensors & Transducers Journal Contents Volume 105 Issue 6 June 2009 www................. 1 10 18 26 33 42 50 56 66 73 81 94 ........ ....... New Type Small-angle Sensor Based on the TIR and SPR Theories in Heterodyne Interferomery Shinn-Fwu Wang........... R.. Abdul Rahim.... Anwar Hasni Abu Hassan and Mohd Rizal Arshad................................................................. Kole.... Salhan ....................... Digital Position Control System of a Motorized Valve in a Process Plant Using Hybrid Stepper Motor as Actuator Subrata Chattopadhyay................. Prerna Garg............... Lung-Hsiang Lee.................................. A Real Time Embedded set up Based on Digital Signal Controller for Detection of BioSignals Using Sensors Dipali Bansal............................................................ Cheng-Min Lee.......... Dupare..... B................. Aswar ...................................................

........... pH Homeostasis of a Biosensor in Renal Function Regulation Linked with UTI T.... Byung-Keun Oh and Jeong-Woo Choi.. Basak.. Poonam Goyal........... Gunshekharan Asha Khanna.......................... K...... Arpita Gupta. T.............. Anchal Srivastava and Atul Srivastava . C............. R....... Sumathi.............. Ramanujam............. S................. Singh.......... Effect of Dilution and Model Analysis of Distillery Effluent Using Dissolved Oxygen as Parameter J........................................... Growth and Characterization of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Molarity of Precursor Solution Dharmendra Mishra..... Shukla......... Micro-Flow Based Differential Pressure Sensor Microbridge Technologies..........sensorsportal......................... Dubey.......................... G.. Cyrilraj.. K..htm International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA).......................... K.. White Paper ........ .... 104 113 119 127 135 Authors are encouraged to submit article in MS Word (doc) and Acrobat (pdf) formats by e-mail: editor@sensorsportal............................. Deepali Garg.......................com/HTML/DIGEST/Submition....... Sundaram.........com Please visit journal’s webpage with preparation instructions: http://www...............Sanguinarine and its Electropolymerization onto Indium Tin Oxide as a Mediator for Biosensing Ravindra P.................. V............

forward modelling. such as the electrical capacitance. gamma. 1. Malaysia E-mail: rasif@nuclearmalaysia. switching the capacitance electrodes and to synchronize the operation of data acquisition. Introduction In recent years. DMT consists of optical and capacitance sensors.gov.utm. and also not sufficient to explore all important flow characteristics [1]. signal conditioning circuit.my Received: 6 March 2009 /Accepted: 22 June 2009 /Published: 30 June 2009 Abstract: The paper describes the hardware development and performance of the Dual Modality Tomography (DMT) system.sensorsportal. 33-41 Sensors & Transducers ISSN 1726-5479 © 2009 by IFSA http://www. Researches were carried out in order to obtain a good flow meter for process control. In previous researches. optical tomography.Sensors & Transducers Journal. Vol. the new trend in sensor development of solid/gas flow is either through dual or triple 33 . 105. numerous types of tomography sensors have been designed and developed in monitoring and investigating the industrial solid/gas flow.my. Currently. As a result. the utilization of only one tomography modality is not capable to gain a high-resolution image in full range concentration distribution. The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) electrode design use eight electrode plates as the detecting sensor. The tomography development is also focusing on producing high quality image to suit the demand from industrial sectors. and optical tomography. June 2009. Copyright © 2009 IFSA. The digital timing and the control unit have been developing in order to control the light projection of optical emitters. the developed system is able to provide a maximum 529 set data per second received from the signal conditioning circuit to the computer. Keywords: electrical capacitance tomography. M. 2R. The optical sensors consist of 16 LEDs and 16 photodiodes. ruzairi@fke. pp. dual mode tomography (DMT). Abdul Rahim 1 Malaysian Nuclear Agency Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Zain. Issue 6.com Development of Hardware Dual Modality Tomography System 1 2 R. Several sensing principles of tomography sensor in one modality were approaches to produce image reconstruction on solid/gas flow.

Primary Sensor Design of Optical When producing and determining the sensor output for optical sensor. June 2009. The model was designed and applied to make estimation on the sensor output voltage amplitude. 2. Meanwhile Ibrahim [3] used optical attenuation model in his research about the liquid/gas system. Generally. The dual modality tomography DMT project is aimed to obtain information about the contents of pipe line which is based on the intensity measuring and dielectric properties of the solid/gas inside the pipeline. both optical sensors and electrical capacitance sensors are used for developing Dual Modality Tomography (DMT) primary sensor. The main purpose of this project is to obtain a high resolution image fusion in full range concentration distribution. Results show that the model is useful and suitable for the liquid/gas application system because different optical attenuation coefficient with different material. Abdul Rahim in his research [2] on solid/gas flow measurement developed the optical path length model. 3. pp. This technique enables to overcome the constraints found when one tomography modality is applied. The optical tomography applied of 16 pairs of optical sensors. As usual the types of application are taken into consideration when developing sensor modeling. the optical sensor consists of 16 pair’s transmitters and receivers in the same pipe line. Vol. Issue 6. The LED transmitters are labeled as Tx0 to Tx15 while Rx0 to Rx15 for the photodiode receivers. The LEDs allow 140o of wide emission angle and the photodiodes have a 100o reception angle. the basic principle of the sensor modeling in this project is the light beams transmitting in a straight line to the receivers. 1.02 degree. Primary Sensor Design of Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) The ECT electrode design is made out of a pipeline sensor which uses electrode plates as the detecting sensor. Considering the limitations of one sensing modality. The sensors located around the peripheral side of an acrylic flow pipe with 100mm inner diameter. Meanwhile. a new idea of dual modality is developed by combining an electrical capacitance and optical sensor in one sensor plane. the sensor output used is dependant on the blockage effect when solid materials intercept the light beams transmitting in a straight line to the receiver.142 and d = diameter of fixture (mm). sensor modeling is very crucial. These plates are mounted symmetrically on the periphery of an insulating pipe as shown in 34 . As the optical sensor (transmitter and receiver) is distributed around the circumference of the fixture as shown in Fig. Similarly. C =π ×d (1) Whereby: C = Circumference of sensor’s fixture (mm). which consist of 16 LEDs and 16 photodiodes. Chan [4] developed an optical path width model in solid/gas measurement. The diameter of the sensor’s fixture which mounts the Tx and Rx is 100 mm and its circumference can be obtained by using the Equation in 1. the angle between each emitter and its adjacent receiver viewed from the centre of the circle is 8. π = 3. Here. The electrical capacitance sensor consists of eight electrodes in circumference of pipe line. All the detailed development of primary sensor and hardware were elaborate in this paper. For the research he generated the sensor output that is based on the width of sensing beam within the pipeline projection. 105. Results show that the particle flow rate is proportional relation with output voltage amplitude. 33-41 modality in one sensor plane.Sensors & Transducers Journal. In this project research the researcher has adopted the modeling type developed by Chan [4].

The received lights’ intensity is measured in signals conditioning unit. Issue 6. Layout of optical primary sensor. June 2009. 33-41 Fig. The light projection unit contains a series of LED drivers that provide a high and adjustable dynamic current to each LED individually. 105.Sensors & Transducers Journal. 4. Measurement electrode Fig. Fig. received signals conditioning unit and digital timing and control unit. 1. The pipe uses solid and gas as its medium. 2. pp. Cross-sectional view of the ECT sensor. Vol. Optical Hardware Basically there are three parts in the developed circuits which are the light projection unit. 2. It contains a series of signal 35 . The solid particles will yield standing capacitance output that is useful for image reconstruction.

The cut-off frequency formed by R1 and C1 selection is based on the maximum frequency to drive the emitters. the presence of C1 as the cumulative parasitic capacitance of R1 results in the high frequency noise generated by photodiode that is being filtered. The emitter driver circuit. The digital timing and control unit. This transistor directly replaces the commonly used LED driver which is formed by a switching transistor and a high current transistor [5].Sensors & Transducers Journal. 4 shows the improved photovoltaic mode converter.05 us) and low noise voltage (4 µV) at 10 kHz. An important aspect during the circuit development is the considerations of the highest data rate that may be achieved and the stability of signals in each part of circuits. This is to control the sequence of light projection and synchronize the operation of data acquisition system (DAS) when capturing the output voltage from signals conditioning unit. J-FET input stage). while the output sensor is electrical signals that are proportional to the intensity of received light. pp.5 Amp or pulse current up to 9. a second resistor with a value equal to feedback resistor is added in series with the non-inverting input of the op-amp. This new arrangements of parts changes a differential-input current to voltage converter. Issue 6. Through the modification. With this also the number of components can be minimized. 105. This transistor has similar characteristic of Darlington transistor and is able to provide the collector with constant current up to 4. To perform the transformation operation parallel processing technique uses 16 sets of such circuit. double bandwidth (3 MHz of unity bandwidth) and triple slew rate (13 v/us of positive slew rate at 25oC) fast setting time (0. The new innovation provides a better solution to noise sensitivity and DC offset error [6]. The 2N3904 NPN transistor was chosen to obtain the high speed switching and high current driver. June 2009.5 Amp and support the switching frequency up to 1 MHz. fL. 33-41 transformation circuits that convert the received signal from photodiodes to a proportional voltage. uses a master clock. The circuit is shown in Fig. The TLE2084 is selected as the converter’s operational amplifier (op-amp) in the circuit as it has a high input impedance (1012 Ω. It is expected to be equal to 16 kHz. In transforming the received signals from photodiodes to voltage a signal conditioning circuit is designed. The emitter is designed to use pulse mode so that it can handle a larger current and therefore generate a greater intensity of radiation. Vol. Besides that. The combination of R1 and C1 provides a single low-pass frequencyselective circuit that have a roll of -20 dB/dec above the critical frequency. 3. The input of the sensor is a physical signal represented by light. Fig. 2N3904 Fig. 3. To drive each LED individually this circuit is developed with 16 similar emitter driver circuits. on the contrary. 36 .

should only one signal conditioning board is not working. Fig. 5. a sine wave generator is also required as the excitation source for the system. AC based capacitance measuring circuit is highly sensitive. the signal conditioning circuit is designed to be plugged directly onto the PCB sockets of the electrodes. For this electrical capacitance tomography a stray immune AC based capacitance measuring circuit has been developed. Vol. users can simply change it by plugging out the board and replace it with a new board. 6 shows a typical hardware of electrical capacitance sensor including the AC based capacitance measuring circuit. pp. ECT signal conditioning board. For the research. good stability and high resolution AC [8]. Fig. The electronic devices outputs are then sent to the data acquisition system to be changed from analog to digital conversion. The digital data will be sent to computer for analysis and image reconstruction. 5. Other than that. amplifying circuit. 37 . Current to voltage converter circuit. However. June 2009. Fig. These measurement electrodes are connected to the electronic devices. has good linearity. Electrical Capacitance Hardware An ECT sensor comprised of a set of measurement electrodes mounted symmetrically inside or more typically outside an insulation pipe [7]. Conventionally. 105. all the signal conditioning circuits are placed in one bulky signal conditioning board. AC to DC converter circuit and filter circuit are the items that make up the signal conditioning system. 33-41 Fig. Each PCB is plugged onto every electrode for this research.Sensors & Transducers Journal. eight identical circuits are separated into eight different PCB. or commonly known as signal conditioning system. 5 is an example of one of the set of signal conditioning circuit. During the operation. 4. This type of circuit has found extensive applications owing to their low drift and good SNR. Issue 6. It uses an operational amplifier (op-amp) with resistor feedback which directly measures the AC admittance of an unknown capacitance. Capacitance measurement circuit. here.

6. Vol. Basic switch arrangement of electrode selection. The third function is to control the timing to perform data sampling so as to synchronize (data from optical and ECT) the operation of data acquisition. Each set of signal conditioning circuit needs a switching circuit. It is crucial to do synchronization due to the dynamic change of the output signals from both signals conditioning unit. Fig. The controlled parameters include the frequency of projection. the configuration of the switching circuit in an ECT system is represented as shown in Fig. 105. Normally. First is to control the optical projection. 7. June 2009.Sensors & Transducers Journal. 33-41 Fig. 7. switching circuit is formed by CMOS analog switches which mainly functions to control the status of the electrodes. 6. Typical electrical capacitance hardware. pp. sequence of projection and duration of light emission. Issue 6. An accurate sampling timing is required to obtain 38 . From here researcher can choose the electrode as either being the source or detecting electrode. Second is to control the switching the electrode of ECT. DMT Digital Timing and Control Unit The digital timing and control unit is designed for three reasons. Usually.

f Clk = 1. Vol. The Clk signal’s generator schematic is shown in Fig. 105. 7. Fig.68 kΩ in order to obtain the decided output signal’s frequency. The green positive edge signals the start of each projection. In the developed circuit.44 (R A + 2(RB + VRT )) × CT (2) Based on Equation 2 and selected value of RA and CT in schematic. Fig. the VRT variable resistor has been replaced with a 25 turn cermets trimmer to adjust and fix the frequency of Clk at 4. The unequal value of resistor of 65. In this project. Zetex (1994) notifies that. So. the value of RB+VRT must be 65. A 555 timer has been configured in a stable mode which is sufficient to generate the Clk signal with frequency of 4. The condition in which the signal achieved the steady state for corresponding projection is when the negative edge occurred. DMT CLK and logic interface circuit. 9. RB and a variable resistor. 2 where the output signal’s frequency is given by the following equation (Fairchild.68 kΩ has been replaced with a fix resistor.Sensors & Transducers Journal. Issue 6. the projection frequency is fixed at 4.8 kHz. 8 shows the configuration of DMT CLK and logic interface circuit. Result and Discussion Based on the experiment. the optical sensor and signal conditioning unit used required an approximately 70 us of setting time. pp.8 kHz instead of maximum rate due to the sufficient data for real-time image processing. 8. June 2009. 2001). 33-41 the measurement of output signal optical and ECT in steady-state. the output signal can achieve steady state.8 kHz. VRT. using multi-turn cermets trimmer provide an accurate trimming resistor and stability over a large range of temperature. 39 . The dynamic signal captured from receivers Rx10 (red in color) and Rx11 (blue in color) for projection Tx1 to Tx5 in experiment are shown in Fig.

Therefore. 9. 10.Sensors & Transducers Journal. Fig. 10. 105. June 2009. As a result. 16 projections are required in order to complete a cycle of projection as 16 emitters are in used. a maximum data sampling rate at 333 k samples per second is achieved. Issue 6. This indicates that a conversion of single sample required 3 µs. 48us of data sampling time is required to complete the conversion of those analog signals including capacitance signals. Approximately 70 µs is required by signals to achieve steady state. A single projection will provide 16 output signals because 16 sensors are used.8 kHz instead of maximum rate due to the sufficient data for real-time image processing (where 300 set data per second is produced to computer to perform image reconstruction). 256 optical signals and two set of ECT signals (28 signals x 2 cycles = 56 signals) are obtained from each signal conditioning circuit. the developed system is able to provide a maximum 529 set data per second (8474/16) received from the signal conditioning circuit to the computer. pp. The projection frequency in this study is fixed at 4. The designed timing diagram for projection and operation of data acquisition can be referred to Fig. Vol. Digital timing and control signals. 33-41 Fig. 40 . From the data collected. the minimum interval between the projections is more or less equal to 118us (70us + 48us) and the allowed maximum projection frequency is equal to 8474 Hz (1/118us). Hence.

Chan Kok San. D. A. A dual modality tomography system for imaging gas/solids flow. 1998.. 105. DMT Hardware. IEE. 1996. pp. [8].. 2005. The actual photograph for the hardware system is shown in Fig. [2]. T. Control Engineering Practice. Jerald. Zetex Semiconductor Inc. and Green. ZTX689B. Pro. 141. Data Sheet. Johansen. W. Ibrahim. J. References [1]. Meas.sensorsportal. Beck. -Circuits Devices Syst. [5]. W. Vol. Optical tomography for imaging process flow. Malaysia. Abdul Rahim. IEE Proc. 149-155. -Sci. [6]. 2002. A. Fig. October 8th – 10th. 6. June 2009. pp. 11. 11. pp. 144. Sc. 1365-1371. No. Zetex Semiconductor. Melaka. Thesis. Technol. Photodiode Amplifier .. Vol. 2001. Yang. Universiti Teknologi. M. Modelling of Capacitance Tomography Sensors. Stott.com) 41 . [7]. Real Time Image Reconstruction For Fan Beam Optical Tomography System. No. 1994. Proceeding 4th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography. September 1997. McGraw-Hill. Mosorov. [3]. Optical-fibre Sensors for Process Tomography. G. Issue 6. Vol. International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA). M. Q. G. Wlodarczky.Op Amp Solutions. New York. June 1994. Sallehuddin and Green. L. Dyakowski. Yang. 33-41 8. Conclusions A new development of DMT hardware has been discussed. Robert Garnett. S. [4]. Malaysia. (http://www. 5. G. All rights reserved. Sankowski... R. Proc. High Frequency and High Resolution Capacitance Measuring Circuit for Process Tomography. ___________________ 2009 Copyright ©. 3. V.Sensors & Transducers Journal. Q. MSTC 2001. R. Graeme.

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