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Agitation:

promote turbulence in a liquid Mixing: Operation in which two or more materials are intermingled to attain a desired degree of uniformity Main purpose of mixing and agitation in water and wastewater treatment: 1. Uniform distribution of a chemical Typically rapid mixing or flash mixing Less than 10 s Coagulation Dispersion of oxygen in activated sludge Food industry, fabrication, dyes 2. Promotion of aggregate particle formation by collisions Typically slow mixing Minutes to hours Flocculation Other agitation and mixing objectives (rapid mixing): 1. Suspending solid particles 2. Dispersing immiscible liquids 3. Promoting heat transfer at a wall

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3.2 RAPID MIXING DEVICES

3.2.1 MECHANICAL AGITATORS 1. Turbine Impeller Various types of turbine blades Turbine blades can be vertical or pitched Impeller diameter 30 to 50% of tank diameter or width Mounted one impeller diameter above tank bottom Range in speed of 10 to 150 rpm Baffling minimizes vortexing and rotational flow Radial flow

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2. Paddle Impeller Typically 2 or 4 blades Paddle blades can be vertical or pitched Paddle width 1/6 to 1/10 of diameter Paddle impeller diameter 50 to 80% of tank diameter or width Mounted of a paddle diameter above tank bottom Paddle speed range 20 to 150 rpm Baffling required to minimize vortexing and rotational flow Radial flow

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3. Propeller Impeller Typically 2 or 3 blades Blades are pitched

Pitch =

Usually pitch is 1.0 or 2.0 Maximum propeller diameter is 18 inches Propeller speed 400 to 1750 rpm Axial flow

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3.2.2 PNEUMATIC AGITATORS Mixing action effected by rising air bubbles Tanks and aeration devices similar to those used in aeration Detention times and velocity gradients of same magnitude and range as those used in mechanical mixing Not affected by variations in influent flow rate Relatively small hydraulic headlosses

3.2.3 BAFFLE BASIN Mixing depends on gravity and hydraulic turbulence Very little short circuiting Headloss usually varies from 0.3 to 0.9 m Not suitable for wide variations in flow rates Velocity gradient can not be varied

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Figure 3-8: Baffle Basin Rapid Mixing 3.2.5 HYDRAULIC JUMP Mixing results from turbulent movement of liquid and high energy losses Used where sufficient head is available Velocity gradient can not be varied

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3.3 VELOCITY GRADIENT

The intensity of agitation represents the relative motion of fluid particles the velocity gradient The velocity gradient is averaged in some way to represent the entire body of liquid affected by the mixing

du L / t 1 = =t =G dy L

The symbol G is often utilized to express this velocity gradient Need to quantify the amount of agitation. This is accomplished through dimensional analysis G t = (Intensity)X(Duration) G t is dimensionless Consider a volume of fluid of viscosity upon which power P is imparted to create a velocity gradient G Performing a dimensional analysis using these parameters will yield an expression for the velocity gradient in terms of power, volume and fluid properties

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P = f ( G , , )

[P] [G] [] [] = FLt-1 = t-1 = FtL-2 = L3

Dimensional analysis yields From the Buckingham Pi theory there will be m - n = 1 dimensionless groups

PG a b c = 1

G=

P =W

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3.4 FLOW VELOCITIES AND CIRCULATION

3.4.1 IMPELLER FLOW THEORY Consider a simple, vertical impeller blade with a diameter Da Impeller rotates at a speed of n rpm Velocity at the tip of the impeller can be expressed as follows

u 2 = Da n

A liquid particle leaving the impeller tip has both radial (Vr2l) and tangential velocity (Vu2l) components Assume that the tangential velocity is some fraction k of the impeller tip velocity due to slip between impeller and fluid

Vul2 = kDa n

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Impeller receives flow axially from above and below and discharges radially; the volumetric flow rate q through the impeller is represented by:

q = Vrl2 A p

Ap is taken to be the area swept out by the tips of the impeller blades (projected area of impeller) and is a function of impeller circumference Da and blade width W

A p = Da W

From geometry

tan =

l 2

(u

Vrl2

2

Vul2

Substituting in relationships for u2 and Vu2l, the radial velocity is found to be

The flow rate through the impeller then becomes

2 q = 2 Da nW (1 k ) tan 2l

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However, this assumes a constant velocity profile across the blade which is not the case under real flow conditions Introduce a parameter K to account for non-ideal effects

2 q = K 2 D a nW (1 k ) tan 2l

3.4.2 FLOW NUMBER For geometrically similar impellers the blade width (W) must be proportional to the impeller diameter (Da) Parameters K, k and 2l can be assumed to remain constant. Hence,

3 q nDa

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NQ =

Flow Number is expected to be constant for each type of impeller Standard flat blade in baffled vessel Marine propeller (square pitch) Four-blade 45o turbine (W/Da = 1/6) NQ = 1.3 NQ = 0.5 NQ = 0.87

The flow rate (q) expression developed in the previous section accounts for radial flow leaving the tip of the impeller High velocity stream of liquid leaving the tip of the impeller entrains some of slower moving bulk liquid: slows down jet, but increases the total flow rate Tracer tests for turbine impellers give indication of this entrainment phenomenon and have yielded a relationship which also takes tank diameter Dt into account

3 Dt q T = 0.92 nDa Da

2<

Dt <4 Da

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3.5 POWER CONSUMPTION

For turbulent flow power represents the product of the kinetic energy imparted to the fluid and the total fluid flow

3.5.1 MECHANICAL AGITATORS Power required to generate turbulent flow in a reactor using impeller agitation

(V2l ) 2 3 P= nDa N Q 2g c

Velocity V2l is slightly smaller than the tip velocity u2. If the ratio of V2l/u2 is denoted by (similar to k) and V2l = nDa (similar to V2ul), then the power requirement becomes

3 P = nDa NQ

( nDa ) 2 2g c

5 2 2 n 3 D a P= NQ gc 2

2 2 NQ = N P = 5 2 n 3 Da

Pg c

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The left hand side of the equation is called the Power Number NP For a standard 6-bladed turbine impeller with a Flow Number of 1.3 and a velocity ratio of 0.9, Np = 5.2 However, and NQ are not readily measured, so must establish a correlation between P or NP and other easily measured variables defining the system Factors that can be expected to affect power consumption include Viscosity of fluid () Density of fluid () Rotational speed (n) Gravity (g and gc if engineering units are used) Diameter of tank (Dt) Height of tank (H) Diameter of impeller blade (Da) Width of impeller blade (W) Distance of impeller from tank bottom (E) Width of baffles (J) Length of impeller blade (L) The linear dimensions can all be converted to dimensionless ratios by dividing each one by say impeller blade diameter S1 = Da Dt S2 = E Dt S3 = L Da S4 = W Da S5 = J Dt S6 = H Dt

S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 are dimensionless shape factors particular to impeller

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Can utilize dimensional analysis to establish relationship with other variables

P = f ( n , Da , g c , , , g )

[n] [gc] [] [] [g] = t-1 = LMF-1t-2 = FLT-2 or ML-1t-1 = ML-3 or Ft2L-4 = Lt-2

[Da] = L

2 nDa n 2 Da =f , 5 g n 3 Da

Pg c

N P = f ( Re, Fr)

If the dimensionless shape factors are included

N P = f ( Re, Fr , S1 , S 2 , S 3 ,...)

With the non-dimensional form of the functional relationship, can now correlate data obtained experimentally in the lab It should be noted that the curves illustrated in the following figures do not directly include the effect of the Froude Number (Fr)

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The Froude Number becomes important only when there is significant wave motion. i.e. at high Re and unbaffled tanks These conditions are normally avoided and are represented by dashed curves If dashed curves must be used, then

N P = N PFigure Fr m m= a log Re b

)( )

a = 1.0

b = 40.0

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a = 1.7

b = 18.0

At low Reynolds Number (laminar flow Re < 10), baffled and unbaffled tanks give the same result log NP versus log Re gives a straight line with a slope of -1, now say

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Pgc KL = 5 2 n Da nDa

3

3 K L n 2 Da P= gc

Note density does not play a role here At high Reynolds Number (turbulent flow Re > 10 000), NP is essentially constant and NP = KT

Pg c

5 n 3 Da

= KT

5 K T n 3 Da P= gc

Table 3-1: Values of Constants KL and KT for Baffled Tanks Having Four Baffles at Tank Wall with Width Equal to 10% of the Tank Diameter

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Power dissipated by rising bubbles released from a depth below the water surface at a particular air flow rate The work done in compressing a volume of air at atmospheric pressure to a particular compression pressure and volume, under isothermal conditions can be used to calculate the work of expansion of the bubbles as they rise From ideal gas law, for a isothermal process paa = pcc W = pd= pc paa d= paa ln p c a

10.4+ h N P =1.0 x105 2 Qa (2.31) log 10.4 m h Qa = Depth to diffuser = Air flow rate at operating temperature and pressure (m3/s)

Important design considerations include: Bubbles should be uniform size and uniformly distributed in the volume Laterals are spaced 1 to 1.5 m apart Diffuser openings: 1.5 mm - spaced 7.5 to 15 cm apart

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The hydraulic head or liquid flow rate required to impart the desired power in a gravity driven system can be determined using

P = ghL Q

Headloss is a function of velocity head along the flow path Changes in direction create eddies and hence, mixing and headloss The head loss at each 180o bend is approximately

V2 hL = ( 2 to 35 . ) 2g

g Q h = Density (kg/m3) = Gravity (m/s2) = Liquid Flow rate (m3/s) = Hydraulic head (m)

Velocity in the system should be within 0.15 to 0.45 m/s to optimize mixing Headloss through the system should range between 0.15 and 0.6 m

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Momentum principle is most appropriate to describe this phenomenon

P = g (E )Q

v v d (mV ) F = dt

y2 1 = y1 2

( 8Fr +11)

2 1

Fr1 =

V1 gy1

V12 V22 E = y1 + 2 g y2 + 2 g Froude Number is evaluated at the upstream face (y1) For the purpose of mixing, a good jump should have an upstream to downstream depth ratio of y2/y1 > 2.38 If 2 < Fr1 < 1, then get a series of undulations with little energy dissipated If Fr1 = 1, then have critical flow If Fr1 > 2, then have appreciable energy loss good mixing conditions 3.5.5 SPIRAL FLOW TANKS

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A vortex action in the flow moving tangentially inward at center High inlet velocity required Headloss allows for determination of power dissipation

P = ghL Q

Less headloss than in gravity mixing

P = ghL Q

Most significant headloss occurs in long pipe lines Headloss can be calculated using closed conduit and open channel equations Darcy-Weisbach Mannings Hazen-Williams Chezy Recall: Slope of the EGL (S) = hL/L

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A square rapid mixing basin, with a depth of water equal to 1.25 times the width, is to be designed for a flow of 7570 m3/d. The velocity gradient is to be 790 m/s/m, the detention time is 40 s, the operating temperature is 10oC and the turbine shaft speed is 100 rpm. Determine: a) The basin dimensions b) The power required c) The impeller diameter if a vane-disc impeller with 6 flat blades is employed and the tank has 4 vertical baffles. The impeller diameter is to be 30% to 50% of the tank width d) The impeller diameter if no vertical baffles are used e) The air required if pneumatic mixing is employed and the diffusers are 0.15 m above the tank bottom

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