Chapter 3 Economic Renewal and the Wars of Religion 1560-1648

Section 11. The Opening of the Atlantic
pp. 106-114 Ships had begun to use the Atlantic early (Vikings to Iceland, Venetian Flanders Galleys), but the 15th century innovations made it a highway: improvements in shipbuilding (including the stern rudder), new types of rigging and sails (lateen), and the use of the mariner's compass. Europe had long imported key Asian commodities at very high prices--largely due to the costs of overland t ransportation to such key sites as Constantinople, Beirut, and Alexandria. Fabrics of silk and cotton, porcelains, fine steel, sugar, and above all, spices. The Portuguese had long encouraged exploration. Prince Henry, called "the Navigator," established a school at Sagres as a center for geographers, cartographers, mathematicians, ship captains and pilots. He sponsored voyages down the coast of Africa and far enough into the Atlantic to discover the Azores and Canary Islands. African exploration had brought the Portuguese wealth from gold, ivory and slaves--exciting the envy of Spain. Bartolomeu Dias in 1488 reached the Cape of Good Hope and proved a sea passage south of Africa did exist.] In 1498 Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape and sailed to India. The trade goods returned to Europe brought enormous profits. The Portuguese returned with a larger armada and in a fierce war took over the trade from the Arabs. Under Albuquerque, the first governor general, the Portuguese developed trade stations at Goa, Aden, Ormuz, and on the African coast (first destroying the Arab-African cities that had been developed at such cities as Kilwa and Zanzibar). The new Portuguese trade ruined Venice and built a Portuguese monopoly. Consumption and demand were both increased tremendously. At this same time, Spain resolved to test Columbus' ridiculous assumption that the ships of that day (caravels) could sail to Asia from Europe. [Some researchers believe Columbus had access to Viking maps of North America--and reason to suspect land further south. But his voyage was based on the faulty notion of a reduced-size earth.] As a result, conquistadors (Cortes, Pizarro) were soon turning the New World into a rich source of plunder. Conquest was followed by a lengthy period of exploitation of mineral resources and land. Native labor was abused to produce such valued commodities as dye woods, cacao, and tobacco. Deaths caused by forced labor and disease plus Church restrictions on the abuse of Indians led to the introduction of slaves on a vast scale. Explorers sought the mythic "Northwest Passage"; Magellan sailed southwest through the Straits of Magellan and began the first circumnavigation of the globe; Cabot and Cartier investigated the north, claiming vast new lands for England and France and opened a colonial race that helped cause two centuries of war. Protestants created an exceedingly negative view of the new Spanish Empire--usually termed the Black Legend. Fact: Indians were heavily used, if not always abused. The Spanish used the encomienda system, not unlike European serfdom: a European master as placed in charge of a section of land, and native tenants--keeping their own lands--paid rent and owed services. [After a huge initial drop, Indian population stabilized and remained substantial in such countries as Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, and Bolivia. In temperate climates, like Costa Rica, Chile, and Argentina the Indian population was eliminated and European strains dominate today. In tropical hot lands, such as Brazil and all the lands bordering on the Caribbean, Indians were killed off by work and were replaced by African slaves.] Since few white women emigrated to the New World before 1700, the result was a large mixed blood population: Mestizos, who were mixed European and Indian, and Mulattos, who were mixed European and blacks. Another key element of the population were the Creoles (Criollos), or Europeans born in the New World. They were looked down upon by the more "noble" Peninsulares or "Gachupines," born and educated in the Old World. Conflict between these two groups was to end in revolution in the early l9th century. Assimilation between the Indian and black cultures has been continuing since the Conquest, but a trip to any Latin American nation can show how incomplete it has been. Many Indian groups of Mexico and Peru still speak their traditional languages and maintain life-styles not far removed from that of their ancestors. Hatreds long brewing still appear in movements like the nativist, communist Sendero Luminoso of Peru. After 1550 great deposits of gold and silver were found; first came the great lode at Potosí, high in the Andes in what is now Bolivia. An annual flood of half a million pounds of silver and ten thousand pounds of gold came to Spain from such mines. For half a century Spain was by far the wealthiest nation in the world. Yet in spite of the exploits of the English "sea dogs" and the French corsairs, it was not until after 1600 that northern European nations really responded to the lure of the New World.

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12. The Commercial Revolution

pp. 114-120 Read section 12, pages 112-118, and explain why each of the following statements is false.Underline the false part. On a separate sheet of paper, which you will turn in, write the false segment and explain . The first example is completed for you. 1. Europe, paced by such great cities as London and Paris, was becoming rapidly urbanized in the 16th century as the population grew rapidly. "Europe...was probably no more urbanized than in the later Middle Ages....growth represented increasing density in the rural regions." 2. Prices rose steadily in the 16th century; the inflation hurt both royal governments and merchants. 3. The economic leaders of the new "Commercial Revolution" were the entrepreneurs, guildmasters who had the greater capital and knowledge with which to take advantage of new situations. 4. The "domestic system" was a compromise of the best of both the guild and the entrepreneurial systems. 5. The domestic system represented a new closer relationship between worker and owner that was only broken by the factory system of the 19th century. 6. Such industries as the manufacture of books, ships, and cannons and muskets were labor-intensive and so fit into the town-centered guild system. 7. Interest-taking, denounced by medieval canon law as usury and preached against by both Catholics and Protestants, did not become an accepted part of business. 8. Mercantilism is the system by which a nation produces what it is best suited to produce and imports the raw materials and manufactured goods it needs. 9. Mercantilism basically involved strengthening local economic units. 10. Mercantilists opposed tariffs and production subsidies because they fostered inefficient producers. 11. Mercantilists opposed "internal tariffs" to improve their competitiveness on the international market. 12. The great official trading companies founded after 1553 were all agencies of national government designed to improve trade with a specific region of the world.

13. Changing Social Structures

pp. 120-126 As prices rose in the 16th century, the peasants who held land for set money prices were aided, and became the English yeomanry and their European counterparts. Also aided were the urban people who had invested in real property, and members of the aristocracy who received payments set "in kind" rather than in cash. Class lines tended to blur--as aristocrats moved to town, and well-to-do middle class bought country estates. But the more alike they were, the more important the badges of difference became--higher education and the symbolism of refined tastes. The middle class ranged from commercial (bankers, ship owners, business)--to professionals (doctors, lawyers)--to government officials. The poorest ranged from landless peasants to urban unskilled wage laborers to the "downstairs," the servants of the well-off, with a large fringe of "unemployables" who lived by vagabondage or begging. Inflation rarely led to increased wages, so this majority lived in increasing misery. The middle class began to be distressed by the "irregular habits" of the poor; thus the Poor Law of 1601 established workhouses. Education began to expand, with English "grammar schools" and French "colleges"--both secondary schools. Universities grew rapidly. Eastern Europe was far different. The aristocratic lords of the land were fully in control, and it was they who reaped the benefit of better times. The Junkers of Germany, the lords of Poland and Russia ruled by "hereditary subjection" of the serfs. These lowly creatures owed three or four days per week of unpaid service (called robot) to a lord from whose judgment there was no appeal. "The landlord in the east, from the sixteenth century onward, was solidly entrenched in his own domain, monarch of all he surveyed, with no troublesome bourgeoisie to annoy him (for towns were few), and with kings and territorial rulers solicitous for his wishes." The great Polish and Lithuanian magnates enjoyed "palatial homes, private art galleries, well-stocked libraries, collections of jewels, swarms of servants, trains of dependent

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lesser gentry, gargantuan dinners, and barbaric hospitality. The Junkers of northeast Germany lived more modestly, but enjoyed the same kind of independence and social superiority."

14. The Crusade of Catholic Spain: The Dutch and English

pp. 126-134 l. Philip II (r. 1556-1598) a. inherited Spain, Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples, New World b. "before all else he was Catholic, fervid and fanatical...." personally austere and abstemious; morally severe c. Siglo de Oro (1550-1650) (1)Cervantes and Lope de Vega; El Greco, Murillo, Velázquez (2)Palace: El Escorial (Philip's personality solidified in stone) d. Years of Success (1)Lack of unity, mutual trust among people of England, France, Netherlands over religion (2)England: Elizabeth excommunicated, and facing serious rebellion; great massacre of Protestants on St. Bartholomew's Day; victory over the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto 2. Revolt of the Netherlands a. Netherlands: 17 assorted provinces (1)North: German dialects and Amsterdam and Rotterdam built of herring (2)South: French dialects and Antwerp, thriving on Portuguese trade (3)Provinces protective of "liberties," united only by opposition to Spanish (4)Protestantism increasing in the south, with fleeing Calvinist Huguenots b. Revolt against "foreigner" Philip was political, economic, and religious (1)Began when Philip insisted on bringing Inquisition into Netherlands--mass revolt of fanatical Calvinists against "popery" and "idolatry" (2)Joined by journeyman wage-earners with economic grievances (3)Philip sent the Duke of Alva, whose "Council of Blood" broke Machiavelli's basic rules: (a)He executed thousands; raised new taxes; confiscated the estates of key, important nobles (BIG mistake); these acts united the people under William of Orange (b)Result: anarchy and civil war, and a people united against Spain c. English involvement (1)Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, and Don Juan of Lepanto; With English security at stake in the Netherlands struggle, Elizabeth allies with Netherlands (2)Duke of Parma: soldier and diplomat: was able to win over Catholics and moderates upset by mob rule. Northern 7 Provinces split off by the Union of Utrecht to form Holland, Parma moves to take Antwerp, and Elizabeth formally joins the fight. (3)Philip and Spanish Armada (a)Philip resolves to attack England--and the English execute Mary, Queen of Scots, as a potential rallying point for English Catholics. (b)Armada católica is defeated by Drake and the" Protestant Wind" d. Results of the Struggle (1)Great surge of English confidence; Netherlands permanently divided (a)Protestant Holland, tolerant of a large Catholic minority. Rise of Amsterdam. (b)Spanish Netherlands) remain Catholic, but are ruined by the closing of the Scheldt (2)Spain is in decline, weakened by inflation and taxation (a)Generations of war produced hidalgos contemptuous of work (b)Concentration on religion produced economic weakness (c)Expulsion of Moriscos cost Spain its most socially valuable citizens (d)Split between Castillian and Catalan regions is worsened

15. The Disintegration and Reconstruction of France

pp. 134-140 Political and Religious Disunity a. Political: France was divided: Great provinces like Brittany and Burgundy, each virtually autonomous; many bonnes villes have jealously protected rights; and over 300 areas have their own legal systems b. Religious: (l) French religious independence since the Concordat of Bologna, l5l6

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(2) French Protestantism was a fierce and uncompromising Calvinism. Many nobles became Protestant to react against royal power. Bourgeoisie were heavily Protestant. (3) Monarchs began persecutions of French Huguenots in 1550s; Calvinism threatened both royal power and the idea of an established church c. Wars of Religion (1) Henry II dies in 1559; France was left in control of his widow, Catherine de' Medici, who serve as regent and busily engaged in intrigue for the next 30 years during the reigns of three sons. The result was nine civil wars, with roving bands of armed men loose in France (2) Protestant forces were led by Admiral de Coligny and Henry of Bourbon, King of Navarre. Catholics forces were led by the Guise family--the Duke of Guise, the Cardinal of Lorraine. Catherine de Medici was caught in the middle, hating the Huguenots but fearing the Guises. (3) St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572: Catherine tried to destroy Huguenot power, but instead began a terrible period of war with both sides hiring German mercenaries and the Catholic side aided by Spanish troops. Much of the Protestant southwest of France was devastated. (4) Politiques: Moderates seeking reconciliation to save France from anarchy. (5) Jean Bodin: modern theory of sovereignty: " every society there must be one power strong enough to give law to all others, with their consent if possible, without their consent if necessary. Thus from the disorders of the religious wars in France was germinated the idea of royal absolutism and of the sovereign state." d. Henry of Navarre: Reconstruction (1) 1589: the assassination of King Henry III and Henry of Guise brought Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot politique , to the throne. He became a Catholic to satisfy the Catholic party, but gave Huguenots the Edict of Nantes. (2) Edict of Nantes: Protestantism was to be allowed among nobles or in towns (except episcopal centers of Paris). Protestants were given full civil rights and 100 fortified towns. Henry forced Catholic approval. (3) Economic reconstruction: royal authority was used and advanced to rebuild France; mercantilist principles were followed. e. Cardinal Richelieu (1) Henry IV was assassinated in 1610, leaving a widow (Marie de' Medici) and a young son, Louis XII. Marie became regent, but with Cardinal Richelieu as her adviser. Though a churchman, his twin goals were to make the king supreme in France, and France supreme in Europe (2) Methods: (a)strengthen the economy through mercantilist measures; (b)prohibit private warfare and dueling, thus weakening nobles; (c)suppress the Huguenot rebellion of LaRochelle, ended the Huguenot's right to fortified cities; (d)weaken the power of the Spanish Habsburgs

l6. The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648: The Disintegration of Germany

pp. 140-149 Background: The Holy Roman Empire was mostly German-speaking, but language "was far less important than religion as the tie which people felt to be basic to a community; and in religion the Empire was almost evenly divided." Bohemia had a Protestant majority, Hungarian nobles were mainly Protestant, and Transylvania was an active center of Calvinism. Germany suffered from cultural isolation and backwardness, and economically the Empire was in severe decline. l. Background of the Thirty Years' War: a. Catholics were unhappy because Lutherans were making gains; both Catholics and Lutherans were unhappy because of the growth of Calvinism. Protestants were negotiating with the Dutch and England and France for help, while the Catholics were turning to Spain. b. Spain was eager to crush the Dutch Republic and reopen the mouth of the Scheldt, and to create a strong territorial block in central Europe composed of Burgundy, the Palatinate, and the Netherlands. c. Austrian Habsburgs were eager to crush Protestantism and create a strong German national state—an idea which horrified the French even more than the plans of the Spanish Habsburgs d. Thus the war was an amalgam: (l)German civil war, between Catholic v Protestant (2)German civil war over constitutional issues, emperor v. independents (3)International war of Bourbons v. Habsburgs, Spanish v. Dutch, etc. (4)Soldiers of fortune, fighting purely for their own gains

2. The Four Phases of the War:

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a. Bohemian Phase (1618-1625): The famed "Defenestration of Prague" was the origin; soon the German Protestant Union joined with the Czechs in a war against the HRE and Spain. Result: the Catholics won; Protestantism was stamped out in Bohemia and Spain controlled the Rhineland. b. Danish Phase (1625-1629): The Danish king reopened affairs, seeking to carve out a kingdom for his son, with financial help from the Dutch, English, and Richelieu. Albert of Wallenstein raised a personal army in the name of the emperor--and his mercenaries lived by pillaging everyone. The Danes were defeated, and Catholicism was on a roll. c. Swedish Phase (1629-1635): France and Sweden were alarmed, and Sweden's king Gustavus Adolphus, with French subsidies, created the most modern army of the age--disciplined and using muskets, pikes, and cannon. The Swedes defeated the divided Germans, but Gus was killed; soon after Wallenstein was assassinated; the HRE pulled back, easing Protestant fears. d. Swedish-French Phase (1635-1648): Richelieu now increased subsidies, and Spain attacked France directly. France retaliated by invading rebellious Catalonia. "In Germany the last...phase of the war was not so much a civil war among Germans as an international struggle on German soil." 3. The Treaty of Westphalia (1648) a. Peace of Augsburg was renewed, with the addition of Calvinism to the formula b. Independence of Holland and Switzerland from the HRE was recognized c. France received rights in Alsace and Lorraine (which remained independent) d. Sweden was given control of the mouths of the Oder, Elbe, and Weser Rivers e. Brandenburg and Bavaria were given increased territory f. German states were sovereign, all 300 of them, with no hope of unification g. Germany had been looted, wrecked, and depopulated, losing 1/3 of its population j. Goals of the Habsburgs, Spanish and Austrian, had been frustrated k. The Peace "marked the advent in international law of the modern European...system of sovereign states....independent powers recognizing no superior or common tie....Europe was understood to consist in a large number of unconnected sovereignties, free and detached atoms, or states, which acted according to their own laws, following their own political interests, forming and dissolving alliances, exchanging embassies and legations, alternating between war and peace, shifting positions with a shifting balance of power."

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