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Bahaa E. A. Saleh, Malvin Carl Teich

송 석 호 Physics Department (Room #36-401) 2220-0923, 010-4546-1923, shsong@hanyang.ac.kr http://optics.hanyang.ac.kr/~shsong Midterm Exam 30%, Final Exam 30%, Homework 20%, Attend 10%

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Course outline

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Course outline

(Supplements)

From Maxwell Eqs to wave equations Optical properties of materials Optical properties of metals

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Course outline

Optics .

see Figure 2-1. Pedrotti .Also.

" and there was light.(Genesis 1-3) And God said. . "Let there be light.

Northeastern University) .. & Two Kinds of Light (Huygens) Wave Theory (Longitudinal) (Fresnel) Transverse Wave. Early QM (Poincare. of the lookingglasses of the women assembling. Polarization Interference (Young) Light & Magnetism (Faraday) EM Theory (Maxwell) Rejection of Ether.and the foot of it of brass. Ether (Newton) -1000 0 1000 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 (Chuck DiMarzio. Einstein) Rectilinear Propagation (Euclid) Shortest Path (Almost Right!) (Hero of Alexandria) Plane of Incidence Curved Mirrors (Al Hazen) Corpuscles..” (Exodus 38:8) Empirical Law of Refraction (Snell) Light as Pressure Wave (Descartes) Law of Least Time (Fermat) v<c.A Bit of History “.

Emission (Einstein) Phase Contrast (Zernicke) Hubble Telescope Erbium Fiber Amp SM Fiber (Hicks) HeNe (Javan) GaAs (4 Groups) Optical Maser (Schalow. Townes) Holography (Gabor) FEL (Madey) Commercial Fiber Link (Chicago) CO2 (Patel) Many New Lasers 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 (Chuck DiMarzio.More Recent History Laser (Maiman) Polaroid Sheets (Land) Optical Fiber (Lamm) Quantum Mechanics Speed/Light (Michaelson) Spont. Northeastern University) .

.

Let’s warm-up 일반물리 전자기학 .

(3) through the secondary waves generated inside the medium. like as for a sound. Secondary on-going wave Primary incident wave Construct the wave front tangent to the wavelets What about –r direction? .Question How does the light propagate through a glass medium? (1) through the voids inside the material. (2) through the elastic collision with matter.

Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell’s Equation r r Q ∫ E ⋅ dA = r r ∫ B ⋅ dA = 0 ε0 Gauss’s Law No magnetic monopole r r dΦ B ⋅ = − E d s Faraday’s Law (Induction) ∫ dt r r dΦ E Ampere-Maxwell’s Law ⋅ = μ + ε μ B d s i ∫ 0 0 0 dt .

Maxwell’s Equation r r ρ r r r r ρ Gauss’s Law ∇⋅E = E ⋅ d A = ∇ ⋅ E dv = dv ⇒ ∫ ∫ ∫ε ε0 0 r r r r r r No magnetic monopole ⇒ ∇⋅B = 0 ∫ B ⋅ dA = ∫ ∇ ⋅ Bdv = 0 r r r r r r d r r r r ∫ E ⋅ ds = ∫ ∇ × E ⋅ dA = − dt ∫ B ⋅ dA ⇒ ∇ × E = − ∂B Faraday’s Law (Induction) ∂t r r r r r dΦ E B ⋅ d s = ∇ × B ⋅ d A = μ i + μ ε ∫ ∫ 0 0 0 dt r r r r r r r r d ∂E = μ 0 ∫ j ⋅ dA + μ 0 ε 0 ∫ E ⋅ dA ⇒ ∇ × B = μ 0 j + μ 0 ε 0 dt ∂t r r r r r ∂E r ⇒ ε0 = jd ∇ × B = μ 0 ( j + jd ) Ampere-Maxwell’s Law ∂t .

Wave equations r r r ∂B ∇× E = − ∂t r r r ∂E ∇ × B = μ 0ε 0 ∂t In vacuum r r r r r r ∂ ∂ ⎛ ∂B ⎞ ⎟ − ∇ × ∇ × B = μ 0ε 0 ∇ × E = μ 0ε 0 ⎜ ⎜ ∂t ∂t ⎝ ∂t ⎟ ⎠ r r r r 2 ∇ × ∇ × B = −∇ B ( ) ( ) r 2 r ∂ B ∇ 2 B = μ 0ε 0 2 ∂t r r ∂2E 2 ∇ E = μ 0ε 0 2 ∂t r ∂ ˆ ∂ ˆ ∂ ˆ ∇= i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂z r r r r r r r r 2 2 ∇ × ∇ × B = ∇ ∇ ⋅ B − ∇ B = −∇ B r r r r r r r r r A× B × C = A⋅C B − A⋅ B C ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ∂2B ∂2B − μ 0ε 0 2 = 0 2 ∂x ∂t Wave equations 2 2 ∂ E ∂ E − μ ε =0 0 0 2 2 ∂x ∂t .

99792 ×108 m / sec ≈ 3 ×108 m / s .Scalar wave equation ∂ 2Ψ ∂ 2Ψ − μ 0ε 0 2 = 0 2 ∂x ∂t Ψ = Ψ 0 cos( kx − ω t ) k − μ0ε0ω = 0 2 2 ω k = 1 μ 0ε 0 =v≡c Speed of Light c = 2.

Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) waves r r r ∂E ∇ × B = −μ 0 ε 0 ∂t ⇒ r r E⊥B Electromagnetic Wave .

Energy carried by Electromagnetic Waves Poynting Vector : Intensity of an electromagnetic wave μ0 1 ⎞ ⎛B ⎜ = c⎟ S= EB ⎝E ⎠ μ0 1 2 c 2 = E = B cμ 0 μ0 r 1 r r S= E×B (Watt/m2) Energy density associated with an Electric field : u E = Energy density associated with a Magnetic field : u B = 1 ε0 E 2 2 1 2 B 2μ 0 .

Reflection and Refraction Smooth surface Rough surface Reflected ray n1 n2 ′ θ1 = θ1 n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ 2 Refracted ray .

c n (λ ) = = v (λ ) με (λ ) μ 0ε 0 (Material) Dispersion .Reflection and Refraction In dielectric media.

Interference & Diffraction .

Reflection and Interference in Thin Films • 180 º Phase change of the reflected light by a media with a larger n • No Phase change of the reflected light by a media with a smaller n .

Interference in Thin Films δ = 2t = (m + Phase change: π 1 2 ( m+ 1 2) )λ n = λ n m λ n Bright ( m = 0. 3. 3. 2. 1. 2. ···) n1 n2 t Phase change: π ) δ = 2t = (m + 1 2 λ n1 ( m+ 1 2) = λ n1 n2 > n1 Bright ( m = 0. ···) δ = 2t = mλ n1 = Phase change: π m λ n1 Bright ( m = 1. ···) n t No Phase change δ = 2t = mλ n = Dark ( m = 1. 2. ···) . 3. 3. 1. 2.

Interference Young’s Double-Slit Experiment .

1. 2. 2. 1.Interference The path difference δ = r2 − r1 = d sin θ ⇒ Bright fringes m = 0. ···· m = 0. ···· δ = d sin θ = mλ ⇒ Dark fringes δ = d sin θ = (m + 1 2 )λ The phase difference φ = δ ⋅ 2π = 2πd sin θ λ λ .

Chapter 10 . Optics.Diffraction Hecht.

Diffraction .

Diffraction Grating .

Diffraction of X-rays by Crystals Incident beam Reflected beam θ θ θ d dsinθ 2d sin θ = mλ : Bragg’s Law .

Regimes of Optical Diffraction d >> λ d~λ d << λ Far-field Fraunhofer Near-field Fresnel Evanescent-field Vector diffraction .

Chapter 1. Ray Optics .

Postulates of Ray Optics c n≡ v ds A B .

Reflection Reflection and and Refraction Refraction .

y2) dOPLAB =0= dy2 0 = n ( x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) ( x3 ) + ( y3 − y2 ) n ( y2 − y1 ) n ( y3 − y2 ) − 2 2 2 2 ( x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) ( x3 ) + ( y3 − y2 ) 2 + n 1 2 ( y3 − y2 )( −1) 2 2 0 = n sin θi − n sin θ r ⇒ sin θi = sin θ r x θi = θ r : Law of reflection . y1) (0. y3) Fix x1 . x3 . OPLAB = n ( − x1 ) + ( y2 − y1 ) 2 2 +n ( − x3 ) + ( y3 − y2 ) 2 2 B (x3.Fermat Fermat’’s s Principle: Principle: Law Law of of Reflection Reflection Fermat’s principle: Light rays will travel from point A to point B in a medium along a path that minimizes the time of propagation. y1 . y3 1 2 ( y2 − y1 ) 2 2 2 θr θi y A (x1.

y3) niθi = ntθt : Law of refraction in paraxial approx. y1 . 0) d ( OPLAB ) =0= dy2 ni 1 2 ( x2 − x1 ) 2 2 2 ni nt 0= ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y1 ) ( x3 − x2 ) + ( y3 ) ni ( x2 − x1 ) nt ( x3 − x2 ) − 2 2 2 2 ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y1 ) ( x3 − x2 ) + ( y3 ) 2 + nt 1 2 ( x3 − x2 )( −1) 2 2 0 = ni sin θi − nt sin θt ⇒ ni sin θi = nt sin θt θt (x3. y3 (x1.Fermat Fermat’’s s Principle: Principle: Law Law of of Refraction Refraction Law of refraction: OPLAB = ni ( x2 − x1 ) + ( y1 ) 2 2 + nt ( x3 − x2 ) + ( − y3 ) 2 2 Fix x1 . . x3 . y1) A y x θi (x2.

Refraction –Snell’s Law : ni sin θ i = nt sin θ t ni × nt < 0 ???? .

Negative index of refraction : n < 0 RHM N>1 N = -1 LHM .

Principle Principle of of reversibility reversibility .

Reflection Reflection in in plane plane mirrors mirrors .

Plane Plane surface surface – – Image Image formation formation .

Total Total internal internal Reflection Reflection (TIR) (TIR) .

Imaging Imaging by by an an Optical Optical System System .

Cartesian Cartesian Surfaces Surfaces • A Cartesian surface – those which form perfect images of a point object • E. ellipsoid and hyperboloid O I .g.

Imaging Imaging by by Cartesian Cartesian reflecting reflecting surfaces surfaces .

Imaging Imaging by by Cartesian Cartesian refracting refracting Surfaces Surfaces .

Approximation Approximation by by Spherical Spherical Surfaces Surfaces .

Reflection Reflection at at a a Spherical Spherical Surface Surface .

Reflection Reflection at at Spherical Spherical Surfaces Surfaces II Reflection from a spherical convex surface gives rise to a virtual image. Use paraxial or small-angle approximation for analysis of optical systems: sin ϕ = ϕ − cos ϕ = 1 − ϕ3 3! + + ϕ5 5! −L≅ϕ −L≅1 ϕ2 2! ϕ4 4! . Rays appear to emanate from point I behind the spherical reflector.

Reflection Reflection at at Spherical Spherical Surfaces Surfaces II II Considering Triangle OPC and then Triangle OPI we obtain: θ =α +ϕ 2θ = α + α ′ Combining these relations we obtain: α − α ′ = − 2ϕ Again using the small angle approximation: h α ≅ tan α ≅ s α ′ ≅ tan α ′ ≅ h s′ h ϕ ≅ tan ϕ ≅ R .

2. 3.Reflection Reflection at at Spherical Spherical Surfaces Surfaces III III Image distance s' in terms of the object distance s and mirror radius R: h h h − = −2 s s′ R ⇒ 1 1 2 − =− s s′ R At this point the sign convention in the book is changed ! 1 1 2 + =− s s′ R The following sign convention must be followed in using this equation: 1. Mirror radius of curvature R is positive for C to the right of V (convex). negative for C to left of V (concave). Object distance s is positive when point O is to the left of point V. . Image distance s' is positive when I is to the left of V (real image) and negative when to the right of V (virtual image). Assume that light propagates from left to right.

The imaging equation for the spherical mirror can be rewritten as 1 1 1 + = s s′ f .Reflection Reflection at at Spherical Spherical Surfaces Surfaces IV IV s=∞ R f =− 2 R<0 f >0 R>0 f <0 The focal length f of the spherical mirror surface is defined as –R/2. f > 0 for a concave mirror and f < 0 for a convex mirror. In accordance with the sign convention of the previous page. where R is the radius of curvature of the mirror.

Inverted Image Virtual Image.Reflection Reflection at at Spherical Spherical Surfaces Surfaces VII VII Real. Not Inverted s> f ⇒ 1 1 1 = − > 0 s′ f s s< f ⇒ 1 1 1 = − < 0 s′ f s s′ m = − <0 s s′ m = − >0 s .

Refraction Refraction .

Prisms Prisms .

Beamsplitters Beamsplitters .

Spherical Spherical boundaries boundaries and and lenses lenses At point P we apply the law of refraction to obtain n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ 2 Using the small angle approximation we obtain n1θ1 = n2 θ 2 Substituting for the angles θ1 and θ2 we obtain n1 (α − ϕ ) = n2 (α ′ − ϕ ) Neglecting the distance QV and writing tangents for the angles gives n2 > n1 ⎛ h h⎞ ⎛h h ⎞ n1 ⎜ − ⎟ = n2 ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝ s R⎠ ⎝ s′ R ⎠ .

Refraction Refraction by by Spherical Spherical Surfaces Surfaces Rearranging the equation we obtain n1 n2 n1 − n2 − = s s′ R Using the same sign convention as for mirrors we obtain n1 n2 n2 − n1 + = =P s s′ R P : power of the refracting surface n2 > n1 .

Example Example :: Concept Concept of of imaging imaging by by a a lens lens .

Thin Thin (refractive) (refractive) lenses lenses .

**The The Thin Thin Lens Lens Equation Equation II
**

n1 n2 O' C1 O C2 V1 V2 n1

For surface 1:

n1 n2 n2 − n1 + = ′ s1 s1 R1

s1 t s'1

**The The Thin Thin Lens Lens Equation Equation II II
**

For surface 1: For surface 2:

n1 n2 n2 − n1 + = ′ s1 s1 R1

n2 n1 n1 − n2 + = ′ s2 s2 R2

Object for surface 2 is virtual, with s2 given by:

′ s2 = t − s1

For a thin lens:

t

′ s2 , s1

⇒

′ s2 = − s1

Substituting this expression we obtain:

n1 n2 n2 n1 n1 n1 n2 − n1 n1 − n2 + − + = + = + =P 1+P 2 ′ ′ ′ ′ s1 s1 s1 s2 s1 s2 R1 R2

**The The Thin Thin Lens Lens Equation Equation III III
**

Simplifying this expression we obtain:

n2 − n1 ) ⎛ 1 ( 1 1 1 ⎞ + = − ⎜ ⎟ ′ s1 s2 n1 R R 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1

For the thin lens:

s = s1

′ s′ = s2

⇒

n2 − n1 ) ⎛ 1 ( 1 1 1 ⎞ + = − ⎜ ⎟ s s′ n1 R R 2 ⎠ ⎝ 1

The focal length for the thin lens is found by setting s = ∞:

s=∞

⇒

n2 − n1 ) ⎛ 1 ( 1 1 1 ⎞ = = − ⎜ ⎟ ′ s f n1 ⎝ R1 R2 ⎠

**The The Thin Thin Lens Lens Equation Equation IV IV
**

In terms of the focal length f the thin lens equation becomes:

1 1 1 + = s s′ f

The focal length of a thin lens is positive for a convex lens, negative for a concave lens.

**Image Image Formation Formation by by Thin Thin Lenses Lenses
**

Convex Lens

m = −

s′ s

Concave Lens

focal length = 5 cm: ho F F RI hi 1 1 1 = − ′ s f s m = − s′ s = f = + 5 cm s = + 9 cm ⇒ s′ = .Image Image Formation Formation by by Convex Convex Lens Lens Convex Lens.

Image Image Formation Formation by by Concave Concave Lens Lens Concave Lens. focal length = -5 cm: ho F hi VI F 1 1 1 = − ′ s f s m = − s′ s = f = − 5 cm s = + 9 cm ⇒ s′ = .

Image Image Formation: Formation: Two-Lens Two-Lens System System II 60 cm 1 1 1 s −f = − = 1 1 ′ s1 f1 s1 s1 f1 1 1 1 = − ′ s2 f 2 s2 m = m1 m2 = f1 = + 15 cm s2 = s1 = + 25 cm ⇒ ′= s1 ⇒ ′ = s2 f 2 = − 15 cm .

Image Image Formation: Formation: Two-Lens Two-Lens System System II II 7 cm 1 1 1 = − ′ s1 f1 s1 1 1 1 = − ′ s2 f 2 s2 m = m1 m2 = f1 = + 3.2 cm ⇒ s2 = ′= s1 ⇒ ′ = s2 .8 cm s1 = + 5.5 cm f 2 = + 1.

Image Image Formation Formation Summary Summary Table Table .

Image Image Formation Formation Summary Summary Figure Figure .

**Vergence Vergence and and refractive refractive power power :: Diopter Diopter
**

1 1 1 + = s s′ f

reciprocals D>0

D<0

V +V ' = P

1m 0.5m 2 diopter 1 diopter 1m -1 diopter

Vergence (V) : curvature of wavefront at the lens Refracting power (P) Diopter (D) : unit of vergence (reciprocal length in meter)

Two Two more more useful useful equations equations

P=P 1+P 2 +P 3 +L

2-12. 2-12. Cylindrical Cylindrical lenses lenses

Cylindrical Cylindrical lenses lenses

Top view

Side view

D. D. Light Light guides guides

.

1-3. Graded-index Graded-index (GRIN) (GRIN) optics optics .1-3.

q2 . q3. Because the optical path length integral is an extremum (Fermat principle).Rays Rays in in heterogeneous heterogeneous media media The optical path length between two points x 1 and x 2 through which a ray passes is Written in terms of parameter s . with coordinates q1 . . the integrand L satisfies the Euler equations. For an arbitrary coordinate system .

Ray equation Paraxial Ray Equation ds ~ dz . In Cartesian Coordinates with Parameter σ = s .GRIN GRIN In Cartesian coordinates so the x equation is Similar equations hold for y and z .

GRIN GRIN slab slab :: n n= = n(y) n(y) Derivation of the Paraxial Ray Equation in a Graded-Index Slab Using Snell’s Law The two angles are related by Snell’s law. .

Ex. dy/dz = θo at z = 0.3-1 GRIN GRIN slab slab with with Assuming an initial position y(0) = yo. .3-1 1. 1.Ex.

GRIN GRIN fibers fibers .

4 Matrix Matrix optics optics :: Ray Ray transfer transfer matrix matrix In the par-axial approximation.4 1. .1.

What What is is the the ray-transfer ray-transfer matrix matrix .

How How to to use use the the ray-transfer ray-transfer matrices matrices .

How How to to use use the the ray-transfer ray-transfer matrices matrices .

αo ) L α1 = α 0 y1 = y0 + L tan α 0 ≅ y0 + L α 0 y1 = (1) y0 + ( L ) α 0 α1 = ( 0 ) y0 + (1) α 0 ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎡1 L ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎦ ⎣ 0⎦ ⎣ 1⎦ ⎣ ⎡1 x1 − x0 ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣α 0 ⎦ .Translation Translation Matrix Matrix ( y1. α1 ) ( yo.

Refraction Refraction Matrix Matrix α′ = θ ′−φ = θ ′− α = θ −φ = θ − y θ =α+ R Paraxial Snell ' s Law : n θ = n′θ ′ 1⎛n ⎞ ⎛n⎞ y − + 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ′ ⎟α R ⎝ n′ ⎠ ⎝n ⎠ y R y R y=y’ α′ = θ′− y y ⎛ n ⎞⎛ y⎞ y ⎛n⎞ = ⎜ ⎟θ − = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ α + ⎟ − = R ⎝ n′ ⎠ R ⎝ n′ ⎠ ⎝ R⎠ R y′ = (1) y + ( 0 ) α 1 0 ⎤ ⎡ ′ ⎡y ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ y⎤ = ⎢α ′⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎛ n − 1⎞ ⎛ n ⎞ ⎥ ⎢α ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎜ ′ ⎟ ⎜ ′ ⎟⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠ ⎝ n ⎠⎦ ⎣R ⎝ n Concave surface : R < 0 Convex surface : R > 0 .

Reflection Reflection Matrix Matrix α′ = θ ′− φ = θ ′− y −R α = θ +φ = θ + θ = θ′ y −R θ =α+ y R Law of Reflection : α′ = θ ′+ y y 2 = θ+ =α + y R R R y ′ = (1) y + ( 0 ) α y=y’ α′ = ⎜ ⎛2⎞ ⎟ y + (1) α ⎝R⎠ 0⎤ ⎥ ⎡ y⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎣α ⎦ ⎦ ⎡1 ⎡ y ′⎤ ⎢ ⎢α ′⎥ = ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣R .

Thick Thick Lens Lens Matrix Matrix II Refraction at first surface : ⎡ 1 ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢ n − nL ⎣ 1⎦ ⎢ n R ⎣ L 1 0⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ M = n⎥ 1⎢ ⎥⎢ α0 ⎥ α0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ nL ⎥ ⎦ Translation from 1st surface to 2nd surface : ⎡ y2 ⎤ ⎡1 t ⎤ ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎡ y1 ⎤ = = M 2 ⎢ ⎢α ⎥ ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎢α ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 1⎦ ⎣ 2⎦ ⎣ ⎣α1 ⎦ 0⎤ ⎡ y2 ⎤ ⎡ y2 ⎤ M = nL ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥⎢ α2 ⎥ α2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ n′ ⎥ ⎦ Refraction at second surface : ⎡ 1 y ⎡ 3⎤ ⎢ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢ nL − n′ ⎣ 3 ⎦ ⎢ n′ R 2 ⎣ .

Thick Thick Lens Lens Matrix Matrix II II Thick lens matrix : ⎡ 1 M = ⎢ nL − n′ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ n′ R2 0⎤ ⎡ 1 t 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢n − n nL ⎥ L ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎣0 1⎦ ⎢ n′ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ nL R1 M = M 3 M 2 M1 0⎤ n⎥ ⎥ nL ⎥ ⎦ Assuming n = n′ : ⎡ 1 M = ⎢ nL − n ⎢ ⎢ n R2 ⎣ ⎡ t ( n − nL ) 0 ⎤ ⎢1 + nL R1 ⎢ nL ⎥ ⎥⎢ n−n L n⎦ ⎥⎢ nL R1 ⎢ ⎣ t n⎤ ⎥ nL ⎥ n⎥ ⎥ nL ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ nL − n t + 1⎥ nL R2 ⎥ ⎦ tn nL ⎡ t ( n − nL ) + 1 ⎢ nL R1 =⎢ ⎢ n − n ⎡ t (n − n ) ⎤ n − n L L ⎢ L ⎢1 + ⎥+ nL R1 ⎦ n R1 ⎢ ⎣ n R2 ⎣ .

.

Thin Thin Lens Lens Matrix Matrix The thin lens matrix is found by setting t = 0: Thin lens matrix : 1 ⎡ ⎢ M = ⎢ nL − n ⎛ 1 1⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ ⎢ ⎣ n ⎝ R2 R1 ⎠ 1 nL − n ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ = but ⎜ − ⎟ f n ⎝ R1 R2 ⎠ ⎡1 M = ⎢ 1 ⎢− ⎢ ⎣ f 0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ ⎦ nL .

Summary Summary of of Matrix Matrix Methods Methods .

Summary Summary of of Matrix Matrix Methods Methods .

Burch . Gerrard and J. M. A.System System Ray-Transfer Ray-Transfer Matrix Matrix ⎡ y1 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ ⎣ 1⎦ ⎡ y2 n + 2 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ ⎣ 2n+2 ⎦ Introduction to Matrix Methods in Optics.

the medium will be air on both sides of the optical system and n0 Det M = AD − BC = =1 nf . can be represented by a 2x2 optical matrix. Usually.System System Ray-Transfer Ray-Transfer Matrix Matrix Any paraxial optical system. no matter how complicated. This matrix M is usually denoted ⎡A B⎤ M =⎢ : system matrix ⎥ ⎣C D ⎦ A useful property of this matrix is that n0 Det M = AD − BC = nf where n0 and nf are the refractive indices of the initial and final media of the optical system.

⎡ y f ⎤ ⎡ A B ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢α ⎥ C D ⎦⎣ 0⎦ ⎣ f⎦ ⎣ ⇒ y f = Ay0 + Bα 0 α f = Cy0 + Dα 0 Let’s examine the implications when any of the four elements of the system matrix is equal to zero.Significance Significance of of system system matrix matrix elements elements The matrix elements of the system matrix can be analyzed to determine the cardinal points and planes of an optical system. D=0 : input plane = first focal plane A=0 : output plane = second focal plane B=0 : input and output planes correspond to conjugate planes C=0 : telescopic system .

D=0 A=0 B=0 C=0 .

. the input plane for the optical system is the input focal plane.System System Matrix Matrix with with D=0 D=0 Let’s see what happens when D = 0. ⎡ y f ⎤ ⎡ A B ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢α ⎥ 0 C ⎦⎣ 0⎦ ⎣ f⎦ ⎣ y f = Ay0 + Bα 0 ⇒ α f = Cy0 When D = 0.

Ex) Ex) Two-Lens Two-Lens System System Input Plane F1 f1 = +50 mm f2 = +30 mm Output Plane F1 F2 F2 r T1 R1 q = 100 mm T2 R2 s T3 ⎡ yf ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ M = ⎢α ⎥ ⎢α ⎥ f ⎣ 0⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎡1 s ⎤ ⎢ M =⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 1 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ f2 ⎡ 1 ⎡1 s ⎤ ⎢ M = T3 R2 T2 R1 T1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢− 1 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ f2 0⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎡1 q ⎤ ⎢ 1 ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ f1 r 0⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎡1 q ⎤ ⎢ 1 ⎢0 1 ⎥ ⎢ − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ f1 q ⎡ 0⎤ ⎢1 − f1 ⎥⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎦⎢ − f 1 ⎣ 0⎤ ⎥ ⎡1 r ⎤ ⎢ 0 1⎥ 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ r+q− qr⎤ f1 ⎥ ⎥ r ⎥ − +1 ⎥ f1 ⎦ ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎥ = ⎡1 s ⎤ ⎢ 1 r ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎢ − − + 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ f1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ f2 .

⎡ 1− ⎢ ⎡1 s ⎤ ⎢ M = T3 R2 T2 R1 T1 = = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 1⎦ ⎢ − 1 ⎛ 1 − ⎢ ⎜ ⎢ ⎣ f2 ⎝ q f1 q⎞ 1 ⎟− f 1 ⎠ f1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ qr ⎞ r 1⎛ − ⎜r + q − ⎟ − + 1⎥ f2 ⎝ f1 ⎠ f1 ⎦ ⎥ r+q− qr f1 ⎡ q+s s ⎛ ⎛ r + q qr q⎞ qr r ⎞⎤ − ⎜1 − ⎟ r + q − −s⎜ − − 1 + ⎟⎥ ⎢1 − f1 f2 ⎝ f1 ⎠ f1 f 2 f1 f1 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ f2 =⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎛ 1⎛ q⎞ 1 qr ⎞ r ⎢ − ⎜1 − ⎟ − ⎥ − ⎜r + q − ⎟ − +1 f f f f f f ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎝ 1⎠ 1 2 ⎝ 1 ⎠ 1 ⎣ ⎦ < check! > ƒ1 H H’ ƒ2 qr ⎞ r 1⎛ D = − ⎜r + q − ⎟ − +1 = 0 f2 ⎝ f1 ⎠ f1 ⇒r= − f 2 f1 + q f1 q − f1 − f 2 F F’ r= − ( 30 )( 50 ) + (100 )( 50 ) = 175 mm 100 − 50 − 30 r h ƒ s d ƒ’ s’ d 1 1 1 = + − f f1 f 2 f1 f 2 → f = f1 f 2 f1 + f 2 − d h=d P2 f =d P f2 ⎛ f − d ⎞ f1 f 2 − f1d r = f −h = f ⎜ 2 ⎟= ⎝ f 2 ⎠ f1 + f 2 − d .

⎡ yf ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ f ⎦ ⎣C y f = Bα 0 B ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ D⎥ ⎦⎣ 0⎦ α f = Cy0 + Dα 0 When C = 0.System System Matrix Matrix with with A=0. This is a telescopic arrangement. collimated light at the input plane is collimated light at the exit plane but the angle with the optical axis is different. C=0 C=0 When A = 0. the output plane for the optical system is the output focal plane. ⎡ y f ⎤ ⎡ A B ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢α ⎥ 0 D ⎦⎣ 0⎦ ⎣ f⎦ ⎣ y f = Ay0 + Bα 0 α f = Dα 0 . with a magnification of D = αf/α0. A=0.

⎡ y f ⎤ ⎡ A 0 ⎤ ⎡ y0 ⎤ ⎢α ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢α ⎥ C D ⎦⎣ 0⎦ ⎣ f⎦ ⎣ y f = Ay0 α f = Cy0 + Dα 0 m= A= yf y0 . respectively. the input and output planes are object and image planes. and the transverse magnification of the system m = A.System System Matrix Matrix with with B=0 B=0 When B = 0.

.

Ex) Ex) Two-Lens Two-Lens System System with with B=0 B=0 Object Plane F1 f1 = +50 mm f2 = +30 mm Image Plane F1 F2 F2 r T1 R1 q = 100 mm T2 R2 s T3 B = r+q− ⎛ r + q qr qr r ⎞ −s⎜ − −1 + ⎟ = 0 f1 f 2 f1 f1 ⎠ ⎝ f2 r+q− ⇒ s= = f1 f 2 ( r + q ) − f 2 qr r ( f1 f 2 − f 2 q ) + f 1 f 2 q = f1 ( r + q ) − q r + f1 f 2 − f 2 r r ( f1 − q + f 2 ) + f1 q − f1 f 2 q+s s ⎛ q⎞ − ⎜1 − ⎟ f1 f2 ⎝ f1 ⎠ r + q qr r − −1 + f2 f 2 f1 f1 qr f1 m = A = 1− .

Chapter 2. Wave Optics .

Lin.When do we use Wave Optics? Lih Y. http://www.washington.edu/people/faculty/lin_lih/EE485/ .ee.

polarization LED Lens design (projection) Photon design (e-h combination) . Limit (ΔkxΔx > 1) PHOTON DESIGN ( d << λ ) Photonics Photon tunneling 유도방출 / 유도투과 나노구조 설계 (nano-tech) Embedded mastering Nano imprinting 집적 (integrating) 측정 (quantum effi) Uncertainty (ΔkxΔx > 1) 기술 한계 Etendue (ΔkxΔx)(ΔkxΔx)>1 Light design (extraction) : field profile.Optics regimes LENS DESIGN ( d >> λ ) Geometrical Optics Ray tracing 반사/굴절 렌즈 금형 사출 조립 측정 설계 (lens design) (metal mastering) (injection molding) (assembling) (MTF monitoring) LIGHT DESIGN (d~λ) EM Wave Optics Wave propagating 회절 / 간섭 회절격자 설계 Wafer mastering 복제 (embossing) 합체 (packaging) 측정 (extraction effi) Diff.

. and Energy The optical energy (units of joules) collected in a given time interval is the time integral of the optical power over the time interval. Postulates of Wave Optics Wave Equation Intensity. Power.2-1.

2.2 2.2 MONOCHROMATIC MONOCHROMATIC WAVES WAVES Complex representation The real function is .

Harmonic Waves .Period and Frequency - .

Helmholtz Helmholtz equation equation ( wavenumber ) : Helmholtz equation “The wave equation for monochromatic waves” The optical intensity The intensity of a monochromatic wave does not vary with time. .

Helmholtz. he formulated an electrodynamic theory of action at a distance in which electric and magnetic forces were propagated instantaneously.Helmholtz sought to synthesize Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light with the central force theorem. Hermann von (1821-1894) . To accomplish this.

Elementary Elementary waves waves of of Helmholtz Helmholtz eq. . eq.

k : wavelength .Plane Wave : This is the equation describing parallel planes perpendicular to the wavevector k (hence the name “plane wave”).

A plane wave .

+x . -z v = 2 m/s.One-dimensional Traveling Wave v = 1 m/s.

Spherical Wave :

Fresnel Approximation of the Spherical Wave; Paraboloidal Wave

Fresnel Approximation Æ Paraboloidal Wave

Fresnel Approximation is valid when

( x2 + y2 ) = a2

**Paraxial Paraxial waves waves
**

A wave is said to be paraxial if its wavefront normals are paraxial rays.

Paraxial Paraxial Helmholtz Helmholtz equation equation

ÎSlowly varying envelope approximation of the Helmholtz equation Î Paraxial Helmholtz equation.

Relation Relationbetween betweenwave waveoptics opticsand andray rayoptics optics Eikonal Equation : Ray equation can be also derived .

e. the phase must be equal. the wavefronts of the two waves match. . i.2-4. Simple Simple optical optical components components Reflection from a Planar Mirror At the boundary. 2-4..

Reflection and refraction at a planar dielectric boundary .

phase. the oscillation of the incident wave is at its maximum. the wavelengths along the interface surface must have the same temporal and spatial variation. then both reflected and transmitted waves have to be at their maxima. k.BOUNDARY BOUNDARY CONDITIONS CONDITIONS Wavelength (phase) matching at the boundary = Snell’s law Suppose that at a particular instance and at a particular location of the boundary. Z λ z1 = λ z 2 = λ z 3 Propagation constant : β i = 2π Called also as β. or momentum matching But all mean the same thing: wavelength matching at the boundary! λzi = constant Snell’s law : . In other words.

Transmission Through Optical Components .B.

.

.

Diffraction Diffraction gratings gratings : Grating Equation .

C. Graded-Index Graded-Index Optical Optical Components Components . C.

2.5 2.5 INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE .

Interferometers Mach-Zehnder Michelson Sagnac .

.

.

B. Multiple-beam Multiple-beam interference interference .B.

: Finesse .

6 POLYCHROMATIC POLYCHROMATIC LIGHT LIGHT A polychromatic wave can be expanded as a sum of monochromatic waves by the use of Fourier methods. (2) eliminate negative frequencies and multiply by 2. The complex wavefunction (also called the complex analytic signal) is therefore obtained from the wavefunction by a process of three steps: (1) determine its Fourier transform.2. (3) determine the inverse Fourier transform.6 2. .

.

Beam Beam optics optics . 3.3.

3-1. The The Gaussian Gaussian beam beam A paraxial wave is a plane wave e-jkz modulated by a complex envelope A(r) that is a slowly varying function of position: The complex envelope A(r) must satisfy the paraxial Helmholtz equation One simple solution to the paraxial Helmholtz equation : paraboloidal waves Another solution of the paraxial Helmholtz equation : Gaussian beams . 3-1.

Gaussian Gaussian beams beams z0 : Rayleigh range. .

Gaussian Gaussian beam beam :: Intensity Intensity The intensity is a Gaussian function of the radial distance ρ. I = Io/2 . Æ This is why the wave is called a Gaussian beam. On the beam axis (ρ = 0) At z = z0 .

as expected.Gaussian Gaussian beam beam :: Power Power The result is independent of z. The beam power is one-half the peak intensity times the beam area. The ratio of the power carried within a circle of radius ρ in the transverse plane at position z to the total power is .

Beam Beam radius radius At the Beam waist : Waist radius = W0 Spot size = 2W0 (divergence angle) .

.Depth Depth of of Focus Focus The axial distance within which the beam radius lies within a factor root(2) of its minimum value (i. its area lies within a factor of 2 of its minimum) is known as the depth of focus or confocal parameter = beam area at waist λ A small spot size and a long depth of focus cannot be obtained simultaneously ! .e.

π/2 to . : a phase retardation ranging from .π/2 . : This phase retardation corresponds to an excess delay of the wavefront in comparison with a plane wave or a spherical wave The total accumulated excess retardation as the wave travels from Guoy effect .Phase Phase of of the the Gaussian Gaussian beam beam kz : the phase of a plane wave.

Wavefront Wavefront -.bending bending Wavefronts (= surfaces of constant phase) : .

wave wave fronts fronts near near the the focus focus Changes in wavefront radius with propagation distance Wave fronts: π/2 phase shift relative to spherical wave Radius of curvature .

.

Gaussian Gaussian parameters parameters :: Relationships Relationships between between parameters parameters .

q(z) q(z) ? ? .

.

2 3.3.2TRANSMISSION TRANSMISSIONTHROUGH THROUGHOPTICAL OPTICALCOMPONENTS COMPONENTS A. Transmission Through a Thin Lens .

B. If (2 z0 ) >> f . Beam Beam Shaping Shaping Beam Focusing If a lens is placed at the waist of a Gaussian beam. .B.

(a) z and z’ : .

Gaussian Beams Gaussian Beams higher order beams higher order beams Hermite-Gaussian Bessel Beams .

4. Fourier Fourier Optics Optics .4.

1 PROPAGATION PROPAGATION OF OF LIGHT LIGHT IN IN FREE FREE SPACE SPACE A. Correspondence Between the Spatial Harmonic Function and the plane wave Consider a two-dimensional plane wave.1 4.4. .

Spatial Spatial frequency frequency e k= 2π λ λ $ + 2π f J k = 2π f x I y $ + 2π sin θ J cos θ I θ .

β.Plane Plane waves waves :: 3D 3D (α. γ)… directional cosine z c = cos−1 γ e b = cos−1 β y a = cos −1 α x α = λ fx β = λ f y γ = λ fz .

Physical Physical meaning meaning of of spatial spatial frequency frequency cosθ sin φ β = λ fy → fy = λ = λ → sin φ = λ f y θ φ spherical parabolic planar .

Spatial Spatial frequency frequency and and propagation propagation angle angle directional cosine : α = λν x z Λ= 1 νx .

Spatial Spatial frequency frequency and and propagation propagation angle angle .

Amplitude Amplitude modulation modulation .

Frequency Frequency modulation modulation f(x.y) .

.

B. B. Transfer Transfer Function Function of of Free Free Space Space Impulse response function h Transfer function H .

Transfer TransferFunction Functionof ofFree FreeSpace Space : evanescent wave We may therefore regard 1/λ as the cutoff spatial frequency (the spatial bandwidth) of the system .

Fresnel Fresnel approximation approximation Fresnel approximation for transfer function of free space .

Input Input -.Output Output Relation Relation .

Impulse-Response Impulse-Response Function Function of of Free Free Space Space Impulse-Response Function of Free Space = Inverse Fourier transform of the transfer function Free-Space Propagation as a Convolution .

The envelope of these secondary waves constitutes a new wavefront. Î Our derivation of the impulse response function is therefore consistent with the H. the spherical wave is approximated by the paraboloidal wave.Huygens-Fresnel Huygens-FresnelPrinciple Principleand andthe theimpulse-response impulse-responsefunction function The Huygens-Fresnel principle states that each point on a wavefront generates a spherical wave. . principle. The system’s impulse-response function for propagation between the planes z = 0 and z = d is In the paraxial approximation. Their superposition constitutes the wave in another plane.-F.

In summary: Within the Fresnel approximation. given the complex amplitude f(x. there are two approaches to determining the complex amplitude g(x. . y) in the input plane: Space-domain approach in which the input wave is expanded in terms of paraboloidal elementary waves Frequency-domain approach in which the input wave is expanded as a sum of plane waves. y) in the output plane.

Î the only plane wave that contributes to the complex amplitude at a point (x.2 4. Fourier Transform in the Far Field If the propagation distance d is sufficiently long. y) in the output plane is the wave with direction making angles Proof! d .4.2 Optical Optical Fourier Fourier transform transform A.

Proof : for Fraunhofer approximation If f(x. y) is confined to a small area of radius b. Condition of Validity of Fraunhofer Approximation when the Fresnel number . and if the distance d is sufficiently large so that the Fresnel number is small.

Fourier Fourier transform transform using using a a lens lens How can a convex lens perform the FT ? f o f o .B. B.

Three Three configurations configurations back focal plane Input placed against lens Input placed in front of lens Input placed behind lens Æ Phase representation of a thin lens in paraxial approximation f > 0 : convex ⎡ k 2 2 ⎤ tl ( x. y ) = exp ⎢− j x +y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ 2f ( ) f < 0 : concave .

y ) = Ul ( x. y ) P ( x.υ ) = U l' ( x . exp υ − + ( ) ( ) ( ) ⎢ λf ⎥dxdy ∫ −∞ ∫ l ⎣ ⎦ Fourier transform ∞ Quadratic phase factor . .(a) The input placed directly against the lens Pupil function . ⎡ k ⎤ u2 + υ 2 ) ⎥ ∞ exp ⎢ j ( ⎡ k ⎤ ⎡ 2π ⎤ ⎣ 2f ⎦ U f ( u.υ ) = jλ f ⎡ ⎤ 2π U x y P x y j xu y . y ) = ⎨ ⎧1 ⎩0 inside the lens aperture otherw ise ⎡ k 2 2 ⎤ Ul' ( x. y ) exp ⎢− j x y + ( )⎥ 2 f ⎣ ⎦ Ul Ul’ From the Fresnel approximation when d = f . P ( x . y ) exp ⎢ j x 2 + y 2 ) ⎥ exp ⎢ − j ( xu + yυ ) ⎥dxdy ( ∫ ∫ jλ f ⎣ 2f ⎦ ⎣ λf ⎦ −∞ ⎡ k ⎤ u2 + υ 2 )⎥ exp ⎢ j ( ⎣ 2f ⎦ U f ( u.

y exp ⎡− j 2π xu + yυ ⎤ dxdy ) ⎢ ( )⎥ l( ∫ ∫ jλ f ⎣ λf ⎦ −∞ If d = f A U f ( u. y exp j xu y υ − + ( ) ⎥ dxdy ∫ −∞ ∫ l( ) ⎢ ⎣ λf ⎦ Exact Fourier transform ! ∞ .υ ) = ⎛ d⎞ 2 2 ⎤ ⎜ 1 − f ⎟ ( u +υ ) ⎥ ∞ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ U x.(b) The input placed in front of the lens ⎡ k Aexp ⎢ j 2f ⎣ U f ( u.υ ) = jλ f ⎡ 2π ⎤ U x .

η )P⎜ ξ . the scale of the transform is made smaller.η ⎟ exp ⎢− j ξ +η2 U 0 (ξ . υ ) = d⎠ ⎝ d ⎣ λd ⎦ −∞ jλ d d Scaleable Fourier transform ! As d reduces.η ) = ⎨ d⎠ ⎣ 2d ⎩d ⎝ d ( ⎫ )⎤ ⎥ ⎬ t (ξ . ( ) .η ) ⎦⎭ A ⎡ k ⎤ ∞ A exp ⎢ j u2 +υ 2 ⎥ f⎞ ⎛ f ⎡ 2π ⎤ f × ∫ ∫ t A (ξ .(c) The input placed behind the lens ⎧ Af ⎛ f f⎞ k 2 ⎡ P⎜ ξ .η ⎟ exp ⎢− j ( uξ + υη )⎥ dξdη 2d ⎣ ⎦ U f (u .

regardless of the distance d. . summary.In Insummary.convex convexlens lenscan canperform performFourier Fouriertransformation transformation The intensity at the back focal plane of the lens is therefore proportional to the squared absolute value of the Fourier transform of the complex amplitude of the wave at the input plane.

Note Note::Invariance Invarianceof ofthe theinput inputlocation locationto toFT FT .

4.3 4.3 Diffraction Diffraction of of Light Light Regimes of Diffraction .

Fraunhofer Fraunhofer diffraction diffraction Aperture function : d b .A. A.

Radius : W0' ≈ 2 π λ f f ≈ 0.64λ D D .Note. for focusing Gaussian beam with an infinitely large lens.

Fresnel Fresnel diffraction diffraction .B. B.

Spatial Spatial filtering filtering in in 4-f 4-f system system .

Impulse-response function is .Transfer Function of the 4-f Spatial Filter With Mask Transmittance p(x. y) : ÎThe transfer function has the same shape as the pupil function.

High-pass filter .

Single-lens Single-lens imaging imaging system system Impulse response function At the aperture plane : Beyond the lens : Assume d1 = f .C. C.

Single-lens Single-lens imaging imaging system system Transfer function .

22. Iizuka .Imaging Imaging property property of of a a convex convex lens lens From an input point S to the output point P . 1. magnification Fig.

.Diffraction-limited Diffraction-limited imaging imaging of of a a convex convex lens lens From a finite-sized square aperture of dimension a x a to near the output point P .

5 Holography Holography If the reference wave is a uniform plane wave.5 4.4. Original object wave!! .

.

.

Off-axis Off-axis holography holography ( θmin Æ θs/2 ) Æ 2θs Æ Spreading-angle width : θs Ambiguity term Assume that the object wave has a complex amplitude .

Fourier-transform Fourier-transform holography holography .

Holographic Holographic spatial spatial filters filters IFT Called “ Vander Lugt filter” or “Vander Lugt correlator” .

Volume Volume holography holography THICK Recording medium Transmission hologram : Reflection hologram : .

Volume Volume holographic holographic grating grating kg Grating vector kr kg = k0 .kr k0 Grating period Λ = 2π/ |kg| Proof !! .

Volume Volume holographic holographic grating grating = = Bragg Bragg grating grating Bragg condition : .

“Holographic data storage prepares for the real world” Laser Focus World – October 2003 200-Gbyte capacity in disk form factor 100 Mbyte/s data-transfer rate “Holographic storage drives such as this prototype from Aprilis are expected to become commercially available for write-once-read-many (WORM) applications in 2005.” .

5. 5. Electromagnetic Electromagnetic Optics Optics .

1 ELECTROMAGNETIC ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY THEORY OF OF LIGHT LIGHT .1 5.5.

The complete classical theory of electromagnetic fields is contained in Maxwell’s equations. . Along with Lorentz’s equation for the electromagnetic force. they describe all the phenomena arising from interactions between electromagnetic fields and matter as long as quantum effects may be neglected.

.

.

At the boundary between two dielectric media and in the absence of free electric charges and currents. Î the tangential components of the electric and magnetic fields must be continuous. . Î the normal components of the electric and magnetic flux densities must be continuous.

2 5.2 Dielectric Dielectric media media linear nondispersive homogeneous isotropic spatial nondispersive Localized approximation .5.

Linear. Homogeneous.Nondispersive. Nondispersive.and andIsotropic IsotropicMedia Media ( constant ) ε : permittivity ε/εο : dielectric constant n = (ε/εo)^1/2 .Homogeneous. A. Linear.A.

Nonlinear.Dispersive.B. Dispersive.and andAnisotropic AnisotropicMedia Media . B. Inhomogeneous. Nonlinear.Inhomogeneous.

susceptibility tensor electric permittivity tensor .

.

.

3 Monochromatic Monochromatic EM EM waves waves .5.3 5.

4 5.5.4 Elementary Elementary EM EM waves waves impedance .

.for an electric dipole.

.

5 Absorption Absorption and and dispersion dispersion .5.5 5.

.

the other may be determined.The refractive index n(ν) is also related to the absorption coefficient α(ν). . so that if one is known for all ν.

ω0 = C / m .

.

.

.

6 Pulse Pulse propagation propagation in in dispersive dispersive media media .5.6 5.

we have arrived the final solution of In summary.now. to find the transmitted field of .

.

.

propagating in a dispersive. non-absorption medium .

Polarization Polarization and and crystal crystal Optics Optics . 6.6.

At a fixed time t.1 Polarization Polarization of of light light Consider a monochromatic plane wave of frequency ν traveling in the z direction At a fixed position z.1 6. .6.

.

.

.

6.2 Reflection Reflection and and Refraction Refraction TE pol. . TME pol.2 6.

For the TM mode : − Ei cos θi + Er cos θ r = − Et cos θ t Bi + Br = Bt TE-case TM-case .Development of the Fresnel Equations From Maxwell ' s EM field theory. as is true for most dielectric materials. we have the boundary conditions at the interface for the TE case : Ei + Er = Et Bi cos θi − Br cos θ r = Bt cos θ t The above conditions imply that the tangential r r components of both E and B are equal on both sides of the interface. We have also assumed that μi ≅ μt ≅ μ0 .

Development of the Fresnel Equations ⎛c⎞ Recall that E = v B = ⎜ ⎟ B ⇒ ⎝n⎠ B= nE c n2 TE-case Let n1 = refractive index of incident medium n2 = refractive index of refracting medium n1 For the TE mode : Ei + Er = Et n1 Ei cos θi − n1 Er cos θ r = n2 Et cos θ t TM-case n2 For the TM mode : − Ei cos θi + Er cos θ r = − Et cos θ t n1 Ei + n1 Er = n2 Et n1 .

Development of the Fresnel Equations Eliminating Et from each set of equations and solving for the reflection coefficient we obtain : TE case : r = Er cos θi − n cos θt = Ei cos θi + n cos θt n cos θi − cos θt Er = Ei n cos θi + cos θt n2 TE-case n1 TM case : r = where n = n2 n1 TM-case n2 We know that sin θi = n sin θt sin 2 θi n cos θt = n 1 − sin θt = n 1 − = 2 n 2 n 2 − sin 2 θi n1 .

Development of the Fresnel Equations Substituting we obtain the Fresnel equations for reflection coefficients r : cos θi − E TE case : r = r = Ei cos θi + n 2 − sin 2 θi n 2 − sin 2 θi n 2 − sin 2 θi n 2 − sin 2 θi TE-case n2 n 2 cos θi − Er TM case : r = = Ei n 2 cos θi + For the transmission coefficient t : TE case : t = TM case : t = n1 Et 2 cos θi = Ei cos θi + n 2 − sin 2 θi Et 2n cos θi = Ei n 2 cos θi + n 2 − sin 2 θi n≡ n2 n1 n2 TM-case TE : t = r +1 TM : nt = r + 1 These mean just the boundary conditions n1 .

TIR TIR .

TIR TIR .

Power Power :: Reflectance(R) Reflectance(R) and and Transmittance(T) Transmittance(T) The quantities r and t are ratios of electric field amplitudes. respectively. The ratios R and T are the ratios of reflected and transmitted powers. to the incident power : P P R= r T = t Pi Pi From conservation of energy : Pi = Pr + Pt ⇒ 1= R +T We can express the power in each of the fields in terms of the product of an irradiance and area : Pi = I i Ai Pr = I r Ar Pt = I t At ⇒ I i Ai = I r Ar + I t At I i A cos θi = I r A cos θ r + I t A cos θt I i cos θi = I r cos θ r + I t cos θt But I = 1 n ε 0 cE02 ⇒ 2 1 1 1 n1ε 0 cE02i cos θi = n1ε 0 cE02r cos θ r + n2ε 0 cE02t cos θ t 2 2 2 2 2 2 ⎛ cos θt ⎞ E02t E0 r n2 E0t cos θt E0 r ⇒ 1= 2 + = 2 + n⎜ ⎟ 2 = R+T θ co s E0i n1 E02i cos θi E0i i ⎠ E0 i ⎝ ⎛ cos θt ⎞ E02t ⎛ cos θt ⎞ 2 T = n⎜ ⎟ 2 = n⎜ ⎟t ⎝ cos θi ⎠ E0i ⎝ cos θi ⎠ R = rr* = r 2 ⇒ E02r R = 2 = r2 E0i ⎛ cos θ t T =⎜ ⎜ n cos θ i ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ cos θ t ⎟ ⎜ = * tt ⎟ ⎜ n cos θ i ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎟t ⎠ .

.

3 Optics Optics of of anisotropic anisotropic media media .3 6.6.

3 6.6.3 Optics Optics of of anisotropic anisotropic media media .

.

impedance .Impermeability tensor ε0 1 ηi ≡ = 2 ε i ni : for principal axes *Note.

.

.

.. for example.

Determination of two normal modes (with refractive indices na and nb) An index ellipse is defined. .

Let’s start with E S .

For uniaxial case .

k-surface obtained from dispersion relation k3 k3 k3 k1 k1 k1 Optic axis k3 Optic axis Optic axis k3 k3 k2 k2 k2 k2 k2 k2 k1 k1 k1 .

Determine the wavenumbers k and indices of two normal modes u Determine the direction of polarization of two normal modes .

θ k3 θ k1 Optic axis .

D.wavefronts. Rays.Rays. wavefronts.and andenergy energytransport transport k Equi-frequency surface . D.

.

E. E. Double Double refraction refraction = = Birefringence Birefringence

6.4 6.4 Optical Optical activity activity and and faraday faraday effect effect

6.5 6.5 Optics Optics of of liquid liquid crystals crystals

.

TNLC as a polarization rotator .

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6 6.6.6 Polarization Polarization devices devices .

Applied_Optics

Applied_Optics

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