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Polarization Polarization and and crystal crystal Optics Optics

**Spatial evolution of a plane wave vector: helicoidal trajectory
**

http://sar.kangwon.ac.kr/polsar/Tutorial/Part1_RadarPolarimetry/1_What_Is_Polarization.pdf The electric field may be represented in an orthonormal basis (x, y, z) defined so that the direction of propagation in z-axis.

증명!!!

http://sar.kangwon.ac.kr/polsar/Tutorial/Part1_RadarPolarimetry/

Polarization ellipse

Polarization ellipse

The polarization ellipse shape may be characterized using 3 parameters :

- A is called the ellipse amplitude and is determined from the ellipse axis as

is the ellipse orientation and is defined as the angle between the ellipse major axis and x.

Is the ellipse aperture, also called ellipticity, defined as

τ

Sense of rotation : Time-dependent rotation of

The sense of rotation may then be related to the sign of the variable τ

By convention, the sense of rotation is determined while looking in the direction of propagation. Right hand rotation : Left hand rotation :

Left hand rotation :

Right hand rotation :

whereas for δ>0 the polarization is left elliptic. Æ If δ<0. since τ = ±π/4 Æ the sense of rotation is given by sign(δ). .Quick estimation of a wave polarization state A wave polarization is completely defined by two parameters derived from the polarization ellipse . the polarization is right elliptic. whereas for δ>0 the polarization is left circular.its ellipticity with sign(τ) indicating the sense of rotation Three cases may be discriminated from the knowledge of Æ the polarization is linear since τ = 0 Æ the orientation angle is given by Æ the polarization is circular. . Æ If δ<0.its orientation. the polarization is right circular.

Jones vector τ .

Jones vector τ A Jones vector can be formulated as a two-dimensional complex vector function of the polarization ellipse characteristics : This expression may be further developed .

Jones vectors for linear polarizations .

Jones vectors for circular/elliptical polarizations .

Jones vectors .

Æ Jones matrix .

1-23) 증명!! .Coordinate transform of Jones vector/matrix y’ y x’ x θ The Jones vector is given by ⎡ cos θ J ' = R (θ ) J = ⎢ ⎣ − sin θ sin θ ⎤ J ⎥ cos θ ⎦ The Jones matrix T is similarly transformed into T’ T ' = R(θ ) T R(−θ ) T = R(−θ ) T ' R(θ ) (6.

Poincare sphere and Stokes parameters Æ A characterization method of the wave polarization by power measurements Given the Jones vector E of a given wave.kangwon.ac. g1. http://sar. g3} receive the name of Stokes parameters. g2. we can create the hermitian product as follows if we consider the Pauli group of matrices where the parameters {g0.kr/polsar/Tutorial/Part1_RadarPolarimetry/ .

Representation of Stokes vectors: The Poincaré sphere g3 2τ g1 2φ g2 .

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The Stokes vectors for the canonical polarization states .

TME pol.2 6.2 Reflection Reflection and and Refraction Refraction TE pol. .6.

We have also assumed that μi ≅ μt ≅ μ0 . as is true for most dielectric materials. For the TM mode : − Ei cos θi + Er cos θ r = − Et cos θt Bi + Br = Bt TE-case TM-case .Development of the Fresnel Equations From Maxwell ' s EM field theory. we have the boundary conditions at the interface for the TE case : Ei + Er = Et Bi cos θi − Br cos θ r = Bt cos θt The above conditions imply that the tangential G G components of both E and B are equal on both sides of the interface.

Development of the Fresnel Equations ⎛c⎞ Recall that E = v B = ⎜ ⎟ B ⇒ ⎝n⎠ B= nE c n2 TE-case Let n1 = refractive index of incident medium n2 = refractive index of refracting medium n1 For the TE mode : Ei + Er = Et n1 Ei cos θi − n1 Er cos θ r = n2 Et cos θt TM-case n2 For the TM mode : − Ei cos θi + Er cos θ r = − Et cos θt n1 Ei + n1 Er = n2 Et n1 .

Development of the Fresnel Equations Eliminating Et from each set of equations and solving for the reflection coefficient we obtain : TE case : r = Er cos θi − n cos θ t = Ei cos θi + n cos θt n cos θi − cos θt Er = n cos θ i + cos θt Ei n2 TE-case n1 TM case : r = where n = n2 n1 TM-case n2 We know that sin θ i = n sin θt sin 2 θi n cos θt = n 1 − sin θt = n 1 − = n2 2 n − sin θi 2 2 n1 .

Development of the Fresnel Equations Substituting we obtain the Fresnel equations for reflection coefficients r : Er cos θi − = TE case : r = Ei cos θi + n 2 − sin 2 θi n 2 − sin 2 θi n 2 − sin 2 θi n 2 − sin 2 θi TE-case n2 n 2 cos θi − Er = TM case : r = Ei n 2 cos θi + For the transmission coefficient t : TE case : t = TM case : t = n1 Et 2 cos θi = Ei cos θi + n 2 − sin 2 θi Et 2n cos θi = Ei n 2 cos θi + n 2 − sin 2 θi n2 n≡ n1 n2 TM-case TE : t = r +1 TM : nt = r + 1 These mean just the boundary conditions n1 .

TIR TIR .

TIR TIR .

respectively.Power Power :: Reflectance(R) Reflectance(R) and and Transmittance(T) Transmittance(T) The quantities r and t are ratios of electric field amplitudes. The ratios R and T are the ratios of reflected and transmitted powers. to the incident power : R= Pr Pi T = Pt Pi From conservation of energy : Pi = Pr + Pt ⇒ 1= R +T We can express the power in each of the fields in terms of the product of an irradiance and area : Pi = I i Ai Pr = I r Ar Pt = I t At ⇒ I i Ai = I r Ar + I t At I i A cos θi = I r A cos θ r + I t A cos θt I i cos θi = I r cos θ r + I t cos θt But I = 1 n ε 0 cE02 ⇒ 2 1 1 1 n1ε 0 cE02i cos θi = n1ε 0 cE02r cos θ r + n2ε 0 cE02t cos θt 2 2 2 ⎛ cos θt ⎞ E02t E02r n2 E02t cos θt E02r ⇒ 1= 2 + = 2 + n⎜ ⎟ 2 = R +T θ co s E0i n1 E02i cos θi E0i i ⎠ E0 i ⎝ ⎛ cos θt ⎞ E02t ⎛ cos θt ⎞ 2 T = n⎜ ⎟t ⎟ 2 = n⎜ ⎝ cos θi ⎠ E0i ⎝ cos θi ⎠ R = rr* = r 2 ⇒ E02r R = 2 = r2 E0i ⎛ cos θ t T =⎜ ⎜ n cos θ i ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ cos θ t ⎟ ⎜ = tt * ⎟ ⎜ n cos θ i ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ ⎟t ⎠ .

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6.3 6.3 Optics Optics of of anisotropic anisotropic media media .

3 Optics Optics of of anisotropic anisotropic media media .6.3 6.

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Impermeability tensor ε0 1 ηi ≡ = 2 ε i ni : for principal axes *Note. impedance .

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. . for example.

Determination of two normal modes (with refractive indices na and nb) An index ellipse is defined. .

Let’s start with E S .

For uniaxial case .

k-surface obtained from dispersion relation k3 k3 k3 k1 k1 k1 Optic axis k3 Optic axis Optic axis k3 k3 k2 k2 k2 k2 k2 k2 k1 k1 k1 .

Determine the wavenumbers k and indices of two normal modes u Determine the direction of polarization of two normal modes .

Z k θ θ .

wavefronts. D.wavefronts.D.and andenergy energytransport transport k k surface Equi-frequency surface . Rays.Rays.

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Double Double refraction refraction = = Birefringence Birefringence AIR . E.E.

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4 Optical Optical activity activity and and faraday faraday effect effect .6.4 6.

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5 6.5 Optics Optics of of liquid liquid crystals crystals .6.

4 0.] 60 45 30 15 0 0 0.8 1 a (0V) a (5V) a (8V) b (0V) b (5V) b (8V) VLc = 0V (off) VLc = 5V (on) normalized depth .Principles of LCD Optics Operation of TN LCD 90 75 director [deg.2 0.6 0.

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1-23) .TNLC as a polarization rotator (6.

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6.6 6.6 Polarization Polarization devices devices .

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