7-2E.

Photonic crystals

Purdue Univ, Prof. Shalaev, http://cobweb.ecn.purdue.edu/~shalaev/ Univ Central Florida, CREOL, Prof Kik, http://sharepoint.optics.ucf.edu/kik/OSE6938I/Handouts/Forms/AllItems.aspx

3-D Λ 2-D

1-D

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Consider a two-dimensional p photonic crystal y .

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Bloch theorem .

Bloch theorem .

Bloch theorem .

Bloch theorem .

Bloch theorem .

Bloch theorem .

Dispersion curve = Photonic band structure Photonic Bandstructure B d Bandgap #2 Bandgap (no transmission) Standing S di wave vgroup=0 Long wavelength limit: effective index .

Dispersion curve = Photonic band structure .

it approaches the core line.Dispersion curve = Photonic band structure Remind the Dispersion Curve of Slab Waveguide Because guiding modes redistribute themselves with frequency. for small ω. . the Band structure dispersion curve of guiding modes approaches the cladding line. For large ω.

Dispersion curve = Photonic band structure .

Photonic band gap

Origin of Photonic Band Gap (PBG)
Light in 1-D photonic crystal

H

L H

L H

L

Photonic band gap

Photonic band gap

B Bragg R Reflection fl ti

λB = 2nd ⋅ Sin(θ B ) λB ~ 2d
kB =

λB

=

π
d

Wavelength does not correspond to the period Reflected waves are not in phase phase. R fl t d waves are in Reflected i phase. h Wave does not propagate inside. Wave propagates through. .Photonic band gap B Bragg Diff Diffraction ti Wavelength corresponds to the period.

Photonic band gap Electron Energy gap h2 2 E= k 2m Gap in energy spectra of electrons arises in periodic structure .

In a p periodic system y . when half the wavelength corresponds to the periodicity λ 2 = a k =π a the Bragg effect prohibits photon propagation. 4. Standing waves transport no energy with zero group velocity .PBG formation 1. At the band edges. standing waves form. Dispersion curve for free space Photonic band gap 3. with the energy being either in the high or the low index regions 2.

Dispersion curve = Photonic band structure Dispersion relation ω n1: high hi h index i d material t i l 4. Standing waves transport no energy n2: low index material with zero group velocity Air band standing wave in n2 n1 n2 n1 n2 n1 n2 n1 Stop p band bandgap standing g wave in n1 Dielectric band 0 π/a k .

and then shift the curve segments with |k|>π/a upward or downward one reciprocal lattice vectors.Dispersion curve = Photonic band structure Dispersion Relation Plot the dispersion curves for both the positive and the negative sides. This reduced range of wave vectors is called the “Brillouin Brillouin zone” zone .

Strong interaction occurs when λ/2 = a. can be met along different direction.2-D Photonic Crystals 1. different layer spacing. 2. In 2-D PBG. a. PBG ( (Photonic band gap) g p) = stop p bands overlap p in all directions .

2D Photonic band structure B d Di Band Diagram Air band Stop band Dielectric band .

2D Photonic band structure .

2D Photonic band structure .

2D Photonic band structure .

2D Photonic band structure .

Use of Stop Band 1. Stop Band: Use PBG as high reflectivity omni-directional mirror (PBG waveguides g ) Stop band . Stop band Four Possible Functionalities of PBG 1.1.

Dielectric Band: Uses the strong dispersion available i a photonic in h t i crystal t l (dispersion engineering with form birefringence) Dielectric band .2. Dielectric band 2 Use of Dielectric Band 2. 2.

Dielectric band .2.

. In 2D systems.2. 2. one can think of this line as a cone. In a homogeneous material in absence of material dispersion n(ω)=constant =n. For a given frequency ω. this cone becomes a constant frequency circle. Dielectric band Remind the dispersion relation in bulk media 1. the di dispersion i diagram di is i simply i l a straight t i ht line: li ω=kc/n.

2. Dielectric band ky kx .

2. . Dielectric band Wave propagation in k-space Real space p The wave vector diagram tells us the direction and magnitude of the refracted and reflected beams. Their direction is normal to the iso-frequency curve and corresponds to Snell’s law.

Dielectric band .2.

Dielectric band .2.

Dielectric band .2.

2. Dielectric band .

Air band . Air band 3. Use of Air Band 3. Air Band : Couples to radiative modes for light extraction from high-efficiency LEDs and fiber coupling.3.

3. Air band .

4. Defect Band : Couples to waveguide/cavity modes for spectral control such as PBG point defect laser or PBG line defect filter. Defect band .4. Defect band 4 Use of Defect Band 4. etc.

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4. Photons are prohibited in the 2D PBG. which lead to lossless confinement of photons in the line defect area. . Defect band Line Defect PBG Waveguide Defect modes in stop band Dispersion diagram of W1 line-defect photonic crystal waveguide: Waveguide modes exist within the bandgap bandgap.

Defect band .Defects in PBG 4.

4. Defect band .

4. Defect band .

4. Defect band .

Defect band .4.

Nature (1999) K.Noda. Yablonovitch.3D Photonic band structure 3D Photonic materials S. Nature (1996) E. PRL(1989) . Robbie.

.3D Photonic band structure Artificial Phonic Structure E. 1991) Fabrication of artificial fcc material and band gap structure for such material. .Yablonovitch et al. PRL (1987.

Bragg diffraction through all electromagnetic region .

Natural Opals .

3D Photonic band structure Artificial Opal Artificial opal sample (SEM Image) Several cleaved planes of fcc structure are shown .

B – blue. C –green.3D Photonic band structure Fabrication of artificial opals Silica spheres settle in close p packed hexagonal g layers There are 3 in-layer position A – red. Layers could pack in f lattice: fcc l tti ABCABC or ACBACB hcp lattice: ABABAB .

.3D Photonic band structure Inverted Opals Inversed opals obtain greater dielectric contrast than opals.

PRE (1998) .45) 3 45) John et.3D Photonic band structure Band structure of diamond lattice Ph Photonic i band b d structure of f diamond di d lattice l i (refractive ( f i index i d ~3. al.

PCF Photonic Crystal Fibers .

PCF .

PCF The fiber supports a single mode over the range of at least 458-1550nm! .

PCF .

PCF .

PCF .

PCF .

PCF .