This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Electro-optics Electro-optics

**(Introduction) Linear Optics and Nonlinear Optics
**

Linear Optics

z The optical properties, such as the refractive index and the absorption coefficient are independent of light intensity. z The principle of superposition holds. z The frequency of light cannot be altered through the medium. z Light cannot interact with light; Æ two beams of light in the same region of a linear optical medium can have no effect on each other. Æ Thus light cannot see other lights.

**Nonlinear optics (NLO)
**

z The refractive index, and consequently the speed of light in an optical medium, does change with the light intensity. z The principle of superposition is violated. z Light can alter its frequency as it passes through a nonlinear optical material (e.g., from red to blue!). z Light can interact with light via the medium Æ Thus light cannot see other lights, but, light can control other lights via the nonlinear medium.

(Introduction) Nonlinear effects in Optics Polarization : P = ε 0 χ E Susceptibility : χ = χ1 + χ 2 E + χ 3 E 2 + " D = εE = ε 0 E + ε 0 χE → ε = ε 0 (1 + χ ) → n = v ε = = 1+ χ c ε0 P = P1 + P2 + P3 + " = ε 0 χ1 E + ε 0 χ 2 E 2 + ε 0 χ 3 E 3 + " Here we will discuss on electro-optic Pockels and Kerr effects .

DC Æ Index modulation by DC E-field { } Three-wave mixing E = E (ω1 ) optical + E (ω2 ) optical → P2 ∝ E 2 → P2 (2ω1 ) ∝ E 2 (ω1 ) . DC + E (ω ) optical {but. parametric oscillator . P2 (0) ÆFrequency doubling Æ Rectification Electro-optic (EO) effect (Pockell’s effect) E = E (0) electrical . E (0) >> E (ω ) } → P2 ∝ E 2 → P2 (0) ∝ E 2 (0) .(Introduction) Second-order Nonlinear effects P2 = ε 0 χ 2 E Second-harmonic generation (SHG) and rectification 2 E = E (ω ) optical → P2 ∝ E 2 (ω ) → P2 (ω ± ω ) = P2 ( 2ω ). P2 (ω1 − ω2 ){∝ E (ω1 ) E (ω2 )} { } { } Æ SHG Æ Frequency up-converter Æ Parametric amplifier. P2 (ω1 + ω2 ){∝ E (ω1 ) E (ω2 )}. P2 (2ω ){∝ E (ω ) E (ω )} → P2 (0). P2 (ω ){∝ E (0) E (ω )} → Δn ∝ E (0) electric . P2 (2ω2 ) ∝ E 2 (ω2 ) . P2 (ω ){∝ E (0) E (ω )}.

P3 (3ω ){∝ E 3 (ω )} 2 { } Æ Frequency tripling Electro-optic (EO) Kerr effect E = E (0) electrical .(Introduction) Third-order Nonlinear effects Third-harmonic generation (THG) P3 = ε 0 χ 3 E 3 E = E (ω ) optical → P3 ∝ E 3 (ω ) → P3 (ω ) ∝ E (ω ) E (ω ) . DC + E (ω ) optical 2 {but. DC E (ω ) → Δn ∝ E (0) electric . E (0) >> E (ω ) } 2 → P3 (ω ) ∝ E (0) electric . Self-guiding (Spatial solitons) Æ Self-defocusing . DC Optical Kerr effect Æ Index modulation by DC E2 P3 (ω ) ∝ E (ω ) E (ω ) ∝ I (ω ) E (ω ) → Δn ∝ I (ω ) 2 Æ Index modulation by optical Intensity n = n0 + Δn( I ) → ϕ = ϕ 0 + Δϕ (= k0 ΔnL) n = n0 + Δn{I ( x)} → Δn{I ( x)} > n0 n = n0 + Δn{I ( x )} → Δn{I ( x )} < n0 Æ Self-phase modulation Æ Self-focusing.

ω3 ≡ ω4 ) ∝ E (ω1 ) E (ω 2 ) E * (ω3 ) → ω1 + ω2 = ω3 + ω4 → If ω1 = ω2 = ω3 = ω4 Æ Degenerate four-wave mixing → If we assume two waves among them are plane waves traveling in opposite directions → P3 (ω 4 = ω ) ∝ E (ω ) E (ω ) E * (ω ) Æ Optical phase conjugation .±ω2 .±ω3 ) → 63 = 216 terms 3 → One example : P3 (ω1 + ω2 + ω3 ≡ ω4 ) ∝ E (ω1 ) E (ω2 ) E (ω3 ) → If ω1 = ω2 = ω3 → ω4 = 3ω Æ THG Æ Frequency up-converter → Another example : P3 (ω1 + ω 2 .(Introduction) Third-order Nonlinear effects Four-wave mixing P3 = ε 0 χ 3 E 3 E = E (ω1 ) optical + E (ω2 ) optical + E (ω3 ) optical → P3 ∝ E 3 → (± ω1 .

.1 Principles Principlesof ofElectro-optic Electro-opticeffects effects The electro-optic effect is the change in the refractive index resulting from the application of a DC or low-frequency electric field.1 18. Quadratic electro-optic effect or Kerr effect : Æ The refractive index changes in proportion to the square of the applied electric field. Linear electro-optic effect or Pockels effect : Æ The refractive index changes in proportion to the applied electric field.18.

Pockels effect and Kerr effect Polarization : P = ε 0 χ E Susceptibility : χ = χ1 + χ 2 E + χ 3 E 2 + " n = (1 + χ ) η ( E ) = η0 + rE + RE 2 3 3 2 1 n( E ) = n0 − 1 rn E − Rn 0 0E 2 2 Pokels Effect Kerr Effect .

Pockels Pockels effect effect (Linear (Linear electro-optic electro-optic effect) effect) 1 η ( E ) = η + rE (η = 2 ) n 1 dn dη ( E ) 3 = −2 3 = r ⇒ dn = − 1 rn (dE ) 2 dE n dE 1 3 n( E ) = n + dn = n − rn E 2 Pockels coefficient (linear electro-optic coefficient) .

Kerr Kerr effect effect (Quadratic (Quadratic electro-optic electro-optic effect) effect) R .

Electro-optic Electro-optic modulators modulators and and switches switches Phase modulators ( Pockels cell) 1 n( E ) = n + dn = n − rn3 E 2 .

Phase modulators ( Pockels cell) .

Dynamic wave retarders Pockels cell L SA (n1) FA (n2) V .

Intensity modulators : Use of an interferometer .

Intensity modulators : Use of crossed polarizers .

Scanners : electro-optic prisms Position switch .

Directional couplers .

Spatial light modulators (SLM) .

Q-switching lasers .

.2 18.18.2 Electro-optics Electro-optics of of anisotropic anisotropic media media where ηij = η ji ⇒ η11 = 1 1 1 . η = η = 22 33 2 2 n12 n2 n3 .

Pockels and Kerr coefficients Impermeability at E = 0 ( 32 = 9 elements ) : Linear E-O (Pockels) coefficients ( 33 = 27 elements ) : Quardratic E-O (Kerr) coefficients ( 34 = 81 elements ) .

k.. 2..Symmetry in Pockels and Kerr coefficients 6 independent elements (6 x 3) independent elements (6 x 6) independent elements It is conventional to rename the pair of indices (i... l = 1. (k.. 2. j = 1.2.. 6. .. i.3 Æ as a single index K = 1. j).3 Æ as a single index I = 1. l).2.. 6.

To determine the optical properties of an anisotropic material exhibiting the Pockels effect.Pockels effect The index ellipsoid is modified as a result of applying a steady electric field. (that is. to find modified principal refractive indices) .

r123 = r63 = 0. r313 = r53 = 0. r233 = r43 = 0 r333 = r33 = r13 .Example 18. Find the index change of uniaxial crystal by E = Ez E r113 = r13 . r323 = r43 = 0 Only rij 3 ( E ) ≠ 0 for i = j ηij ( E ) = ηij (0) + rij 3 E (η11 (0) + r13 E ) x12 = ⎜ η11 ( E ) x + η22 ( E ) x + η33 ( E ) x = 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 ⎛ 1 ⎞ + r13 E ⎟ x12 2 ⎝ no ⎠ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 + r13 E ⎟ x2 2 ⎝ no ⎠ (η22 (0) + r13 E ) x22 = ⎜ (η33 (0) + r13 E ) x32 = ⎜ ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 + r33 E ⎟ x3 2 ⎝ ne ⎠ . r133 = r53 = 0 r223 = r23 = r13 . r213 = r63 = 0.2-1.

Example 18.2-1. . E When an electric field is applied along the optic axis of this uniaxial crystal. it remains uniaxial with the same principal axes. but its refractive indices are modified.

. in DETAIL step-by-step.Homework Homework Derive their final principal refractive indices.

- Defect Mode Properties and Origin in one Dimensional Photonic Crystal
- Catalog Diamonds
- Interferometers and Interferometry
- img_ellip
- 8 Optical Interferometry
- vr2000
- [Shalaev][2008][Science]Transforming Light
- 4
- Angelsky Et Al Biaxial Crystal-based Optical Tweezers
- Excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by a Focused Laser Beam
- Ráfagas con cavidades
- Liquid-core Optical Ring-resonator Sensors Ol 2006
- Resonator Cavity
- Optical Computing Technology
- Optical Computing Seminar Report
- Session-1 (Int to Optical Fibre).ppt
- assignment
- Survey on Performance of Free Space Optical Communication Links under Various Field Parameters
- photonic_computing1(2)
- Muslim Scientists
- Holograpic Data Storage Uses Volumetric Crystal Media
- Engineer or Scientist or Technologist
- Breakthrough in Internet Bandwidth
- UNIT-III
- CAMOFLGE
- Untitled
- Lab 3 Lecture Slides
- Project
- rwr79-01-2012_05_03_18_52_35
- Optp Electronics Device

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd