The Lankavatara Sutra

A Mahayana Text Translated for the first time from the original Sanskrit by DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI

CONTENTS
Preface Introduction CHAPTER ONE. RAVANA, LORD OF LANKA, ASKS FOR INSTRUCTION § I. § II. § III. § IV. § V. § VI. Mahamati Praises the Buddha with Verses Mahamati's "One Hundred and Eight Questions" "The One Hundred and Eight Negations" Concerning the Vijnanas Seven Kinds of Self-nature (svabhava) xi xiii 3 (1)* (22) (22) (23) (34) (37) (39) (39)

CHAPTER TWO. COLLECTION OF ALL THE DHARMAS 22 22 23 31 33 35

Seven Kinds of First Principle (paramartha), and the Philosophers' Wrong Views regarding 35 the Mind Rejected Erroneous Views held by Some Brahmans and Sramanas Concerning Causation, Continuation, etc.; The Buddhist Views Concerning Such Subjects as Alayavijnana, Nirvana, Mind-only, etc.; Attainments of the Bodhisattva The Bodhisattva's Discipling himself in Selfrealisation The Evolution and Function of the Vijnanas; The Spiritual Discipline of the Bodhisattva; Verses on the Alaya-ocean and Vijnanawaves The Bodhisattva is to Understand the Signification of Mind-only The Three Aspects of Noble Wisdom (aryajnana) The Attainment of the Tathagatakaya Logic on the Hare's Horns Verses on the Alayavijnana and Mind-only Purification of the Outflows, Instantaneous and Gradual Nishyanda-Buddha, Dharmata-Buddha, and Nirmana-Buddha The Sravaka's Realisation and Attachment to

§ VII.

36

(40)

§ VIII.

39

(43)

§ IX.

39

(43)

§ X. § XI(a). § XI(b). § XII. § XIII. § XIV. § XV. § XVI.

44 44 45 46 49 49 51 52

(49) (49) (50) (51) (54) (55) (56) (58)

the Notion of Self-nature § XVII. § XVIII. § XIX. § XX. § XXI. § XXII. § XXIII. § XXIV. § XXV. § XXVI. § XXVII. § XXVIII. § XXIX. § XXX. § XXXI. § XXXII. § XXXIII. § XXXIV. § XXXV. § XXXVI. § XXXVII. § XXXVIII. § XXXIX. § XL. § XLI. § XLII. The Eternal-Unthinkable Nirvana and Alayavijnana All Things are Unborn The Five Classes of Spiritual Insight Verses on the Triple Vehicle Two Classes of the Icchantika The Three Forms of Svabhava The Twofold Egolessness (nairatmyadvayalakshana) Assertion and Refutation (samaropapavada) The Bodhisattva Assumes Various Personalities On Emptiness (sunyata), No-birth, and Nonduality The Tathagata-Garbha and the Ego-soul 53 55 55 56 58 58 59 60 62 64 65 68 (59) (61) (62) (63) (65) (65) (67) (68) (70) (72) (73) (77) (79) (79) (82) (85) (86) (88) (88) (96) (97) (98) (99) (100) (103) (104)

A Verse on the Philosophers' Discriminations 70 The Four Things Needed for the Constitution 70 of Bodhisattvahood On Causation (Six Kinds), and the Rise of Existence Four Forms of Word-discrimination 72 75

On Word and Discrimination and the Highest 76 Reality Verses on Reality and its Representations Mind-only, Multitudinousness, and Analogies, with an Interpolation on the Dualistic Notion of Existence The Teaching (dharmadesana) of the Tathagatas Four Kinds of Dhyana On Nirvana Two Characteristics of Self-nature 77 78 84 85 86 87

Two Kinds of the Buddha's Sustaining Power 87 (adhishthana) On the Chain of Causation (pratityasamutpada) Words (abhilapa) and Realities (bhava) 90 91

§ XLIII. § XLIV. § XLV. § XLVI. § XLVII. § XLVIII. § XLIX. § L. § LI. § LII. § LIII. § LIV. § LV. § LVI.

On Eternality of Sound (nityasabda), the Nature of Error (bhranta), and Perversion (viparyasa) On the Nature of Maya That All Things are Unborn On Name, Sentence, Syllable, and Their Meaning On Inexplicable Statements (vyakritani) All Things are and are not (Verses on Four Forms of Explanation)

92 95 96 97 98 99

(106) (109) (110) (112) (114) (115)

On the Sravakas, Srotaapanna, Sakridagamin, Anagamin, and Arhat; on the Three Knots 100 (116) (samyojani) The Intellect (buddhi), Examining and Discrimnating The Elements, Primary and Secondary The Five Skandhas The False Imagination Regarding Twelve Subjects Verses on the Citta, Parikalpita, Paratantra, and Parinishpanna The One Vehicle and the Triple Vehicle Three Forms of the Will-body (manomayakaya) The Five Immediacies (pancanantaryani); Desire as Mother and Ignorance as Father The Buddha-nature (buddhata) The Identity (samata) of Buddhahood and its Four Aspects Not a Word Uttered by the Buddha; Selfrealisation and an Eternally-abiding Reality On Being and Non-Being; Realism and Nihilism Realisation and Word-teaching Discrimination, an External World, Dualism, and Attachment The Relation between Words (ruta) and Meaning (artha) 105 (122) 106 (123) 107 (124)

Four Kinds of Nirvana and the Eight Vijnanas 108 (126) 110 (127) 112 (130) 114 (133) 118 (136) 118 (136) 120 (138) 122 (140) 122 (141) 123 (142) 125 (144) 127 (147) 129 (149) 133 (154)

CHAPTER THREE. ON IMPERMANENCY § LVII. § LVIII. § LIX. § LX. § LXI. § LXII. § LXIII. § LXIV. § LXV.

On Knowledge.§ LXVI. ON TRANSFORMATION § LXXXIX. Relation Between Words and Meaning. § LXVIII. § LXXIX. etc The Thesis of No-birth True Knowledge and Ignorance Self-realisation and the Discoursing on it On the Lokayatika Various Views of Nirvana 135 (156) 137 (158) 138 (160) 141 (163) 144 (166) 146 (169) 148 (171) 149 (173) 157 (182) Is Tathagatahood Something Made? Its Relation to the Skandhas. § LXXVIII. § LXXXII. Imagination. § LXXXIV. § LXVII. to 161 (187) Knowledge The Tathagata Variously Designated. ON MOMENTARINESS § LXXXVII. § LXXI. and Their Relation to the Three Svabhavas The Five Dharmas Tathagata and Sands of the Ganga Momentariness. Discrimination CHAPTER SEVEN. § LXXXIII. Reality. ON INTUITIVE UNDERSTANDING § LXXX. the Eight Vijnanas CHAPTER SIX. to Emancipation. § LXXIV. CHAPTER FOUR. Permanency of Tathagatahood The Tathagata-garbha and the Alayavijnana The Five Dharmas. § LXXII. Perfect Tranquillisation Attained by Sravakas. § LXXXV. Truth of Solitude. § LXXV. Nirvana Verses on No-birth and Causation Various Views of Impermanency 170 (197) 172 (200) 176 (204) 182 (211) § LXXVI. § LXX. § LXIX. Absolute (jnana) and Relative (vijnana) Nine Transformations (parinama) The Deep-seated Attachment to Existence Self-nature. Self-mind. No-birth. Views on Momentariness. Three Kinds of the Paramitas § LXXXVIII. § LXXIII. Pratyekabuddhas. On Transformation . Stages of 182 (211) Bodhisattvahood 187 (217) 187 (217) 190 (220) 190 (220) 193 (224) 197 (228) 198 (229) 202 (234) 204 (236) 206 (238) 207 (240) 207 (240) CHAPTER FIVE. ON THE DEDUCTION OF THE PERMANENCY OF TATHAGATAHOOD § LXXXI. Not a 164 (191) Word Uttered by the Buddha Causation. and Bodhisattvas. § LXXVII. § LXXXVI.

It goes without saying that these have helped immensely the present translator. PREFACE It is more than seven years now since I began the study of the Lankavatara Sutra quite seriously. I shall be fully content if I have made the understanding of this significant Mahayana text easier than before. but owing to various interruptions I have not been able to carry out my plan as speedily as I wished. Published in Internet by © do1@yandex. Based upon the Sanskrit edition of Bunyu Nanjo (1923).. May 2004. To Assist me in this way was indeed part of the object of his third visit to this side of the Pacific. Says Confucius. a corporation organised to help research work of . 2005. There are yet many difficult and obscure passages in the Sutra. and I now send out to the perusal of the English-reading public this humble work of mine. All such imperfections are to be corrected by competent scholars. THE DHARANIS SAGATHAKAM APPENDIX 211 (244) 223 (260) 226 (264) 297 Original Edition Published in London in 1932. It was fortunate for the writer that he could secure the support and help of the Keimeikwai. My friends in different fields of life have been kind and generous in various ways. to this case.ru. which I have been unable to unravel to my own satisfaction. May his also prove a stepping board however feeble towards a fuller interpretation of the Sutra! The present English translation is based on the Sanskrit edition of Bunyu Nanjo's published by the Otani University Press in 1923. "Is it not delightful to have a friend come from afar?" The saying applies most appropriately. (Rev. A. 2) For free distribution only. S. who again helped me by typing the entire manuscript of the present book. U. In China Buddhist scholars profoundly learned and endowed with spiritual insights made three or four attempts extending over a period of about two hundred and fifty years to give an intelligible rendering of the Lankavatara.CHAPTER EIGHT. Vermont. even though this may be only to a very slight degree. I am most grateful to Mr Dwight Goddard of Thetford. ON MEAT-EATING CHAPTER NINE.

Until then. many obstacles are sure to bar the passage of those who would attempt things of no commercial value. who is always willing to help him in every possible way. to Mr Hokei Idzumi who gave helpful suggestions in the reading of the original text. "Here is my work. Bodhisattvas of all kinds are sorely needed everywhere. and to Professor Yenga Teramoto for his ungrudging cooperation along the line of Tibetan knowledge. he cannot pass on without mentioning in it the name of his good. There is so much to be accomplished before he has to appear at the court of Emma Daiwo. and yet a scholar has his worldly needs to meet. for without it his work might have dragged on yet for some time to come. no visible results can be expected of this kind of undertaking. in . no special words are needed here. public-minded Buddhist friend. which in its English garb now lies before his friend as well as all other readers? Thanks are also due to the writer's wife who went over the whole manuscript to give it whatever literary improvement it possesses. And is this not the teaching of the Lankavatara Sutra. unselfish. to whom he could say. Unless we create one of these fine days an ideal community in which every member of it can put forth all his or her natural endowments and moral energies in the direction best fitted to develop them and in the way most useful to all other members generally and individually. Yakichi Ataka. humble though it is." The writer renders his grateful acknowledgment here to all the advisers of the Society who kindly voted for the speedy culmination of this literary task—a task which he tenderly wishes would do something towards a better appreciation by the West of the sources of Eastern life and culture. As I said in my Studies. Whatever literary work the present author is able to put before the reader. But to those who are not yet quite familiar with the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism an expository introduction to the principal theses of the Lanka may be welcome. DAISETZ TEITARO SUZUKI Kyoto. 1931 (the sixth year of Showa) INTRODUCTION For those who have already read my Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra1. it will be difficult to comprehend the text intelligently.scholars in various fields of culture. For thoughts of deep signification are presented in a most unsystematic manner. Materially. I have tried to do my part to the full extent of my power. Without something of preliminary knowledge as to what the Sutra proposes to teach. If not for him. the author could never have carried out his plans to the extent he has so far accomplished. the Lanka is a memorandum kept by a Mahayana master. November.

The former are called Buddhas including also Bodhisattvas.which he put down perhaps all the teachings of importance accepted by the Mahayana followers of his day. The Buddha All the Buddhist teachings unfold themselves around the conception of Buddhahood. it is declared to be pure (visuddha) and absolute (vivikta) and free from conditions (animitta). who is the interlocutor of the Buddha in the Lanka. The Buddha wants to help the ignorant. he comes down among us and lives with us. As thus it is above the category of being and non-being. and it is possible that the later redactors were not very careful in keeping faithfully whatever order there was in the beginning. beings are divisible into two heads: those that are enlightened and those that are ignorant. hence the Buddhist teaching and discipline. the multitudes. is devoid of an ego-substance (anatman) and that in this sense it resembles Maya or a visionary flower in the air. thus giving the text a still more disorderly appearance. Arhats. or people of ordinary type. "puerile". or "ignorant". and prithagjana "people different" from the enlightened. This class is also known as Sarvasattva. With the former he realises that this world of particulars has no reality. He apparently did not try to give them any order. When this is adequately grasped. and Pratyekabuddhas while the latter comprise all the rest of beings under the general designation of bala or balaprithagjana—bala meaning "undeveloped". the Buddha is endowed with transcendental knowledge (prajna) and a great compassionate heart (karuna). that is. I The Classification of Beings From the Mahayana point of view. 1 Published by George Routledge and Sons. London. who are ignorant and lost in the darkness of the passions ( klesa). Nirvana is not the ultimate abode of Buddhahood. . 1930. "all beings" or sentient beings. What is the Buddha? According to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. But the Buddha's transcendental wisdom is not always abiding in this high altitude. The introduction that follows may also serve as one to Mahayana Buddhism generally. because being instigated by an irresistible power which innerly pushes him back into a region of birth and death. Love and compassion is what essentially constitutes the self-nature of the All-knowing One (sarvajna). Buddhist philosophy with all its complications and superadditions will become luminous. nor is enlightenment. whose minds are found engrossed in the pursuit of egotistic pleasures and unawakened to the meaning of life. xxxii+464. Pp.

all his thoughts are directed towards the ignorant and suffering masses of beings. regards all beings as if they were his only child. Upaya is the outcome of Prajna and Karuna. Upaya may thus be considered in a way due to the infinite differentiation of individual characters rather than to the deliberate contrivance of transcendental wisdom on the part of the Buddha. It is a will-force which desires and acts in the realm of twofold egolessness. understanding (citta). Wisdom. In the same way the Buddha is conceived by beings. propensity (adhimukti). it is above the dualism of being and non-being. The ultimate aim is to cure them. This is technically known as the working of Skilful Means (upayakausalya). and just because of this characteristic it reflects in it varieties of colours (vicitra-rupa). and to this the Buddha's love is no exception. The Tathagata is indeed the one who. each one recognises the Buddha and his teaching according to his disposition (asaya). There is a gem known as Mani which is perfectly transparent and colourless in itself. the Buddha treats his fellow-beings as an expert physician treats his patients suffering from various forms of illness. which reverberates in the ears of his hearers in all possible sounds.The Buddha as Love The Buddha's love is not something ego-centered. for he refuses as long as there is a single unsaved soul to enjoy the bliss of Samadhi to which he is entitled by his long spiritual discipline. to create. no work will be done in the world where discrimination (vtkalpa) goes on and multitudinousness (vicitrata) prevails. It is the Tathagata's great love (mahakaruna) of all beings. and circumstance (gati). endowed with a heart of all-embracing love and compassion. For this reason it is said that the Buddha speaks one language of enlightenment. it manifests itself in the conduct of purposelessness (anabhogacarya). prejudice (anusaya). If he himself enters into Nirvana. in the same way his teaching is interpreted by them. to accommodate itself to varying changing circumstances. By Upaya thus the oneness of reality wherein the Buddha's enlightened mind abides transforms itself into the manifoldness of particular existences. he refuses to leave this world of relativity. When Love worries itself over the destiny of the ignorant. For this reason. which never ceases until everyone of them is happily led to the final asylum of Nirvana. for whom he is willing to sacrifice his enjoyment of absolute reality and selfabsorption (samadhi-sukhabhutakotya vinivarya). so to speak. that is. Again. . He is ever devising for the enlightenment and emancipation of all sentient beings. weaves a net of Skilful Means whereby to catch them up from the depths of the ocean called Birth-and-Death (samsara). but as ailments differ medicines and treatments cannot be the same. it rises from a heart of non-discrimination. Skilful Means The essential nature of love is to devise.

Nirvana. of one absolute reality and this world of names and forms. The theory of Upaya (skilful means) is also the theory of Manomayakaya. Reality. and their being furnished with the thirty-two major and the eighty minor marks of excellence are concerned. Sameness. or aurasa) as they are called in the Mahayana sutras. Eternity. If not. their Dharmakaya. One noteworthy fact about this—the Buddha's assuming so many names. the Buddha ought to be able to take any form he wishes when he sees the sufferings of sentient beings. they assume varieties of forms appearing differently to different beings. suta. is that he is not only known in various personal names but also given a number of abstract titles such as No-birth. Suchness. If they are not capable of grasping Buddhata as it is. The will-body is a part of the Buddha's plan of world-salvation. Cessation. The Buddha is thus personal as well as metaphysical. The Bodhisattva and His Ten Vows In Mahayana Buddhism the Buddha is not the only agent who is engaged in the work of enlightening or saving the world. This simile is generally regarded as best describing the relation of unity and multiplicity. he is also assisted by his followers or "sons" (putra. and thus there are many titles and appellations of the Buddha as to be beyond calculation (asamkhyeya). he is thereby neither fattened nor emaciated. While he is able to transform himself into as many forms as are required by sentient beings. As they are not clear-sighted. Vipaka-buddha. Emptiness. etc. But when they wish to train beings according to their characters. and Nirmana-buddha. As the incarnation of a great compassionate heart. will-body. Trueness. they are the same as far as their inner enlightenment.One Buddha with Many Names All the Buddhas are of one essence. they are sure to go astray farther and farther. each member of the trinity is treaceable in such ideas as Dharmata-buddha. The Lanka here does not forget to add that though the Buddha is known by so many different names. This is one of the reasons why Buddhism is often regarded as polytheistic and at the same time pantheistic. as he is like the moon in water neither immersed nor emerging. Bodhisattvas are thus the sons of the Buddha . and this something must be in accord with their mentalities. something is to be devised to lead them to the right path. Transformation-bodies of the Buddha While the Trikaya dogma is not yet fully developed in the Lanka. The notion of the transformationbody inevitably follows from the Buddha's desire to save the ignorant whose minds are not enlightened enough to see straightway into the essence of Buddhahood. let them have something of it and gradually be developed.

our wishes are crushed. Thus is not the place to consider historically how the conception evolved in Buddhism whose primitive object seems to have consisted in the realisation of Arhatship. which is technically known as Purva-pranidhana in Mahayana terminology. and the worst is that we do not know how to get out of this whirlpool of greed. Our desires are thwarted. To state the truth. altruistic nature of humankind. The Ignorant Life as it is lived by most of us is a painful business. the sons of the Victorious. is carried on by these spiritual soldiers under the leadership of the Buddha. and who are thus capable of extending their help over us. impulses. he is always inspiring the Bodhisattvas with his sovereign power (prabhava) and sustaining (adhishthana) them in their efforts to bring enlightenment in the whole triple world. Whatever enlightenment one gains. To save the world." Mahamati is our mouthpiece voicing our wants and aspirations. We are at the extreme end of existence opposed to that of the Buddha. With this in view. the actual work of world-salvation. But the Bodhisattva is always with us. anger. sentient beings are all Bodhisattvas. The Buddha being surrounded by these noble-minded sons cannot fail finally to release all beings from the bondage of karma and ignorance and thirst for life. are really our own brethren. too superhuman. The latter is sometimes felt to be too remote. to bring all his fellow-beings up to the same level of thought and feeling where he himself is. and not to rest. Vowing to save all beings. and infatuation. and ever ready to be our confidant. Without these he is not himself. how infinitely long and how inexpressively arduous the task may be. too serene. The Bodhisattvas who have gone up successively all the rungs of the Bhumi ladder. etc. not to enter into Nirvana until this is accomplished. The Bodhisattva is a man of "inexhaustible vows'' (dasanishthapada). But we can state this that the essence of Bodhisattvahood is an unequivocal affirmation of the social. for he is felt by us to share the same passions. forces of our human life. This is the Bodhisattva. however ignorant and ready to err they may be. In fact. Therefore. Mahamati of the Lanka opens his questions generally with this: "I and other Bodhisattvas. How can we leap over the abyss and reach the other shore? . They are all Jinaputras. for we have to endure much in various ways. This idea is classically expressed in the Mahayana by the so-called "Ten Vows of Samantabhadra". it must be shared by one's fellow-beings. and harbour in themselves every possibility of attaining enlightenment. and his sight is often lost in the midst of our worldly struggles.and apply themselves most arduously and most assiduously to the cause of Buddhism. and aspirations which are such great disturbing. cannot even for a moment be separated from the life of the Bodhisattva. we can say. though ennobling too.

while ignorance (avidya) is father. it still retains its intellectual flavour as most Buddhist terms do. In Buddhism terms of colouring are much used. and becoming pure. somewhat corresponds to what is known as "conversion" among the psychological students of religion. The Alaya is a metaphysical entity. What we ordinarily know as the Alaya is its working through a relative mind The Mahayana calls this phase of the Alaya tainted or defiled (klishta) and tells us to be cleansed of it in order to experience a Paravritti for the attainment of ultimate reality. which. is purification ( visuddhi).Paravritti literally means "turning up" or "turning back" or "change". It is significant that the Mahayana has been insistent to urge its followers to experience this psychological transformation in their practical life. The Buddhist question is thus: "How is emancipation possible?" And here rises the Mahayana system of philosophy. While Paravritti is psychological. Self-discipline and the Buddha's Power As long as Paravritti is an experience and not mere understanding. a special paragraph is devoted below. and no psychological analysis can reach it. they must put an end to the continuous activities of this dualistic poisoning. means that the Alaya is thoroughly washed off its dualistic accretion or outflow (asrava). for then it will be distilled into life and determine its course. A mere intellectual understanding of the truth is not enough in the life of a Buddhist. personally experienced. free from all pigment. To be cured of the disease. This Paravritti. especially suddenly. The Turning back (paravritti) To this philosophy. that is. and I have called it "revulsion" in my Studies in the Lankavatara. that the Tathagata has effected his work of purification in the mind of a sentient being. which has so far failed to perceive its own oneness and allness. therefore. the truth must be directly grasped. Being pure is to remain in its own selfhood or self-nature (svabhava). This . according to the Lanka. it is evident that self-discipline plays an important role in the Buddhist life. which is assumed to exist behind our individual empirical consciousnesses. technically. it is a spiritual change or transformation which takes place in the mind. Paravritti in another sense. it will be seen. I wish here to say a few words concerning the important psychological event known as Paravritti in the Lanka and other Mahayana literature. takes place in the Alayavijnana or All-conserving Mind.The Mahayana diagnosis of the conditions in which all sentient beings are placed is that they are all nursed by desire ( trishna) as mother who is Accompanied by pleasure (nandi) and anger (raga). therefore. When this is done. there is a state called emancipation (vimoksha) which is full of bliss. intuitively penetrated into.

If they were not thus so constantly sustained by the miraculous power of the Buddha. to take these sufferings upon himself so that the real sufferers may not only be relieved of them but escape their evil consequences. Though this latter is strangely absent in the Lanka. "Strive yourselves" (sikshitavyam). The latter demand that more good must be done in order to suppress the evils which are found claiming this world for their own glorification. the next step his devotees are logically led to take would be the idea of vicarious suffering or atonement. woods. animate and . whatever suffering one is enduring may be transferred on to another if the latter sincerely desires out of his unselfish and all-embracing love for others. Giving power to another is a positive idea while suffering for another may be said to be a negative one. But at the same time we must not forget the fact that the Lanka also emphasises the necessity of the Buddha's power being added to the Bodhisattvas. in their upward course of spiritual development and in the accomplishment of their great task of world-salvation.is insisted upon in the Lanka as is illustrated in the use of such phrases as "Do not rely on others" (aparapraneya). The power of a Bodhisattva's original vows may also be judged as being derived from the Buddha. even such inanimate objects as mountains. So the Mahayanists accumulate stocks of merit not only for the material of their own enlightenment but for the general cultivation of merit which can be shared equally by their fellow-beings. According to this doctrine. and they would never be able to attain supreme enlightenment and preach the doctrine of universal emancipation. they would speedily fall into the group of the philosophers and Sravakas. will resound with the voice of the Buddha. the Gandavyuha as well as the Prajnaparamita are quite eloquent in elucidating the doctrine of vicarious suffering. To suffer or atone vicariously is still negative and fails to entirely satisfy our spiritual needs. Indeed. etc. how much more the Bodhisattvas who are his spiritual inheritors! The doctrine of Adhishthana gains all the more significance when we consider the development of Mahayana Buddhism into the doctrine of salvation by faith alone. thus enabling him to advance more easily and successfully towards the attainment of the blissful life. But really religious minds require this vicarious suffering for their spiritual life. This goes quite against the idea of individual responsibility. If the possibility of enlightenment is due to the Adhishthana or Prabhava of the Buddha. palaces. When the Buddha comes to be considered capable of Adhishthana. At any rate the Mahayana idea of the Buddha being able to impart his power to others marks one of those epoch-making deviations which set off the Mahayana from so-called primitive or original Buddhism. all the wonders that are to take place by the strength of the enlightenment must be inferred ultimately to issue from the fountain-head of Buddhahood itself. etc. when the Buddha so wishes.

who are ignorant. he is disturbed. each one of whom recognises him according to his own light. for ultimate reality.inanimate. And from this scene the following narratives psychological. for he feels an inextinguishable feeling of love stirring within himself—the feeling now perfectly purified of all the defilements of selfishness. while the desire or thirst for life (trishna). unfold themselves to the Buddhist soul. nor to theGandavyuha or Avatamsaka. the Arhat. that is. He is seen among sentient beings. this notion of Parinamana is not at all traceable in the Lanka. and the other is generally designated as Sarvasattva. and deeds (karma) following from the blind assertion of lifeimpulse— these are the factors that enter into the nature of Sarvasattva. they are conscious of their condition and not at all satisfied with it. looking downward. This is the true meaning of Parinamana. the Tathagata. logical. and finding the helping arms stretches his own to take hold of them. greedy for worldly things. As I said elsewhere. turning one's merit over to others for their spiritual interest. all ignorant and infatuated ones. As he looks down at his fellow-beings inexplicably tormented with their greed and ignorance and egotism. and ignorance as to the meaning of life (avidya). when they reflect they find themselves quite forlorn inwardly. The Lanka cannot be imagined to have been compiled prior to the Prajnaparamita. The one who is above. The Buddha leaves his transcendental abode. if so. Buddhism is the story of relationship between the two groups of beings: the one is called Buddha who is the enlightened. and therefore in perpetual torment. the other unable to extricate himself from entanglements looks up in despair. that is. and blissful enlightenment. literally "all beings". they long for real happiness. in the classification of the Vijnanas. In spite of their hankering for worldly enjoyments. extends his arms to help. where the Buddha sits rapt in his meditation serenely regarding them with his transcendental wisdom. Transcendental wisdom (prajna) and a heart of all-embracing love (mahakaruna) constitute the very reason of Buddhahood. which embraces the whole world in pity though not attached to it. and ontological. To understand . They look upwards. why this absence? How can this be explained? Buddha the Enlightened and Sarvasattva the Ignorant To conclude this section. II Psychology What may be termed Buddhist psychology in the Lanka consists in the analysis of mind. which is strange.

When it is used in the general sense it means "mind". the Alaya is not a Vijnana. the faculty of doing this is called eye-vijnana. has a double sense. to judge is to divide. The Citta is thus a storehouse where the seeds of all thoughts and deeds are accumulated and stored up. manovijnana. Vijnana is composed of the prefix vi. This will become clearer later on. Relation Between the Various Functions Having explained what the various important terms mean and what functions are indicated by them. The Manas first wills. nose-vijnana for odour. it is used in the form of Citta-matra. The latter may even be considered subordinate to this power of attachment. vijnana. there are ear-vijnana for sound. and alaya is a store where things are hoarded for future use. and distinguishable from all the rest of the mental faculties. "mentation". while specifically it is a synonym of Alayavijnana in its relative aspects. it indiscriminately harbours all that is poured into it through the channel of the Vijnanas. Thus. and thought-vijnana (manovijnana) for ideas—altogether six forms of Vijnana for distinguishing the various aspects of world external or internal. When an object is presented before the eye. We can say that Citta appears here in its highest possible sense. Hence the Manas' tenacious attachment to the dualistic interpretation of existence. the Manojivnana is the most important as it is directly related to an inner faculty known as Manas. it acquires still another connotation. The Alaya is perfectly neutral. however. meaning "to divide". The whole system of mental functions is called in the Lanka Cittakalapa . then it discriminates to judge. let us proceed to see in what relationship they stand to one another. however. has no discerning power in it. To begin with Vijnana. and does not offer to give judgments. Citta comes from the root cit. and the root jna which means "to perceive". When. for it is also a strong power of attaching itself to the result of thinking. Alayavijnana is alaya+vijnana. including the activities of Manas and Manovijnana. for it is then neither simply mentation nor intellection. Of these six Vijnanas. nor perception as a function of consciousness. and alayavijnana. "to arrange in order". In the same way. but in the Lanka the derivation is made from the root ci. It is identifiable with the Alaya in its absolute aspect. "to think". Manas roughly corresponds to mind as an organ of thought. "to pile up". Vijnana is the faculty of distinguishing or discerning or judging. general and specific. indifferent. The Citta.thus the psychology of Buddhism properly the knowledge of these terms is necessary: citta. The Citta as a cumulative faculty is thus identified with the Alayavijnana. body-vijnana for touch. Strictly speaking. it is perceived and judged as a red apple or a piece of white linen. but in fact it is more than that. and this dividing ends in viewing existence dualistically. manas. Willing and thinking are inextricably woven into the texture of Manas. "ideas". Mind-only. tongue-vijnana for taste. and also of the Vijnanas. "to know".

and the five sense-Vijnanas. as performing deeds (karma). but the Alaya ever remains itself. and the Alaya as mental representation called Vijnaptir Alaya. The six Vijnanas function. Manas. discrimination has already taken place here. They are not organised in themselves and have no theory for their existence and Doings.or Vijnanakaya. Every Vijnana performs these two functions simultaneously. empirical consciousness. . that is. When these eight Vijnanas are grouped together under two general heads. one functioning is analysable into two ideas. and also the acceptance of a world external to itself and distinct from itself. indeed without the latter. For the Vijnanas may cease from evolving and performing deeds for some reason. Another way of classifying the Vijnanas is according to their Lakshana or modes of being. the former is impossible and conversely. for the latter will cease working at once when the Alaya is taken out of existence. the one group is known as Khyati-Vijnana (perceiving Vijnanas) and the other as Vastuprativikalpa-vijnana (objectdiscriminating Vijnana). The notion of an ego-substance is herein established. Manas clings to it as if it were reality and disposes of the reports of the six Vijnanas accordingly. perceiving and discriminating. as solid. When an individual object is perceived as such. The Alaya is incessant because of its uninterrupted existence. Reflecting on the Alaya and imagining it to be an ego. In other words. or as coloured. etc. we can see that the Alaya is conceived in the Lanka as being absolute in one respect and in the other as being subject to "evolution" (pravritti). These two aspects are also known respectively as the Prabandha (incessant) and the Lakshana (manifested). But in fact the Vijnanas are not separable into these two groups. They have no intelligence outside their respective fields of activity. for perceiving is discriminating. From this viewpoint. In this mental system eight modes of activity are distinguished: Alayavijnana.. and as retaining their own original nature (jati). As long as the Alaya remains in and by itself. The Alaya. it is almost like Emptiness itself although it ever lies behind all the Vijnanaactivities. mechanically when the conditions are satisfied and are not conscious of their own doings. which is to say. as it were. which is in the Sagathakam called Paramalaya-vijnana. From this. of which three are distinguishable as evolving ( pravritti). according to the Lanka. Citta and Vijnana are here used synonymously. Manovijnana. Manas is the individual will to live and the principle of discrimination. Manas is conscious of the presence behind itself of the Alaya and also of the latter's uninterrupted working on the entire system of the Vijnanas. it is beyond the grasp of an individual. But it is to be observed that this double activity does not belong to the Alayavijnana. all the Vijnanas are evolving and deedperforming Vijnanas except the Alaya which always abides in its selfnature. has two aspects: the Alaya as it is in itself. It is this evolving aspect of the Alaya that lends itself to the treacherous interpretation of Manas. it is manifested because of its activity being perceptible by the mind.

In this general turmoil in which we sentient beings are all living. it is always depending on the Alaya. the Alaya is as responsible as the Manas. and ignorance.What they experience is reported to the headquarters with no comment or interpretation. The Manas backed by the Alaya has been the seat of desire or thirst (trishna). the entire arrangement of things in the Vijnanakaya or Citta-kalapa changes. desire is mother. This relationship is altogether too subtle to be perceived by ordinary minds that are found choked with defilements and false ideas since beginningless time. With this "turning-back" in the Alaya. as solitary reality (viviktadharma). Discrimination being one of his fundamental functions. When the waves are stirred up in the Alaya-ocean by the wind of objectivity—so interpreted by the Manas—these seeds give a constant supply to the uninterrupted flow of the Vijnana-waters. The Alaya is absolutely one. and this existence takes its rise. Manas may not have opportunities to exercise its two fundamental functions. without which it has no reason of being itself. for if the Alaya refused to take the seeds in that are sent up from the region of the Vijnana. The clinging now binds him to a world of particulars. Hence the doctrine of Mindonly (cittamatra). karma. This position is now abandoned. he sees multitudinousness there and clings to it as final. With one swing of the sword the pluralities are cut asunder and the Alaya is seen in its native form (svalakshana). and are deposited in the Alaya. The Manas is a double-headed monster. The orders are then faithfully executed. Manas so intimately in relation with it also experiences a transformation in its fundamental attitude towards the Vijnanas. the one face looks towards the Alaya and the other towards the Vijnanas. which is from the first beyond discrimination. Thus. The seeds grow out of them. The Alaya has been looking at itself in the Manas' mirror. the external world is no more adhered to as such. but this oneness gains significance only when it is realised by the Manas and recognised as its own supporter (alamba). but at the same time the Alaya is also depending on the Manas. Manas sits at the headquarters and like a great general gathers up all the information coming from the six Vijnanas. The Manas is not of course an independent worker. When there takes place a "turning-back" (paravritti) in it. . as reality. for it is no more than a mere reflection of the Alaya. He does not understand what the Alaya really is. willing and discriminating. But at the same time it is due to the Alaya's self-purifying nature that there takes place a great catastrophe in it known as "turningback". that is.For it is he who shifts and arranges the reports and gives orders again to the reporters according to his own will and intelligence. The Religious Signification . and ignorance is father. The latter are no more regarded as reporters of an external world which is characterised with individuality and manifoldness. There has been from the very first nothing other than itself. that is. or the Alaya-only. But the Manas is also a double-edged sword.

Let there be. the Mahayana establishes the theory of Mind-only (cittamatra). however. therefore. In the first case. if the Garbha or the Alaya while absolutely neutral and colourless in itself did not yet harbour in itself a certain irrationality. it allows itself to transmigrate through the six paths of existence. The Alaya is thus known on the one hand as Tathagata-garbha. 147. this abrupt transformation (paravritti) of an entire personality would be an impossibility. Mind ( citta) here does not mean our individual mind which is subject to the law of causation ( hetupratyaya). And as this illogical-ness is practically possible. and on the other hand imagined by the ignorant as an ego-soul (pudgala or atman). good and evil. Vastu and Tathata are synonymously used. comes from the Mahayana idea of Buddhahood (buddhata). Logicalness is to be transcended somewhere and somehow. the womb of Tathagatahood. and the whole system of the Vijnanas goes through a revolution. no sentient beings would ever be a Buddha. The most significant one is Vastu. Expressed differently. Absolute Citta transcends the dualistic conception of existence. lines 9 and 10). in its self-nature.The necessity of conceiving Alaya in its double aspect. That is to say. If the Tathagata-garbha or Alaya-vijnana were not a mysterious mixture of purity and defilement. pure and defiled. an intuitive penetration into the primitive purity (prakritipurisuddhi) of the Tathagatagarbha. is a reservoir of things good and bad. we have to be careful not to understand this term psychologically. the Garbha is believed sometimes to be a creator (karana) and sometimes to be an egosubstance (atman). Therefore. whose psychological name is Alayavijnana. If Buddhahood is something absolutely solitary. 164. (1) as absolute reality (viviktadharma) and (2) as subject to causation (hetuka). As it is so believed. The Tathagata-garbha. In other words. immaculate. no enlightenment would be experienced by any human beings. in the Lanka this Citta is frequently described in ontological terms. Ontology and the Twofold Egolessness In considering the theory of Mind-only. line 6)) and with Arya in another place (p. all the efforts put forward by sentient beings to realise enlightenment would be of no avail whatever. but because of its external dirt (agantuklesa) it is soiled. which is found coupled with Tathata in one place (p. what is . There must be something commonly shared by each so that when a note is struck at one end a corresponding one will answer at the other. all that the Tathagata wants to do for sentient beings would never have its opportunity to reach them. When this is impossible as is the case with the philosophers and ignorant masses. and when soiled—which is the state generally found in all sentient beings —an intuitive penetration (pratyaksha) is impossible. it belongs neither to the Vijnana-system nor to our objective world (vishaya). the Tathagata-garbha is originally.

p. therefore. It is again Ekagra. which points to a similar mode of thinking. 199. To be above changes means to remain in one's own abode. Satyata. Dharmadhatu. and so is it in most cases in the Lanka also. "suchness" or "thusness". that is. solitary. not to move away from it. or (pauranasthitidharmata. "realm of truth". the summit of oneness. Sameness (samata). p. But when one . the Formless (animitta). the arya must be a modifier here. Cessation (nirodha). 15). etc. "holy". The highest reality is also called "something that has been in existence since the very first" (purvadharmasthitita. 124.1 and the latter that of Dharmanairatmya. p. In the second case in which Arya is affixed to Vastu. 178. are all abiding here as gold is embedded in the mine. line 1. the experience is compared to the visiting one's native home and quietly getting settled (歸家穩坐. line 4).Tathata. and for this reason reality is known as "self-abiding" (svastha. the Permanent (nitya). or "thatness". From these descriptions it is found natural for Mahayanists psychologically to deny the existence of an ego-soul or ego-substance in the Alaya. 143. and ontologically to insist that the tragedy of life comes from believing in the substantiality or finality of an individual object. Vastu in Buddhism is usually an individual object regarded as existing externally to the Vijnanas. 241. this denial of an Atman in persons and individual objects sounds negative and productive of no moral signification. and this summit or limit (koti) is at the same time nosummit. enlightened ones. The ever-enduring reality (sthitita dharmata) is above changes. "noble". Nirvana. egolessness of things. ll. or "remaining in its own abode" ( svasthane 'vatishthate. 14). 1. The more ordinary expressions given to the highest reality known as Citta are Tathata. limit of reality. Bhutakoti. egolessness of persons. 1 Cf. The former is technically called the doctrine of Pudgalanairatmya. In Zen Buddhism. absolute: hence Reality is Viviktadharma. transcendental wisdom. p. that is Vastu. it must mean the highest reality. Bhutata. kuei-chia wen-tso). Emptiness (sunyata). 1. Superficially. But evidently in this connection where Vastu is Tathata. because this is gained only when one makes a final leap beyond the manifoldness of things. the one denies the reality of an ego-soul and the other the ultimacy of an individual object. which is a term most frequently used in the Mahayana texts to designate the highest reality ever approachable by Prajna. the One (advaya). this reality is something to be described as arya. no-limit. As it is the most ancient reality. a thing of solitude. The Buddhas. Tathata is to be rendered either "suchness". its realisation means returning to one's own original abode in which everything one sees around is an old familiar object. "the state of being true". p. "the state of being real".1 To keep one's own abode it to be single. 5 and 9). or "worthy".

or as purity and defilement. The subtlest relation of reality to the world is beyond description. But the idea that the truth is not found in the dualistic way of interpreting existence. The Lanka compares it to the moon in water or a flower in a mirror. that is. 1 Unobtainability This going beyond all forms of dualism. and if we had. or as worldly and super-worldly. The term "the Middle" (madhyama). This Absolute is the Middle Way of the Madhyamaka school. or as oneness and manyness. 01-62 of this translation. but this reality is not something altogether solitary. meaning "the Middle Way''. the negations are on the plane of relativity and intellection. or as this and that. like a mirage. This aspect of reality is described as "unobtainable" or "unattainable" (anupalabdha). it will turn into something standing in opposition to this world of relativity. that it is beyond the category of being and non-being. or as good and evil. according to Buddhist philosophy. For in this case no one of us will be able to have even a glimpse of it. however differently it may be expressed. for it is that "Beyond which is also Within". We must therefore endeavour to take hold of reality. and our sufferings will never come to an end. or as assertion and negation. or as Samsara and Nirvana. or as work and no-work. In fact. For the non-existence of a personal ego-soul and the non-reality of an individual object. or as form and no-form. which means the loss of solitariness. It is within and yet outside. the latter from the point of view of reality is like a dream. or as causation and no-causation. or as ego and non-ego. ad infinitum —this going beyond a world of oppositions and contrasts constitutes one of the most significant thoughts of the Mahayana. . see especially pp. whether as being and non-being. See § xxviii. is everywhere emphasised in the Lanka. Thus. and so on. or as ignorance and knowledge. the solitary now forms part of this world. we can say that one of the principal theses of the Lanka is to establish the Absolute which makes a world of particulars possible but which is not to be grasped by means of being and non-being (astina-stitva). This realisation is also a kind of knowledge though different from what is generally known by this name. it is outside and yet within. The conception of the Tathagata-garbha is not to be confused with that of a Pudgala or Atman. it yields its secrets only to him who has actually realised it in himself by means of noble wisdom (aryajnana or prajna). does not occur in the Lanka proper except in its Sagathakam portion.understands what is ultimately meant by Cittamatra (Mind-only) or by Vivikta-dharma (the Solitary). reality must be grasped in this world and by this world. There is nothing real as long as we remain entangled in the skein of relativity. And just because it is unobtainable in a world of particulars.

This transcendental Jnana is variously designated in the Lanka. it is our own thought- . beyond all forms of tangibility. It is Svabuddhi. creating and created. but in the Lanka the weight of the discourse is placed upon the realisation by means of Aryajnana of ultimate reality which is Mind-only. an insight fixed upon the ultimate ground of existence. inner self. By us existence is always divided into pairs of conception. birth and death. Nirvikalpa. although the latter has been in use since the early days of Buddhism. penetrating through the surface of existence. which I have translated "discrimination". Nirabhasa. Mahayana philosophy becomes incomprehensible. noble wisdom. The Lanka is quite explicit in assuming two forms of knowledge: the one for grasping the absolute or entering into the realm of Mind-only. is generally coupled with Pratyatma. Nirvana and Samsara. for this understanding is a fundamental intuition into the truth of Mind-only and constitutes the Buddhist enlightenment with which truly starts the religious life of a Bodhisattva. It is relative knowledge working on the plane of dualism. The Lanka is never tired of impressing upon its readers the importance of this understanding in the attainment of spiritual freedom. permanent and impermanent. that is. Me and notMe. The latter is designated Discrimination (vikalpa) in the Lanka and the former transcendental wisdom or knowledge (prajna). To distinguish these two forms of knowledge is most essential in Buddhist philosophy. ad libitum. beyond discrimination. meaning direct empirical knowledge before analysis starts in any form whatever. The knowledge that stands contrasted to Prajna or Aryajnana is Vikalpabuddhi. being and non-being. and the other for understanding existence in its dualistic aspect in which logic prevails and the Vijnanas are active. sees into that which is the reason of everything logically and ontologically. It is an intuitive understanding which. supreme wisdom is a mental function operating in the depths of our being. Aryajnana. or Anabhasa (imagelessness). this and that. which therefore is not at all expressible by means of words (vac or ruta). The Lanka is decidedly partial to the use of Aryajnana instead of Prajna. it is no superficial knowledge dealing with particular objects and their relations. thesis and antithesis. or simply Vikalpa. therefore. whereby judgment is made possible. innate in oneself. The Lakshana (form) of existence thus presented to us is not its real nature. that is. This is due to the working of Vikalpa. it may be called the principle of dichotomy. The awaking of supreme knowledge (anuttarasamyaksambodhi) is the theme of the Prajnaparnmita-sutras. showing that this noble.Epistemology Without a theory of cognition. This psychological emphasis so distinctive of the Lanka makes this sutra occupy a unique position in Mahayana literature. As it is concerned with the highest reality or the ultimate truth of things. It is Pravicayabuddhi.

The second form of knowledge by which we examine existence is Paratantra. what. Svabhava means "self-nature" or "self-reality" or "self-substance ''. Modern scientists declare that existence is no more than mathematical formulae. This is a generally recognised classification in all the schools of Mahayana Buddhism. false views accumulate. everything is depending for its existence on something else.construction (vijnapti). This kind of knowledge does not help us to have an insight into the depths of being. that is. Dissect an object considered final. the world in which we now find ourselves living ceases to be what it is in itself. It is like seeing a mirage which vanishes as one approaches. imagination in its ordinary sense. etc. but our Buddhi which seeks after pluralities fails to understand this fact and makes us cling to appearances as realities. therefore. This is an illusion. and also of the how. Another word for conventionalism is Vyavahara. truth slips off our grasp. according to which we talk of things being born and destroyed. The Mahayanists would say that there is no Svabhava in anything appealing as such to the Vijnanas when it is examined from the Paratantra point of view. of existence. This is a kind of scientific knowledge based on analysis. Buddhists make use of this knowledge to disprove the substantiality of individual objects. The Three Svabhavas Another way of classifying knowledge is known as three Svabhavas in the Lanka. . The first form of knowledge by which the reality of things is assumed is called Parikalpita. where. 131. "depending upon another". "imagined". there is nothing self-existing in the world. and Alaya the Absolute is forever unable to extricate itself from these encumbrances. The Twofold Truth (satya) The distinction between the highest truth (paramartha-satya) and conventional truth (samvriti-satya) is not explicitly held in the Lanka. no objective reality. endlessly related to one another. Imagined (parikalpita) objects have. for things are imagined to exist really where in fact there are none. As the result. but allusions are occasionally made to them. and it dissolves itself into airy nothingness. 3). 1. wrong judgments go on adding complexities upon complexities. the svabhavatva of things. Reality escapes us. that is. Eternal transmigration to no purpose must be our destiny. According to them. The habit-energy (vasana) thus created takes complete hold on the Alayavijnana. for it is one we have constructed according to our own ignorance and discrimination. the existence of which in some form is popularly accepted. things are universally mutually conditioned. and it is said that false discrimination belongs to conventionalism (p. worldly experience.

Names (nama). where does our boat of enlightenment get anchored? The Lanka tells us that there is a third way of viewing existence. the principle of dichotomisation. The Five Dharmas Before concluding this section. however. Perfect or "perfected" knowledge issues from Prajna. It is this "perfected" knowledge whereby we are enabled to see really into the nature of existence. This is called selfrealisation (svasiddhi). does not mean "relativity". The Five Dharmas and the Three Svabhavas are different ways of classifying the same material. Names are then thought real and discrimination is carried on. we must not forget to mention what is known as the Five Dharmas in the Lanka making up one of the main topics of discourses. Relativity-emptiness is on the lower plane of knowledge and does not reveal the real view of existence as it is. Discrimination (samkalpa). it dives into the abyss where there are no shadows (anabhasa). It is the object of transcendental knowledge. one cannot have even the remotest idea of true emptiness or what is designated in the Prajnaparamita as Mahasunyata. So states the Lanka that as the wise see reality with their eye of Prajna. or sometimes simply Jnana. "perfected". We can say that discrimination has been with us from the first even . Right Knowledge (samyagjnana). the great void of noble wisdom which is the highest reality. they ascertain definitely what it is. because going beyond the realm of being and non-being which belongs to discrimination. called Parinishpanna. to perceive rightly what is meant by Svabhava. or Aryajnana. This is again called seeing into the emptiness of things. Our relative knowledge starts with perceiving Appearances to which Names are given. as is thought by some scholars. and the relativity view ( paratantra) reduces it into nothingness: if so. The Lanka has also this kind of Sunyata mentioned as one of the seven Emptinesses (p. The Five are: Appearances (nimitta). Emptiness (sunyata). Relativity-emptiness so called corresponds to the first of the seven Emptinesses. The first three correspond to the two of the Three Svabhavas. seeing into the suchness of things.The imagined view (parikalpita) of reality does not give us a true knowledge of it. i. and to declare that there is no Svabhava as is imagined by the ignorant and that all is empty (sunya). Parikalpita and Paratantra. that is. and Suchness (tathata). It perceives things as they are. while the Mahayana Sunyata is Paramarthaaryajnana-mahasunyata. As long as one stays in the world of relativity where logic rules supreme. while the last two belong to the Parinishpanna. in its self-nature (bhavasvabhava) and not as is seen by the ignorant whose eye is never raised beyond the horizon of relativity. 94). e. which allows us to become truly acquainted with reality as it is. Emptiness taught in the Mahayana texts goes far deeper into the matter.

Plurality of objects is not real from the point of view of relativity as well as from the point of view of Suchness. it is not immersed in it.when what is called perception has not taken place. While we are still in the dark as to how Mahayana Buddhism developed in India. but we cannot say that it is not there. we know that when it was introduced into China by the missionaries from India and central Asia. and that what must have developed during several hundred years after his death was taken in a wholesale manner for a system fully matured in his life-time extending over a period of about half a century after his Enlightenment. it most emphatically advises us not to attach ourselves to words. For this is the inexpressible. We cannot say that the moon is in water. the first of which appeared in 68 a. it was already regarded as directly coming from the Buddha's own golden mouth. they profoundly stirred the Chinese and then the Japanese mind awakening their religious consciousness to its very depths. But as I have already given up many pages to it and as the reader who wishes to know more about the Sutra may go to my Studies in the Lankavatara. for a reflection though it may be it is really before us. . and feel comfortable about the problems of religion. For naming is impossible without some form of discrimination. Tathata is the most real thing and a term most fittingly applied as far as our power of designation is concerned. In this the Lanka permits no equivocation. for it is a mere reflection. too unreal for our religious aspirations. It is in this sense that ultimate reality is said to be like the moon in the water. If some one declares such reality as maintained by the Mahayana is too ethereal.. the Lanka will immediately retort. The object of Right Knowledge is Suchness of things as not conditioned by the category of being and non-being. nor is it outside it. Although without naming no knowledge is possible. Right Knowledge (samyagjnana) is not to be had here." When the Aryajnana is awakened. As the sutras were translated into Chinese. it is the meaning (artha) not to be grasped by words. Then the worst thing comes upon us as we begin to persuade ourselves and think that by giving Names existence has been successfully disposed of. The following are the most important Mahayana texts that thus served to move the religious feelings of the Far-eastern peoples and are still continuing to do so. III The Message of the Lanka There are many other thoughts of interest in the Lanka which may be discussed in this Introduction. the unnamable. d. too phantom-like. "You are still on the plane of relativity. I will say just a few words about the position of this Sutra among the general Mahayana Buddhist texts.

and it takes some time before the reader can get into the mood of the sutra itself. or the Gandavyuha which is the same thing.). It is another Mahayana sutra that has influenced the Chinese and the Japanese mind profoundly. in which his followers were asked to find their Master. however. and that the Buddha has just one vehicle ( yana) for all beings. In popular minds the god is no more masculine than feminine. that coveted object of all the Buddhists. It was the vow of Samantabhadra to release . and by Prajna (40 fas. The reading may be tedious from the modern point of view as the main theme is not so succinctly presented. more feminine. who are no less beings than ourselves. This must have been a revolutionary teaching at the time when the Buddha was thought to be just as transient and mortal as ourselves. Avalokitesvara is here represented as a god of mercy who will help anybody who finds himself in trouble spiritually as well as materially. because of mercy being more reality associated with eternal femininity. Pratyekabuddhas. This is an encyclopedic sutra of which we find the Gandavyuha and the Desabhumika forming a part. After a quiet and patient pursuit of the text. And this doctrine of transformation is one of the characteristic features of Mahayana Buddhism. that he is forever living on the Mount of the Holy Vulture and preaching to a group of the Sravakas. by Sikshananda (80 fas. (3) The Avatamsaka-sutra.). (2) The Avalokitesvara-vikurvana-nirdesa. The sutra as we have it now contains many sutras which may be considered independent though they no doubt belong to the same class of literature.).(1) The Saddharma-pundarika-sutra. because he would not have one single soul unsaved behind him. The huge rock-cut figure of Vairocana at Lung-men and the bronze figure in Nara are respectively the Chinese and the Japanese artistic response to the spiritual stimulation caused by the Avatamsaka. That he can assume various forms (vikurvana) in order to achieve his ends appeals very much to the religious imagination of the Eastern peoples. but it will be better to treat it as a separate document as it has quite an independent message and has been so considered though not always consciously by its devotees. if anything. This is commonly known as Kwannon-gyo in Japan and forms the twenty-fourth chapter of the Sanskrit Saddharma-pundarika." He would not enter into Nirvana. One of the main theses of this inspiring scripture is the announcement that the Buddha never died. and when the only thing that was left behind after his Nirvana was his Dharma. he cannot help but be deeply impressed with its underlying spirit whose grandeur of outlook almost surpasses human comprehension. And by this "soul" was meant not only human soul but the soul of every being animate or inanimate. Another profound effect produced by this sutra on the Eastern mind is the conception of the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra with his "ten inexhaustible vows. The so-called Interpenetration which constitutes the central thought of the sutra is symbolically and effectively treated in the Chinese translations by Buddhabhadra (60 fas. and Bodhisattvas.

but the underlying thoughts are not at all the same. not to be taken aback by this vast Void. The latter proved a good match for the eloquence of the laydisciple of the Buddha. the householder's life is as good and pure as the mendicant's. earths. was far wider and more spiritualistic than our ordinary one (4) The Prajna-paramita-sutra. And in six hundred fascicles of the sutra we are warned not to be afraid of. The signification of this sutra lies in taking our soiled coat of attachment off our back which we have been wearing ever since we became aware of an external existence. and because of this fact it is read more generally than other Buddhist sutras by the laity. While the Avatamsaka filled the universe with things of imagination even to its minutest particle. for it has awakened the faith-aspect of their religious consciousness.. This was quite a direct straightforward proposition on the part of the Mahayanist. In Japan this school has achieved a . moreover. is the method of perfect emancipation proposed by the Prajna-paramita. even with this Void vanishing from around us. a drama with great literary merit. we are told by the Buddha that we cannot be good followers of the Mahayana. Another significant feature of the sutra is that its chief figure of interest is not the Buddha but a wealthy layman called Vimalakirti. To be left alone in the Void. the head of the Bodhisattvas. the faith of Amitabha looks very much like Christian faith in Christ. etc. If we stagger at this gospel of absolute Emptiness. for Srimala the queen inspired by the wisdom and power of the Buddha delivers a great sermon on the Tathagata-garbha. and even such inanimate existences as mountains. the Prajna-paramita swept everything away from the universe which now becomes a vast Void indeed. gives us the doctrine of Emptiness or Void ( sunyata).animals. The influence of this sutra on Oriental people is quite different from that of the other sutras. that is. from the bondage of ignorance and karma. The Mahayana may be said to be the revolt of laymen and laywomen against the ascetic spirit of exclusion pervading among early advocates of Buddhism. (7) The Sukhavati-vyuha-sutra. whereby every possible straw of attachment is taken away from us. plants. (6) In this respect the Srimala-sutra is also significant. (5) The Vimalakirti-sutra. It appealed greatly to intellectual minds as well as the mystical. What we have to notice especially in this Mahayana text is that Buddhism does not require us to lead a homeless life as a Bhikshu in order to attain enlightenment. which is established on the general basis of Mahayana philosophy. His universe. This is regarded by most Mahayana scholars to have been one of the first Mahayana literature that was declared against the hair-splitting scholastic philosophy of early Buddhist doctors. waters. except Manjusri. It is this crafty old gentleman-philosopher who puts to shame all the Sravakas and Bodhisattvas coming to argue with him about the deepest truths of Buddhism. The Jodo school could not take its rise from any other soil than Mahayana Buddhism. Superficially. This is a masterpiece.

however.. selfgoverning. saying that "There is something in all beings which is true. that without self-realisation all intellection amounts to nothing. and purity.unique development marking a spiritual epoch in the history of religious faith in the East. inspired by the same spirit which pervades the Lanka. In a way The Awakening is an attempt to systematise the Lanka. It is not. While Zen as we have it now is not the same in many respects as Bodhidharma first proclaimed it about fifteen centuries ago. father of Zen Buddhism. the Avatamsaka. freedom. poured out his thoughts in The Awakening. but this is not well grounded. etc. bliss. the spirit itself flows quite unchanged in the East. but another is needed to tell us that mere understanding is not enough in the Buddhist life. we cannot deny its existence in them. for it was through him that a special school of Buddhism under the title of Zen or Ch'an has come to develop in China and in Japan. who. and is characterised with such virtues as permanency. necessary here for us to enter into details. (8) The Parinirvana-sutra. Buddha-nature. As far as the theoretical side is concerned. which exists in every one of us. and Bodhidharma. There is no doubt that the Lanka is closely connected in time as well as in doctrine with The Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana generally ascribed to Asvaghosha. While he may not have been the author of this most important treatise of Mahayana philosophy. Its main assertion is that the Buddha-nature is present in every one of us. Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra. for all the principal teachings of the latter are found there developed in due order. While this lies in ordinary people defiled by the evil passions and does not shine out in its native purity. Before the arrival of this sutra in China it was generally believed that there was a class of people known as Icchanti who had no Buddha-nature in them and therefore who were eternally barred from attaining enlightenment." (9) All these and other sutras of Mahayana Buddhism may seem to exhaust the many-sided aspects of this school. Suffice it to touch lightly upon the characteristic features of the Sutra. though quite different from what is generally known as such by the philosophers. When the external wrappage of impurities is peeled off . real. there was surely a great Buddhist mind. for the point has been fully dwelt upon in my recent work. when a statement to the contrary was found in the sutra. however. And this is eloquently embodied in the Lankavatara-sutra. both teach the existence of the Garbha as ultimate reality. made use of the text quite effectively. This once formed the foundation of the Nirvana school in the early history of Chinese Buddhism. Some scholars contend that The Awakening is a Chinese work. To tell us this is the office of the Lankavatara-sutra. eternal. This belief was entirely expelled. which constitute its special message as distinguished from the other sutras already referred to. This Ego is the Tathagata-garbha. and forever unchanging—this is called Ego. the Parinirvana.

there are no realities behind them. Why is the Alaya found contaminated by evil thoughts and desires? What is the evil? How does it come out in this world? How is the truth to be realised? These questions are answered by postulating a system of Vijnanas and by the doctrine of Discrimination (vikalpa). The difference is this: According to the Vijnaptimatra. So far. in which good and bad are mingled. His idea is to prove the ineffectiveness of logic in the domain of our spiritual life. which belongs to the Lanka. that is. Further. But the Alayavijnana of the Yogacara is not the same as that of Lanka and the Awakening of Faith. and this is done when Discrimination is discarded. The Yogacara is essentially psychological standing in contrast in this respect to the Madhyamaka school which is epistemological. as has already been expounded above. The doctrine of the Void is indeed the foundation of Mahayana philosophy. the world is nothing but ideas. one who seeks the truth by means of self-discipline. but the Cittamatra states that there is nothing but Citta. when a state of non-discrimination is attained in one's spiritual life. is to separate the one from the other. that is. This is where the Lanka joins hands with the Madhyamaka. The former conceives the Alaya to be purity itself with nothing defiled in it whereas theLanka and the Awakening make it the cause of purity and defilement. the birth of a Tathagata is nowhere else than in this Garbha. all-conserving mind. the Yogacara upholds the theory of Vijnaptimatra and not that of Cittamatra. He knows how to make the best use of his inexhaustible resources intellectual and practical for this single . for to discriminate. in the world and that the world is the objectification of Mind. Discrimination is a logical term and belongs to the intellect. is the function of the intellect. This is the point where the Lanka comes in contact with the Yogacara school. the Bodhisattva would not enter into Nirvana because of his vows to save all sentient beings. to divide. and his vows are not limited in time and space. For instance. and the work of the Yogin. Mind. Hence Nagarjuna's hairsplitting dialectics. Logic does not lead one to self-realisation. The Lanka is quite explicit and not to be mistaken in this respect. In fact. Not only are his vows inexhaustible but the "skilful means" he uses for the emancipation of all beings know no limits. The one is pure idealism and the other idealistic realism. The Garbha is from the psychological point of view the Alayavijnana. Avatamsaka. and for this reason they are called "inexhaustible". andAwakening of Faith. but the fact is that the Sutra is deeply tinged with religious sentiments.we all become Buddhas and Tathagatas. the Lanka may seem to be only a philosophical treatise with nothing religious in it. Thus we see that the end of the religious discipline is to go beyond intellectualism. To realise the Cittamatra is the object of the Lanka. But this is not to be understood in the manner of analytical reasoning.

since there is no doubt that it has many layers of added passages. In the Lanka all the most fundamental conceptions of the Mahayana are thrown in without any attempt on the part of the compiler or compilers to give them a system. we do not know how it developed. This idea comes from the philosophical teaching of Interpenetration as upheld in the Avatamsaka. the contents may give a clue to the age of the text. but because of the difficulty of separating one part from another from the point of view of textual criticism. for it was not surely written from the beginning as one complete piece of work as we write a book in these modern days. To a certain extent.purpose. when the first Chinese translation is reported to have been attempted. all the statements are more or less of the character of an ingenious surmise. As long as we have practically no knowledge of historical circumstances in which the Buddhist texts were produced one after another in India or somewhere else. IV The Date of the Lanka As is the case with other Buddhist texts it is quite impossible with our present knowledge of Indian history to decide the age of the Lanka. But this does not mean that the whole text as we have it now was then already in existence. however. arguments from the contents as to the date are of very doubtful character. especially in the 513 (Wei) one. he may be anybody. Parinamana means to turn one's merit over to somebody else so as to expedite the latter's attainment of Nirvana. The one significant Mahayana thought. d. Even with the text that was in existence before 443 a. but according to the Mahayana the recipient need not always be the doer himself. If anybody does anything good. which is not expressly touched upon in the Sutra is that of Parinamana. The one thing that is certain is that it was compiled before 443 a. This transferability is known as the doctrine of Parinamana. the turning over of one's good work to somebody else. merit being of universal character can be transferred upon anything the doer wishes. d. Further. for we know that the later translations done in 513 and 700-704 contain the Dharani and the Sagathakam section which are missing in the 443 one (Sung). Some parts of it must be older than others. This is left to the thoughtful reader himself who will pick them up from the medley and string them into a garland of pearls out of his own religious experience. its merit is sure to come back to the doer himself—this is the doctrine of Karma. All that we can say is this that . Here we may say that the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra of the Avatamsaka or the Gandavyuha is reflected. he may be the whole world. the Meat-eating chapter also suffered certain modifications.

the Lanka is not a discourse directly given by the founder of Buddhism, that it is a later composition than the Nikayas or Agamas which also developed some time after the Buddha, that when Mahayana thoughts began to crystallise in the Northern as well as in the Southern part of India probably about the Christian era or even earlier, the compiler or compilers began to collect passages as he or they came across in their study of the Mahayana, which finally resulted in the Buddhist text now known under the title ofLankavatara-sutra. Some Remarks Concerning the Text Certain irregularities of the chapter-endings are to be noticed in this connection. Generally these endings show that the chapters are composite parts of a sutra and belong to it; but in the case of the Lankasome endings are quite of an independent character, and their relation to the text is not at all definite. For instance: Chapter I—"Chapter One Known as Ravana-invitation"; Chapter II—"Here Ends Chapter Two Known as the Collection of All the Dharmas in the 36, 000 (sloka) Lankavatara"; Chapter III—"Here Ends Chapter Three on Impermanency in the Lankavatara, a Mahayana Sutra"; Chapter IV—"Here Ends Chapter Four on Realisation"; Chapter V—"Here Ends Chapter Five on the Permamency and Impermanency of the Tathagata"; Chapter VI—"Here Ends Chapter Six on Momentariness"; Chapter VII—"Here Ends Chapter Seven on Egolessness"; Chapter VIII—"Here Ends Chapter Eight on Meat-eating from the Lankavatara which is the Essence of All the Buddha-Teachings"; Chapter IX—"Here Ends Chapter Nine Known as Dharani in the Lankavatara." These irregularities, at least in one case, show that there was a larger Lanka containing 36, 000 slokas1 as referred to in Fa-tsang's notices,2 and in another case that the Lanka was also known, or contained, a chapter known as the "Essence of all the Buddha-teachings" which is indeed a sort of subtitle given to the four-volume Chinese Lanka by Gunabhadra (Sung), 443 a. d.
1 2

Suggested by Mr Hokei Idzumi. See my Studies in the Lankavatara Sutra, p. 42.

The Gatha section called "Sagathakam" presents peculiar difficulties. As the earliest Chinese translation by Gunabhadra does not contain it, it is highly probable that it was not then included in the Lankatext. But the fact that both the Wei version and the Sanskrit edition contain not only the verses properly belonging to the Sagathakam but those1 already appearing in the prose section, hints at the existence of a larger or more complete text of

the Lanka in which all these Sagathakam verses were incorporated in the prose section, which, therefore, must have been naturally much fuller than the existing Lanka—perhaps something like the one Containing 36, 000 slokas. There are many verses in the Sagathakam which are too obscure to be intelligently interpreted without their corresponding prose passages. The verses are generally meant for memorising the principal doctrines, and they give sometimes no sense when they are separately considered, for some watch-words only are rhythmically arranged to facilitate the memory. In the Sanskrit text, the Sagathakam begins with this stanza: "Listen to the wonderful Mahayana doctrine, Declared in this Lankavatara Sutra, Composed in verse-gems, And destroying a net of the philosophical views." This may be understood to mean that this section is that part of the Lanka which is made up with the verses, that is to say, the verses taken from the entire text of the Lanka. The term sagathakam also suggests this, for it means the "one with verses." But in this case the following questions may be asked: If there were a larger Lanka containing all these verses in the Sagathakam in the body of the text, or if there were a Lanka with the verses alone and as a separete text which was later on put together with the present one, are all these verses as a whole to be regarded as belonging to the same period? If so, what caused the disappearance of the prose passages which accompanied the verses now retained in the Sagathakam only? Is there no possibility of some of the verses added later to the text independently? There is some evidence of such additions as we can see, for instance, in the conception of the Sambhogakaya (verse 384) and of the ninth Vijnana (verse 13), which are surely of later development. The solution of these and some other possible questions is to be left to some future time when all the circumstances leading to the production of the Buddhist sutras Mahayana and Hinayana in various districts of India are ascertained.
1

These are systematically excluded in the T'ang.

The best way of reading the Lanka, as I said in my Studies, is to cut the whole text into as many pieces1 as the sense allows and to regard each piece as completely expressing one chief thought in the philosophy of Mahayana Buddhism. In some cases the pieces so severed may seem to conflict with one another. In such cases a higher principle will be found somewhere else that unifies the two contradictory notions harmoniously. For after all there is but one highest truth in the Lanka, of which all others are so many aspects viewed at various angles of thought. I thought I would treat the Sagathakam in a similar manner, by dividing the whole portion into so many groups of verses, each of which is presumably concerned with one theme. But the verses being too concise and often merely mnemonic, one finds it too risky to cut them up into groups

and to take the latter as containing so many definite sets of thoughts. As we notice in the cases of repetition occurring so frequently in the Sagathakam the verses are not solidly transferred from the text, that is, they are not always found in the Sagathakam in the same order as they are in the text proper, nor are they complete. Sometimes one single verse is taken out of the group where it belongs in the main text and inserted in an unexpected connection. In these circumstances I thought it wise to leave the Sagathakam as it stands and not to arrange the verses into groups until we know more exactly about the historical evolution of this portion of the Lanka.
This cutting is indicated in the following translation by the Roman figures running consecutively through the entire text except the Ravana, the Dharani, and the Meat-eating chapter, where no such dividing is necessary.
1

In fact, the Sagathakam is a curious mixture where subjects not at all referred to in the prose section are in juxtaposition with those that have to my view no proper bearing in the Lanka. Such subjects are those historical narratives concerning Vyasa, Katyayana, Nagahvaya, etc., and those relating to the monastery life. And then there are some passages in the Sagathakam which may be regarded as later additions. For instance, when it refers to eight or nine several Vijnanas (verse 13), two forms of Alaya (v. 59), the triple body (v. 434), thirty-six Buddhas (v. 380), etc., they are evidently later incorporations. The Sagathakam requires more study from the point of text criticism, and also from the point of doctrinal, literary, and monachical history. The Transmission History of the Lanka In the book called 楞伽師資記, "Record of Master and Disciple in [the Transmission of] the Lanka", which is one of the Tung-huang findings, the transmission line of the Lanka is recorded. The author 淨覺, Ching-chueh, living probably early in the eighth century apparently identified Zen Buddhism with the teaching of the Lanka, for his Fathers of the Lanka transmission are also those of Zen Buddhism. He considers Gunabhadra, the translator of the Sung or four volume Lanka, the first Father of Zen in China, and not Bodhidharma as is generally done by Zen historians. In this the author may be in the right, for in his day there was yet no independent school which later came to be known as "Zen", and whatever represented this movement at the time was no more than the study of the Lanka. Moreover, Ching-chueh belonged to the school of Hsuan-tse (玄賾) and Shen-hsiu (神秀) who upheld the Lanka in opposition to their rival Hui-neng's 慧能 Vajracchedika. This book is one of the most valuable documents for the historical students of early Zen Buddhism in China.1 It contains so much information of definite character concerning its Fathers whose sayings and teachings have so far been shrouded in obscurity.

There is Another equally valuable history of Zen Buddhism which was also discovered in the Tung-huang cave. It is entitled 歷代法寶記 "Record of the Succession of the Dharma-treasure." This was evidently written to contend the position of the 楞伽師資記, for it insists that the first Father of the Lanka as representing the Dharma-treasure was Bodhidharma and not Gunabhadra who was mere translator and not the revealer of the inner meaning of the Sutra. Therefore, the history of Zen Buddhism in China, which is the "Dharma-treasure", should properly begin with Bodhidharma. The author evidently belongs to the school of Hui-neng. The discovery of these two important historical works on Zen, together with the Sayings of Shen-hui, 神會語錄, which was edited by 胡適, Professor Hu Hsi of Peking University, 1930, with his able critical notes, sheds an abundance of light on the early pages of Zen history in China. As a detailed discussion of the subject does not belong here, I reserve it for my Essays in Zen Buddhism, Series II. The Present English Translation As regards the English translation of the Sutra, I have decided after much hesitation to send it out to the public with all its many imperfections. It is a bold attempt on the part of the translator to try to render some of the deepest thoughts that have been nourished in the East into a language to which he was not born. But his idea is that if somebody did not make a first attempt, however poor and defective, the precious stones may remain buried unknown except to a few scholars, and this perhaps longer than necessary. And then things develop. As it is illustrated in the long history of the Chinese translations of the Buddhist texts, there must be several attempts before the work assumes something of finality. There are at present three Chinese translations and one Tibetan of the Lanka, and the first shows many traces of immaturity when compared with the third. We can easily understand the difficulties Chinese scholars encountered in trying to master the translations. The T'ang version could not perhaps be so perfect as it is unless it had two or three predecessors.
The book has been quite recently edited by Kin Kyukei, a librarian attached to Peking University and published in Peking. He was able to do this helped by Professor Hu Hsi, who is the owner of the photographic copies of the original Manuscripts of 楞伽師資記 preserved in the British Museum and in the Biblioth�que Nationale. A collotype impression of the London MS which is not so complete as the Paris MS, though it is very much more legible than the latter, was published by Professor Keiki Yabuki of Japan, in his collection of the Tunhuang MSS, entitled 嗚沙餘韻, "Echoes of the Desert", 1930.
1

I have done all I could to make my translation as intelligible as possible to my readers. If I tried to be too literal, it would be quite unintelligible. The modes of expression are so different in the Sanskrit.

The Sagathakam has never had any Chinese commentaries. probably for brevity's sake. and .There are still many obscure passages which I failed to interpret satisfactorily to myself. with which the Lanka is in the closest relationship. the great teacher of philosophy of the Avatamsaka. because the verses presuppose much knowledge of the matter treated therein. and there is no doubt that Nanjo's edition requires many corrections in order to yield a more intelligible reading. however. and this fact adds more to the difficulties already in existence. the Lanka is a highly chaotic text. and there are also some passages which have forced their way in wrong places where they do not belong. As I said in my Studies. I have quite frequently followed the T'ang reading. though the fact has not regularly been noted. I have used my own judgment in several cases when I thought the sense became thereby clearer. Thus have I heard. the four-volume text by Gunabhadra for their study. Chinese and Japanese scholars have chosen. we are to be grateful to the editor who made the text more accessible to the public than ever before. The Blessed One once stayed in the Castle of Lanka which is situated on the peak of Mount Malaya on the great ocean. [CHAPTER ONE] (1)1 Om! Salutation to the Triple Treasure! Salutation to all the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas! Here is carefully written down the Lankavatara Sutra in which the Lord of the Dharma discourses on the egolessness of all things. While a first draft of the translation was prepared by Sikshananda. and the Sagathakam has thus inevitably been left out. Even with it. I have not always followed Nanjo in the reading of the text. the finishing touch was given by Fa-tsang. In paragraphing too I have often disregarded Nanjo. The T'ang version in this respect gives on the whole the best rendering of the Lanka. When difficulties were encountered in the course of my English translation of the Sanskrit text. whatever shortcomings it may have. The Sanskrit text itself as we have it is still far from being perfect. These obscurities are found more in the Sagathakam. A special index to the Sutra is being prepared and will be issued before long as a separate volume. and this knowledge involves at present much more scholarship and intellectual perspicuity than the present translator can command.

they all well understood the significance of the objective world as the manifestation of their own Mind . and gladden (3) the gods as well as human beings. and looking at Lanka on Mount Malaya smiled and said. the [eight] Vijnanas. The Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas." [Inspired] by the spiritual power of the Tathagata. they were anointed by the hands of all the Buddhas. Walking around the Blessed One three times from left to right. riding in his floral celestial chariot. for this long night he would probably profit. discourse on this Truth. and hanging the lute at one side. which is beyond the reasoning knowledge of the philosophers as well as the state of consciousness of the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. this Truth was made the subject of their discourse.which is adorned with flowers made of jewels of various kinds. 3 Literally. which was inlaid with the choicest lapis lazuli . and looking at the waves of the ocean and also at the mental agitations going on in those assembled. would now for the sake of Ravana. 2 Much more fully described in Bodhiruci (Wei). Ravana. do good. "sporting" (vikridita). teachings. Ravana. heard [his voice]. (2) they knew how to maintain [various] forms.1 I. Overlord of the Yakshas. Indeed. and disciplinary measures. and the twofold Non-atman. at that castle of Lanka on the mountainpeak of Malaya. the Blessed One who had been preaching in the palace of the King of Sea-serpents came out at the expiration of seven days and was greeted by an innumerable host of Nagakanyas including Sakra and Brahma. beating it with a stick of blue Indra (saphire). 2 He was with a large assembly of Bhikshus and with a great multitude of Bodhisattvas. the [three] Svabhavas. came out of the palace of the King of Sea-serpents. and the [six] psychic faculties. headed by the Bodhisattva Mahamati. the Blessed One. who were Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones. they were thoroughly versed in the five Dharmas. were all perfect masters3 of the various Samadhis. 1 At that time. Lord of the Rakshasas. saying: "I will go and request of the Blessed One to enter into Lanka. These Gothic numerals in parentheses refer to pages of the Sanskrit edition. While he was standing there [thus absorbed in contemplation. and having arrived there he and his attendants came out of the chariot. [he thought of] the ocean of the Alayavijnana where the evolving Vijnanas [like the waves] are stirred by the wind of objectivity." Thereupon. the [ten] powers. according to the various mentalities and behaviours of beings. surrounded and accompanied by an in-numerable host of Nagakanyas including Sakra and Brahma. "By the Tathagatas of the past. Lord of the Rakshasas. too. Ravana saw him and] uttered a joyous cry. the [tenfold] self-mastery. came up where the Blessed One was. with his attendants. —the Truth realisable by noble wisdom in one's inmost self. they played on a musical instrument. who had come together from various Buddha-lands.

and learned men. the voice in accompaniment with the flute beautifully blended with the measure of the Gatha. show me now the highest Truth. "I recollect the Buddhas of the past surrounded by sons of the Victorious One recite this Sutra. and Kaisika. and is free from impurities. Ravana. desire to listen. makes him offerings. "The Lankavatara Sutra which is praised by the Buddhas of the past [discloses] the inmost state of consciousness realised by them. mayest thou graciously receive me with Lanka and all its residents. which is the case in the Chinese translations. they sang with various notes such as Saharshya.and supported by [a ribbon of] priceless cloth. Murchana. "Let the Blessed One. 6. (4) "This Lanka was inhabited by the Buddhas of the past. surrounded by sons of the Victorious One. 1 1. which is not founded on any system of doctrine. etc. "The Sugata is the body in whom are stored immaculate virtues. indeed. am called Ravana. 10. After seven nights. by Suka. "In this city. the Lord of Lanka. the Blessed One. the palace of the sea-king." Thereupon. Ravana. has no selfhood (nairatmyam). may he visit Lanka. stands above all reasoning. and the Yakshas who are endowed with many forms will listen. Gandhara. The Sanskrit text is here certainly at fault. now disclose the Truth immaculate on this peak embellished with precious stones. Rishabha. Alighting from the floral vehicle. there ought to be a negative particle somewhere in this passage. Nishada. and stands by the Lord. in him are manifested [bodies] trans-forming and transformed. Muni! 3. "The truth-treasure whose principle is the self-nature of Mind. . we. "I who have come here. Just as the Buddha rises. show me here the way leading to the Truth. Miraculously goes over to the place where the Lord is standing. Now is the time. 4. will speak. and [they were] accompanied by their sons who were owners of many forms. Sarana. Lord. the ten-headed king of the Rakshasas. 7. 8. too. tells him who he is.. Lord. now stands on the shore. yellowish-white like Priyangu. the inmost state of consciousness realised. 11. together with the residents of Lanka. he enjoys the Truth realised in his inmost self. Dhaivata. by the Enlightened Ones of the past (5) was disclosed on this peak studded with precious stones. 5.2 which were melodiously modulated in Grama. he greets the Tathagata reverentially. 2 Neither Bodhiruci nor Sikshananda refers so specifically to these various notes. accompanied by the Apsaras and Yakshas numerous. too. the Blessed One leaving the ocean which is the abode of the Makara. 9. further adapting the Totaka rhythm sang this in the measure of the Gatha. it points to the knowledge attained in one's inmost self. 2. Madyama.

and the delightful Asoka garden. "There are younger Yakshas. here are the Yakshas who are free from faults of greed. the Lord of the Triple World said. 25. have compassion on me!" 20. Arriving in the delightful city [the Buddha was] again the recipient of honours. "This magnificent city of Lanka is adorned with varieties of precious stones. accept my mansion. "They have made offerings assiduously to the Buddhas [in the past] and are to-day going to do the same. "This [inmost Truth] is the abode of those Yogins who stand in the presence of the Truth. as they are devoted to the Mahayana. there will be Buddhas and Buddha-Sons pitying the Yakshas. he was honoured by the group of Yakshas including Ravana and by the Yaksha women. 17. who art our Teacher. "In the time to come. the company of the Apsaras. "Mahamati. 13." 23. (6) "The Rakshasas. "I give myself up to serve the Buddhas and their sons. 19. [surrounded] by peaks. King of the Yakshas. reflecting on [the Truth] realised in one's inmost self and making offerings to the Buddhas of the past. who are residing in the city. they discoursed on the Truth revealed in their inmost [consciousness]. come to Lanka on Mount Malaya. necklaces of various sorts. 26. refresh-ing and beautiful and canopied by a net of jewels. 21. Blessed One. 15. wish.12. to hear about this inmost realisation. "Blessed One. girls and boys. Come. Thus Ravana and others. with Kumbhakarna at their head. the Leaders will discourse on this magnificent doctrine on the peak adorned with precious stones. there is nothing with me that I do not give up [for their sake]. Come. they are believers in the teaching of the Mahayana and intent on disciplining one another. to the Lanka. A net of jewels was offered to the Buddha by the younger Yakshas. this mountain of precious stones was visited by the Leaders in the past. you have the compassion of the Sugatas and myself. 18. 24. 16. and necklaces beautifully ornamented with jewels were . 14. The Blessed One accepting the request [of the King] remained silent and undisturbed. together with [thy] sons. Great Muni. ( 7) honoured by the Apsaras singing and dancing. 22. girls and boys. Hearing him speak thus. [The Buddhas of] the future time will proclaim [the same] on this jewel-adorned mountain. reached the city. taking pity on you. for compassion's sake. wise sons of the Victorious One. "And. desiring to know the Mahayana. he now mounted the floral chariot offered by Ravana. "King of Yakshas.

O thou the proficient one! 1 Verses 20-28. are desirous of hearing. "Where are those countries." 2 1 . "Free from the faults of the philosophers and Pratyekabuddhas and Sravakas is (8) the Truth of the inmost consciousness.2 38. On the summit of each mountain the Buddha himself was visible. The Buddhas together with the sons of the Buddha and the wise men. "Thou art the asker of the Buddha concerning the state of consciousness realised in their inmost selves. request this of thee. Yakshas as well as the sons of the Buddha. "Thou art the most eloquent of speakers. 31. discoursed on the Truth which is the state of consciousness realised in the inmost self. Thus the entire assembly was seen on each mountain-peak. I. 35. Other things were there. Here also was the King of the Rakshasas and the residents of Lanka. 27. Thus according to Bodhiruci and Sikshananda. and the wise men. Honouring [him as] the best speaker. those jewel-shining Buddhas. accepting the offerings. 30. Thought he. [After this] the teacher and the sons of the Buddha vanished away in the air. "How is this? What means this? and by whom was it heard? What was it that was seen? and by whom was it seen? Where is the city? and where is the Buddha? 40. and all the countries Were there. also was found standing there. of which we here. Ask [the Buddha] about the doctrine. with faith I beg of thee. —the Asoka with its shining woods. leaving Ravana the Yaksha himself standing [above] in his mansion. and the most strenuous of the Yogins. 37. inclusive. are in prose in T'ang. and on each mountain-peak Mahamati was making a request of the Buddha. immaculate and culminating in the stage of Buddhahood. together with the Yakshas. on the mountain-peak he delivered a complete sutra with an exquisite voice varied in hundreds of thousands of ways. 28. Who discoursed for the sake of the Yakshas on the Truth leading to the inmost realisation. those Sugatas? (9) Is it a dream then? or a vision? or is it a castle conjured up by the Gandharvas? From this verse T'ang is in prose again. The Sanskrit text has: "hundreds of thousands of perfect sutras. and Ravana.placed by Ravana about the neck of the Buddha and those of the sons of the Buddha. 33." 32. and the Lanka created by the Buddha rivaling [the real one]. the sons of the Buddha. 39. the Yaksha. 36. Ravana and the company of the Yakshas honoured Mahamati and requested of him again and again:1 29. and in each there was a Leader. 34.1 Thereupon the Blessed One created jewel-adorned mountains and other objects magnificently embellished with jewels in an immense number. too.

"It is to be known by oneself. the stage of Buddhahood. "There is neither the seer nor the seen. Lord of Lanka. feeling a revulsion (paravriti) in his mind and realising that the world was nothing but his own mind: he was settled in the realm of nondiscrimination. All things are to be comprehended by ." 2 This does not appear in T'ang. he cannot see the Buddha. 3 T'ang: to go beyond. was urged by the stock of his past good deeds. one does not see 1 the Buddha. got a view whereby he could cut himself loose from the triple continuation. otherwise viewed. when no discrimination is aroused.2 became a great Yogin of the discipline. "Those who see things such as were seen before. had the knowledge of disposing of every argument of ( 10) the philosophers on causation. this. saying. was no more dependent upon others. is the seeing. acquired the cleverness of understanding all the texts. and it is not comprehended by the ignorant as they are confused by every form of imagination." According to Wei: "If he sees things and takes them for realities. Even when he is not abiding in a discriminating mind. that which I saw here?" 42. or a fata morgana. do not see the Buddha. "This is the nature as it is (dharmata) of all things. [when suddenly] a voice was heard from the sky. by which he would surmount it skilfully. they are transformed assuming an exquisite body—this is the Enlightenment [attained by] the Buddha. got thoroughly acquainted with all skilful means. the form and usage of the Buddha and his Dharma—they are nothing but discrimination. was delighted to look into3 the self-nature of Citta. he does not see the Buddha. gained the insight that was not of discursive reasoning. Manas. indeed.41. If a man is able thus to see [things]. cannot see the Buddha. he is the one who sees the Tathagata. 43. [even] when discrimination is not aroused. 1 "Well done. Not seeing anything doing [in the world]—this is said to be seeing the Buddha. The Lord of Lanka was then immediately awakened [from his reflection]. The Tathagatas and all things are to be viewed as they are viewed by thee. or the smoke of a fire-wheel." T'ang has: "He who sees in the way as was seen before. Then [Ravana reflected]. it is nihilism. the inmost self. indeed. had the knowledge of the characteristic aspects of every stage. Lord of Lanka! Well done. for once more! The Yogin is to discipline himself as thou doest. When the wise observe all experiences in this manner. was no more dependent upon others. which belongs to the realm of Mind. neither the speaker nor the spoken. or the dream-child of a barren woman. obtained the faculty of seeing things as they are. the Buddha being fully-enlightened is seen where the world itself is not evolved. "Or is it dust in the eye. well done. observed things excellently with his own wisdom (buddhi). nor in Wei. Manovijnana. thoroughly understood the Tathagata-garbha. 44. was able to manifest himself in all excellent forms. found himself abiding in the Buddhaknowledge.

they maintain such notions as element. They cling to the individual forms of the world created by their egotistical ideas. Manas. "Lord of Lanka. and Vijnana as is done by thee. Such are sons of the Buddha who walk in the way of the Mahayana. Pratyekabuddhas. Their ugly practice arises from adhering to dualistic views concerning the self-nature of the Vijnana. reflect on the signification of this as you did when seeing the Tathagata before. thou shouldst not have any liking for small talk and witticism. "Well done. this is the Mahayana realisation. this is what makes one grow aware of the inmost attainment. 1 Wei and T'ang: Do not hold the views maintained in the Vedas. "Lord of Lanka. conceptions. by entering upon the Mahayana discipline the veils [of ignorance] are destroyed. to keep themselves properly away from ego-centered notions. this is what leads to various excellent attainments. to crush mischievous views in pieces. who has all the disciplinary practices at his command. views. This will result in the acquirement of an excellent condition of existence. etc." At that time it occurred to Ravana: "I wish to see the Blessed One again. indeed. who has turned away from the practices of the philosophers. and Samadhis of the Sravakas. Lord of Lanka. who is born of the state of realisation in the inmost consciousness. Pratyekabuddhas. nor dwell on such Dhyanas as belong to the six Dhyanas. and who is beyond [the dualism of] .transcending the Citta. and philosophers. is seeing the Tathagata. Thou shouldst look inwardly and not become attached to the letter and a superficial view of things. conducting thyself in this manner. "Lord of Lanka. for this. let thee be further purified in the way thou hast attained. and philosophers. experiences. this is the realisation of the great Yogins: to destroy the discourses advanced by others. "Lord of Lanka. In order to enter upon the stage of self-realisation as attained by the Tathagatas. (11) by disciplining thyself well in Samadhi and Samapatti. and substance. they cling to discrimination [as real]. the philosophers' practice starts from their own egotistic attachments. quality. to cause a revulsion in the depths of the mind fittingly by means of an exquisite knowledge. thou shouldst not cherish the notion of selfsubstance. thou shouldst not fall into the attainments.1 nor have any thought for the vainglory of rulership. they become confused by cherishing the idea of birth where prevails emptiness. and one turns away from the multitudinous waves of the Vijnana and falls not into the refuge and practice of the philosophers. follow not the state realised and enjoyed by the Sravakas. they fall into the way of thinking where obtains [the dualism of] qualifying and qualified. "Lord of Lanka. they cling tenaciously to views originating from ignorance. which rises from the imagination of those who discipline themselves according to the practices of the puerile philosophers. the discipline is to be pursued by thee.

who keeps himself away from work (kriya) and form (lakshana). and attain the ground where the Tathagatas walk. in front of the Tathagata. He [Ravana] then sees the Bodhisattvas in the mountain woods strenuously applying themseves to the mastery of the truth. and relatives. wives. the Fully-Enlightened One. He then sees the venerable Mahamati the Bodhisattva before each Buddha preaching about the spiritual discipline of one's inner life. T'ang reads: "In all the Buddha-lands in the ten quarters were also seen such events going on. who is surrounded by sons of the Buddha. the Blessed One recognising that the Lord of Lanka is to attain the Anutpattikadharmakshanti showed his glorious compassion for the ten-headed one by making himself visible once more on the mountainpeak studded with many jewels and enveloped in a net-work of jewels. He thus sees the Bodhisattvas reading and reciting the sutras under a tree in the woods and discoursing on them for others. with the thirty-two marks of excellence beautifully adorning his person. which is contrasted in the Lankavatara throughout 1 . and precious treasures. together with Mahamati. they find themselves bound by the five passions and have no time for emancipation. abide in the joy of Samadhi and Samapatti. he is the realisation attained by those who enjoy the perfect bliss of the Samadhi which they gain by coming to an intuitive understanding through meditation. children. As they are covetously attached to their thrones. seeing him may I attain what I have not yet attained. who moves about everywhere. and there was no difference whatever. Seeing this. concubines. elephants. [retain] what I have already gained.the transformed and the transforming. who was the Arhat and the FullyEnlightened One. seeking thereby the truth of the Buddha. and. They now retreat into the mountain-woods. who knows everything. wives. palaces. [he saw] the Tathagata. and Rakshasas. He is the knowledge (12) realised by the Yogins. and also sees [the Bodhisattva] surrounded by all the Yakshas and families and talking about names. and in these make progress. words." This last sentence is evidently the translation of the Sanskrit desanapathakatham. horses. leaving their homes and wishing to study the doctrine. lion. He then sees the Bodhisattvas seated under the Bodhi-tree in the Bodhi-mandala thinking of the suffering Beings and meditating on the truth of the Buddha. and also saw himself on each mountain-peak. may I conduct myself with non-discrimination. The ten-headed King of Lanka saw the splendour again as seen before on the mountain-peak." Wei is quite different and has the following: "Besides. surrounded by the Yakshas. who has penetrated into the minds and thoughts of all beings. phrases. they abandon their dominions. putting forward his discourse on the realisation experienced by the Tathagata in his inmost self. May I see thus [again] the Compassionate One by means of his miraculous powers in whom the fuel of passion and discrimination is destroyed. and paragraphs. Those (13) [Buddha]-lands were seen with the Leaders." At that moment. even to the extent of throwing themselves to the hungry tiger. conversing on the verbal teachings and stories [of the Buddha]. giving them all up to the Buddha and his Brotherhood.1 There is surely a discrepancy here in the text. he saw all the Buddha-lands and all the kings thinking of the transitoriness of the body.

the Blessed Ones. Mahamati! Well done. This is wanting in the Chinese translations. laughed loudly and most vigorously like the lion-king. O Mahamati. and reviewing the [ten] quarters. after smiling first. Emitting rays of light from the tuft of hair between the eyebrows. — which might lead them to think how it were that the Tathagatas. blazing brilliantly. and philosophers. Thus should it be with the wise men who want to ask questions for both themselves and others. for what cause did this laughter take place?" Said the Blessed One: "Well done. like the rising sun. with the realisation [of the Truth] in his inmost self. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who was previously requested by Ravana [to ask the Buddha concerning his selfrealisation].with pratyatmaryajnanagocara (the spiritual realm realised by noble wisdom in one's inmost consciousness). well done. and from every pore of the skin. because of their clinging to the letter as [fully in accordance with] the spirit (artha). (14) and knowing the minds and thoughts of the assembly of the Bodhisattvas. like a luminous rainbow. for once more.2 laugh the loudest laugh? Why does he emit rays of light from his own body? Why. thou undertakest to ask me the question. indeed. Pratyekabuddhas. I wonder. each thought within himself: "For what reason. Mahamati! Viewing the world as it is in itself and wishing to enlighten the people in the world who are fallen into a wrong view of things in the past. gloriously —which were observed from the sky by Sakra. and the guardians of the world. At that time. —emitting rays of light which shone flaming like the fire taking place at the end of a kalpa. and he wishes now to ask me too a twofold question in order to . from the loins. which is not the human eye. asked a twofold question of the Tathagatas of the past who are Arhats and perfect Buddhas. Lord of Lanka. and performance of Ravana?" 1 2 Swastika. attainment. and observing that beings to be born in the future would be confused in their minds because of their delight in the verbal teaching (desanapatha). from the ribs. At that time the assembly of the Bodhisattvas together with Sakra and Brahma. the one who sat on the peak [of Lanka] vying with Mount Sumeru laughed the loudest laugh. and absorbed deeply and showing no surprise in the bliss of Samadhi. Brahma. Then the Blessed One beholding again this great assembly with his wisdom-eye. does he remain silent. from the Srivatsa 1 on the breast. feeling pity on him. because of their clinging to the disciplinary powers of the Sravakas. Ravana. present. and future. looking around like the lion-king. from what cause does the Blessed One who is the master of all the world (sarva-dharma-vasavartin). emitting [rays of light]. even in their transcendental state of consciousness should burst out into loudest laughter —Mahamati the Bodhisattva asked the Buddha in order to put a stop to their inquisitiveness the following question: "For what reason. and thinking only of the discipline.

he was surrounded by a large company of celestial maidens." 1 At that moment the Lord of Lanka being permitted by the Blessed One. by those lotuses that are blessed variously by the benediction of his own person. and which is something never seen before by the Sravakas.. Yakshas.have its distinction. and each one of them will before long come to abide in a realm beyond the understanding. flowers.. perfumes. necklaces. delay not. the Blessed One said to the Lord of Lanka. each one of whom is sitting on a lotus-throne. '' The following sentence is done by the aid of T'ang.. and others. . banners. halfnecklaces. and the same will be asked by the question-loving ten-headed one of the Buddhas to come. music was played surpassing anything that could be had by the gods. whatever questions thou desirest to have answered. unguents. and Dharmamegha. grasp well the egolessness of all things in its true significance. This is a realm beyond the imagination. [seeing into] the nature of the inner principle in thyself. were created. rose from his seat on the peak of the jewel-mountain which shone like the jewel-lotus immaculate and shining in splendour. Thou shouldst plan out an adequate plan and establish thyself at a stage of discipline by planning out such a plan as shall include [all kinds of] skilful means. too. abide in the bliss of Samadhi. attainment. Brahma. and philosophers. Sadhumati. Keeping thy seat of thought free from [false] discrimination. abide in the bliss of tranquillisation. as the Sanskrit does not seem to give any sense. the Tathagata has given thee permission [to ask]. diadems. Indra. " Wei has: "O King of Lanka. umbrellas. Nagas. I will answer each of them (15) with judgment to the satisfaction of your heart. and surrounded by those thou wilt find thyself and looking face to face at one another. going beyond the Samadhi and understanding attained by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. thou Lord of Lanka. so that thou comest to realise that realm which is beyond imagination. thus: "Ask. There are innumerable families of lotus-kings and innumerable families of Bodhisattvas there." Knowing that. 1Surrounded by the Bodhisattvas who are sitting on lotuses of various sorts each supported by the gracious power of the Buddhas. tiaras. thus sitting on the lotus-throne and continuing to abide there in a most natural manner. and all kinds of garlands. and scope ascertained—this is what is never tasted by those who practise the meditation of the Sravakas. thou shalt find thyself sitting on a lotus and each one of the Bodhisattvas looking at thee face to face. abide in [the attainment of the Bodhisattvas] in the stages of Acala. incense. Literally translated it reads: "There by the becoming lotuses. ponder things with wisdom. embraced by the Buddhas in Samadhi. (16) and other ornaments whose splendour and excellence were never heard of or seen before. be anointed by the Buddhas in Samadhi at the great palace of lotus-jewels. and thou shouldst attain the stage of Tathagatahood in which one is able to manifest oneself in various forms. observe well what is to be subdued at each stage. Pratyekabuddhas. Upendra. fiags. philosophers. Pratyekabuddhas. thou wilt before long see thy person.

Thou art thyself a master of all things. Blessed One. but not by the Tathagatas of Silence. duality was discoursed upon by the Transformed Tathagatas and Tathagatas of Trans-formation. an Arhat. with a diadem. "Lord of Lanka. because the non-differentiating nature of the Alayavijnana is not recognised? Like the seeing of a hair-circle as really existing in the air. a variety of dresses and high banners was made rising high in the air as high as seven tala trees to great [the Buddha]. [the notion of dualism] belongs to the realm of intellection not exhaustively purgated. thou assuredly wilt discourse on this subject of duality. takes place in a realm of . or pratyatmagati in the Lankavatara. Blessed One." That is. and it was solved by them. such as is perceived in jars and other breakable objects whose nature it is to perish in time. bracelet. now I ask of thee.2 The Tathagatas of Silence are absorbed in the blissful state of Samadhi. Mahoragas. who were Arhats. and necklace strung with vajra thread. a Tathagata. full of splendour and beauty. how could there be any abandonment [of dharmas and adharmas]?" Said the Blessed One. from [the idea of] things created (bhautika) and uncreated. Kinnaras. and how much more adharmas. case as it should be.Rakshasas. playing music which resounded [all around]. the Blessed One and the Bodhisattvas were enveloped in a net of jewels. said. musical instruments were created equal to anything that could be had in all the world of desire and also such superior musical instruments were created as were to be seen in the Buddha-lands. seest thou not that the differentiation of things. "Lord of Lanka. Desanapatha stands in contrast with siddhanta. (17) who was renewed in his ornaments. Gandharvas. and then descending from the air. they do not discriminate concerning this state. from discriminating self-substance where there is none. and men. why does this dualism exist that we are called upon to abandon? What are adharmas? and what are dharmas? How can there be a duality of things to abandon —a duality that arises from falling into discrimination. tell me what you mean by duality?" The Lord of the Rakshasas. Blessed One. nor do they discourse on it. showering great clouds of offerings. Blessed One." 1 The Blessed One said. Fully-Enlightened Ones. [the Lord of Lanka] sat down on the peak of the jewel-mountain ornamented with magnificent jewel-lotus whose splendour was second only to the sun and lightning. Sitting he made courtesy smiling first to the Blessed One for his permission and proposed him a twofold question: " It was asked of the Tathagatas of the past. This being the. 2 In T'ang and Wei: "Original Tathagatas. as far as the teaching could be conveyed in words. The sons of the Buddha and myself are anxious to listen to it. [the request] will certainly be complied with by thee as far as verbal instruction is concerned1 as it was by the Buddhas [of the past]. "It is said that even dharmas are to be abandoned.

are produced. and burns them down. knots. As it is with every external object from which grows [a variety of] objects. things defiled and free from defilement.. there is in them no such [dualistic] happening as is seen as reality and non-reality. Not only. This being so. thus there are seen things inferior. Such are not to be regarded [as real] because they are appearances (lakshana).discrimination [cherished by] the ignorant? This being so. with all kinds of objects accompanying. Sravakas. petals. their substances are not attainable. etc. stems. Lord of Lanka. or an ass. etc. is there such a difference of conditions in things generally. happiness. or a camel. let it be so with the ignorant who follow the particularised aspect of existence that there are such objects as jars. Not only is there seen a fire-flame spreading out in one continuity and yet showing a variety of flames. are adharmas? Lord of Lanka. while a difference in the flames is seen according to the power of each burning material which varies in length. there is also seen a variety of realisations attained innerly by each Yogin as he treads the path of discipline which constitutes his practice. as we see. then. what are dharmas? That is. Lord of Lanka. "Lord of Lanka. leaves. superior. One flame of uniform nature rises up depending on houses. fruit. are products of discrimination conceived by the ignorant. things good and bad. we do. What again is meant by the unattainability of dharmas? That is. is not to be realised by seeing [things this way]. Lord of Lanka. From ignorance there develop the Skandhas. Dhatus. they are discriminated by the discriminations cherished by the philosophers. but it is not so with the wise. but from one seed. all individualised. or a child conceived by a . form. why (18) is it not to be so understood? The duality of dharma and adharma thus comes into existence. and ignorant people. Lord of Lanka. It comes from one's clinging [to appearances] that the manifestations of his own Mind are regarded as reality (dharmata). Ayatanas. (19) Such things as jars. they are above causality. also in one continuity. etc. They think that the dharmas headed by quality and substance are produced by causes—[these are the notions] to be abandoned. they exist not. which grow out in the triple world where we have. "What. flowers. each differentiating [infinitely]. and behaviour. This is known as the abandoning of dharmas. speech. Pratyekabuddhas.. it is like horns of a hare. branches. magnitude. mansions. How much more difference in dharma and adharma do we not see in a world of particulars which is evolved by discrimination? Indeed. they are not appearances born of discrimination. however. The oneness of the Vijnana is grasped variously according to the evolution of an objective world. so also with internal objects. and terraces. is it not to be so understood? It is due to discrimination [cherished by] the ignorant that there exists the differentiation of dharma and adharma. parks. and middling. the differentiation of dharma and adharma comes from discrimination. The viewing of things from this viewpoint is known as their abandonment. shoots. [dharmas] are unattainable as to their selfhood. Noble wisdom (aryajnana). or a horse.

it is not a form of particularisation. personality. Lord of Lanka. no deeds. soul. Wherefore do they not discriminate the Manas? Because discrimination is of the self. ]. also of discrimination. If one wishes to realise the bliss of real wisdom. so is the future. present some difficulties for clear understanding. conditions. Do not discriminate nor be discriminated. How do they not discriminate? The Manovijnana is meant for the objective world where causality prevails as regards forms. They are dharmas the nature of which is unattainable. figures. Lord of Lanka. etc. when I speak of the real nature of suchness as being real. it is like various forms painted on the wall. the teaching of all the Buddhas is outside discrimination. They are only talked About in popular parlance if they have any sense at all. all sentient beings are like grasses and trees. as it goes beyond all discriminations and futile reasonings. too. How not to discriminate? It is in the Manovijnana that various conditions are cherished such as forms. I too am like him.. 1 It is by transcendental wisdom (prajna) that the Tathagata performs deeds transcending forms (animittacara). This is called the abandoning of dharmas and adharmas. [Is this to be read. they are not to be adhered to as in the case of jars. etc." T'ang: "Lord of Lanka. As these [unrealities] are to be abandoned as not comprehensible by the mind (vijnana). [etc. of them nothing is heard. with them there are no acts. and so are the future and the present. but singularly all the three texts. perhaps excepting T'ang. they go beyond discrimination and futile reasoning. Because of reality (dharmata) the Tathagatas do not discriminate. it is realised only by wisdom. This is one of the most important sections in this first introductory chapter. what constitutes the Tathagatas in essence as well as in body is wisdom ( jnana). nor are they discriminated. Wei: "Lord of Lanka. do not discriminate the Tathagatas as having knowledge-body or wisdom-essence. Therefore. appearances. Do not cling in [thy] will to such notions as ego. it also belongs to discrimination. Lord of Lanka. what you speak of as past is a form of discrimination. it is like discriminating forms as the ultimate limit. your question as to the way of abandoning dharmas and adharmas is hereby answered. Further. do not cherish such [discriminations]. "the present.barren woman. all dharmas and adharmas. Lord of Lanka. of personality. so are things (bhava) of discrimination also to be abandoned. of soul. and figures. that which is spoken of as the past belongs to discrimination. nothing talked. as the past is thus a discriminated [idea]. therefore. 1 . thou sayest again that thou hast asked [this question] of the Tathagatas of the past who were Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones and that it was solved by them. even so are the [ideas] of the future and the present. discrimination and non-discrimination must be transcended.. therefore. is like it"!] Lord of Lanka. "Lord of Lanka. what you speak of as past is no more than discrimination. Lord of Lanka. let him discipline himself in the knowledge that transcends forms. Do not cherish any discrimination in [thy] mind. Lord of Lanka. they are not to be thought [as real] because they are appearances. They do not discriminate. all sentient beings are such. they do not follow (20) the individuation-aspect of forms (rupa) except when [reality] is disclosed for the edification of the unknowing and for the sake of their happiness..

It is like seeing one's own image reflected in a mirror. all that is in the world is like an image magically transformed. This is not comprehended by the philosophers and the ignorant. Those who see things otherwise walk in discrimination. or seeing one's shadow in the house. he who thus sees things. they are like figures painted on the wall. Do not discriminate him after the notion of ego. no preaching. it is like beings painted in colours on a wall. the trend of the discourse as presented by the Buddha shows that it is closely related to the Sutra. reference is made to the Sutra itself at the end of a chapter. nor is he to be discriminated. and again seeing that the rest of the text makes no further reference to Ravana. He thus does not discriminate. While there is no doubt about its being a later addition. Lord of Lanka. Lord of Lanka. Generally. they cling to dualism. no rewards [are with them]. Sentient beings in the world are also like them." The First Chapter Called "Ravana Asking for Instruction. The discoursing is done by the wisdom transcending forms. the Tathagata has his essence. beings are appearances." "Lord of Lanka. which is gained by entering into the womb of Tathagatahood. they have no sensibility [or consciousness]. and oneness gives birth to the highest Samadhi. stating that the chapter bears such a title belonging to such a Sutra. his body in this wisdom. all that is in the world is devoid of work and action because all things have no reality. It is called the Tathagata. Therefore."1 It is noteworthy that the chapter endings are not the same throughout the entire text. But in the present case there is no mention at all of the Lankavatara Sutra as if this Ravana section were something quite independent. failing to carry out the abandonment of the dualism. People grasping their own shadows of discrimination (21) uphold the discrimination of dharma and adharma and. Why this impossibility of discrimination? because the Manovijnana is aroused on account of an objective world wherein it attaches itself to forms and figures. By tranquillity is meant oneness (ekagra). nothing hearing. they go on discriminating and never attain tranquillity. Lord of Lanka. especially when it emphasises at the end the importance of self-realisation against the inanity or futility of the verbal teaching ordinarily given out by a master. Lord of Lanka. So are all the teachings.That [this absolute] teaching is at all discoursed about is for the sake of giving bliss to all sentient beings. personality. or being. which is the realm of noble wisdom realised in one's inmost self. and there is nothing heard. as they depend on discrimination. 1 . [the Tathagata] is outside the discriminating [view] as well as the discriminated [idea]. or hearing an echo in the valley. they have no sensibility [or intelligence]. is the one who sees truthfully. no acts. or one's own shadow in the water. seeing what a complete piece of narrative it forms by itself. or in the moonlight. no hearing. therefore.

of which one cannot say whether it is permanent or destructible. rose from his seat by the power of the Buddhas. 5. . With thy transcendental knowledge and compassion which are above form. Those who see the Muni so serene and beyond birth [and death] will be cleansed of attachment. turning in the direction of the Blessed One. and praised him with the following verses: 1. placing his right knee on the ground and with folded hands. it is to thee always like a dream. 7. as [the category of] being and non-being is inapplicable to them. thou comprehendest the egolessness of things and persons. Of a thing whose appearance is not visible because of its being beyond the senses and their objects (23). of which one cannot say whether it is born or destroyed. together with all the Bodhisattvas. 8. O Muni? This division is made by the translator to facilitate the understanding of the text in which divers subjects are promiscuously treated. for it transcends the duality of knowing and known and of being and non-being. 4. and art thyself always clean and free from the hindrances of passion and knowledge. As thou reviewest the world with thy transcendental knowledge and compassion. 2. they are beyond the reach of intellectual grasp. 1 6. as [the category of] being and nonbeing is inapplicable to it. drawing his upper garment over one shoulder. As thou reviewest the world with thy transcendental knowledge and compassion. what is there to praise? When no thought arises as to existence or as to nothaving-self-nature. respectfully saluted him. II At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva praising the Blessed One with such verses as these. as [the category of] being and non-being is inapplicable to it. it is to thee like an ethereal flower. made his own name known to the Blessed One. then there is praise. 3. Thou dost not vanish in Nirvana. how can it be praised or blamed. stainless both in this world and in the other. In the Dharmakaya. whose self-nature is like a vision or a dream. As thou reviewest all things with thy transcendental knowledge and compassion. they are to thee like visions. nor is Nirvana abiding in thee.[CHAPTER TWO] I1 (22) At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who had visited all the Buddha-lands.

Whence are families and no-families? What is meant by Mindonly? The setting up of marks? And whence [the doctrine of] egolessness? 22. and whence are the sons of the Victorious? 14. O Bull-like Victor? 20. Why is there no being? What kind of teaching is in accordance with popular thinking? How can one cease cherishing eternalism (sasvatadarshana) and nihilism (uccheda-darshana)? 23. Who attains the psychic faculties. How does action rise? Whence is the behaviour of those who hold the body? Whence [this] visible [world]? Whence the conditions? Whence the entrance upon the stages? 18. spoke to the son of the Sugata thus: 11. 10. whence is the rise of the Nyaya school? Its future? 24. What is meant by emptiness? What do you understand by momentary destruction? Whence is the Womb? And whence is the stability of the world? . sons of the Victorious.9. Who is it that breaks through this triple existence? What is the abode? What is the body? Where does that which is abiding arise? Whence comes the son of the Buddha? 19. appearance. Where is the way of emancipation? Who is in bondage? By what is he redeemed? What is the mental state of those who practise the Dhyanas? Whence is the triple vehicle? 15. Ask me. I am Mahamati. prostrated himself at the feet of the Blessed One and asked: (24) 12. looking over the whole assembly. How is it that you do not differ from the philosophers as regards appearance? Tell me. At that moment Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who was given by the Blessed One the opportunity to speak. How can one be cleansed of false intellection? Whence does it arise? How can one perceive errors? Whence do they arise? 13. the gradations. and Mahamati. Wherefore is the tranquilising exercise of formlessness? And that of complete extinction? Wherefore the extinction of thoughts? And how is one awakened from it? 17. the self-masteries. Whence come lands. the best knower of the world. Blessed One. the Samadhis? How is the mind tranquilised? Pray tell me. I wish to ask one hundred and eight questions of thee who art most eloquent. and am well versed in the Mahayana. and philosophers? Wherefore is the state of imagelessness. Hearing his words the Buddha. transformation. What is the Alaya? And whence the Manovijnana? (25) How does the visible [world] rise? How does it cease from being visible? 21. What is that which is born of causation? What is effect? What is cause [or that which works]? Whence the doctrine of duality? Whence does it arise? 16. you ask and I will instruct you in self-realisation.

and provincial rulers? 34. and the sun? 35. Whence is the gradation of the stages? What is the state of imagelessness? (26) Wherefore is the twofold egolessness? How is one cleansed of [the hindrance of] knowledge? 30. offices. What are the elements of enlightenment? Whence are the constituents of enlightenment? Wherefore is a revolution. Lord of the Triple World? 39. 26. sovereigns.25. constellations. and deer get caught? Wherefore are there fools and despicable people? Pray tell me. What is meant by [the doctrine] that there is nothing but thoughtconstruction? Pray tell me. How many varieties of food and drink are there? Whence does sexual desire originate? Whence are there kings. Of how many kinds is knowledge (jnana)? O Leader! How many moral precepts are there? and forms of being? Whence are the families born of gold and jewel and pearl? 31. How many kinds of Buddhahood are there? And how many of the Jataka Tales? How numerous are the evil ones? How numerous are the heretics? 37. What is meant by the world being above birth and death? or being like the flower in the air? How do you understand it? Why do you regard it as being beyond words? 28. thou Most Eloquent One? (27) 38. thou Charioteer of the Mind? . How is it not subject to discrimination? How is it like the sky? Of how many sorts is suchness? How manifold is the Mind? How many Paramitas are there? 29. elephants. Of whom is speech born? Whence is the differentiation of beings? Whence are the sciences. How does a king protect his dominion? Of how many groups are heavenly beings? Whence are the earth. or like the moon reflected in water? Pray tell me. stars. How many kinds of emancipation are there? of the Yogins? How many kinds of discipleship? And how about the masters? 36. Whence are the clouds in the sky? the wind? What is meant by recollection? by wisdom (medha)? Whence are trees and vines? Pray tell me. Of how many sorts are gathas? What is prose? What is metre? Of how many sorts is reasoning and exegesis? 33. the moon. arts? and by whom are they made manifest? 32. How do horses. and the disturbance of a kingdom? And how does the realistic view of existence (bhavadrishti) take its rise? 27. Why is the world like a vision and a dream? How does it resemble the city of the Gandharvas? Why it is to be regarded as like a mirage.

surrounded by such Bodhisattvas of such various names and forms? 45. 50. How many sorts of established truths are there? And how many of philosophical views? Whence is morality? And what constitutes the being of a Bhikshu? Pray tell me. Wherefore are [the lands] shaped in the form of a lute or a drum? Like various flowers and fruits? Like the sun and the moon which are so stainless? Pray tell me. By whom are the psychic powers of this world attained? What are the super-worldly ones? By what means does the mind enter upon the seven stages? Pray tell me. sasana]! How long should the teacher abide? How long should the teaching continue? 52. the Sumeru. [which is realised] by the Pratyekabuddhas. . who eats meat? 46. What is the meaning of your being enlightened in the Akanishtha by shaking off all the passions? 51. what are their specific marks and forms? How is abundance of wealth acquired? Pray tell me. Wherefore are the six seasons mentioned? What is meant by the Icchantika [one who is without Buddha-nature]? Pray tell me whence is the birth of a man? of a woman? of a hermaphrodite? 41. After my passing who will be the upholder of the Discipline [or Doctrine. Why is meat not to be eaten? Why is it forbidden? Whence was the carnivorous race born. Why are the lands shaped like the moon. How does one retrograde in the Yoga exercises? How does one make progress in them? How many exercises are there? and how are men kept abiding in them? Pray tell me. Bodhisattvas. 53. How many kinds of Brotherhood are there? And how does a dissension take place in a Brotherhood! Whence are medical treatises for beings? Pray tell me. Why does not one attain enlightenment in the world of desire? Pray tell me. the sun. Whence is the Sakya family? And the one born of Ikshvaku? Whence is the Rishi Long-Penance? What is taught by him? 44. (28) 47. the lotus. 42. 49. thou who art like the sky? 43. Wherefore are the lands shaped like a capsized and upturned net of Indra which is composed of all sorts of jewels? Pray tell me why? 48. the swatika. and Sravakas? 54. What is meant by a state of revulsion [or turning-back]? Whence is a state of imagelessness. and the lion? Pray tell me. How is it that thou art thus apparent everywhere in every land.40. Whence are the Buddhas of Transformation? Whence are the Buddhas of Maturity [or Recompense]? Whence are the Buddhas who are endowed with transcendental knowledge of suchness? Pray tell me. 55. Beings are born in the various paths of existence.

no-birth. having-no-sellnature. What is a proposition. the wandering-about. The stars. [spoke thus]: 61. Self-nature. Samapattis. emptiness. and the comings-and-goings. Whence is the doctrine that there is no ego-soul in beings? Whence is the doctrine of eternity. seen] world. lands. the known. Krakuchanda. The extinctions (nirodha). the One Most Excelled in the Knowledge of the World. the supernatural powers. the five Dharmas. the Buddha. oceans. one Buddhahood. The Sravakas. and teachings? 1 Not found in T'ang. Whence is the state of imagelessness and revulsion which is a hundredfold?1 You tell me. the Dhyanas. the original elements. The Icchantika. You say that you were among the Buddhas Kasyapa. the Samadhis. and the paths. 67. Cakravada. . islands. and the existence and non-existence of beings? 69. Birth. Bodhisattvas. Buddhas. that there is no objective [literally. Likewise about medical treatises. knowledge. Hearing this [which constitutes] the wonderful doctrine of the Mahayana and also the most excellent heart of the Buddhas. deer caught? Pray tell me how. the self-masteries. O Great Muni! 57. the unmeasurables. Well done! Well done! O Mahaprajna-Mahamati! Listen well. and Vijnanas. and Kanakamuni. the psychic faculties. jewels. ( 30) emancipations. and Vajrasamhanana? 59. Dhyanas. and I will tell you in order regarding your questions. Nirvana. the elements of enlightenment. 65. the extinctions. transmigration. the visible [world]. those born of gold. families. the discriminated. the philosophers. a teaching established by the conjunction of reason and illustration? 70. Whence is cause and effect? Various errors? and also reason? [Why the statement that there is] nothing but Mind. whence are the mountains decorated with various sorts of jewels and filled with Rishis and Gandharvas? Pray tell me. the Meru. the marching. egolessness. the moon.(29) 56. Among these. 66. the aggregates (skandhas). and of annihilation? Wherefore do you not everywhere announce the doctrine of Mind-only as the truth? 58. sciences. the earth. the Asura. the Citta. 62. crafts. that there is no ascending of the stages? 71. arts. 63. elephants. Manas. the Great Hero. those who are capable of formless deeds. sons of the Paramitas. explanations in words. 60. and pearls? 68. dualism—whence are they? Various forms of vehicles. How are horses. the attainment. mountains. tell me wherefore so. 64. the sun. What is meant by the forest of men and women? And by the forest of Karitaki and Amali? Whence are the mountains Kailasa. the discriminating. the stirrings of mind. the philosophers.

In measuring distance how much is a hasta. Tell whence is prose and metre. and of the middle ones? How many particles of dust in every land? How many in every dhanva? 74. in a mashaka? 77. are they like a vision. p. wherefore. Sumeru. of window-dust.72. III. a vimvana? 76. louseeggs. O my son! Whence are the divine mountains embellished by the Rishis and Gandharvas? 85. Whence are the adornments and the Bodhisattvas? Ask me. Wherefore are the mountains of Vajrasamhanana? Tell me whence. and a fata-morgana? See the Abhidharmakosa. a krosa. man. Ch. in a kharya. and hermaphrodite? 84. (31) 73. How many atoms are there at the top of a flame? How many atoms are in the wind? How many in each sense-organ? How many in a pore of the skin? in the eyebrows? 80. How many dharanas are there in a karsha? How many karshas in a pala? and how many palas are there in Mount Sumeru which is a huge accumulation [of masses]? 78. 1 83. moon. of a Buddha. kings. Whence is the way of emancipation? Who is in bondage? By whom is he delivered? What is the state of one who practises tranquillisation? What is transformation. a laksha. in a dharana. How many atoms are there in a mustard-seed? How many mustardseeds are there in a rakshika? How many in a bean. and the earth? What are the measurements of the ocean. and of a Bodhisattva? (32) Why do you not ask me in this wise? 79. translated by Louis de la Vallee Poussin. of a Sravaka. You should ask me thus. O son! Why do you ask me otherwise? How many atoms are there in the body of a Pratyekabuddha. a koti. a half-yojana? How many of rabbit-hairs. Why is sexual desire universally cherished? Whence is the variety of foods and drinks? Whence the manwoman forest? 82. or ram-hairs. and sun? Tell me. of the finer ones. Whence are these men of immense wealth. a dream. and who are those philosophers? . great sovereigns? How is the kingdom taken care of by them? And how about their emancipation? 81. 178. of barley?1 75. And also what are the measurements of the mountains. How many grains of barley in a prastha? How many grains of barley in a half-prastha? Likewise how many in a drona. a dhanu. How many particles of dust are there in the body of a being? How many of the coarser ones. Whence is the arising of clouds? And whence do the seasons rise? Whence is the nature of taste? Whence is woman. a yojana.

III 98. which are in accordance with the marks [of Truth?] and free from erroneous views. Who is the one that breaks through the triple world? What is the position? What is the body? Wherefore the doctrine that beings have no egosoul? What is meant by a teaching in accordance with the world? 1 89. Who are the people who are despised? How is it that in the Yoga you do not attain enlightenment in the world of desire. You ask me such and many other questions.86. by manifoldness of beings. but that in the Akanishtha there is realisation? 94. knowledge. listen to me. by master and disciple. O son of the Victor. I will give you an explanation of the statements. Do you ask me about Buddhas of Transformation. What is meant by reasoning and illustrating. You ask me. O son of the Victor? What about diversity of lands. highest truth. and a flower. sky. 93. O son of the Victor? 91. about the lands that are devoid of light. intelligence. evil ones. How about eternalism and nihilism? How is the mind tranquillised? Again [how about] speech. Whence arises action? And whence its departure? Tell me.1 I will instruct you as regards realisation and its teaching. and the statement that there is nothing but the thought-constructed? 92. existence. in regard to the one hundred and eight statements as recounted by the Buddhas. What is your family? Who is your master? You tell me. Buddhas of Maturity [or Recompense]? About Buddhas of the Knowledge of Suchness? And whence is the Bodhisattva? 96. resembling a lute. Do you ask me about the marks? Do you ask me about egolessness? Do you ask me about the womb. food and drink. At that moment Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said to the Blessed One: What is meant by the one hundred and eight statements?2 . family. listen to me intently. and about the nature of a Bhikshu? 95. and about Long-Penance the Rishi? 1 Samvritya desana is contrasted to paramartha-satya. O son of the Victor. about the Nyaya philosophers. What do you ask me concerning trees and vines. and about the mind abiding in the seven stages? 97. a drum. What is meant by non-existence. How does the extinction of thought take place? And what is meant by a Samadhi? 88. O son. What do you ask me about reasoning? (34) What about the psychic faculties belonging to this world. O son of the Victor? 90. and no-effect? Whence arises the visible world? (33) How can one be cleansed of false intellection? Whence does false intellection arise? 87. morality.

There must be something historical about these references of which the translator is at present quite ignorant.This verse is probably to be separated from the foregoing ones as it forms a sort of introduction to what follows. the wind. the noble wisdom of selfrealisation. a reflection. but others are not. Birth stands against death. which literally means. (36) a mirage." "a portion of a line in a stanza. "位". the city of the Gandharvas. realisation. Nirvana. "見"." "a subject. Some subjects are common to the Questions and the Negations. "住". moment. the middle. the earth. the psychic powers. death is no-death. thinking. numbers and mathematics. desire. annihilation. any statement that might be made concerning birth are not at all true. a dream. water. because. emptiness. but it is to be understood in the sense of "a proposition. selfnature. to make a statement about anything is to falsify it. atoms. The Sanskrit word for "statement" is pada." "a matter of talk. a vision. [The topics thus negated are as follows:1] the characteristic marks. the triple circle." etc. cause. thought-constructions. mind. What strikes one in both the Questions and the Negations is that trivial subjects are mixed up with important ones as equally constituting the content of self-realisation." "a statement. the bliss of the present world. (35) means. self-nature. the passions. a master. For the Sanskrit pada the Chinese translators have "句". the philosophers. lands. for instance." "a footing. purity. a bow. the moon and the sun and stars. Therefore. Hence the series of negations as illustrated here. and do not apply to a world where things are perceived in their absolute aspect. food and drink. permanence. philosophical views. the arts and crafts and sciences. inference [or conclusion]. and not more or less? 1 The Blessed One said: A statement concerning birth is no statement concerning birth. annihilation and origination. 句 is perhaps the best in retaining the original sense. mind. that which is known. a disciple. But the mysterious fact about them is the reference to so many trite subjects which are evidently in no direct connection with the teachings of the Mahayana. clouds. The one hundred and eight questions (prasna) so called are not to be necessarily identified with the one hundred and eight statements (pada) which are uniformely negated in the paragraph that comes after. the aggregates. I do not think there is any organic relationship between the two sections. being. disorder." and each sentence containing this word in the following negations means that each subject referred to is not properly conceived. effect. birth is no-birth. the sky. abiding and changing. causation. the triple vehicle. Another mystery here concerns the number of padas: why 108. 2 Here is one of the most mysterious and unintelligible portions of the Lankavatura Sutra. the heavens. The Sutra proper which is supposed to concern itself with them is also devoid of an intimate connection with them. contrivance. sexuality. morality. . a statement concerning eternity is no statement concerning eternity. duality of being and non-being. the same can be said. a family." "a position. Even of such notions as truth. insight. paramitas. "foot-step. they are relative notions. the concept of birth is not in accordance with the true understanding of reality. bothness. imagelessness. and so on. self-nature. reality. a circle made in the dark by a fire-brand." "an abode. but as they stand these translations do not give any sense to the general context. truth. form. vows. the Paramitas. illustration.

Then.] three modes are distinguishable in the Vijnanas: (1) the Vijnana as evolving. the perciving Vijnana functions because of transformation's taking place [in the mind] by reason of a mysterious habitenergy. the cessation of the continuation-aspect of the Vijnanas takes place in this wise: that is to say. dynasty. and ceasing of the Vijnanas take place. also. they are mutually conditioning.2 cause and effect. woman. the Bhikshus. Mahamati. there is no difference. in which the rise. Mahamati. the Samskrita. abiding. Blessed One. between the two. Mahamati. the Kanishtha. the body. taste. Mahamati. vines and shrubs. while. treasure. In the abiding. the ceasing takes place as regards continuation and form. and hermaphrodite. these two are recognisable: the rise as regards continuation and the rise as regards form. As a mirror reflects forms. false intellection. the limbs. 2 Anything that produces an effect. That is to say. the powers added [by the Buddha]. This. in the Vijnanas.] Mahamati.medical treatment. motives. the lutes. 3 A class of deities. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said again to the Blessed One: In how many ways. does the rise. In the rise of the Vijnanas. entering into the teaching. kingdom. To avoid repetitions. Mahamati. arts and sciences. Mahamati. the perceiving and the objectdiscriminating. and (3) the Vijnana as remaining in its original nature. (37) multiplicity. is known as the cessation of the form-aspect of the Vijnanas. which are said to be eight. [Further. protection.3 the seasons. two functions generally are distinguishable. error. [Further. Mahamati. Mahamati. the perceiving Vijnana and the object-discriminating Vijnana. abiding. the characteristic marks. action. Rishi. senseorgans. the subjects alone are mentioned which are systematically negated in the text. Again. 1 IV At that moment. the perceiving Vijna a perceives [objects]. and this is not understood by the philosophers. the Icchantika. these two [are discernible]: the one taking place as regards continuation and the other as regards form. apprehension. These are the one hundred and eight statements recounted by the Buddhas of the past. explanation. systems of morality. the object-discriminating Vijnana (38) functions because of the mind's discriminating an objective world and because of the habit-energy accumulated by erroneous reasoning since beginningless time. a luxuriant growth of trees. (2) the Vijnana as producing effects. the seen [world]. also. Dhyana. man. and ceasing of the Vijnanas take place? The Blessed One replied: There are two ways. Mahamati. Again. when both that . by the cessation of all the sense-Vijnanas is meant the cessation of the Alayavijnana's variously accumulating habit-energy which is generated when unrealities are discriminated.

Again. causality (hetu). If. it is like a lump of clay and the particles of dust making up its substance. Mahamati. characteristic marks (lakshana). the lump of clay is different from its particles of dust. is this: When the grasping of an objective world ceases the continuation of the Vijnanas is stopped. time. Mahamati. this doctrine will in no wise differ from the nihilistic doctrine of the philosophers. and by that which is comprehended [by the Vijnanas] is meant the objective world perceived and discriminated by the Vijnanas. the world of . then there will indeed be the cessation of the Alayavijnana. paramartha]: the world of thought (citta-gocara). they do not maintain that the eye-Vijnana arises from the interaction of form and light. they are neither different nor not-different. Mahamati. being (bhava). no lump will ever come out of them. even in its original form.which supports [the Vijnanas] and that which is comprehended [by the Vijnanas] cease to function. Mahamati. there are seven kinds of first principle [or highest reality. lord (isvara). the continuation that has been going on since beginningless time is also destroyed. and perfection (nishpatti). it is like gold and various ornaments made of it. (39) If. no more than Mind itself. Mahamati. however. there are seven kinds of self-nature: collection (samudaya). the philosophers maintain that there is a first cause from which continuation takes place. By that which supports [the Vijnanas] is meant the habit-energy [or memory] which has been accumulated by erroneous reasoning since beginningless time.1 VI Again. which is. as it is held by the philosophers. What is this cause. This doctrine. if they are not different the cessation of the evolving Vijnanas will mean the cessation of the Alayavijnana. V Again. Again. they assume another cause. however. what ceases to function is not the Alaya in its original self-form. the Alaya cannot be their cause. or atom. When this original self-form ceases to exist. Even so. Mahamati. Mahamati? Their first cause is known as spirit (pradhana). soul (purusha). but is the effect-producing form of the Vijnanas. Mahamati. elements (mahabhuta). and when there is no more of this continuation in the Vijnanas. the lump will be indistinguishable from its particles. Mahamati. conditionality (pratyaya). But as it comes out of them it is not different from the particles of dust. there is the cessation of the Alayavijnana. again. but there is no cessation of its original form. Therefore. if the evolving Vijnana are different from the Alayavijnana. if there is no difference between the two.

Mahamati. my teaching consists in the cessation of sufferings arising from the discrimination of the triple world. Mahamati. (41) Why? Because they have not attained an intuitive understanding [of the Truth]. deed. like simple-minded ones that they are. the path. the world beyond dualistic views. and causality. and Ayatanas have their genesis and continuation in causation and. karma. VII Mahamati. pass away. the first principle. individual and general. so considered by different schools of philosophers or Buddhists. And what is thus established by them is not to be confused with the erroneous teachings generally held by the philosophers. Mahamati. is the manifestation of Mind itself. Nirvana.2 What is exactly meant by these concepts regarded as self-nature (svabhava) is difficult to define as far as the Lankavatara is concerned. and establish them. it is like a jar broken in pieces which is unable to function as a jar. again. and that the Skandhas. whereby. saying that there exists a substance which is bound up in causation and abides in time. they cherish the dualism of being and non-being where there is but [one] self-nature and [one] first principle.knowledge (jnana-). perfecting things of this world and of a world beyond this. in the cessation of ignorance. existence. Fully-Enlightened Ones of the past. But we can state that they are so many different kinds of Paramartha. Dhatus. not understanding the nature of the Vijnanas which are also no more than manifestations of Mind. Mahamati. 1 (40) Mahamati. and in the recognition that an objective world. They are those. 2 These seven principles or realities are not explained in the text. they. rising. this is the self-nature. fruition. after thus existing. because they have no fundamental insight of things. and Ayatanas which they regard as subject to changes are really . breaking-up. the world of super-knowledge (prajna-). Dhatus. Even so. and future. by means of a noble eye of transcendental wisdom. and a world where the Tathagata attains his self-realisation. like a vision. the world of dualistic views (drishti-). and. activity. as in the case of Svabhava. it is like a burnt seed which is incapable of sprouting. and truth. enter into various phases of existence. their Skandhas. Again. Mahamati. what are these erroneous teachings accepted generally by the philosophers? [Their error lies in this] that they do not recognise an objective world to be of Mind itself which is erroneously discriminated. which constitutes the being of the Tathagatas. the world beyond the Bodhisattva-stages. desire. there are some Brahmans and Sramanas who assume something out of nothing. Arhats. present. who hold a destructive and nihilistic view concerning such subjects as continuation. the essence.

Mahamati. however. As they lack. there are some Brahmans and Sramanas who (42) recognising that the external world which is of Mind itself is seen as such owing to the discrimination and false intellection practised since beginningless time. and a dream. As long as they remain on their philosophic ground. that the state of imagelessness which is in compliance with the awakening of Mind itself. a vision. . and abode are objectifications of the Alayavijnana. The reasoning here may be a little difficult to follow. 1 Again. the fundamental intuition. that body. simple-minded ones. it ends in affirming nothing. know that the world has no self-nature and has never been born. Mahamati. This clause does not appear in T'ang. they do this by the principle of cause and effect [which is to say. something comes out of nothing and there is the rise of the Vijnanas by reason of a combination of the three effect-producing causes. When this thought is thoroughly grasped. [As this is impossible] this proposition does not avail. it is like a cloud. and future. Mahamati. that Mind in itself has nothing to do with discrimination and causation. In this case we cannot talk of anything coming to an end or cessation. and being and non-being. the philosopher's point of view may also hold good as far as it goes.1 which is in itself above [the dualism of] subject and object. poisoned by an erroneous view. If again. Mahamati. a ring produced by a firebrand. discourses of imagination. The general idea maintained by the Lankavatara is that as long as a world of relativity is asserted there is an ever-recurring chain of causation which cannot be denied in any circumstance. all the logical superstructure they build is essentially an error.incapable of uninterrupted transformation because their views do not originate from the perception of an objective world as a manifestation of Mind itself which is erroneously discriminated. and so also with their reference to being and non-being. and terms of qualification (lakshyalakshana). The fault with the philosophers is that they have no fundamental intuition into the essential nature of an objective world—a world of particulars— which is really the projection of mind by reason of memory or the habit-energy accumulated since beginningless time. for the memory of erroneous intellection will ever cling to them. declare the incorrect way of thinking taught by the ignorant to be the one presented by the All-Knowing One. and thus there are [such things as] past. that a tortoise would grow hair and sands produce oil. we can say the same of a non-existing thing. a mirage. 1 Thus.2 is not affected by such changes as arising. Mahamati. present. when they argue that there is a combination of the three effect-producing causes. and destruction. And. 1 2 The translator here follows the T'ang reading. abiding. it follows that deed. property. by the principle that something comes out of something and not of nothing]. the moon as reflected in the ocean. work. and cause [of which they speak] will be of no use. the castle of the Gandharvas. their demonstration will be by means of their logic and text-books.

which is endowed with the powers. Ayatanas. they will gradually realise the Tathagatakaya. will before long attain to the understanding that Nirvana and Samsara are one. Therefore. and means. and in accordance with a position of unconditionality. causation. deed. IX . become established in Buddhahood. Their conduct. VIII Perceiving that the triple existence is by reason of the habit-energy of erroneous discrimination and false reasoning that has been going on since beginningless time. and keeping themselves away from the thought of genesis. Dhatus. in compliance with the truth of Mind-only. Therefore. compassion. knowing that all beings have the nature of being like a vision or a reflection. will become a perfect master of his own mind. by gradually ascending the stages. [and further] seeing that there is nothing outside Mind. discipline. they will by degrees pass through the various stages of Bodhisattvahood and will experience the various states of Samadhi. should exercise themselves. they will attain the Samadhi Vajravimbopama which is in compliance with the Tathagatakaya and with the transformations of suchness. thought. [the Bodhisattva] will become thoroughly conversant with the noble truth of self-realisation. and also thinking of the state of Buddhahood which is imageless and unborn. will be able to enter into the subtle minds of all beings. will be like a gem reflecting a variety of colours. these Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who wish. and destruction. and rising. will. The Bodhisattvas entering into the state of imagelessness where they see into the truth of Mind-only. which can enter into all the Buddha-lands and into the sanctuaries of the philosophers. Mahamati. Mahamati. arriving at the abode of the Paramitas. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva be well disciplined in self-realisation. by following the Tathagatakaya. Mahamati. and which is beyond the realm of (43) Citta-manomanovijnana. and. to realise it.The Bodhisattvas-Mahasattvas. love. being beyond the distinction of subject and object. and that [there is one thing which is] not bound by causation. Mahamati. self-control. will be in accordance with the effortless exhibition of a great loving heart that ingeniously contrives means [of salvation]. to desist from discriminating and reasoning erroneously on such notions as Skandhas. and discipline. the psychic faculties. Mahamati. After achieving a revulsion in the abode [of the Vijnanas]. abiding. will conduct himself without effort. because of his firm belief in the truth of Mind-only. deed. will be able to assume the body of transformation. and will by virtue of their faith understand that the triple world is of Mind itself. and thus understanding will attain the Samadhi Mayopama.

and which.. e. Blessed One. for they think that they would enter upon a state of tranquillisation by extinguishing the Vijnanas. Thus the Vijnanas go on functioning mutually related in a most intimate manner and discriminating a world of representations. By these four reasons. which is put in practice by the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. and appearance condition one another inseparably. Then the Blessed One again speaking to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this: The reasons whereby the eyeconsciousness arises are four. cause. the waves of the evolving Vijnanas are stirred on the Alayavijnana which resembles the waters of a flood.. Mahamati. The same [can be said of the other sense-consciousnesses] as of the eye-consciousness. Mahamati. and . breaking down all the so-called truths established by words and reasonings. so the Yogins while entering upon a state of tranquillisation (Samapatti) are not aware of the workings of the subtle habit-energy [or memory] within themselves. teach them regarding the Dharmakaya which is praised by the Tathagatas and which is the realm of (44) the Alayavijnana which resembles the ocean with its waves.Then Mahamati said: Teach me. Manas. similarly the waves of the mind-ocean are stirred uninterruptedly by the wind of objectivity. Along with this system of the five Vijnanas. (2) The attaching to form and habit-energy accumulated since beginningless time by false reasoning and erroneous views. etc. But the Manovijnana and other Vijnanas have no thought that they are mutually conditioned and that they grow out of their attachment to the discrimination which is applied to the projections of Mind itself. the Svabhavas. which is separated from the state of mind which recognises a world as something outside Mind itself. the thinking function of consciousness]. What are they? They are: (1) The clinging to an external world. constitutes the essence of the teachings of all the Buddhas. the five Dharmas. concerning that most subtle doctrine which explains the Citta. the sense-field is apprehended like a mirror reflecting objects. and because the self-nature of form. not knowing that it is of Mind itself. whereby the objective world is distinguished and individual appearances are distinctly determined. (3) The self-nature inherent in the Vijnana. there is what is known as Manovijnana [i. deed. This consciousness arises at once or by degrees in every sense-organ including its atoms and pores of the skin. is not comprehended. Manovijnana. and in this the physical body has its genesis. (45) As the Vijnanas thus go on functioning [without being conscious of their own doings]. Mahamati. the system of the five consciousnesses (vijnanas) comes to function. the functioning Vijnanas and the original Vijnana are thus inextricably bound-up together. But [in fact] they are in this state without extinguishing the Vijnanas which still subsist because the seeds of habit-energy have not been extinguished. and the Lakshanas. Pray teach this assembly headed by the Bodhisattvas gathering on Mount Malaya in the city of Lanka. (4) The eagerness for multiple forms and appearances. like the ocean swept over by a wind.

acquiring a definite cognition as regards the meaning of the separate propositions. and philosophers. For this reason. and Vijnanas are discriminated as regards their form. and Samadhis. So it is. 100. milk. and rays of sunlight. Like waves that rise on the ocean stirred by the wind. they are capable of knowing the Citta. Dark-blue. even with their powers of Samadhi and transcendental knowledge. [and other colours]. Surrounded by good friends and the Buddhas. Manovijnana. 105. desire. Manas. or middling. so in the Citta there is no evolution of the Vijnanas. Manas. [but in substance] the eight are not to be separated one from another. Only those who. The Alaya-ocean in a similar manner is constantly stirred by the winds of objectivity. fragrance of fruits and flowers. for there is neither qualified nor qualifying. of being baptised by the Buddhas living in the lands without limits. (46) At that time the Blessed One recited the following verses: 99. would retire into a secluded abode in the forest and devote themselves to the practice of the spiritual discipline. or low. except for the Tathagata and those Bodhisattvas who are established on the stages. 102. dancing and without interruption. with the subtle working of the Alayavijnana. . red. Pratyekabuddhas. and is seen dancing about with the Vijnanas which are the waves of multiplicity. 104.[what they imagine to be] an extinction is really the non-functioning of the external world to which they are no more attached. The Citta. Mahamati. they are capable of crossing the ocean of birth and death which arises by reason of deed. honey. As the waves in their variety are stirred on the ocean. which are the discriminating agents of an external world whose self-nature is of Mind itself. which. As there is no distinction between the ocean and its waves. psychic faculties. conch-shell. with salt. Mahamati. it is difficult to distinguish. and of realising the self-control. 101. and keeping themselves away from the discriminations and false reasonings that arise from recognising an external world which is of Mind itself. understanding fully all the aspects of the different stages of Bodhisattvahood by the aid of their transcendental knowledge. powers. [especially] by those who practise the discipline belonging to the Sravakas. planting roots of goodness in the Buddha-lands that know no limits. is not easy to comprehend. either high. only those are capable of obtaining an insight into the flowing of Mind itself in a world of discrimination. and ignorance. They are neither different nor not-different: the relation is like that between the ocean and its waves. so in the Alaya is produced the variety of what is known as the Vijnanas. 103. So are the seven Vijnanas joined with the Citta (mind). the Yogins ought to exercise themselves in the discipline which has been given them by their good friends and the Buddhas. Mahamati.

(47) 107. 111. How is it that in establishing thyself in the Dharma thou announcest not the truth? If the truth is announced by me.4 The function of the Manovijnana is to recognise and that of the Manas is to reflect upon. There is no such evolving in the Citta itself. Not wishing. so thou who art the light of the world shouldst announce the truth ( tattvam) to the ignorant. and the visible world is discriminated by the five Vijnanas. and abode are presented as such to our Vijnanas. Great Muni. property. Tell me. (48) 114..106. etc. 117. While to the five Vijnanas the actual world presents itself. however. In that which follows. for the ocean-waves simile in this text is generally used to illustrate the Alaya's relation to the other Vijnanas. and recognised by the Manovijnana. Karma is accumulated by the Citta. the reader is asked simply to look for the sense and to pay no attention to the division of verses. and not in connection with the immediacy of perception as in this case of the mirror-images simile. 2 1 . 110. how there are these varieties of colour like waves [on the ocean]? 108. Owing to a deficiency in conditions the evolution [of the Vijnanas] takes place by degrees. the truth is not in the mind. it is for the sake of the simple-minded that the Citta is said to be evolving as regards form. There are no such varieties of colour in the waves. but Wei gives both 113 and 114 to Mahamati. which is beyond comprehension. are presented to our Vijnana. 113 and the first part of 114 are ascribed to Mahamati in Sung and T'ang. When the sun rises it shines impartially on people high and low. That the Alaya is compared to the ocean is [only] for the sake of the discriminating intellect of the ignorant. how is it that the evolving of the Alaya is not recognised by the intellect even as the ocean is?1 112. Body. reflected upon by the Manas. 113.3 116. 3 This must have found its way here by mistake. the likeness of the waves in motion is [only] brought out by way of illustration. or [images] in a mirror or a dream. to disturb the original notation. the translator has followed the text. Where there is comprehension there is that which comprehends as in the case of waves [and ocean].5 Like unto a master of painting or his pupils. There is no gradation when one is in a state of collectedness (samahita). 109. As the waves appear instantly on the ocean. and thus they are seen as evolving in the same way as are the waves. Varieties of colour such as dark-blue. The ocean is manifestly seen dancing in the state of waveness.2 115. 4 This ought to belong to the preceding verse. This question according to Sung and T'ang is Mahamati's. so the mind is reflected in its own sense-fields.

I preach the truth for the Yogins. 123. let him be kept away from such hindrances as turmoil. This is indeed not a mental realm to be reached by the philosophers and the Sravakas.Samahita. 120. what is taught by the leaders is the realm of self-realisation. It is the receptive state of intuition. is of Mind itself. rather than the active state of thinking. The teaching itself is thus variously given. Samadhi. In order to make it attractive to all beings. The picture is not in the colours. denoting a state of consciousness where the mind is most intensely concentrated on one thought. Mahamati. a picture is presented in colours. 124. What one teaches. he should later discipline himself in the cultivation of noble wisdom in its triple aspect. for the truth (tattva) is beyond words.1 Who arrange colours to produce a picture. According to the nature of a disease the healer gives its medicine. 5 118. XI(a) Further. such as the grasping (subject) and the grasped (object). nor in the plate. (2) the power added by all the Buddhas . I teach. subject to transgression. the teaching is not meant for the ignorant. let him be kept away from the treatises and writings of the philosophers. Mahamati. 121. Samapatti. Establishing myself in the Dharma. (49) the teaching is no teaching whatever if it is not to the point in each case. Mahamati. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva be thoroughly acquainted with objects of discrimination which are to be seen as of Mind itself. if the Bodhisattva should wish to understand fully that an external world to be subsumed under categories of discrimination. X Further. What are the three aspects of noble wisdom. ekagra may be understood as synonymous. when the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva establishes himself in the abode where he has gained a thorough understanding of Mind by means of his transcendental knowledge. I teach it to the sons of the Victorious. 122. transgresses. 119. The truth is the state of self-realisation and is beyond categories of discrimination. 1 Follow the sense and not necessarily the verse division as before. nor in the canvas. and sleep. even so the Buddhas teach beings in accordance with their mentalities. social intercourse. from things belonging to the vehicles of Sravakahood and Pratyekabuddhahood. What is seen as multitudinous is a vision which exists not. in which he has to discipline himself later? They are: (1) imagelessness.

depending on which the one hundred and eight statements are to be distinguished—the doctrine depending on which the Tathagatas. Furnished with this triplicity. and thereby they will have the passage purified which leads to the egolessness of things and persons. as to the power added. the aspect of imagelessness comes forth when all things belonging to the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas and philosophers are thoroughly mastered. noble ones will attain the state of self-realisation which is the outcome of noble wisdom. it rises when a Bodhisattva. Blessed One. which belongs to the realm and course of Tathagatahood transcending thought and in which there is no rising of the five Dharmas. detaching himself from viewing all things in their phenomenality. Tell me. the doctrine of examining into the reality of noble wisdom. it comes from the original vows made by all the Buddhas. will attain the Dharmakaya of the Tathagata. Having mastered them. as to the self-realisation aspect of noble wisdom. Fully-Enlightened Ones will analyse and disclose the nature and course of false imagination for the sake of (51) the BodhisattvaMahasattvas who have fallen into the way of looking at things from their aspects of generality and individuality. XI(b) At that moment. . and. which still resembles a lame donkey. and empowered by the power added to him by all the Buddhas. Again.by reason of their original vows. and which. and (3) the self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. Again. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva knowing what was going on in the minds of the Bodhisattvas who were gathered there. For this reason. and the abode of the Akanishtha. Arhats. Then again. and further goes on to the attainment of the Buddha-stage. the heavenly mansions of Tushita. (50) the Yogin should abandon his knowledge of Mind gained by means of transcendental wisdom. Mahamati. this is the triplicity of the noble life. That is to say. they will attain the Tathagata-body which is the Dharma intimately bound up with the understanding born of transcendental knowledge. asked the Blessed One concerning the doctrine known as examining into the reality of noble wisdom. Mahamati. Pratyekabuddhas. further. realises the Samadhi-body whereby he surveys the world as like unto a vision. going beyond the bliss of the tranquillisations1 belonging to all the Sravakas. reaches all the Buddha-lands. Thus the Bodhisattvas will be instructed in the analysis and thorough examination of false imagination. Mahamati. and philosophers. and get an illumination on the stages of Bodhisattvahood. Mahamati. he should further discipline himself in these three aspects of noble wisdom. and entering upon the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood. you should cultivate noble wisdom in its triple aspect. entering into the realm of Maya. Mahamati.

Mahamati. And because of this dependence of discrimination upon the idea of the horns. being unable to comprehend the truth of Mind-only. (53) it will not take place by reason of the horns [and therefore the one is not different from the other]. dhyana. one talks of the non-existence of the hare's horns. Mahamati. for they never think that the hare has no horns because of mutual reference. there are some philosophers who are addicted to negativism. those who have fallen into the dualistic way of thinking. So it is. we proceed to refer this to the non-rising of discrimination and infer that the horns exist not? The Blessed One said: No. there are others who. At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Is it not this way. seeing distinctions existing in things as regards the elements. discrimination takes place.] the state in which noble wisdom is realised is beyond being and non-being. atoms. If again. and because of this relationship of dependence and apart from the anyananya1 relationship. Why is it not so? Because there is discrimination owing to the idea of the horns. and abode have their existence only when measured in discrimination. and positions. Blessed One. Mahamati. according to whose philosophical view the nonexistence of the hare's horns is ascertained by means of the discriminating intellect which affirms that the self-nature of things ceases to exist with the destruction of their causes. Samadhi and Samapatti. Mahamati. Again. body. but if it is not different ( ananya).That is. depending upon the idea of the horns. have no discrimination about them! Again. formations. and. substances. Mahamati. discrimination is different (anya) from the hare's horns. those who have gone beyond being and non-being. Mahamati. and they say that all things are non-existent just like the hare's horns. There are. property. with all things. nor do they think that the bull has horns because no ultimate substance is to be obtained however minutely the analysis of the horns may go on even to the subtlest particle known as atom: [that is. Indeed. Mahamati. of which neither being nor nonbeing can be predicated. qualities. assert that the bull has horns. seeing how discrimination takes place. Mahamati. indeed. attached to the notion that the hare's horns are non-existent. which practically belong to the same category. the non-existence of the horns has no reference to the non-rising of discrimination. ( 52) The hare's horns neither are nor are not. they desire to discriminate a world which is of Mind itself. no more cherish the thought that the hare has no horns. that. 1 XII Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. there is a discrimination taking place by reason of the horns [and therefore the one is . surely not because of the reference [to the horns of the bull]. Mahamati. no discrimination is to be made about them.

Mahamati. XIII Then at that time the Blessed One recited these verses: 125. At that time. Again. and let them go into all the Bodhisattva-lands where they should disclose the way of disciplining themselves in the manifestations of Mind itself. Mahamati. pluralities of things rise from the Mind being seen [externally]. and figure. this reasoning from reference (54) does not hold true. but really a horn itself has no existence from the beginning]. Mahamati. again. The world [as we see it] exists not. But. when the elements begin to evolve [a world] they are distinguishable one from another. the Blessed One said this to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. As neither of them [that is. which in turn are further analysed. in reference to what should we talk of non-existence? Therefore. cause. there are other philosophers affected with erroneous views. you should discard the views and discriminations that are concerned with the horns of a hare and a bull. . too. space is form. Mahamati. form is space. who are attached to such notions as form. the reasoning by reference as regards the non-existence of the hare's horns is of no avail. Manas. Mahamati. Mahamati. is to be affirmed in reference to what? As to the other things. [Mano-]vijnana. And also. when the bull's horns are analysed to their minutest atoms. The leaders talk about the Citta. Mahamati. let you and other Bodhisattvas reflect on the nature of discrimination which they have of the Mind itself. and abode are manifested to us as of the Alayavijnana. not fully understanding the nature of space and seeing that space is disjoined from form. there is after all nothing to be known as atoms. the notion of the horns itself is not available when thus reasoned. property. body. no horn [-substance] is obtainable. the [triple] Svabhava. space and form. they proceed to discriminate about their separate existences. But. To establish the relation of supporting and supported. It is the same with the hare's horns. have therefore no discrimination about it! Mahamati. The non-existence of the hare's horns is asserted in reference to their existence [on the bull. and space is not non-existent in them. they do not abide in space. whose non-existence is asserted in reference to the bull's horns. Mahamati. Mahamati. The non-existence of what. 126. and purification. there obtains the separation of the two. the five Dharmas. the bull's nor the hare's] are existent. with space and form. as space penetrates into form. Mahamati.different from the other]. and. the twofold egolessness. 1 Literally different and not-different. However minutely the atoms are analysed. the dualism of being and non-being as held by the philosophers does not obtain as we see in the reasoning of horns.

it is like grass. Mahamati. which is what is seen of Mind itself. herbs. there is non-existence. instantaneously maturing the mentality of beings. who makes them free from discrimination and leads them to the state of imagelessness. (56) in the same way. the purification by the Tathagata of beings is gradual and not instantaneous. it is like the sun or the moon revealing all forms instantaneously by illuminating them with its light. (55) the Buddhas disclose the way of self-realisation. Mahamati. music. singing. in the same way. How. Mahamati. exist mutually bound up. Mahamati. in the same way. in the same way. it is like the potter making pots. the purification of beings1 is gradual and not instantaneous. 128. the purification by the Tathagata of all beings is instantaneous. Mahamati. dancing. Mahamati. the Nishyanda-Buddha. shrubs. Analysed down to atoms. Mahamati. etc. instantaneously reveals to all beings the realm of unthinkable knowledge which belongs to Buddhahood. Mahamati. it is like the amra fruit which ripens gradually and not instantaneously. it is like a mirror indiscriminately and instantaneously reflecting in it forms and images. is the outflow purified that takes place from recognising an external world which is of Mind itself? Is the purification instantaneous or gradual? Replied the Blessed One: The outflow that takes place from recognising an external world which is of Mind itself is gradually purified and not instantaneously. property.127. which is done gradually and not instantaneously. the purification of beings by the Tathagata is gradual and not instantaneous. Mahamati. Mahamati. what can be established is the [truth of] Mind-only. there is existence. the Tathagata. saying. by making all beings discard the habit-energy which issues from the erroneous views they entertain in regard to an external world which is of the Mind. it is like the mastery of comedy. in the same way. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva made a request of the Blessed One regarding the purification of the outflow which comes from recognising an objective world which is of Mind itself. Long and short. and where non-existence is asserted. in the same way. which is gained gradually and not instantaneously.. lute-playing. and [other] arts. that grow up gradually from the earth and not instantaneously. the purification by the Tathagata of all beings is gradual and not instantaneous. and trees. there is indeed no form to be discriminated as such. writing. Mahamati. XIV At that time again. and abode. Mahamati. places them in the palatial . when existence is asserted. Mahamati. which is not believed by those who cherish erroneous views. It is like the Alayavijnana making instantaneously a world of body. 129. in the same way. O Blessed One. This does not belong to the realm of the theoreticians nor to that of the Sravaka.

Further again. what the Nirmita-Nirmana-Buddha [or Buddha of transformation] establishes concerns such matters as charity. that by reason of clinging to these false imaginations there is multitudinousness of unrealities. emancipation. Mahamati. all beings and forms take shape. Dhatus. their distinctions and their performances. free from conditions. Mahamati. which resemble the various scenes and persons created magically and imagined as really in existence. and the ways in which they function. . there is no substantiality in them. it is the doing of the Dharmata-Buddha to establish the exalted state of self-realisation which transcends the phenomena of the [empirical] mind. and creepers. which appear endowed with individuality and material body. Again. false imaginations arise from clinging to the notion of relativity. and Ayatanas. in the same way. Mahamati. meditation. based on the notion of relativity the false imagination recognises a variety of appearances which are distinguished by a discriminating mind. To illustrate: when the magician depending upon grass. Abbreviated from "the outflowing that takes place in beings when they recognise an external world as real which is of Mind itself" (svacittadrisyadhaira sattvanam). Mahamati. the forms which they take. and they are variously and fancifully discriminated.abode of the Akanishtha mansion where they will become practisers of various spiritual exercises. Mahamati. morality. Likewise. the Vijnanas. Mahamati. it is like the Dharmata-Buddha shining forth instantaneously with the rays that issue from the NishyandaNirmana [-Buddha]. the Skandhas. has nothing to do with all doings. senses. the Dharmata-Buddha is unconditioned. magicallycreated persons are produced. this is the discourse of the Nishyanda Buddha. there is habit-energy. what the Dharmata-Nishyanda-Buddha [that is. Pratyekabuddhas. Again Mahamati. Sravakas. Again. 1 XV And yet again. While they are thus manifesting themselves. (57) wood. The Buddha discloses against the philosophical views that which surpasses forms. tranquillisation. Mahamati. and does not belong to the world of the ignorant. Mahamati. and measurements. Mahamati. And as their individual appearances are imagined and adhered to. exercises his art. and. shrubs. the noble truth of selfrealisation instantaneously shines out when the false [dualistic] views of existence and non-existence are discarded. the Buddha that flows out of the absolute Dharma] teaches is that all things are comprehensible under the aspects of individuality and generality. Mahamati. various forms of transcendental knowledge and of understanding. so long as the fancying goes on we have here all that is needed to constitute the self-nature of the false imagination. for they are bound up with causes and conditions of habit-energy which is accumulated by not recognising an external world as of Mind itself.

yellow. yet clings to the notions of individuality and generality in accordance with the measures laid down in books of logic. Entering upon this state of mental concentration the Sravakas will attain the blissful abode of exalted selfrealisation in which there is the emancipation belonging to a Dhyana. who are always clinging to the notion of an ego. Mahamati. such as the Skandhas. (58) you should keep yourself away from the views that recognise the reality of an external world apart from the Mind itself. What is the excellent. and the attachment to the notion of self-nature arising from discrimination. but in which there is as yet no discarding of habit-energy and no escape from the imperceivable transformation of death. must abandon it. XVI Further again. and impermanence. (59) Mahamati. the Bodhisattva should keep himself on the continuously-ascending journey along the stages. seeing that the elements and the qualities such as blue. the Bodhisattva. Dhatus. exalted state of self-realisation belonging to the Sravakas? This is a state of mental concentration which is attained when one realises states of emptiness. have never been created by a creator. and rigidity. Having attained this exalted and blissful condition of self-realisation as realised by the Sravakas. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva may not enjoy by himself the bliss of cessation. in the life of the Sravaka-vehicle. and the truth that is free from passions and is ever serene.and philosophers. This. Mahamati. and the deliverance of a Samapatti. For this reason. knowing what this is. when one annihilates notions belonging to the externality of things. Mahamati. individuality and generality. he should never exert himself in the exalted and blissful state of self-realisation as attained by the Sravakas. but should think compassionately of other beings and keep ever fresh his original vows. XVII . there are two aspects to be distinguished. Mahamati. motility. in whatever exalted and blissful state of self-realisation the Bodhisattva may find himself. This is the Sravaka's attachment to the notion of self-nature arising from the discrimination of existence. and when one has an insight into reality as it is. what is meant by the attachment to the notion of selfnature arising from discrimination? This attachment takes place when a man. the excellent and exalted state of self-realisation. namely. the path and fruit of a Samadhi. you should discipline yourself in the excellent and exalted way leading to self-realisation. suffering. humidity. Mahamati. Mahamati. is the Sravaka's exalted state of self-realisation. Conforming himself to the egolessness of things and holding back the wrong views regarding the egolessness of a person. warmth. the bliss of Samapatti. Ayatanas. egolessness.

it is not the same as the eternal-unthinkable of the philosophers. Therefore. the eternal-unthinkable considered by the philosophers to be characteristic of their creator is untenable. Mahamati. moreover. Why? Because. Mahamati. because it is to be classed under the same head as space. Now. if what is claimed to be the eternal-unthinkable is in conformity with the idea of a cause [which is eternal] in itself. For this reason. it cannot be the eternalunthinkable. what they regard as characteristic of a cause is a non-entity like the horns of a hare. Nirvana. Mahamati. the philosophers prove the eternality of their eternal-unthinkable in contradistinction to the becoming and therefore the non-eternality of things created. the eternal-unthinkable of the philosophers is in conformity with the idea of a cause. but since the idea of a creator is based upon that of a [further] cause. the hare's horns. indeed. Mahamati. mere verbal discriminations are. Mahamati. Mahamati. and. this eternal-unthinkable is not in conformity with the idea of a cause itself how can this be proved tenable? (60) Again. Mahamati. the eternal-unthinkable as held by the philosophers is not in conformity with the idea of a cause itself. Mahamati. Again. their eternalunthinkable is no more than a verbal discrimination. because it is the cause of the highest reality it has its causation. further. Mahamati. by the same reasoning (61) I can prove that their eternality has no reason to be known as such just because things created are non-eternal owing to their becoming. Because it is the exalted state of self-realisation it has its own character. the eternalunthinkable is the exalted condition of self-realisation and also of highest reality. on account of their having no characteristic of a self-cause. the eternal-unthinkable of the philosophers is not characterised with eternality because it has a cause which is not eternal. If again. the philosophers' fault consists. Mahamati. When. If again. Why? Because. and because it has nothing to do with a creator. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva discipline himself in order to attain by means of noble wisdom the truth of self-realisation which is the eternal-unthinkable. what they regard as eternal is not eternal as it is not characterised with the power that can create itself. and cessation it is eternal. Mahamati. it can be eternal. Mahamati. Mahamati. my highest reality is the eternal-unthinkable since it conforms to the idea of a cause and is beyond existence and non-existence. But. because it has nothing to do with existence and non-existence it is no doer. in which. Mahamati. do not the philosophers also talk about the creative agent being the eternal-unthinkable? The Blessed One replied: No. the eternal-unthinkable of the Tathagatas is thatness realised by noble wisdom within themselves.At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: According to the Blessed One's teaching. my eternal-unthinkable is really eternal because it finds its cause in the exalted state of selfrealisation. Mahamati. with being and .

( 62) They are not aware. Mahamati. being manifestations of Mind itself. which is of Mind itself. those who do not understand the teachings of the Tathagatas of the past. imagine that Nirvana consists in the future annihilation of the senses and their fields. Mahamati. and disappearance. Mahamati. Mahamati. in self-realisation]. they are unborn. according to the teaching of the Tathagatas of the past. those who are stupid talk of the trinity of vehicles and not of the state of Mind-only where there are no images. Mahamati. and future. Therefore. as they are not born of being and non-being. but the ignorant and simpleminded who are given up to their false and erroneous imaginations. those who. donkey. Why? Because they have no reality. (63) Therefore. or camel. and. all things are unborn.non-being. all things are unborn. horse. Mahamati. cherishing the idea that all things are born and subject to discrimination as to being and non-being. That all things are in their self-nature unborn. Mahamati. e. As they are outside the state of self-realisation attainable by noble wisdom. Mahamati. afraid of sufferings arising from the discrimination of birth-and-death. belongs to the realm of self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. and does not belong essentially to the realm of dualistic discrimination cherished by the ignorant and simpleminded. and abode evolve when the Alayavijnana is conceived by the ignorant as grasping and grasped. their discourse is not to the point. . all things are like the horns of the hare. of the fact that Nirvana is the Alayavijnana where a revulsion takes place by self-realisation. of eternity and noneternity. we can say of this kind of the eternal-unthinkable that the philosophers do not know what is meant by characteristically self-caused. seek for Nirvana. and future. cling to the notion that there is a world outside what is seen of the Mind and. seeing that all things subject to discrimination have no reality. The self-nature and the characteristic marks of body. Mahamati. Therefore. and. do not know that birthand-death and Nirvana are not to be separated the one from the other. present. you should discipline yourself therein [i. therefore. property. If the eternal-unthinkable is eternal in consideration of the nonexistence and eternality of external things. discriminate things where they are not. Its eternality is not derived from the reasoning which is based upon the external notion of being and non-being. XVIII Further. concerning the external world. present. and then they fall into a dualistic view of existence where they recognise its rise. Mahamati. go on rolling themselves along the wheel of birth-and-death. abiding. Mahamati. XIX Further.

and [what is meant by] generality and individuality. Now. to perform miraculous powers by which they can divide their own body and appear double or perform the transformations. there are others who. Mahamati. etc. each of whom attains its own [spiritual] insight. believing in such things as ego. and (5) the group of people to whom no insight is possible. Mahamati. they are thereby entreated. vital principle. (3) the group of people whose insight belongs to the Tathagata-vehicle. as they have no insight into the egolessness of things. (2) the group of people whose insight belongs to the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. . (4) the group of indefinite character. and their lion-roar is. Having had an insight into their own vehicle. but not with the habit-energy. Recognising that they are of the group whose insight belong to the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle.". my morality is established. Mahamati. there are still others who. Mahamati. being. will seek Nirvana in them. will recognise in this the way to Nirvana. Mahamati. "My life is destroyed. they have not yet passed beyond the inconceivable transformation-death. how does one know the group of people whose insight belongs to the Sravaka vehicle? There are people the hair of whose body will stand on end when they know and realise the nature of the Skandhas. (64) But.XX Again further. is the characteristic feature of the group of people whose insight belongs to the Pratyekabuddhavehicle. Again. Ayatanas. is where those of the Sravaka-vehicle and the philosophers make the mistake in their insight by regarding non-deliverance as deliverance. you ought to discipline yourself in order to escape this wrong view. What are the five? They are: (1) the group of people whose insight belongs to the Sravaka-vehicle. —such ones. Mahamati. nourisher. Mahamati. supreme spirit. not to become attached to the external world and its manifold form. This. Mahamati. When the teaching to keep themselves away from social relations and entanglements. Therefore. there is no emancipation for them. their discourses will be in conformity with the insight of the Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. are said to be of the group whose insight belongs to the Sravaka vehicle. they abide at the fifth or the sixth stage where they do away with the rising of the passions. or personal soul. Mahamati. Dhatus. they will then discipline themselves in the egolessness of persons and finally gain the knowledge of Nirvana. Again. there are five groups of people. Mahamati. seeing that all things exist by depending upon causes. they belong to the group of the Pratyekabuddhavehicle who will shed tears and feel the hair of their body stand on end when the Pratyekabuddha's insight is shown to them. is disclosed to them. their intellect will leap with joy on knowing and practising what belongs to appearance and not on practising what they know of the uninterrupted chain of causation. This.

The gate of highest reality has nothing to do with the two forms of thought-construction [subject and object]. property.1 1 What is stated about the group of indefinite character is not quite clear. and abode are seen to be the manifestation of Mind itself. The Dhyanas. these three aspects are disclosed one after another and also when the inconceivable realm of the Alayavijnana is disclosed. three aspects are distinguishable in the insight belonging to the group of the Tathagata-vehicle. What is meant by abandoning all the stock of merit? It refers to [those Buddhists] who have abandoned the Bodhisattva collection . when these three forms of insight are disclosed to a man. nor show any sign of fear. will settle himself in the bliss of the Samadhi and finally will attain the body of Tathagatahood. In order that he may go up to the stage of imagelessness. and (3) an insight into the immensity of the external Buddha-lands. They are: (1) an insight whereby one sees into the self-nature of things. nor terrified. and that of the Once-to-come. Mahamati. This. Mahamati. Where the imageless stands. solitude-loving ones. and the no-vehicle. Mahamati. 131. which is no self-nature. XXI Then the Blessed One recited these verses: 130. This is. why should we establish the triple vehicles? 133. how is it that the Icchantika1 never awaken the desire for emancipation? (66) Because they have abandoned all the stock of merit. is the stage of preparation for the establishment of his own group. and [also] for the wise. Mahamati. the fruit of the Not-to-come and Arhatship— all these are due to mental perturbation. (2) an exalted insight which is the attainment of self-realisation. XXII Again.Now. Again. of these I talk. then such a one is to be known as of the group of people whose insight belongs to the Tathagatavehicle. and the thought-cessation—all these are not at all found in Mind-only. The fruit of the Stream-entered. where body. The triple vehicle. (65) Mahamati. and because they cherish certain vows for all beings since beginningless time. a man will not be frightened. there is this establishment. the immeasurables. Mahamati. the one vehicle. But the Sravaka who will purify his own habit-energy of passions by attaining an inner perception into the Alaya and by seeing into the egolessness of things. 132. When. he may thereby be pursuaded to discipline himself in them. the characteristic feature of the insight of those who belong to the Tathagata-vehicle. for the sake of the dull-witted. and the no-form Samadhis.

false discrimination rises from form (nimitta). the codes of morality. signs. realities appear in various ways. By the attachment to names is meant to recognise in these inner and external things the characteristic marks of individuality and generality and to regard them as definitely belonging to the objects. Those Icchantikas. these objects. saying. what is perfect knowledge? It is realised when one casts aside the discriminating notions of form." keep themselves away from Nirvana. the Bodhisattva-Icchantika would never enter Nirvana. would never enter Nirvana? The Blessed One replied: Knowing that all things are in Nirvana itself from the very beginning. when. to get attached to inner and external things [as realities]. Again. this adherence takes place in two ways. Arhats. This. it is the inner realisation by noble wisdom. Mahamati. making the false accusation that they are not in conformity with the sutras. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva be well acquainted with the three kinds of Svabhava (self-nature). By the attachment to objects is meant. and Fully-Enlightened Ones thus declare false discrimination to consist in attachment to names and attachment to objects. name. Mahamati said. no beings are left aside by the Tathagatas. I will not attain it myself. XXIII Further. Mahamati. Mahamati. constitute false discrimination. Mahamati. Mahamati. For this reason. does it rise from form? In [the consideration of] the relativity aspect of Svabhava. Mahamati. But those Icchantikas who have forsaken all the stock of merit [finally] do. and shapes. forms. (2) knowledge of relativity. Then the Blessed One recited this verse: . and (3) perfect knowledge. Why? Because. and character.] Now. The Tathagatas. Who. Mahamati. How. reality. there are Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who. Mahamati. Mahamati. on account of their original vows made for all beings. 2 Those who are destitute of the Buddha-nature. is the essence of the Tathagata-garbha. Mahamati. Mahamati. The knowledge of the relativity-aspect (paratantra) rises from the separation of subject (asraya) and object (alambana). as having forms. is the reason of their not entering into Nirvana. Mahamati. it is the Bodhisattva-Icchantika (67) who never enters into Nirvana. "So long as they do not attain Nirvana. Mahamati. [What are the three? They are (1) false discrimination. Blessed One. and the emancipation. and signs are adhered to [as real]. Secondly again. These two modes of attachment. Now.[of the canonical texts]. and because of this they go on the way of the Icchantika. This (68) perfect knowledge. By this they have forsaken all the stock of merit and will not enter into Nirvana. who have forsaken all the stock of merit might some day be influenced by the power of the Tathagatas and be induced at any moment to foster the stock of merit.

resuscitating the dead like the demon Vetala. Dhatus. and in this you and other Bodhisattvas are to discipline yourselves. this world (vishaya) is subject to change and destruction from moment to moment. Mahamati. being no more than an aggregation of the Skandhas. and Discrimination [correspond to] the two forms of Svabhava. e. a thorough understanding concerning these phenomena is called comprehending the egolessness of persons. Dhatus. what is meant by the egolessness of things? It is to realise that the Skandhas. Mahamati. Name.. nor anything belonging to it. and Ayatanas are characterised with the nature of false discrimination. wind. and by clinging to them as real. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva have a thorough understanding as to the nature of the twofold egolessness. it [i. Form.134. Mahamati. Now. Mahamati. the Vijnana is originated by ignorance. do not. Manovijnana. in the Alayavijnana. Mahamati. the five Dharmas. what is this twofold egolessness? [It is the egolessness of persons and the egolessness of things. while a world of objects and bodies is manifested owing to the discrimination that takes place in the world which is of Mind itself. the Vijnana] goes on rolling the wheel of transmigration. . Recognising. What is meant by egolessness of persons? It means that] in the collection of the Skandhas. carrying varieties of bodies and forms. and Ayatanas there is no ego-substance. such as the eye. [while the Vijnana itself is] like a monkey who is always restless. is called the doctrine that examines into the nature of the five Dharmas and the two Svabhavas (self-nature). the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva will well understand what is meant by the egolessness of things. that is. owing to their erroneous discrimination. since the Skandhas. and keeps up its function by grasping objects by means of the sense-organs. the wise. like a fly who is ever in search of unclean things and defiled places. and the [three] Svabhavas. XXIV Further again. a seed. it is like a river. and subject to the conditions of mutual origination which are causally bound up with the string of desire and deed. Again. Mahamati. Dhatus. Mahamati. and Right Knowledge and Suchness [correspond to] the Perfect Knowledge aspect. a lamp. Mahamati. the Skandhas are even destitute of the marks of individuality and generality. it is like a waterdrawing wheel or a machine. a cloud. By reason of the habit-energy stored up by false imagination since beginningless time. causing the wooden figures to move about as a magician moves them. and since thus there is no creating agent in them. imagine here the multiplicity of phenomena. This.. that all things are devoid of the Citta. deed. however. and desire. and Ayatanas are destitute of an ego-substance. and the ignorant. Manas. and constitutes the state of self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. etc. like a fire (69) which is never satisfied.

he will then acquire and complete a world of Maya-nature. Mahamati. is what is meant by the egolessness of all things.. because of his insight into the egolessness of things. Again. and become a Tathagata endowed with the perfect freedom of the Dharmakaya. getting rid of the erroneous views that may rise from assertion and refutation. and [finally the tenth stage known as] Great Dharmamegha. Then the Blessed One again. before long he will attain the first stage [of Bodhisattvahood] when he gets a definite cognition of the imageless. he will go beyond the last stage of Bodhisattvahood. Having been enlightened they would keep themselves away from the eternalistic assertions as well as from the nihilistic refutations. what is meant by the refutation? It means not examining properly. Assertions and refutations are not to be found in the Mind-only. e. Mahamati. These. and (4) the assertion about objects that are non-existent. This. What are the four? (1) The assertion about individual marks that are non-existent. understanding the request of Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. Mahamati. (70) he will be seated in the great jewel palace known as "Great Lotus Throne" which is in the shape of a lotus and is adorned with various sorts of jewels and pearls. recited this verse: 135. there are four forms of assertion made concerning things not in existence. surrounded by Bodhisattvas of the same character and anointed like the son of the Cakravarti by the hands of the Buddhas coming from all the Buddha-lands. (71) At that moment the Blessed One said this to elucidate the meaning of this verse: Mahamati. . may at once realise supreme enlightenment. and leave your enlightenment eye unrefuted. (2) the assertion about philosophical views which are non-existent [i. gradually and successively going up the scale. and. the ignorant who understand not that the Mind is [seen in] the form of body. Establishing himself here. and in this you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should well exercise yourselves. is what characterises assertion and refutation. XXV At that time. the Bodhisattva will experience joy. any assertions based on errors. and abode. wander about with assertions and refutations. Mahamati. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Pray teach me about making an assertion and refuting it so that I and other Bodhisattvas. property. not true]. This. When a definite acquisition is obtained regarding the aspect of the stages [of Bodhisattvahood]. (3) the assertion about a cause which is non-existent. because of ignorance. will reach the ninth stage where his insight is perfected. attain the noble truth of self-realisation. Mahamati. when the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva has a good understanding as regards the egolessness of things. are the four assertions.Again.

This. the assertion about objects that are not-existent is an assertion arising from the attachment to such non-working existences as space.. a man may affirm that they are just so and not otherwise. Again. Mahamati. and memory. cessation. and again. and Manovijnana. or a spirit. For this reason. is the assertion of a cause that is non-existent. This is said. or a camel. Mahamati. is the characteristic point of the assertion about objects which are non-existent. which do not really exist. [some philosophers] assume the existence of an ego. one should avoid the views based on assertion and refutation. the Bodhisattvas will listen to the . Mahamati. 1 This is repeated below and is evidently a clerical error. by the assertion of a cause that is nonexistent is meant that [some philosophers] assume the causeless birth of a first ( 72) Vijnana. just like the imagination that evolves from the seat of the relativity knowledge. They are discriminated as realities by the ignorant who are addicted to assertions and refutations as their intelligence has not penetrated into the truth that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. a living being. the Bodhisattvas who are thoroughly acquainted with the nature of the Citta. not true]. a nourisher.. that is to say. like the mysterious gem that reflects varieties of colours. by varieties of erroneous views issuing from false imagination. Again. Mahamati. Mahamati. as the horns of a hare. not true].1 This assertion and discrimination. what are the characteristics of the assertion made about individual marks that have no existence? It concerns the marks of individuality and generality in the Skandhas. Going over to all the Buddha-lands and assemblages. and Ayatanas. characterises the assertion of individual marks which are non-existent. Mahamati. of the [three] Svabhavas. a horse. or like a hair-net. Mahamati. These.Further. which later comes to have a Maya-like non-existence. Mahamati. and Nirvana. Mahamati. the originally unborn Vijnana begins to function under the conditions of eye. a being. of the five Dharmas. e. characterises the assertion of individual marks which are non-existent. This. This. Again. XXVI Further. rises from one's attachment to the habit-energy which is amassed. Dhatus. Mahamati. Mahamati. It is otherwise with the wise. light. form. since beginningless time. The functioning goes on for a while and then ceases. concerning individual marks that are not existent. is meant that in the Skandhas. Mahamati. by the assertion of philosophical views which are non-existent [i. and of the twofold Egolessness. to be the assertion of some philosophical views which are nonexistent [i. are neither existent nor nonexistent. e. but taking them for realities and getting attached to them. a soul. Dhatus and Ayatanas. Mahamati. Manas. will assume various personalities for the sake of benefitting others. for all things are devoid of the alternatives of being and nonbeing and are to be known. This. Mahamati.

eternality. and absence of self-nature. They will then attain a hundred thousand Samadhis. (74) The Blessed One said: Emptiness. Replied Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. which has nothing to do with effect-producing works. it is a term whose self-nature is false imagination. non-duality. (5) the emptiness of all things in the sense that they are unpredicable (nirabhilapya). will listen to their discourses on the truth that does not belong to the Sravaka. but which is endowed with the powers. and. When those who are born of the Buddha see that the world is no more than Mind itself. Blessed One. (2) the emptiness of self-nature (bhavasvabhava). no-birth. and the lunar vision in water. manifesting Buddha-bodies. (6) the emptiness in its highest sense of ultimate reality realisable only by noble wisdom. instruct them to understand thoroughly what is meant by an objective world which is nothing but Mind itself and in which there are no realities. Then the Blessed One said this to Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva: Now. unborn. Blessed One. Tell me. (73) indeed. where they will discourse on the Triple Treasure. we have to talk of emptiness. a reflection. discourse on the nature of all things which are like a vision. they will obtain a body of transformation. (3) the emptiness of no-work (apracarita). I will indeed. a hundred thousand niyutas of kotis of Samadhis. there are seven kinds of emptiness: (1) The emptiness of individual marks (lakshana). non-dual. how all things are empty. the Bodhisattvas. Because of one's attachment to false imagination. Mahamati. At that time the Blessed One recited this verse: 136. Mahamati. thus facing the Tathagatas. . quitting the discrimination of being and non-being. they will do homage to the Buddhas. indeed! Mahamati. then.and Pratyekabuddha-vehicle. quickly realise the highest enlightenment. they will. psychic faculties. a dream. and which have nothing to do with birth-and-death. an illusion. and the absence of self-nature. listen well and reflect well upon what I tell you. XXVII At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva made a request of the Blessed One. nonduality. and (7) the emptiness of mutuality (itaretara) which is the seventh.Buddhas. and self-control. Mahamati. surrounded by Sravakas and Bodhisattvas. so that I and other BodhisattvaMahasattvas might be awakened in the teaching of emptiness. In short. and by means of these Samadhis they will go around from one country to another. no-birth. in order to free them from the alternatives of being and non-being. and have no self-nature. and. emptiness. (4) the emptiness of work (pracarita). and extinction. be born in all the celestial mansions.

too. e. Again. here one sees all things in their aspect of individuality and generality. Again. [things are thought to be realities]. Again. what is meant by the emptiness of all things in the sense that they are unpredicable? It is that the nature of the false imagination is not expressible. These. Mahamati. and because thus no such ideas as self. Mahamati. but as to the Bhikshus I can say that the hall is not devoid of them. and it is therefore said that things are empty in their self-nature. what is meant by the emptiness of self-nature? Mahamati. . Further. Mahamati. Mahamati. Thus one speaks of the emptiness of mutual [non-existence]. nor that in some other places. what is meant by the emptiness in its highest sense of ultimate reality realisable by noble wisdom? It is that in the attainment of an inner realisation by means of noble wisdom there is no trace of habitenergy generated by all the erroneous conceptions [of beginningless past]. the individual marks no longer obtain. Again. hold good. or both. they are non-existent. Mahamati. what then is the emptiness of individual marks? It is that all things have no [such distinguishing] marks of individuality and generality. For instance. Mahamati. other. Thus one speaks of the emptiness of work. In consideration of mutuality and accumulation. but when they are further investigated and analysed. it is empty only as far as they [i. Mahamati. and sheep are not to be found. Mahamati. So it is said that all things are empty as to their self-marks.Mahamati. Therefore. what is meant by the emptiness of no-work? It is that the Skandhas are Nirvana itself and there is no work doing in them from the beginning. one speaks of the emptiness of no-work. bulls. are the seven kinds of emptiness of which mutuality ranks the lowest of all and is to be put away by you. Mahamati. Again. and not predicable with individuality and generality. nor that the Bhikshu is devoid of this Bhikshuhood. and go on functioning when there is a mutual conjunction of cause and action. what is meant by the emptiness of work? It is that the Skandhas are devoid of an ego and its belongings. elephants. no bulls. it is that all things in their self-nature are unborn. (75) Again. Mahamati. Thus one speaks of the emptiness of unpredicability. what is meant by the emptiness of mutual [nonexistence]? It is this: when a thing is missing here. one speaks of its being empty there. Mahamati. in the lecture-hall of the Mrigarama there are no elephants. no sheep. Mahamati. hence the emptiness of self-nature. but from the point of view of mutuality (itaretara) some things do not exist somewhere. hence the emptiness of all things in the sense of their unpredicability. the animals] are concerned. Thus one speaks of the highest emptiness of ultimate reality realisable by noble wisdom. it is not that the lecture-hall is devoid of its own characteristics.

be in conformity with the sense and be not engrossed in the word-teaching. it is said that all things are nondual as are Nirvana and Samsara. So with the teachings disclosed in all the sutras. all things are not-two." To have no self-nature is. I always preach emptiness which is beyond eternalism and nihilism. Space. are relative terms. and this doctrine is recognised in every one of them. Then at that time the Blessed One recited this couplet of verses: 137. Mahamati. and no-self-nature is found in all the sutras of all the Buddhas. . 138. endowed with the thirty-two marks of excellence. according to the deeper sense. but the wise stand above being and non-being. no-birth. and not the truth-preserving statement. the sutras are the teaching in conformity with the dispositions of all beings and deviate from the [real] sense. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Now the Blessed One makes mention of the Tathagata-garbha in the sutras. For this reason. At that time again. long and short. and karma vanishes not. There is no Nirvana except where is Samsara. not that things are not born. Mahamati. what is meant by non-duality? It means that light and shade. Mahamati. but that they are not born of themselves. Again. Samsara is like a dream and a vision. all things are destitute of self-nature. seeing this. For this reason. non-duality. They are not the truthpreserving statements meant for noble wisdom to grasp. to be unborn. a momentary change from one state of existence to another.(76) Again. and verily it is described by you as by nature bright and pure. black and white. Mahamati. the springs are not there but the deer are attached. there is no Samsara except where is Nirvana. it is like unto the mirage which entices the deer with its treacherous springs. except when seen in the state of Samadhi —this is what is meant by "all things are unborn. for the condition of existence is not of mutually-exclusive character. Nirvana. Mahamati. Mahamati. and not independent of each other. and no-self-nature. you should discipline yourself in [the realisation of] emptiness. Mahamati. This [teaching of] emptiness. Mahamati. 1 Read after T'ang. as primarily unspotted. non-duality. Mahamati. no-birth. That all things are devoid of self-nature means that there is a constant and uninterrupted becoming. as Nirvana and Samsara are. XXVIII At that time.1 Therefore. So one speaks of all things having no self-nature. the Blessed One said this to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. they are for all beings for the gratification of their own discriminating minds. and the two forms of cessation — thus (77) the ignorant discriminate the things which are not effect-producing. However. imagining them to be real.

reality-limit.hidden in the body of every being like a gem of great value. permanent. the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha is disclosed in order to awaken the philosophers from their clinging to the idea of the ego. the ruler. and devoid of will-effort. sometimes by that of egolessness. Mahamati. that it is emptiness. Therefore. Thus. omnipresent. (78) while it is described by the Blessed One to be eternal. Accordingly. Mahamati. auspicious. and thread. the reason why the Tathagatas who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones. unqualified. like a potter. and Ayatanas. water. and false imagination. and. that is. by means of various terms. and unchangeable. being unborn. atoms. Is not this Tathagatagarbha taught by the Blessed One the same as the ego-substance taught by the philosophers? The ego as taught in the systems of the philosophers is an eternal creator. Dhatus. continuity. unqualified. causation. Mahamati. that the Tathagatas preach the egolessness of things which removes all the traces of discrimination by various skilful means issuing from their transcendental wisdom. the Tathagatas who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones disclose the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha which is thus not to be known as identical with the philosopher's notion of an ego-substance. so that those minds that have fallen into the views imagining the non-existent ego as real. For this reason. Mahamati. you must strive after the teaching of egolessness and the Tathagata-garbha. and also into the notion that the triple emancipation is final. teach the doctrine pointing to the Tathagata-garbha is to make the ignorant cast aside their fear when they listen to the teaching of egolessness and to have them realise the state of non-discrimination and imagelessness. I also wish. Mahamati. the supreme spirit. Mahamati. and synonyms.1 . Mahamati. The personal soul. the creator. the Skandhas. folly. XXIX At that moment then the Blessed One recited this verse: 139. The Blessed One replied: No. which is enwrapped in a dirty garment. sometimes by the doctrine of the Tathagata-garbha. Nirvana. and imperishable. that the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas of the present and future would not attach themselves to the idea of an ego [imagining it to be a soul]. may rapidly be awakened to the state of supreme enlightenment. for what the Tathagatas teach is the Tathagata-garbha in the sense. it is like a potter who manufactures various vessels out of a mass of clay of one sort by his own manual skill and labour combined with a rod. and soiled with the dirt of greed. my Tathagata-garbha is not the same as the ego taught by the philosophers. expressions. Mahamati. Mahamati. anger. in order to abandon the misconception cherished by the philosophers. enveloped in the garment of the Skandhas. the philosophers' doctrine of an ego-substance is not the same (79) as the teaching of the Tathagata-garbha. —[they are] discriminations in the Mind-only.

or bothness. which according to the Lankavatara is a manifestation of Mind itself. 2 1 How. by fulfilling which the Bodhisattvas become great Yogins. and disappearance. and that [the world] is not to be viewed as born. and in conformity with the ideas of discrimination. that there is nothing to be seen as selfnature. and attain to the recognition that things are unborn. This is rather a clumsy translation of svacitta-drisya. Establishing themselves on the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood. (81) they find that all things. or this external. [The Bodhisattvas] will see that the external world exists only in conformity with Mind-only. The Buddhist idea of interpreting existence idealistically is more religious than logical. Mahamati. the other. Mahamati. and abode. such as body. with no strivings. Drisya is "what is seen. (3) to look into [the truth] that no external world obtains. What are the four? They are: (1) To have a clear understanding as to what is seen of Mind itself. Provided with these four things the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas become great Yogins. and thereby they will conform themselves to the insight that things are of the nature of a vision. property. they will experience a . abiding. (80) abiding. this visible world. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva acquires a thoroughly clear understanding as to what is seen of Mind itself. that this triple world is manifested and imagined as real. and seeing that there is no stirring of the Vijnanas and that the triple world is a complicated network of causation and owes its rise to discrimination. and with the multiplicity of objects and actions in close relationship. and disappearance? By this it is meant that all things are to be regarded as forms born of a vision or a dream and have never been created since there are no such things as self.XXX At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva in consideration of future generations made this request again of the Blessed One: Pray tell me. does the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva discard notions of birth. and we no more cling to it as if it were a final irreducible fact which stands oppressively against the mind. the objective world loses its reality as such. does the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva come to have a clear understanding as to what is seen of Mind itself? He comes to it by recognising that this triple world is nothing but Mind itself. 2 (2) to discard the notions of birth. inner and external. and (4) to seek for the attainment of inner realisation by noble wisdom. no comings-and-goings. Mahamati. When this truth is realised. devoid of an ego and its belongings. for Buddhists want to elevate the value of spirit absolutely above matter so that the latter will be amenable to all the commands to be given by the former. etc. Thus. Mahamati. about the perfecting of the discipline whereby the BodhisattvaMahasattvas become great Yogins.. objective world. The Blessed One replied: There are four things. are beyond predicability." that is. Blessed One. How again. under the influence of the habitenergy accumulated since beginningless time by false reasoning and imagination. This verse has strangely found its way here.

Mahamati. Manas. the willbody. many a hundred thousand yojanas they may be away. the Bodhisattvas will seek after the attainment of self-realisation by their noble wisdom. and by getting rid of the discrimination [which issues in the philosophical views of] eternalism and nihilism. moving about as freely as he wishes. 115 et seq. whereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas can see into the nature of causation. Mahamati. Therefore. as he recalls his original vows and worlds in order to bring all beings to maturity. Thus. in the attainment of the Samadhi called Maya-like and adorned with such marks as the powers. For instance. furnished with these four things. Mahamati. 1 Then. about the causation of all things. will be born in the noble paths and assemblies. Blessed One. 1 Said Mahamati. Blessed One? The Blessed One replied: It means that one [in this body] can speedily move unobstructed as he wills. that all things are like unto a mirage. and the twofold Egolessness. the . and the five Dharmas. hence the will-body. XXXI At that time Mahamati again made a request of the Blessed One: Pray tell me. Mahamati. you should exercise yourself. etc. Mahamati. we may no more discriminate as to the gradual or simultaneous rising of all things. the will [or mind] travels unobstructed over mountains. a sort of explanatory note. This whole paragraph is a digression.revulsion [in their consciousness] by transcending the Citta. and thereby attain the mind-made body (Manomayakaya). Mahamati. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva will discard the notion of birth. BodhisattvaMahasattvas become great Yogins. and the self-control. Replied the Blessed One: Mahamati. p. walls..1 what is meant by the will-body. what is meant by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva (82) having a good insight into the non-existence of external objects? It means. abiding. a dream. in these. The willbody (manomayakaya) is again referred to later on. Mahamati.1 The proper place of this last sentence is here as restored. and the [three] Svabhavas. Mahamati. trees. Mahamati. the psychic faculties. while his own mind keeps on functioning in his body without the least interruption or hindrance. there are two factors of causation by which all things come into existence: external and inner. rivers. when a man recollects the scenes which had previously come into his perception. and disappearance. and Manovijnana. In the same fashion. it is found in the Sanskrit text near the end of page 81. and seeing that all things are here essentially because of our attachment to the habit-energy of discrimination which has been maturing since beginningless time on account of false imagination and erroneous speculation. a hair-net.

and his labour. In this ease. appear one after another in continuous succession. (4) agency-cause. This latter is also omitted in this translation as the translator regards its insertion here as a clerical error. or fresh butter which is produced from sour milk by a man churning it with his own labour. Mahamati. the combination of all of which produces a jar. subsistence. there are six causes: (1) possibility-cause. there is no substance that holds together individual signs. Born of these. which perhaps was also the idea of the T'ang. that when a cause to be becomes effective there is the rising of things inner and outer. Lastly. The dependence-cause means. "mutual reference" is better. governed by external causes.external factors are a lump of clay. Wei reads this without the negative particle. As with the jar. they are of such kind as ignorance. the manifesting-cause means that when the discriminating faculty rises. Mahamati.2 The possibility-cause means. there would be no distinction between cause and effect. and others. 2 The Chinese 觀待 (T'ang). Mahamati. the term father has no significance. or the sprout growing out of a seed. Mahamati. and they conclude that there is a gradual rising of existence. are the outcome of discrimination carried on by the ignorant and simple-minded. which is made of a lump of clay. thread.. Mahamati. and Ayatanas. (83) so it is. while T'ang omits the whole sentence together with the foregoing. But. a stick. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. As regards the inner factors of causation.1 The logician argues that there is that which is born and that which gives birth by the mutual functioning of such causal factors as cause. and (6) indifference-cause. continuity. that bound by the objective world [the Vijnana] keeps up its continuous activity. Now. (2) dependence-cause. or a piece of cloth made of thread. acceleration. etc. and there would be nothing to characterise a cause as such. the agency-cause means that like a sovereign king a cause invested with supreme authority asserts itself. there is the manifestation of the Skandhas. the indifference-cause means that when there is a dissolution (84) the power of combination discontinues. and action. (5) manifestingcause. They are not separable [realities]1 but discriminated [as such] by the ignorant. this . as the result it reveals individual marks as a lamp does forms. Further. or a matting made of fragrant grass. If a gradual rising is admitted. if there is a simultaneous rising of existence. 相待 (Wei). Again. inner and outer. which make up our idea of causation. become effective there is the rising of the Skandha-seeds. Mahamati. Mahamati. a wheel. water. Dhatus. desire. with all things which. and there rises a state of non-discrimination. While a child is not yet born. the objectivity-cause means. which makes gradual rising impossible. a worker. and there is no gradual nor simultaneous rising of existence. (3) objectivity-cause. Mahamati. Mahamati. Why? Because. Mahamati. etc. pratityasamutpadasamjnanam pratilabhante. or simply 待 (Sung) points to apeksha rather than to upeksha. Again. that when conditions to be. 1 These.

142. it is because of wordly usage that things are talked of as existing. 144. When the [ideas of] body. however. (86) for I will tell you about it. Not ever being in existence. which. It is only when the Vijnana evolves by reason of discrimination which discriminates the manifestation of Mind itself [that existence is said to come into view]. Mahamati. you must strive to get rid of notions of gradation and simultaneity in the combination of the causal activities. listen well and reflect well. Mahamati. It is not to keep off the idea of birth and disappearance which takes place in causation. . it is to keep off the wrong imagination as to causation. XXXII At that moment again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Pray tell me. Blessed One. expression and expressed. neither a gradual nor a simultaneous rising of things is possible. and. I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. Nothing whatever is born or ceases to exist by reason of causation. will explain the signification of these two things. For this reason. 143. Mahamati. whereby. expression and expressed. one perceives that grasping (subject) and grasped (object) are an error and desists [from committing the same error]. when effect-producing objects (samskrita) are regarded as like unto a barren woman's child or a flower in the sky. and therefore. The being and non-being of things subject to causation has no reality. the external world is perceived under the aspects of individuality and generality. 1 In this and what follows the translator has adopted the reading of T'ang. Blessed One. even causation is not. are not realities. thereby immediately attaining supreme enlightenment. what things are there that are born? [but] in causation nothing is lost. the triple world owes its existence to the Mind put into confusion by reason of habit-energy. property. will be thoroughly informed of the signification of two things. Well done! said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and listened to the Blessed One. There is nothing that is to be born. about the teaching known as the essence of discrimination as regards words. Thus it is said: 140. Replied the Blessed One: Then. which is cherished by the ignorant. comprehending and becoming well acquainted with the essence of discrimination as regards words. nor is there anything that has been born. and abode are cherished in what is nothing but the manifestation of Mind itself. when causation is discriminated there is birth and cessation.gradual rising does not obtain except by reason of their attachment to the notion of self-nature. for the purification of all beings. (85) 141.

Then if they are not different. with discrimination as their cause. lips. words are different from discrimination. the word-discrimination goes on taking place by the coordination of the head. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva requested of the Blessed One to speak on this subject: Pray tell me again. it is not a state of word-discrimination. nor is what is expressed in words the highest reality. (3) words growing out of the attachment to erroneous speculations and discriminations. rise from the unreal surroundings which reveal themselves [before the mind] when it recollects its previous experience. Mahamati. Mahamati. rise from recollecting deeds once previously committed. four kinds of word-discrimination. nose. and as it cannot be entered into by mere statements regarding it. The dream-words. I say. Mahamati. Mahamati. They are: (1) Words denoting individual marks. and teeth. Blessed One. words are not the highest reality. and by whom do words indicating discrimination take place among the people? Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. which they do. therefore. the highest reality is to be attained by the inner realisation of noble wisdom.The Blessed One said this to him: There are. they are neither different nor notdifferent. Mahamati. the words denoting individual marks rise from discriminating forms and characteristic signs as real in themselves and becoming attached to them. Again. throat. The words growing out of the discrimination that has been functioning since beginningless time. chest. Now. XXXIII At that time again. Where. and (4) words growing out of the discrimination that knows no beginning. Why? Because the highest reality is an exalted state of bliss. words are not the highest reality. The words growing out of the attachment to erroneous speculations and discriminations. palate. words and discrimination are neither different nor not-different. Why? Because words rise. Blessed One. Then Mahamati said: Again. Said Mahamati. which is the answer to your question. they cannot have it for cause. tongue. Blessed One. about the conditions whereby the word-discrimination manifests itself. whence. discrimination does not . (2) dream-words. Mahamati. If. Therefore. Mahamati. Mahamati. how. (87) are words to be considered different (anya) or not-different (ananya) from discrimination? Replied the Blessed One: Mahamati. these are the four features of worddiscrimination. rise from the habit-energy whose seeds have been growing out of the clinging to erroneous speculations and false imaginations since beginningless time. Mahamati. words cannot express the sense. are words themselves the highest reality? or is what is expressed in words the highest reality? The Blessed One replied: Mahamati.

as the ignorant understand not what is meant by emptiness. As a king or a wealthy householder. which does not belong to the path and the usage of the philosophers. going up continuously by degrees the stages of purification. 148. enters upon the stage of Tathagatahood. because of the original vows unattended by any striving. In all things there is no self-nature. but later gives them real ones. which is devoid of [all such predicates as] being and non-being. giving his children various clay-made animals. mutually conditioning. which manifests itself as the truth of highest reality. about the attainment of selfrealisation by noble wisdom. that which is discriminated has no reality. which has nothing to do with the false imagination. because the indications [pointing to the distinction between] self and not-self are non-existent. and which is manifested [when one perceives how] signs of individuation rise in all things as one realises the course and realm of what is seen of Mind itself. existence and non-existence. which. Mahamati. nor does anything ever enter into Nirvana. [even] Nirvana is like a dream. you must try to keep yourself away from the various forms of word-discrimination. making use of various forms and images of things. 146. words are subject to birth and destruction. but the limit of reality (bhutakoti) can [only] be realised within oneself. word-discrimination cannot express the highest reality. they are unsteady.express the highest reality. words are these indications and do not express [the highest reality]. eternity and non-eternity. . they wander about. So. Mahamati. And again. XXXIV Thus it is said: 145. will perform its works in infinite worlds like a gem reflecting a variety of colours. pleases them and makes them play [with the toys]. and are produced by the law of causation. which. for external objects with their multitudinous individual marks are non-existent. yes. they are mere words of people. words too are devoid of reality. And then. instruct my sons. Mahamati. 147. and only appear before us as something revealed out of Mind itself. XXXV At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva again (89) said this to the Blessed One: Pray tell me. what is mutually conditioning and produced by the law of causation cannot express the highest reality. by emptiness. (88) Further. Therefore. oneness and otherness. I. In all things there is no self-nature. nor with individuality and generality. Blessed One. Mahamati. bothness and not-bothness. nothing is seen to be in transmigration. Mahamati.

it is like a mirage in which the springs are seen as if they were real. Mahamati. elephants. Therefore. cows. it is like the city of the Gandharvas which the unwitted take for a real city. he . buffalos. for I will tell you. not knowing that the world is what is seen of Mind itself. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. cling to the multitudinousness of external objects. and reflect. towns. While awakened thus. hamlets. clinging to the memory ( vasana) of erroneous speculations and doctrines since beginningless time. destruction. with their thoughts saturated with the ideas of birth. thirsty from the heat of the season. Mahamati. They are imagined so by the animals who. mountains. and folly. horses. bothness and not-bothness. woods. In the same way. with their minds burning with the fire of greed. Mahamati. Mahamati. villages. the ignorant and simple-minded fall into the way of grasping at oneness and otherness. mansions. oneness and otherness. listen well and truly. cling to the notions of being and non-being. (91) Mahamati. eternity and non-eternity. well done. though it is not so in fact. dreaming in his sleep of a country variously filled with women. cars. Mahamati! and again.and thereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are enabled to survey things from the point of view which is not hampered by marks of individuality and generality nor by anything of the false imagination. for the happiness of many people. Mahamati. rivers. pedestrians. delighted in a world of multitudinous forms. benefit. Mahamati. anger. for the benefit of many people. the ignorant and simple-minded with their minds impressed by various erroneous speculations and discriminations since beginningless time. existence and non-existence. indeed. as being characterised by self-nature which rises from discrimination based on habitenergy. being and non-being. since the ignorant and the simple-minded. Assuredly. (90) The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati. and subsistence. who. This city is thus neither existent nor nonexistent. Mahamati! Because of your compassion for the world. In the same way. by inner and outer. the animals do not realise that there are no such springs. you present yourself before me and make this request. they hold fast to ideas such as oneness and otherness. men. and gave ear to the Blessed One. This city appears in essence owing to their attachment to the memory of a city preserved in seed from beginningless time. and lakes enters into its inner appartments and is awakened. would run after them. well done. they are addicted to false imaginings. for the welfare. Replied the Blessed One: Well done. not understanding well what is meant by existent and non-existent. both of celestial beings and humankind. and may quickly attain supreme enlightenment and enable all beings to achieve the perfection of all their virtues. being and non-being. happiness of many people. and their thoughts are not at all clear about what is seen of Mind-only. it is like a man. Not knowing that the springs are their own mental hallucinations.

of bothness and notbothness. In the same manner. and the ignorant taking them for real crystal gems run after them. it is like those water-bubbles in a rainfall which have the appearance of crystal gems. In the same manner. would exclaim to one another. and both. Mahamati. and are held fast by the notions of oneness and otherness. assertion and refutation. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. Blessed One. The Blessed One continued: In the same way the ignorant and simpleminded who are bitten by erroneous views and are inclined toward the philosophers. Mahamati? Is this person to be regarded as wise. they are no more than water-bubbles. In the same way. mentality. bothness and not-bothness. . clinging to the ideas of oneness and otherness. They are those whose thoughts are entangled in the errors of self. who is recollecting the various unrealities he has seen in his dream? Said Mahamati: Indeed. They [argue against] cause and effect. do not recognise that things seen of the Mind itself are like a dream. because of their being so comprehended [by one party] and being not so comprehended [by another]. O honourable sirs!" And the said hair-net has never been brought into existence. there may be in the future some people brought up in the habitenergy. saying: "It is wonderful! it is wonderful! Look. it is like the dim-eyed ones who. they may bring themselves and others to ruin. of being and non-being. he is not. they are followers of the wicked views whereby they uproot meritorious causes of unstained purity. Mahamati. bothness and not-bothness. What do you think. nor are they not-gems. oneness and otherness. Mahamati. Mahamati.recollects the city and its inner apartments. Mahamati. they are not gems. and hell will be their final refuge. (92) in the errors of imagining being and non-being. those whose minds are impressed by the habit-energy of the philosophical views and discriminations will regard things born as nonexistent and those destroyed by causation as existent. It is in fact neither an entity nor a non-entity. will contradict the good Dharma. Mahamati. those whose minds are addicted to discrimination of the erroneous views as cherished by the philosophers. and imagination based on the philosophers' erroneous views. other. but not by the wise. and who are also given up to the realistic ideas of being and non-being. it is like a firebrand-wheel which is no real wheel but which is imagined to be of such character by the ignorant. those whose minds have fallen into the erroneous views of the philosophers will falsely imagine in the rise of all beings oneness and otherness. because it is seen and not seen. they may declare those people nihilists who hold the doctrine of no-birth apart from the alternatives of being and non-being. seeing a hair-net. They are to be kept far away by those whose desires are for things excellent. In the same manner. ending in the destruction of themselves and others. it is like the painter's canvas on which there is no depression nor elevation as imagined by the ignorant.

Mahamati. and in this there is no thought of existence and non-existence. when a [psychological] revulsion takes place in the Yogins [by the transcendence of] the Citta. and Vijnana. Mahamati. and devoid of the two Svabhavas. Mahamati. individuality and generality of things. Mahamati. In the same manner. of a river. the discriminating Vijnana of the ignorant which is impressed with the habit-energy of false imaginations and speculations since beginningless time. In the same way. oneness and otherness. any establishment that favours the way of self-nature. there will be in them the grasping of an ego. Again. those who are impressed by the habit-energy of the philosophical views carry on their discrimination regarding oneness and otherness. it is neither existent nor non-existent. [The Buddhist doctrine is this:] Mahamati. shrubs. being and non-being. a supreme soul. Manas. their way of thinking and viewing things. Mahamati. Mahamati. is that of the Transformation Buddha and not that of the Dharmata Buddha. Mahamati. the notions of being and non-being. Again. Mahamati. Mahamati. the trees are [real] figures. or a person. and they are neither images nor not-images. the teaching pointing to self-nature. such teaching is meant for the ignorant. they cast off the [dualistic] discrimination of grasped and grasping in what is seen of Mind itself. they are discriminated forms of what is seen of Mind itself. it is like the trees reflected in water. if there is the grasping of existence and non-existence in the realm attained by the Yogins. according to the desire for them or its absence. because they are seen as images and also as notimages. Again. it is like an echo giving the sound of a human voice. are reflected images of Self-Mind while they appear as if real. because it is heard as a voice and yet as not a voice. Mahamati. Mahamati. which are known to the ignorant as images. vines. it is like a mirage which in conjunction with the sun appears with its flowing waves on the earth where there are no grass. for their minds are not enlightened as regards what is seen of Mind-only. fails to reveal the truth of self-realisation to be attained by noble wisdom and the blissful abode of the Samadhi. In the same manner. a nourisher. bothness and not-bothness. is stirred like a . 1 1 This whole paragraph must be independently treated. they are reflections and yet are not-reflections. Mahamati. bothness and notbothness are the discriminations of Self-Mind and habit-energy. which is attained by the realisation of noble wisdom. bothness and not-bothness. Mahamati. oneness and otherness. by setting up the three forms of measure and the [five] members of a syllogism. They are neither existent nor non-existent. And. (93) [the philosophers] make the discrimination that there is a reality existing by itself. being in conformity with their mentality. or of the wind. and entering the Tathagata-stage attain the realisation of noble wisdom.Further. and yet no-figures. it is like a mirror reflecting all colours and images (94) as afforded by the conditions and without discrimination. In the same way. [This discrimination however is] not right. and trees.

153. Therefore. Like a mirage in the spring-time. or a lightning. of which the Vijnana is the fifth. make no discriminations! 150. you should cast off the discriminations leading to the notions of birth. but their assertion is not at all well grounded. being and non-being. This triple world resembles a hair-net. only an appearance to people. Eternity and non-eternity. Mahamati. Mahamati. Since beginningless time. when they thus understand all there is nothing to know. a vision. 157. (95) the ignorant and simpleminded committing themselves to the erroneous philosophical views are thoroughly devoted to the ideas of oneness and otherness. You seek in vain for individual signs. it is like Pisaca who by means of his spell makes a corpse or a wooden image throb with life though it has no power of its own. 151. it is a nonentity. a mirage. A world of multitudes1 is a hair-net. a dream. ( 96) the triple continuation is torn asunder and one is emancipated. they are led to the abandonment [of their wrappage]. 156. There is here nothing of thought-construction. or like a dream. animals imagine water but there is no reality to it. and destruction. 155. in order to attain the noble reality attainable within yourself. the ignorant are found transmigrating through the paths. 154. Here is nothing but thought-construction and name. In the same way. they are to be regarded as Maya and a dream. oneness. by the waves of birth. they are so by thought-construction.mirage even in the midst of reality revealed by means of noble wisdom. and by thus regarding it one is emancipated. it is said: 149. as a wedge is induced by another wedge. of oneness and otherness. too. . subsistence. Maya. For this reason. being and non-being. or a machine. but here the ignorant cling to the non-existent imagining them to have the power of movement. Mahamati. abiding. and destruction. it is like a dream. enwrapped in their attachment to existence. bothness and not-bothness. it is like an image in the air. the mind is found bewildered. 152. and the city of the Gandharvas. The Skandhas. Thus the Vijnana-seed is evolved and the world comes into view. or a cloud. the ignorant imagine it is born. it is [a wheel made by] a firebrand. resemble the reflections of the trees in water. bothness and not-bothness as well: these are discriminated by the ignorant who are confused in mind and bound up by errors since beginningless time. or water in a mirage which is agitated. bothness and not-bothness. the Skandhas are like a hair-net wherein discrimination goes on. of oneness and otherness. By regarding the world as always like a magically-moving corpse. just like the dim-eyed ones perceive things in the darkness. 158.

Isvara. that things are characterised with individuality and generality. What are the four? They are: (1) The Dhyana practised by the ignorant. there are four kinds of Dhyanas. it is devoid of oneness and otherness. 1 Read cittram. they are seen in diversity of forms. who perceiving that there is no egosubstance. Mahamati. is not fastened to these ideas: Prakriti. This is called the Dhyana practised by the ignorant. Mahamati. the religious teaching of the Tathagatas is headed by the [four noble] truths. in water. [the Tathagatas.159. but are like a child in a barren woman's dream. and [the eightfold noble] path leading to emancipation. that the body is a shadow and a skeleton which is transient. That is. what then is the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning? It is the one [practised by those who. of the stages [of Bodhisattvahood]. in a vessel. Like a mirage in the air. e.] having gone beyond the egolessness of things. realities] anywhere to take hold of. will establish them in the one hundred and eight statements of imagelessness and also in the characteristic distinctions of the vehicles. leading beings] successively forwards like the leader of a caravan. which are held by the philosophers. assertion and refutation. atoms. time and self-nature. images are seen. (2) the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning. the [twelvefold] chain of origination. proceed to examine and follow up the meaning of the [various] aspects of the . so is a variety of things mere appearance. instead of cittam. the untenability of such ideas as self. and on a gem. and of the constituents [of enlightenment]. of bothness and not-bothness. and both. is free from being and non-being. Mahamati. and (4) the Dhyana of the Tathagatas. the religious teaching of the Tathagatas is free from the four statements. and who starting from them successively advance until they reach the cessation where there are no thoughts. full of suffering and is impure. individuality and generality. (3) the Dhyana with Tathata (suchness) for its object. Again. XXXVII Further. (97) The religious teaching of the Tathagatas. spontaneity. Mahamati. in order to purify them from the two hindrances of passion and knowledge. Mahamati. other. In a mirror. XXXVI Further. in an eye. What is meant by the Dhyana practised by the ignorant? It is the one resorted to by the Yogins exercising themselves in the discipline of the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. persistently cling to these notions which are regarded as just so and not otherwise. 160. causelessness. but in them there are no images [i.

I and all the Buddhas declare that there is Nirvana. into the realm of the Pratyekabuddhas. Nirvana is the realm of self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. 162. it is not eternality. sees the form of the sun or the moon. What is meant by this term Nirvana? Replied the Blessed One: When the self-nature and the habit-energy of all the Vijnanas. and Manovijnana. Mahamati. Therefore. or something looking like a lotus. There are the Dhyana for the examination of meaning. entering upon the stage of Tathagatahood and abiding in the triple bliss which characterises self-realisation attained by noble wisdom. When all these are tossed aside and there is a state of imagelessness. Manas. . etc. Therefore. the Dhyana with Tathata for its object. Blessed One. which is the state of reality. including the Alaya. How is it not eternality? Because it has cast off the discrimination of individuality and generality. and the way and the self-nature of this Nirvana is emptiness. 164. it is said: 161. or the underworld. while in his exercise. The Yogin. they throw him down into the state of Sravakahood. it is not annihilation. is the Dhyana with Tathata for its object? When [the Yogins recognise that] the discrimination of the two forms of egolessness is mere imagination. from which issues the habit-energy of wrong speculations—when all these go through a revulsion. and the Buddhas will come together from all their countries and with their shining hands will stroke the head of this benefactor. and future have attained realisation. (99) Further. existence and non-existence. 163. XXXVIII At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva again said this to the Blessed One: Thou speakest of Nirvana. then a condition in conformity with Tathata presents itself. Mahamati. which is free from the discrimination of eternality and annihilation. and the pure Dhyana of the Tathagata. or various forms like sky. I call it the Dhyana with Tathata for its object. the Dhyana practised by the ignorant. All these appearances lead him to the way of the philosophers. and that where he establishes himself in the reality of suchness (yathabhuta) there is no rising of discrimination.egolessness of things and the stages of Bodhisattvahood. I call it the Dhyana of the Tathagatas. devotes himself for the sake of all beings to the [accomplishment of] incomprehensible works. is the Dhyana of the Tathagata? When [the Yogin]. present. What. This is the Dhyana devoted to the examination of meaning. How about its not being annihilation? It is because all the wise men of the past. fire. Mahamati. (98) What.

Mahamati. in escaping social intercourse. Mahamati. Arhats. then it will be a birth and continuation. and the attachment to objects as having self-nature. If it is destruction. This is their notion of Nirvana. the great Parinirvana is neither destruction nor death. Mahamati. . so. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas at their first stage will attain the Bodhisattva-Samadhi. mouth. They will immediately see the Tathagatas. Mahamati. Again. Neither has it anything to do with vanishing. in not having a perverted view of the world. Mahamati. neither is it of one meaning nor of no-meaning. Mahamati. this is said to be Nirvana. The attachment to words as having self-nature. Fully-Enlightened Ones appearing before them personally. as is the case with Vajragarbha the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. Nirvana conceived by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas consists in recognising individuality and generality. then it will assume the character of an effect-producing deed. and sustained by this power [the Bodhisattvas] would prostrate themselves at their feet and ask them questions. XXXIX Further. What is this twofold power that sustains the Bodhisattvas? The one is the power by which they are sustained to go through the Samadhis and Samapattis. and with other BodhisattvaMahasattvas who are in possession of similar character and (101) virtue. Mahamati. and words. the great Parinirvana is neither destruction nor death. known as the Light of Mahayana. and not raising discrimination. Mahamati. Then. there are two kinds of characteristic signs of selfnature. Mahamati. takes place owing to one's clinging to the habit-energy of words and false imaginings since beginningless time. XL Further. there are two kinds of the sustaining power which issues from the Tathagatas who are Arhats and Fully-Enlightened Ones. (100) What are these two kinds? They are the attachment to words as having self-nature. who come from all the different abodes in the ten quarters of the world and who now facing the Bodhisattvas will impart to them their sustaining power displayed with the body. while the other is the power whereby the Buddhas manifest themselves in person before the Bodhisattvas and baptise them with their own hands. Further. sustained by the power of the Buddhas. Mahamati. takes place from not knowing that the external world is no more than Self-Mind. 1 Maranam repeated here in the text is a mistake.l it is the goal of the Yogins. For this reason. which belongs to the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas.Again. And the attachment to objects as having self-nature. if the great Parinirvana is death. Mahamati the great Parinirvana is neither abandonment nor attainment.

the Tathagatas.] Why? Because of the sustaining power [on the one hand] and its absence [on the other]. and when they are baptised at the most exalted stage. the Buddhas thus give him a baptism personally by hand as when a great king invested with supreme authority [baptises his crown-prince]. in towns indeed. personally come into the presence of all the Buddhas. Arhats. 1 According to the Chinese translations. [But the latter do not. (102) whatever Samadhis. How much more those endowed with sentiency! The mute. Blessed One. blind. they are sustained by the twofold sustaining power of all the Buddhas. Where the Tathagatas enter with their sustaining power there will be music not only in various musical instruments and vessels but also even in grass. and passions. they will. Further. For this . the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas show their eloquence without the Buddhas' sustaining power. the ignorant and simple-minded will also show their eloquence. to have them realise the stage of Tathagatahood. Mahamati. and with their lotus-like hands. If. successively going up the stages and getting thoroughly acquainted with what they should do and should not do. By virtue of their stock of merit accumulated for a hundred thousand kalpas.Mahamati. This Bodhisattva and these Bodhisattvas are said to be sustained by the Buddhas' power. sprinkle the forehead of the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who is seated on the throne in the Lotus Palace. Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened Ones to be interviewed. is the great extraordinary virtue of the sustaining power imparted by the Tathagatas. and surrounded by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas of a similar class. finally reach the stage of Bodhisattvahood called Dharmamegha. to keep them away from the Dhyana and stage of the Sravakahood. Further. and to make them grow in the truth and experience already attained. trees. and deaf will be cured of their deficiencies. with the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas at the first stage. Arhats. bestow their sustaining power on them? Replied the Blessed One: It is in order to make them avoid the evil ones. psychic faculties. Fully-Enlightened Ones. sustained by this twofold sustaining power. In no other way are the Tathagatas. houses. Mahamati. Mahamati. and will enjoy their emancipation. Mahamati. Here the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva finds himself seated on a throne in the Lotus Palace. yes. that when the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are established in the Samadhis and Samapattis. and mountains. palaces. Such. who. and teachings are exhibited by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. being thus baptised by [their] hands. they will attain the Tathagatas' power sustaining them in their Samadhis and Samapattis. Mahamati. and royal abodes. Mahamati said: Why is it. shrubs. karma. The Buddhas now come from their worlds in the ten quarters. and his body1 shines brilliantly like the moon in the yellowish gold colour of the Campaka flower. this is the twofold sustaining power imparted to the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. a tiara decorated and ornamented with all kinds of precious stones is on his head.

and from this mutuality follows the fault of non-finality. The sustaining power is purified by the Buddhas' vows. Mahamati. For this reason. the philosophers explain birth from being and non-being. a personal soul. while. this is"—if this is simultaneous conditionality and not successive mutuality. XLI At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva said thus to the Blessed One: The chain of origination as told by the Blessed One depends on a cause producing an effect. it is not right. Fully-Enlightened Ones. (103) they would fall into the way of thinking and feeling as cherished by the wrong philosophers. 2 The T'ang reading seems to give the best sense. the philosophers. Mahamati. Why? The cause assumed by the philosophers is not dependent upon the chain of origination and produces effects. I speak of "That being so. thy cause has reference to its effect and the effect to its cause. according to the Blessed One.reason. If they were not thus sustained. Blessed One. The philosophers also proclaim a causal origination when they say that all things rise conditioned by a supreme spirit. According to the Blessed One. When people talk about. Mahamati. this is. and would not attain the highest enlightenment. Arhats. However.2 "that being so. [the Bodhisattvas are in the embrace of the Buddhas]. How is it that the rise of all things is explained by the Blessed One in another terminology bearing on causation but in its meaning not different? Blessed One. time. or atom.. This teaching as explained by the Blessed One is the doctrine of no-causation and not that of causation. in the baptism. Mahamati. from the first to the tenth [stage]. 1 Replied the Blessed One: Not so. But. the BodhisattvaMahasattvas are upheld by the Tathagatas. all things coming into existence from nothingness pass away by causation.1 that is to say. the Tathagatas. or evil ones. Fully-Enlightened Ones sustain with their power the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. when people clinging to the notion of grasped and grasping fail . the Blessed One has Ignorance from which there rises Mental Conformation until we reach Old Age and Death. this is" because of my seeing into the nature of the external world which is nothing but Self-Mind and because of its unreality of grasped (object) and grasping (subject). (104) teaching excels. etc. Samadhis. and not thine. Arhats. Isvara. Sravakas. There. mine is not a causeless theory of causation which results in an [endless] interconnection of causes and conditions. Blessed One. in the Sanskrit text there is apparently an omission. " there is a state of causelessness. Thus it is said: 165. and that it is not a theory established on the principle of a self-originating substance. and thus there is an interconnection of causal links. "That being so. This is according to the Chinese translations.

in the worlds of the Steady-Looking and in those of Exquisite Odours. Mahamati. are an artificial creation. in still others by a frown. where dost thou pronounce sound to be eternal? The Blessed One replied: According to error. this talk lacks in sense. a firebrand wheel. For this reason. If. they carry on their work without words. In some Buddha-lands ideas are indicated by looking steadily. the validity of all things has nothing to do with the reality of words. XLII Further. words. the hare's horns. the existence of all things is by reason of the reality of words. for instance. they are neither entities nor nonentities but expressed in words. Mahamati. Mahamati. by laughing. or by trembling. you say that because of the reality of words the objects are. 167. Blessed One. XLIII At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva again said this to the Blessed One: Blessed One. Blessed One. Mahamati. it is like the unwitted in the world who conceive a perverted idea regarding a mirage. they wander about in the triple world which is their dwelling. When causes and conditions are in combination the ignorant imagine the birth [of this world]. Mahamati. Arhat. and. so is this existence imagined. bees. Thus it is said: 166. since even to the wise there is this error. Mahamati. or by the clearing of the throat. Words are not known in all the Buddha-lands.. Mahamati. the city of the Gandharvas. by the movement of the eyes. . for instance.to understand the world as something seen of Mind itself. Mahamati. Mahamati said: Blessed One. (105)—they are not at all visible in the world but the words are. a barren woman's child. and in the Buddha-land of Samantabhadra the Tathagata. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas by steadily looking without a wink attain the recognition of all things as unborn and also various most excellent Samadhis. the tortoise's hair. is it not because of the reality of words that all things are? If not for words. etc. Fully-Enlightened One. (106) as they fail to understand this reason. by yawning. but not by my theory of causation. Mahamati. there would be no rising of things. and a barren woman's child are nonentities except as expressed in words. the hare's horns. etc. Hence. Mahamati. Said the Blessed One: Even when there are no [corresponding] objects there are words. It is observed. or by recollection. only that they are free from perversion. by them the fault is committed as they recognise the external world as real with its beings and non-beings. a hair-net. even in this world that in the kingdom of such special beings as ants. in others by gestures. As space.

[as far as its own nature is concerned]. a dream.Maya. though to this error the idea of impermanence is inapplicable. for this reason that as regards this error the wise cherish neither a perverted knowledge nor an unperverted knowledge. Mahamati. Mahamati. when the error is discriminated according to a perverted and an unperverted view. It is [such as it is and] not otherwise. Mahamati. Again. how is there the rise of the Buddhayana family when this error is discriminated by the intelligent? Mahamati. Again. though it. Thus to the wise. Mahamati. the error is neither a perversion nor a non-perversion. the Pratyekabuddhas. there is the manifestation of varieties of objects which calls forth the assertion [on their part] that this is so and not otherwise. If there is anything at all here it is the prattling of the ignorant. it is not the talk of the wise. and the Buddhas. is characterised with permanency. this is the family. how does the Pratyekabuddhayana family rise as the error is discriminated? Mahamati. the family of the wise is divisible into three kinds. Mahamati. a reflected image. when the error is discriminated by the ignorant. Mahamati. it gives rise to two classes of family. This is the way. Mahamati. when the world is understood to be nothing but Mind itself. In case. that is. the error in itself is characterised with permanency. the existence and non-existence of external objects ceases to be discriminated. Why? Because it cannot be characterised with the ideas of being and non-being. When. Again. this error gives rise to the Sravakayana family. when in this error the attachment to the notions of individuality and generality (108) leads one to a retirement from social life. and an Aksha-purusha. Mahamati. but as this water is manifest to other people it is not a non-existence either. Mahamati. Mahamati. how is the error to be considered reality? Mahamati. and the other the family of the ignorant and simpleminded. there is the rise of the �Sravakayana family where the attachment to the notions of individuality and generality is kept up. Mahamati. the error-existence [or this world of illusion] is not. Mahamati. Mahamati. it goes contrary to the reality attainable by noble wisdom. Mahamati. one of which is the family of the wise. And for this reason. (107) the error is perceived as differentiated. how are the ideas of being and non-being inapplicable to this error? Because all the ignorant take in varieties of situations. Thus the error. like the waves of the ocean and the waters of the Ganges which are not seen by the Pretas. Now. but seen [by others]. there is this error. but with the knowing it is not so. there rises the Pratyebuddhayana family. having the nature of non-distinction [as far as its own appearance is concerned]. how does the Sravakayana family rise from the discrimination whereby the ignorant conceive the error? Mahamati. For this reason. what is meant by the family. diversities of forms are seen. and there is the rise of the Buddhayana family. Again. being discriminated as regards its diversified individual signs. does not mean that those illusions do not appear to them. that is. whence rises the . the wise should cherish any thought whatever in this error. the Sravakas.

Mahamati said. habit-energy. Maya is not an unreality. then see. Thus. (109) no liberation would be possible from the attachment to existence. It has in itself no habit-energy of evil thoughts and faults that. things are not like Maya. and all things have the nature of Maya. Mahamati. if. nor is there any truth in its midst. issuing from self-discrimination. The Blessed One said: No. the meaning of this statement is here thus clearly expressed by me. this will indeed be error. Maya does not give rise to evil thoughts and faults. Mahamati said: Blessed One. Mahamati. it will thereby be the cause of another error. the chain of origination would be understood in the sense of creation as held by the philosophers.family of the transmigration vehicle. by the discarding of discrimination is meant the abandonment of all discriminations.] there are no faults in it. that all things are like Maya because Maya is something imagined and clung to as having multitudinousness of individual forms? (110) Or is it due to the incorrect imagining of individual forms? If all things have the likeness of Maya because Maya is something imagined and clung to as having multitudinousness of individual forms. So much for this statement. the [three] Svabhavas. Mahamati. If they ever appear without due . this error being discriminated by the wise turns into Tathata (suchness) with them. Blessed One. the error has no character in it making for attachment. because it has the appearance of reality. the error is discriminated by the ignorant as characterised by multitudinousness. if truth is in its midst. the error had any character in it making for attachment. So it is said: 168. affect it. The wise do not see [the(?)] error. Maya has no discrimination of itself. and thus. Why? Because forms are seen in the multitudinousness of individual signs not without due causes.1 XLIV Further. Mahamati. Said Mahamati: Is it. This is only due to the confused view fondly cherished by the ignorant regarding Mind. Again. For this reason. Blessed One. Mahamati. is the error an entity or not? The Blessed One replied: It is like Maya. Thus. Mahamati. 169. Manas. Mahamati. it rises when invoked by the magical charm of a certain person. false reasoning. Mahamati. Maya cannot be the cause of the error. If there is the rising of individual forms ( nimitta) apart from all error. if the error is like Maya. [Therefore. and the wise have nothing to do with it. and this error is neither a reality nor an unreality. Mahamati. because of its incapability of producing evils and faults. by virtue of a revulsion which takes place in them concerning the Citta. Mahamati. and the [five] Dharmas. the defiled is like darkness. Blessed One. [the(?)] error would be truth. Manovijnana. that is. there is this statement that Tathata is Mind emancipated.

Mahamati.causes. Blessed One. there is no fault of contradiction between my previous statement and my later one.2 In this light. is difficult to find in this connection. Why? Because birth is no-birth. . Said the Blessed One: It is not. all things and Maya] are both alike in being imagined and clung to as having multitudinousness of individual signs. Maya is not without reality. Mahamati. they are unreal like a lightning-flash [appearing and disappearing] quickly. there is here no fault of contradiction between my previous statement and my later one. the term "unborn" is to be understood. [then] they would be like Maya. but that all things are like Maya because they are unreal and like a lightning-flash which is seen as quickly disappearing. the reality of all things is talked of [in a similar manner]. and therefore they are regarded as resembling Maya. but. When the state of imagelessness2 is recognised. in order to cast aside the philosophers' thesis on birth by causation. 2 According to T'ang. 1 XLV Further. Mahamati. assuming the multitudinousness of individual signs and shapes. is there not the fault of contradiction between the previous statement and the later one? It is asserted by thee that that all things are unborn is due to their having the nature of Maya. Mahamati. that things are like Maya is not because they [i. objects which are imagined and clung to as in possession of individual signs cease to assert themselves. and as to all external objects of which we state that they are or are not. when it is recognised that the world that presents itself before us is no more than Mind itself. and thus. Mahamati. foster the notion of deriving the birth of all things from that of being and non-being. the philosophers who are the gathering of the deluded. no fear rises in me [by making this statement]. What is exactly meant by these two verses. in the same way. For this reason. they are to be seen as non-existent and unborn. Mahamati. all things are unborn (111) and resemble Maya. Blessed One.1 The Blessed One replied: Mahamati. that all things are Maya because they are both alike in being imagined and clung to as having multitudinousness of individual signs. Mahamati. Thus it is said: 170. it is asserted that all things are like Maya and unborn. because it has something resembling it. all things assume individuality and generality according to the discrimination [of the Mind] itself. when all things are asserted to be unborn because of their having the nature of Maya. e. Mahamati. and fail to regard it as caused by the attachment to the multidinousness which rises from the discrimination [of the Mind] itself. But. a lightning appears and disappears in quick succession as is manifest to the ignorant. especially the latter. Mahamati said: Now according to the Blessed One.

XLVI Further. a sign. work. whereas Wei has: "It is said by the Tathagata that all things are unlike maya. for when name-body. and syllable-body are well understood. the real object. one does not discriminate individual signs. etc. By the body of a sentence is meant what it signifies. By the syllable-body (113) is meant that by which names and sentences are indicated. Mahamati. it is a symbol. to see all things as they really and truly are means to realise that there is nothing to be seen but Mind itself. Mahamati. to check nihilism which says "Nothing is." 2 T'ang. Again. Wei: I say that all things are unborn when existent. for by admitting the terminology of existence we admit transmigration. this is the body of a name. causation is not accepted [as is maintained by the ignorant]. as they do not clearly grasp the meaning of the world which is no more than the Mind itself. Again. Mahamati. Mahamati. the body is this object. Mahamati. Attached to erroneous thoughts they contradict both themselves and others by not seeing all things as they really and truly are. they imagine and cling to causation. it is something indicated. and the syllable-body. it completes its reference. a name (or a letter. the sentence-body. So it is said: 171. the teaching that all things exist is given in order to admit transmigration. where existence is accepted transmigration prevails. Mahamati. by name-body is meant the object depending on which a name obtains. in order to check this I teach that all things are characterised in their self-nature with the nature of Maya and a dream. says: I say that all things are non-existent because of their being unborn. nama) means each separate letter distinguished as to its self-nature . Mahamati. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas conformable to the signification of a sentence and a syllable will quickly realise supreme enlightenment and thereby awaken all beings to it. Sung: I do not [say] that the existent and the non-existent are born.This last sentence is missing in T'ang. in another sense. Mahamati. the sentence (pada) -body means the completion of the meaning expressed in the sentence." and to make my disciples accept the doctrine that asserts the reality of karma in various forms and birth in the various worlds. seeing that [all things] are like Maya. and individual signs. Mahamati. In the theory of no-birth. determining its sense definitely. we will explain the characteristics of name-body. (112) as they cherish the thoughts characterised with error. this is my teaching as regards the sentence-body. birth. the teaching that all things are characterised with the self-nature of Maya is meant to make the ignorant and simple-minded cast aside the idea of self-nature in anything. unborn when nonexistent. in another sense the body means substance (sarira). sentencebody. 1 Again.. In another sense.

bothness and not-bothness. the question: Are form. However. and a syllable (vyanjana). Mahamati. the ignorant. Mahamati. in the time to come. a syllable (vyanjana) is short. cattle. The Tathagatas. discrimination does not take place because I teach to stand above grasped and grasping. etc. cows. indices and indicated. Mahamati. realities and the elements. and thus asked. Again. people. body is another.from a to ha. and vyanjana. these deluded people are unable to realise [the meaning of] what they heard [from the Buddha] because of their deficiency of knowledge. names (nama) and syllables (vyanjana) belong to the four Skandhas which being formless are indicated by names. "It is no question. is the meaning of the body of a name (nama). as they do not have a thorough . knowledge and the Yogins—[are these to be considered one or different?] Such questions concerning the various aspects of existence lead successively from one thing to another without end. Mahamati. Mahamati. Arhats. Mahamati. (115) How could there be any setting aside here? But. seen and seeing. rams. these inexplicables (vyahriani) are not taken up for consideration by the Tathagatas in order to keep the philosophers away from their wrong views and theories. Nirvana and the Skandhas. to those who are addicted to grasped and grasping. FullyEnlightened Ones do not explain these things to all beings because of their wish to keep the latter from the fear-inspiring phrases. goats. regarding the sentence (pada) -body the idea of it is obtained from the foot-prints left on the road by elephants. a sentence (pada). dust and atoms. or life is one thing. Again. they may answer. and transiency to be considered one or different?" In the same way. By means of the differently characterised names there are syllables (vyanjana). regarding that which is liberated from the dualistic conceptions of things such as oneness and otherness. or lengthy. stick to them like the elephant in deep mud. qualities and qualified. Mahamati. In my teaching. thus are names made. saying. the philosophers may declare thus: what life is that is the body. You should endeavour to have a thorough understanding of these terms. In these they make inexplicable statements. This. XLVII (114) Further. thus are syllables made. long. it is not at all properly put —that is to say. horses. those wrong-headed ones who are inclined to false speculations owing to their deficiency of knowledge concerning truth and cause may be asked by the wise. etc. but that is not found in my teaching. and those who are asked about these unexplainable questions would declare that they were put aside by the Blessed One as impossible to answer. the dull-witted. Mahamati. entirely bewildered by the idea of a creator. Because of the distinction between nama. pada. Again. It is thus said: 172. Mahamati. buffalos. deer. Mahamati. the philosophers make an inexplicable statement.

and all things are eternal because of their non-eternality. no going-out. discernment. the Tathagatas. there is something to be set aside [as inexplicable]. Arhats. when they are examined by self-knowledge. 174. as there is no doer. all that are proclaimed by them are the inexplicables. When the self-nature [of all things] is examined by knowledge. Again. and yet they do not go out. all things are without self-nature. Mahamati. Mahamati. 1 These three verses ought to follow § 47. Therefore. 1The four kinds of explanation are: direct statement. Again. all things are said not to be eternal. all things are eternal. therefore. all things are neither taking birth. Why? For this reason that the individual signs that make up the self-nature of things are nonexistent. it is beyond reach. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. Blessed One. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. Why? (116) Because the rising of individual signs is characterised with non-eternality. Thus it is said: 173. all things are therefore said to be unborn. they are seen as going out. all things being devoid of doing and doer are unborn. all things are said never to be annihilated. the signs of individuality and generality are seen as existing and yet they are non-existent. As to the propositions that are set aside [as inexplicable]. they are made use of by me on some other occasions for those whose senses are not yet fully matured. Why? Because. there are no such signs obtainable which characterise them with individuality and generality. and all things are beyond reach.understanding of the world which is no more than what is seen of the Mind itself. and setting aside. Mahamati. Mahamati. all things are said to be eternal. all things are not eternal. Therefore. questioning. Fully-Enlightened Ones teach the Dharma to all beings by means of the four forms of questioning and answering. For this reason. 175. therefore. in all things there is no taking birth. whereby the philosophers are kept away. Mahamati. whereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas thoroughly becoming . they are without self-nature and unattainable. regarding the Stream-entered and their special attainment which characterises the state of the Streamentered. Again. XLVIII Further. nor are they going out. Therefore. XLIX At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva again said this to the Blessed One: Pray tell me. Mahamati. The Sankha and the Vaiseshika philosophers teach birth from a being or from a non-being. all things are said to have no self-nature. Why? Because. all things are never annihilated. Again. Why? Because the rising of individual signs is no-rising and is non-existent. but for those of matured senses there is nothing to set aside.

What are these three knots. Mahamati? They are: (1) the view of an individual personality. being discriminated by the ignorant. it is like [the relation between] the relativity view and the false imagination [of the three] Svabhavas. But this [existence] is neither a being. The Blessed One then said this: Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. that form takes its rise from the elements and their belongings. the middling will attain Nirvana in three or five births.acquainted with the Stream-entered and their special attainment characterising the state of the Stream-entered. Having understood the twofold form of egolessness and (117) having cleansed themselves of the twofold hindrance. for these three classes [of the Stream-entered] there are three kinds of knots: weak. nor a non-being. depending on the relativity view of things there arise varieties of attachments to the false imagination. they will be like a multicoloured gem and will accomplish what is good for the lives of all beings. which has been accumulated for a long time by their ignorance and attachment. three kinds are distinguishable. Mahamati. it is perceived that it consists of form and the other four Skandhas. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva answering him said: Very well. Mahamati. and (3) the holding-on to moral practices. and Arhatship. and they will then explain the Dharma to all beings in this manner. Blessed One. providing them with every teaching. will proceed to know the means and conduct which characterises the state of the Once-returning. (1) the inborn one and (2) the one due to the false imagination. there are two kinds of the view of an individual personality. middling. they will by degrees go through the stages of Bodhisattvahood each of which has its own characteristics. when all these three knots are in succession promoted to the higher stage then 1 will be the attainment of Arhatship. Mahamati. (2) doubt. low. it is not a reality because of the false imagination. Mahamati. nor a being-and-non-being. and that hence . that is. the inborn view of an individual personality as held by the Stream-entered [is destroyed in this way]. and take well to heart. and. this is the view of an individual personality falsely imagined by the Stream-entered. assumes varieties of individual signs to which they are strongly attached just as the deer does to a mirage. and enjoyment. This is destroyed when the egolessness of a person is attained by which the clinging ceases. condition. What are the three? They are graded. deportment. the highest will attain Nirvana in this birth. Replied the Blessed One: Listen well Mahamati. and the highest. and strong. in the fruit attained by the Sravakas. that the elements are mutually conditioning. Mahamati. and attaining Tathagatahood whose spiritual realm is beyond conceivability. Never-returning. The low ones will be reborn seven times when their existence will come to an end. (118) For instance. middle. When this body which belongs equally to each of us is considered. body. I will tell you.

Hence the appellation "Once-returning. Mahamati. Hence this casting aside. And [the Stream-entered] do not hold [to the rules of morality]. and thoroughly understood as to its characteristics. showing itself in beating. but as they learn not to view individual objects under the aspect of qualified and qualifying. and putting an end to suffering. is because they desire thereby to attain worldly enjoyments and happinesses. Mahamati. covetousness will never assert itself. Again. is what characterises the view of individual personality. suggesting. (120) Again. what is the fruit of the Once-returning? There is once in them the discrimination of forms. which one of them is to be cast aside? The Blessed One replied: The world where love grows. for their thoughts are turning only towards the exalted state of self-realisation.there is no aggregate known as form. and the reason why they devote themselves to the details of morality is that they wish to master such truths as are in conformity with non-discrimination and undefiled outflows. Mahamati. that the ignorant and simple-minded observe the rules of morality. realise Nirvana. Again. Mahamati. what is meant by Never-returning? It means that while there is yet the viewing of individual objects as characterised by being . [What is meant by] the holding? Mahamati. anger. signs. and folly. they once come back into the world. Mahamati. Mahamati. looking-sidewise. This. Mahamati. they cherish the hope of being born in agreeable conditions. This. When the view of individual personality is thus destroyed. and penance. And there is no thought [in the minds of the Stream-entered] to follow the lead of any other teacher because of [the difference between] purity and non-purity. by thus breaking up the three knots the Stream-entered will discard covetousness. the view of individual personality is destroyed. as regards the nature of doubt... This. how is it that the Stream-entered do not hold themselves to the morality? They do not because they clearly see into the nature of suffering wherever they may be reborn. or gazing may give one momentary pleasures but is productive of future grief. and appearances. embracing. no doubt is cherished in the teaching [of the Buddhas]. and as they know well what marks the attainment of the Dhyana. Mahamati. " Again. e. smelling. and realised. When thus the Stream-entered realise that the idea of being and non-being is a partial view [of truth]. but not of the desire for Nirvana. is the way in which the Stream-entered Ones hold to morality and piety. the desire for sexual embrace. i. is what is meant by doubt [discarded] ( 119) by the Stream-entered. [With the Stream-entered] there is no greed for such. when the Dharma is attained. kissing. Mahamati said: Many kinds of covetousness are taught by the Blessed One. Why? Because they are abiding in the bliss of the Samadhi which they have attained. piety. slapping. and when the twofold view of individual personality is destroyed as previously described.

the Dhyanas. and they have not freed themselves from the fetters. when this is recognised there is emancipation. —these are no more than discriminations. they are those who have finished practising the deeds of a Bodhisattva. in order to go beyond the Dhyanas. and future. [the term "Arhat"] applies to the Sravaka who makes straightway for the path of cessation. and to no others." Again. and the knots are completely cut off never to return. The Samapatti leading to the extinction of thought and sensation does not enable one to transcend the world of particulars. and discriminations. Mahamati. the signs of this visible world which is Mind itself should be discarded. here in these paths and abodes of existence they give out varieties of teachings which are based on discrimination. Mahamati. and that of the Once-returning. Hence the appellation "Arhat. the seeing of the truth. Samadhis. Hence the appellation "Never-returning. L . the subject for it. The Dhyanas. Mahamati. The fruit of the Stream-entered. that is to say. 177. Further. and the complete extinction of thought (nirodha)—these do not exist where the Mind alone is. the immeasurables. the discrimination does not return with its errors and faults. Further. they manifest themselves among the multitudes in order to adorn the assemblages of the Buddhas. the Arhat is the one who has attained the Dhyanas. psychic faculties. but I am disengaged from them. and the formless world. for there is nothing but Mind. the immeasurables. present. powers. the dormant passions do not assert themselves. The Dhyana-practiser. sufferings. if the Stream-entered should think. " they commit a double fault: they still hold to the vices of the ego. they are forms of the Transformation Buddha. the Blessed One declares that there are three kinds of Arhats: to which one of the three is this term "Arhat" to be applied? To one who makes straightway for the path of cessation? Or to one who neglects all his accumulated stock of merit for the sake of his vow to enlighten others? Or to one who is a form of the Transformation [Buddha]? Replied the Blessed One: Mahamati. emancipations. the Dhyana-practisers."These are the fetters. the Dhyana.and non-being in the past. the formless. 178. and with whom there are no more passions. they discourse on the fruit attained [for the sake of all beings]. as for the others." Mahamati said: Now. With skilful means born of their fundamental and original vows ( 121). the Samadhis. as they are above such things as the attainment of the fruit. Mahamati. the destruction. Mahamati. and Arhatship—these are the bewildered states of mind. and that of the Never-returning. and as they know that this world is no more than what is seen of the Mind itself. So it is said: 176. or subjects for meditation.

(122) Further, Mahamati, there are two kinds of intellect: the intellect as an examining function, and the intellect which functions in connection with the attachment to ideas of discrimination. As for the intellect that examines, Mahamati, it is that act of intellect which examines into the selfnature of things, finding it to be devoid of the four propositions, and unattainable. This is known as the intellect that examines. What is meant by [being devoid of] the four propositions? It means to be devoid of oneness and otherness, bothness and not-bothness, being and non-being, eternity and non-eternity. These are called the four propositions. Mahamati, train yourself to examine carefully all things as regards these four propositions. What, Mahamati, is the intellect which functions in connection with the attachment to ideas of discrimination? It is the intellect with which the Mind is discriminated and the ideas arising therefrom are adhered to [as real]; and this adherence gives rise to the conceptions of warmth, fluidity, motility, and solidity as characterising the gross elements; while the tenacious holding to proposition, reason, definition, and illustration, leads to the assertion of a non-entity [as entity]. This is called the intellect that functions in connection with the attachment to ideas of discrimination. This, Mahamati, is what characterises the two kinds of intellect, in accordance with which the Bodhisattvas, thoroughly mastering the signs of egolessness of persons and things, (123) and, by means of knowledge of imagelessness, becoming conversant with the stage of examination and practice, will attain the first stage [of Bodhisattvahood] and acquire one hundred Dhyanas. Attaining the excellent Samadhis, they will see one hundred Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, they will enter into one hundred kalpas that were prior to the present and also into those that will follow the present, they will illuminate one hundred Buddha-lands, and, illuminating one hundred Buddha-lands, they will understand the signs belonging to the higher stages; and by virtue of the most exalted vows they will manifest wonderful powers, they will be baptised by [the Buddhas] when they reach the stage of Dharmamegha (law-cloud); and realising the inmost realm of the Tathagatas, they will be provided with things which are closely connected with the ten inexhaustible vows; and, in order to bring all beings into maturity, they will shine out in various forms with the rays of transformation; they will be quite absorbed in the bliss of self-realisation.

LI
Further, Mahamati, the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are to be well acquainted with the primary and the secondary elements. How do the Bodhisattvas know the primary and the secondary elements? Mahamati, the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are to know this that the truth is that the primary elements have never come into existence, and that, Mahamati, these elements are unborn. Thus understood, there is nothing in the world but

what is discriminated [by our imagination]. When it is recognised that the visible world is no more than Mind itself, external objects cease to be realities, and there is nothing but what is discriminated by the mind and perceived [as external]. That is to say, let it be understood that the triple world has nothing to do with the primary and the secondary elements, ( 124) that it is removed from the four propositions and philosophical systems, that it has nothing to do with a personal ego and what belongs to it; and that it establishes itself in the abode of real reality, where it is seen in its own form, i. e. in its unborn state. Mahamati, what is meant by the elements derived from the primary elements? The element discriminated as vascidity produces the realm of water, inner and outer; the element discriminated as energy produces the realm of fire, inner and outer; the element discriminated as motility produces the realm of air, inner and outer; the element discriminated as divisibility of form gives birth to the realm of earth together with space, inner and outer. Because of the attachment to the incorrect truths there is the aggregation of the five Skandhas giving rise to the elements primary and secondary. Again, Mahamati, the Vijnana has its cause in our attachment to and the desire for the multitudinousness of statements and objective fields; and it continues to evolve in another path of existence. Mahamati, the secondary elements such as earth, etc., [are said] to have their cause in the primary elements which, however, are non-existent. Because, Mahamati, of things endowed with being, characteristics, marks, perceivableness, abode, and work, one can say that they are born of the combination of various effectproducing [elements]; but not of things which are devoid of characteristic marks. For this reason, Mahamati, the elements primary and secondary are the discriminations of the philosophers and not mine.

LII
Further, Mahamati, I will explain what characterises the self-nature of the Skandhas. Mahamati, what are the five Skandhas? They are form, (125) sensation, thought, conformation, and consciousness. Mahamati, four of these have no material forms—sensation, thought, conformation, and consciousness. Form, Mahamati, belongs to what is made of the four primary elements, and these elements differ from one another in their individual signs. But the four Skandhas that are without form cannot be reckoned as four, they are like space. For instance, Mahamati, space cannot be numbered, and it is due to our discrimination that it is designated as such; in the same way, Mahamati, the Skandhas that are beyond calculability as they have no number-marks, are not to be predicated as existing and nonexisting, and are beyond the four propositions; but to the ignorant they are described as subject to numeration, but not so to the wise.

Again, Mahamati, by the wise the five Skandhas are regarded as thought-constructions, devoid of [dualisties such as] otherness and nototherness; for they are like varieties of forms and objects in a vision, like images and persons in a dream. As they have no better substance for their support, and as they obstruct the passage of noble wisdom, there is what is known as the Skandha-discrimination. This, Mahamati, is what characterises the self-nature of the Skandhas. This discrimination must be discarded by you, and having discarded this, you should declare the truth of solitude. Keeping back the views held by the philosophers, the truth of solitude is to be announced in all the Buddha-assemblies, Mahamati, and thereby the teaching of the egolessness of things is purified and you will enter upon the stage of Far-going (duramgama). Entering upon the stage of Duramgama you will become the master of many Samadhis, and, attaining the will-body (126) you will realise the Samadhi known as Mayopama (Maya-like). Thoroughly conversant with the powers, psychic faculties and self-control, you will be the supporter of all beings like the earth. Mahamati, as the great earth is the supporter of all beings, so is the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva the supporter of all beings.

LIII
Further, Mahamati, there are four kinds of Nirvana. What are the four? They are: (1) the Nirvana which is attained when the self-nature of all things is seen as nonentity; (2) the Nirvana which is attained when varieties of individual marks characterising all things are seen as non-entities; (3) the Nirvana which is attained when there is the recognition of the non-existence of a being endowed with its own specific attributes; and (4) the Nirvana which is attained when there takes place the severance of the bondage conditioning the continuation of individuality and generality of the Skandhas. Mahamati, these four views of Nirvana belong to the philosophers and are not my teaching. According to my teaching, Mahamati, the getting rid of the discriminating Manovijnana—this is said to be Nirvana. Mahamati said: Does not the Blessed One establish eight Vijnanas? The Blessed One replied: I do, Mahamati. Mahamati said: If eight Vijnanas are established, why do you refer to the getting-rid of the Manovijnana and not of the seven [other] Vijnanas [as well]? The Blessed One said: With the Manovijnana as cause and supporter, Mahamati, there rise the seven Vijnanas. Again, Mahamati, the Manovijnana is kept functioning, as it discerns a world of objects and becomes attached to it, and by means of manifold habit-energy [or memory] (127) it nourishes the Alayavijnana. The Manas is evolved along with the notion of an ego and its belongings, to which it clings and on which it

reflects. It has no body of its own, nor its own marks; the Alayavijnana is its cause and support. Because the world which is the Mind itself is imagined real and attached to as such, the whole psychic system evolves mutually conditioning. Like the waves of the ocean, Mahamati, the world which is the mind-manifested, is stirred up by the wind of objectivity, it evolves and dissolves. Thus, Mahamati, when the Manovijnana is got rid of, the seven Vijnanas are also got rid of. So it is said: 179. I enter not into Nirvana by means of being, of work, of individual signs; I enter into Nirvana when the Vijnana which is caused by discrimination ceases. 180. With it [i. e. the Manovijnana] for its cause and support, the Manas secures its use; the Vijnana causes the Citta to function, and is supported [by it]. 181. Like a great flood where no waves are stirred because of its being dried up, the Vijnana [-system] in its various forms ceases to work when there is the annihilation [of the Manovijnana].

LIV
Further, Mahamati, I will tell you about the various features of the false imagination (parikalpita); and when you and the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are well acquainted with each of them in its specific form, you will get away from discrimination; and seeing well and knowing the way of inner realisation by noble wisdom and also the ways of speculation by the philosophers, (128) you will cast off discriminations such as grasped and grasping, and will not be induced to discriminate in respect to the multiple aspects of relativity-knowledge (paratantra), as well as the forms of the false imagination. What are the various features of the false imagination, Mahamati? They are the discriminations as regards (1) words (abhilapa), (2) meaning, (3) individual marks, (4) property, (5) self-nature, (6) cause, (7) philosophical views, (8) reasoning, (9) birth, (10) no-birth, (11) dependence, and (12) bondage and emancipation. These, Mahamati, are the various features of the false imagination. Now, Mahamati, what is the discrimination of words? That is the becoming attached to various sweet voices and singing —this is the discrimination as regards words. What is the discrimination of meaning? It is the discrimination by which one imagines that words rise depending on whatever subjects they express, and which subjects one regards as self-existent and belonging to the realisation of noble wisdom. What is the discrimination of individual marks? It is to imagine in whatever is denoted by words the multitudinousness of individual marks which are like a mirage, and, clinging tenaciously to them, to discriminate

but as there is the distinction these two—Maya and varieties of objects—are neither one nor different. These. bothness and not-bothness. and there is no other. come into existence by reason of causation. oneness and otherness. silver. Mahamati. What is the discrimination of no-birth? It is to discriminate that all things are from the beginning unborn. What is the discrimination of property? It is to desire a state of wealth such as gold. What is the discrimination of dependence? It means the mutual dependence of gold and the filament [which is made of gold]. and solidity. to which all the ignorant and simple-minded ones cling. What is the discrimination of bondage and emancipation? It is like imagining that there is something bound because of something binding as in the case of a man who by the help of a cord ties a knot or loosens it. What is the discrimination of philosophical views? That means getting attached to the philosophers' wrong views and discriminations concerning such notions as being and non-being.all things according to these categories: warmth. are the various features of the false imagination. What is the discrimination of reasoning? It means the teaching whose reasoning is based on the grasping of the notion of an ego-substance and what belongs to it. saying. It is like seeing varieties of objects depending on Maya. "This is just it. What is the discrimination of self-nature? It is to make discrimination according to the imaginary views of the philosophers in reference to the selfnature of all things (129) which they stoutly maintain. to distinguish the notion of causation in reference to being and non-being and to imagine that there are cause-signs—this is the discrimination of cause. (130) Now. What is the discrimination of birth? It means getting attached to the notion that things come into existence and go out of it according to causation. varieties of objects would not have Maya for their cause. that the causeless substances which were not. For this reason you and the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas should never give yourselves up to the notion of being and non-being. motility. Those attached to the notion of relativity are attached to the notion of multitudinousness of things rising from the false imagination. there would be no distinction between the two. If they were different." What is the discrimination of cause? That is. Maya and varieties of objects are neither different nor one. . If Maya were one with varieties of objects. but these varieties thus revealing themselves are discriminated by the ignorant as something other than Maya itself according to their way of thinking. imagining that things are or are not. Mahamati. and various precious stones. fluidity.

based on the relativity they are discriminated. 184. According to the false imagination. but from the point of view of relativity (paratantra) it is not. what is discriminated is grasped [as real]. the intellect's function is to speculate. As by the dim-eyed a variety of objects is seen and imagined while the dimness itself is neither a form (rupa) nor a no-form (arupa). so is [the Mind] pure when detached1 from the false imagination. so is the relativity [discriminated] by the unknowing ones. [To imagine] individual forms is wrong. 189. while the imagination is not. it is not productive of anything else [but itself]. assertion and refutation are destroyed when one is freed from the imagination. 194. Multitudinousness of differentiations is imagined [as real by the ignorant]. the false imagination belongs to the conventional. varieties of individual forms are discriminated as such. it puts one in bondage. The Citta is bound up with the objective world. 187. As is pure gold. and in the excellent state of imagelessness there is the evolving of transcendental wisdom (prajna). the sky without a cloud. based on the relativity. they are born of Mind due to the false imagination of the ignorant. 192. from the conjunction of form and name there rises false imagination. water free from dirt. non-entity is its cause. Falsely-imagined existence is not. 185. but from the relativity point of view it is. (131) the false imagination is of various forms. [self-substance] is. in the relativity there is no discrimination. ( 132) then one knows what is meant by ultimate truth whose self-nature is purity. so is the nature of the false imagination. owing to perversion. . 193. 191. discrimination is carried on. this means that there is a being apart from being and that a being is born of a non-being. but they [really] do not obtain. Conventional truth (samvriti) and ultimate truth (paramartha)—if there be a third. False imagination can never be perfect knowledge (nishpanna). As to the Yogins there is one reality which reveals itself as multiplicity and yet there is no multiplicity in it. If the relativity-aspect of existence is. 186. 190. 188. but being like Maya they obtain not. there is the realm of the wise. Depending on the false imagination there obtains the relativityaspect of existence.LV So it is said: 182. The existence thus subjected to discrimination is no other than its relativity aspect. when it is cut asunder. 183.

But to reach the Nishpanna (perfect knowledge) it is necessary to transcend all forms of dualism. 197. 1 LVI Further. There are ten kinds2 of false imagination and six kinds of relativity. When well pondered with intelligence (buddhi) there is neither relativity nor false imagination." 1 198. Because of false imagination. there are various views from which rises the doctrine of causal origination. the two Svabhavas are established. Truth consists in [knowing] the five Dharmas and also the three Svabhavas. . Blessed One. there is nothing [dualistically] existent. I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. 196. 202. he does not transgress Tathata." but here the term is evidently used as negating the function of kalpita which stands in these verses for parikalpita. the existent cannot be qualified with being and non-being. vikalpa is translated "discrimination" or "imagination. for the Paratantra is by no means ultimate truth. where there is false imagination multitudinousness of things is recognised. Throughout the text. which being purified the [spiritual] condition of the wise obtains. Where perfect knowledge is. What is imagined being subjected to further imagination. which is the dualistic view of existence. in the knowledge of Tathata innerly attained there is no differentiation. when the Yogin thus comprehends [the truth]. there indeed is perfect knowledge. According to the form of relativity. Where there is false imagination there is multitudinousness of objects. which are discriminated under the aspect of relativity. where perfect knowledge is. there are those names that belong to false imagination. Blessed One. ( 133) when the dualistic discrimination is got rid of.195. how can there be these two Svabhavas? 200. Mahamati said: Pray tell me. for how with intelligence can discrimination take place? 199. becoming conversant with the one vehicle which marks the inner attainment of noble wisdom. if otherwise discriminated. The Kalpita is a net of wrong interpretations woven about the Paratantra. chiefly explaining where Parikalpita (false imagination) is differentiated from Paratantra (relativity view). about the one vehicle that characterises the inner realisation of noble wisdom. and which is valid as far as it goes. 201. and the various aspects of false imagination arise from relativity. in what cannot be qualified with being and non-being. the main point is clear enough. one becomes attached to the teachings of the philosophers.1 This whole section treats of the threefold Svabhava. whereby. While the explanation sometimes appears quite complicated. 2 All the Chinese texts have "twelve" instead of "ten.

as they have not yet destroyed the habit-energy (memory) of karma and the hindrance of knowledge. Mahamati said: For what reason is it that the Blessed One speaks of the triple vehicle and not of the one vehicle? The Blessed One replied: Because there is no teaching whereby the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas can realise Nirvana by themselves. So it is said: . Mahamati. Mahamati. Said the Blessed One: Then. This. make successive advances and exert himself to finally enter upon the stage of Tathagatahood. this is known as the one vehicle. is the characteristic feature of the inner realisation to be gained by means of noble wisdom. Now being taken into a super-world which is the realm of no-eviloutflows. Brahmans. Thus. etc. How is this path of the one vehicle to be recognised and realised? The recognition of the one vehicle is obtained when there is no rising of discrimination by doing away with the notion of grasped and grasping and by abiding in the reality of suchness (yathabhuta). the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas are disciplined. Blessed One. Pratyekabuddhas. Thereupon the Blessed One said: In accordance with the authoritative teachings in which there are no discriminations. Mahamati. they will gather up all the material for the attainment of the Dharmakaya which is of severeign power and beyond conception. Yes. I preach to the Sravakas [and Pratyekabuddhas] the triple vehicle and not the one vehicle. For this reason.may be established without depending on anybody else in the teaching of the Buddha. What characterises the way of the one vehicle? I call it the one vehicle because thereby one recognises and realises the path leading to the one vehicle. not relying on anybody else. segregated. and trained in meditation according to the discourse of the Tathagata. Mahamati. 1 When. Mahamati. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. Mahamati. in order to discard erroneous views and discriminations. but by means of his own inner intelligence. and gave ear to the Blessed One. whereby they are led to emancipation and not by themselves. Mahamati. let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva retire by himself to a quiet secluded place. all the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas are unable to realise the egolessness of things and have not attained the inconceivable transformation-death. I do not speak of the one vehicle. this recognition of the one vehicle. (134) except by the Tathagata himself. I will. they who are now free from the evil habit-energy will not be intoxicated by the Samadhis and will be awakened into the realm of no-eviloutflows. where he may reflect within himself. listen well and reflect within yourself as I tell you. they realise the egolessness of things. Sravakas. Further. destroying all the evil habit-energy. Mahamati. has never been obtained before by anybody else—the philosophers.

1 2 Transfer naikayanam (line 9) to line 10 after yanatrayam. and so I speak of the one vehicle. [CHAPTER THREE] LVII (136) At that time again the Blessed One said this to Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva: I will tell you. listen well and reflect well within yourself. the Sravaka obsessed with individual marks is driven along [the stream of existence]. they still have their abode in the realm of outflows.2 but in order to carry the ignorant I talk of a variety of vehicles. Mahamati. In this there is no course of finality. Like unto the drunkard who. the Brahma vehicle. I will. [the Sravakas] will have the realisation of the Buddha's truth. ( 135) the Pratyekabuddha vehicle." Taken from the Lankavatara of 36. According to the Chinese translations.203. [Known as] the "Collection of All the Dharmas. he is not at all awakened even to the end of kalpas. and in all things there is no egosubstance. 210. regains his intelligence. 205. 206. 207. There is really no establishment of various vehicles. There are three emancipations. 208. . Though disengaged from the actively-functioning passions. which is his own body. there is neither a vehicle nor one who rides in it. Here Ends the Second Chapter. 209. of these I speak. they [the Sravakas] are still bound up with the habit-energy of the passions. Blessed One. and the Tathagata vehicle. knowledge and passions are of the same nature. intoxicated with the liquor of the Samadhi. and gave ear to the Blessed One. I will tell you. about the various forms of the will-body. being awakened from his intoxication. nor retrogression either. 204. when [one is] emancipated they are discarded. when a revulsion takes place in the mind. The Deva vehicle. the Sravaka vehicle. Like a piece of wood floating on the waves of the ocean. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. So long as there is a mind making conscious efforts. there can be no culmination as regards the various vehicles. [losing himself] in the attainment of the Samadhi-body.000 [Slokas].

The Blessed One then said this: There are three kinds of will-body.2 It will be interesting for the Chinese readers of the Lankavatara to notice that the compound. which resembles Maya. Now what is the will-body which is born in accordance with the class and which perfects and achieves? When [the Yogin] is thoroughly conversant with all the characteristics of self-realisation and its bliss which pervades the teachings of the Buddha. he is said to have the will-body. and a reflected image. variously [discriminating]. By realising the higher stages successively after the first is attained. Sung: 種種自心寂靜安. Now. (2) the will-body obtained by recognising the self-nature of the Dharma. line 14. which is furnished with all the differences appertaining to the world of forms and yet is able to follow up all the assemblages in the Buddha-lands. and (3) the will-body which is assumed [by a Bodhisattva according to] the class of beings [to be saved] and which perfects and achieves [without a thought of its own achievement]. 1 the waves of consciousness are no more stirred in the Mind-ocean and the Vijnana functions are quieted. What are the three? They are: (1) the will-body obtained in the enjoyment of the Samadhi. Mahamati. fourth. he experiences a revulsion at the seat of consciousness and obtains the Samadhi known as Maya-like and other Samadhis. By entering upon the Samadhis he gains a body which exhibits various powers of selfmastery and supernatural activity. 2 Page 136. a dream. delete abhava and manaso. showing how variously a Sanskrit compound allows itself to be interpreted. which moves according to his wish as quickly as a flower opens up. and which is not a product of the elements but has something analogous to what is produced of the elements. The mind itself is quiet and practises various deeds. the mind is quiet and immovable. and when he thus recognises the non-existence of the external world. he is said to have the body which is . the Yogin will experience them [all]. This is one of numerous such examples to be met with throughout the text. is here read in three different ways by the three Chinese translators. grows quiet and finds its rest. what is the will-body attained in the enjoyment of the Samadhi? It is this: when [the Yogin] in the third. 1 (137) What is the will-body obtained by recognising the self-nature of the Dharma? When [the Yogin] of the eighth stage has a thoroughgoing penetration into the nature of things which is like Maya and not imageproducing. T'ang: 離種種心寂然不動. which is no more than his own mind. The mind itself. Mahamati. Wei: 自心寂靜行種種行. This is the body which has a thoroughgoing knowledge of the self-nature of the Dharma and for this reason is called will-body. fifth stages removes the various discriminations going on in his mind and is at rest. Discarding various [mentations]. svacitta-vividha-viveka-vihara. the bliss of which is enjoyed by him.

and (5) causing the body of the Tathagata to bleed from malice. (3) of the Arhat. are the five inner immediacies. and what are these five. Certainly. etc. which being committed by a son or a daughter of a good family cause them to fall into the Avici hell? The Blessed One replied: Then. Ignorance representing fatherhood brings about one's rebirth in the six villages of the sense-world. Mahamati. which are like an enemy. a venomous rat. Blessed One. nor a sound. it is known as an immediacy-deed. nor emancipation. there is an immediacydeed of realisation as regards the Dharma. (2) of the father.will-made. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. when the body of the eight Vijnanas. These. (139) Mahamati. the several forms of the will-body are adorned with the flowers of the sovereign will. Now what is meant by the mother of all beings? It is desire which is procreative. it is neither the truth. and when thus the faulty mentality of the Vijnana-Buddha is made to bleed. 2. Mahamati. When there takes place a complete destruction of both roots. born with [the class]. by means of the triple emancipation and the nonoutflows. LVIII (138) At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: The five immediacies are preached by the Blessed One.. perfecting and achieving. Yet the Mahayana is a vehicle on which the Samadhis are carried leading to various creative activities. Mahamati. listen well and reflect. So it is said: 1. (4) the breaking-up of the Brotherhood. The Blessed One said thus to him: What are the five immediacies? They are: (1) the murdering of the mother. fatherhood and motherhood. What is meant by the breaking-up of the Brotherhood? When there is a complete fundamental breaking-up of the combination of the Skandhas whose characteristic mark is a state of mutual dependence among dissimilarities. the murdering of the Arhat is said to take place. for I will tell you. going together with joy and anger and upholding all with motherliness. and gave ear to the Blessed One. which erroneously recognises individuality and generality as being outside the Mind—which is seen [by the ignorant] in the form of an external world—is completely extirpated by means of faulty discriminations. that is. nor the realm of imagelessness. and when they are experienced by a son or a daughter of a good family. it is said that the Brotherhood is split up. nor words. it is said that mother and father are murdered. you should exert yourself in order to have a thoroughly penetrating knowledge of these three marks of the will-body. When there is a complete extermination of the subordinate group of passions such as anger. Blessed One. . My Mahayana is neither a vehicle.

Further, Mahamati, there are five external immediacies which I will point out to you, in order that you and other Bodhisattvas in the future may thereby be saved from ignorance. What are these five? They are those immediacies which are described in the canonical texts, and those who commit these crimes can never experience any one of these manifestations, except those Transformation [-Buddhas] who are sustained by the power [of the Tathagatas] and have already attained a realisation. The Sravakas of transformation, Mahamati, who are sustained by the sustaining power either of the Bodhisattvas or Tathagatas, may see somebody else practising deeds of wickedness, and they will repeatedly make great efforts to turn him away from his wickness and faulty views, and to make him realise the non-reality of wickedness and faulty views by laying down his burden. This is the way I demonstrate facts of the transformation, the sustaining power, and the realisation. Mahamati, there is, however, no realisation for those who are sheer offenders of the immediacies, (140) except when they come to the recognition of the truth that an external world is nothing but1 the Mind itself, seeing that body, property, and abiding place are discriminations, and that the notion of an ego and its belongings are to be kept away; or, when they are released from the fault of self-discrimination by encountering a good friend at some time or other, or at any time, and being born in some other path of existence. So it is said: 3. Desire is said to be the mother and ignorance the father; the Vijnana which recognises an objective world is [compared to] the Buddha. 4. The secondary group of passions is the Arhat, the amassing of the five Skandhas the Brotherhood; as these are to be destroyed immediately they are known as immediacy-deeds.
1

Page 140, line 1: bhavana is to be deleted.

LIX
Again Mahamati said: Pray tell me, Blessed One, what makes the Buddhas and the Blessed Ones such as they are: that is, [what is] the Buddha-nature of the Buddhas?1 Said the Blessed One: when the egolessness of things as well as of persons is understood, when the knowledge of the twofold hindrance is thoroughly taken hold of, when the twofold death ( cyuti) is accomplished, and when the twofold group of passions is destroyed, there, Mahamati, is the Buddha-nature of the Buddhas and the Blessed Ones. When these teachings are experienced by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, this is their Buddhanature. So it is said: 5. The twofold egolessness, the twofold group of passions, the twofold hindrance, and the inconceivable transformation-death, —when these are attained, there is the Tathagata.
1

Bhagavan buddhanam, page 140, line 10, may better be dropped.

LX
(141) At that time again, Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: According to what deeper sense2 did you make this announcement before the congregation, that "I am all the Buddhas of the past," and that "I have gone through many a birth in varieties of forms, being thus at times the king Mandhatri, Elephant, Parrot, Indra, Vyasa, Sunetra, and other beings in my one hundred thousand births?" Said the Blessed One: There are, according to the deeper sense, four kinds of sameness distinguished, Mahamati, and the Tathagatas, Arhats, Fully-Enlightened Ones make this assertion: I was thus at that time the Buddha Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni, and Kasyapa. What are the four kinds of sameness which are distinguished according to the deeper sense? They are: (1) sameness of letters, (2) sameness of words, (3) sameness of teachings, and (4) sameness of the body. According to this fourfold sameness in the deeper sense, the Tathagatas, Arhats, Fully-Enlightened Ones make the announcement before the congregation.
Samdhaya. There is no reference to this in Wei and Sung. The term has a special sense here and elsewhere in the Lankavatara.
2

Now, Mahamati, what is the sameness of letters? It is that my name is [spelt] B-u-d-d-h-a, and these letters are also used for other Buddhas and Blessed Ones; Mahamati, these letters in their nature are not to be distinguished one from another; therefore, Mahamati, there is the sameness of letters. Now, Mahamati, what is the sameness of words with regard to the Tathagatas, Arhats, and (142) Fully-Enlightened Ones? It is that sixty-four sounds of the Brahman language are distinguished by me, and these identical sixty-four sounds of the Brahman language are also uttered by the Tathagatas, Arhats, and Fully-Enlightened Ones, and their Kalavinka-like notes are the same with all of us, as we are indistinguishable in this respect. Now, Mahamati, what is the sameness of the body? It is that I and other Tathagatas, Arhats, Fully-Enlightened Ones are the same as regards our Dharmakaya and the [thirty-two] signs and the [eighty] minor excellencies of bodily perfection—no distinction existing among us, except that the Tathagatas manifest varieties of forms according to the different dispositions of beings, who are to be disciplined by varieties of means. Now, Mahamati, what is the sameness of the teaching? It is that I as well as they [other Tathagatas] are all conversant with the teachings belonging to the thirty-seven branches of enlightenment. According to the deeper sense which is concerned with this fourfold sameness, the Tathagatas, Arhats, Fully-Enlightened Ones make their announcement before the congregation. So it is said: 6. "I am Kasyapa, Krakucchanda, and Kanakamuni"; this I preach who come out of the sameness for the sake of the sons of the Buddha.

LXI
Again Mahamati said: It is said by the Blessed One that from the night of the Enlightenment till the night of the Parinirvana, the Tathagata ( 143) in the meantime has not uttered even a word, nor will he ever utter; for notspeaking is the Buddha's speaking. According to what deeper sense is it that not-speaking is the Buddha's speaking? The Blessed One replied: By reason of two things of the deeper sense, Mahamati, this statement is made. What are the two things: They are the truth of self-realisation and an eternally-abiding reality. According to these two things of the deeper sense the statement is made by me. Of what deeper sense is the truth of self-realisation? What has been realised by the Tathagatas, that is my own realisation, in which there is neither decreasing nor increasing; for the realm of self-realisation is free from words and discriminations, having nothing to do with dualistic terminology. What is meant by an eternally-abiding reality? The ancient road of reality, Mahamati, has been here all the time, like gold, silver, or pearl preserved in the mine, Mahamati; the Dharmadhatu abides foreover, whether the Tathagata appears in the world or not; as the Tathagata eternally abides so does the reason (dharmata) of all things; reality foreover abides, reality keeps its order, like the roads in an ancient city. For instance, Mahamati, a man who is walking in a forest and discovering an ancient city with its orderly streets may enter into the city, and having entered into it, he may have a rest, conduct himself like a citizen, and enjoy all the pleasures accruing therefrom. (144) What do you think, Mahamati? Did this man make the road along which he enters into the city, and also the various things in the city? Mahamati said: No, Blessed One. The Blessed One said: Just so, Mahamati, what has been realised by myself and other Tathagatas is this reality, the eternally-abiding reality (sthitita), the self-regulating reality (niyamata), the suchness of things (tathata), the realness of things (bhutata), the truth itself (satyata). For this reason, Mahamati, it is stated by me that from the night of the Tathagata's Enlightenment till the night of his entrance into Nirvana, he has not in the meantime uttered, nor ever will utter, one word. So it is said: 7. From the night of Enlightenment till that of Nirvana, I have not in the meantime made any proclamation whatever.1 8. It is on account of the deeper meaning that the eternally-abiding reality of self-realisation is talked of by me; and between myself and [all the other] Buddhas, in this respect, there is no distinction whatever.
1

The Zen masters frequently refer to this important declaration.

LXII

At that time, Mahamati made this request of the Blessed One: Pray tell me, Blessed One, about the being and non-being of all things; and when myself and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are freed of the notions of being and non-being, may we quickly attain supreme enlightenment. (145) The Blessed One replied: Then, Mahamati, listen well and reflect well within yourself; I will tell you. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said, Certainly, Blessed One, and gave ear to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One said: People of this world are dependent on two things, Mahamati, that is, they are dependent on the idea of being and on that of non-being, and they fall into the views whereby they take pleasure either in nihilism or in realism. They imagine emancipation where there is no emancipation. Now, Mahamati, who are the people dependent on the notion of being? It means this that they regard the world as rising from causation which is really existent, and that the actually existing and becoming world does not take its rise from causation which is non-existent. This will not be the case if the world is something non-existing. They thus talk of the really-existing world as arising from the reality of causation. This is the realistic view of causation as held by some people. Now, Mahamati, what is meant by being dependent upon the idea of non-being? It means, Mahamati, admitting greed, anger, and folly, and yet discriminating as regards the non-reality of what makes up greed, anger, and folly; and, Mahamati, there is one who does not admit the reality of things because of their being devoid of individual marks; and there is another who, seeing that the Buddhas, Sravakas, and Pratyekabuddhas are free from greed, anger, and folly, because of all things being devoid of individual marks, [think that greed, anger, and folly] do not exist. Now, Mahamati, who of these is the one doomed to ruin? Said Mahamati; Blessed One, it is he who, admitting greed, anger, and folly, yet refuses to admit them. (146) The Blessed One said: Well said indeed, Mahamati! Again thou hast indeed spoken well, Mahamati! Not only is he himself doomed to ruin because of his notion of greed, anger, and folly as existent and yet as notexistent, but he ruins even the character of the Buddha, the Sravaka, and the Pratyekabuddha. Why? Because the passions are not to be taken hold of innerly and outwardly, because they are neither different nor not-different. Mahamati, greed, anger, and folly too are not to be taken hold of innerly as well as outwardly; they have no substance of their own and they are not to be admitted; Mahamati, as there is no reality in the nature of greed, anger, and folly, [he who fails to understand this] is the one who ruins the character of the Buddha, Sravaka, and Pratyekabuddha. The Buddha, Sravaka, and Pratyekabuddha are by nature emancipated as there is in them no cause for being bound and binding; Mahamati, [on the other hand,] where there is a

but by causation that being obtains. It is better to cherish the notion of an ego-substance as much as Mount Sumeru than to have the notion of emptiness derived from the self-conceited view of being and non-being. Blessed One. and as they do not understand this they regard things external as transient. how can one talk of non-being? 13. saying: Pray point out to me. LXIII At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva requested of the Blessed One. now dividing. finally vanishes away. When the external world is not grasped [as real] there is neither causation nor reality. and Ayatanas succeeding one another and combining with one another. Those who are delighted in cherishing notions of individuality and generality fail to understand that an external world is nothing but Mind itself and has no reality. things pass away. One who is conceited in the view of being and non-being is indeed doomed to ruin. not by anybody else. So it is said: 9. now splitting. the world is to be regarded as quiescent. which is the [spiritual] realm of the wise. such is doomed to ruin. As far as the duality of being and non-being extends. When being obtains by causation. may quickly attain the highest . 11. for they suffer every moment changes which follow one after another. according to causation. pray point out to me. This is stated by me in accordance with the deeper sense. there is no way to admit its being and not-being. Mahamati. Sugata. [And yet there is] one who talks thus. — such people have no foothold in my teaching. who can bring about non-being? By reason of the wrong views based on the doctrine of birth. Tathagata. 10. 14. nothing passing away. intellection completely ceases. this characterises nihilism and realism.state of being bound there are the binding and the cause of bondage. [that is. It is not by the philosophers. denies causation]. Arhat. now come forward and (147) now pass away. becoming thoroughly conversant with its meaning. there is the essence of suchness ( thatata). pray point out to me. while the Skandhas. when this realm vanishes. Most Excellent One! (148) What is the characteristic of the realisation by which I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. When it is realised that there is nothing born. not by the Buddhas. being and nonbeing are discriminated. Those who believe in the birth of something that has never been in existence and. —which leads them to assert that things come to exist. there is the realm of intellection. Fully-Enlightened One! Pray tell me. Dhatus. 12. They who thus disregarding words of the scriptures are given up to wrong discriminations are also doomed to ruin. coming to exist. not by myself.

enlightenment, and, relying upon themselves, will not be led away by any speculations or philosophies? Said the Blessed One: Then listen well, Mahamati, and well reflect within yourself; I will tell you. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said; Certainly, I will; and gave ear to the Blessed One. Thereupon the Blessed One said this: There are two ways of characterising the realisation attained by all the Sravakas, the Pratyekabuddhas, and the Bodhisattvas: the realisation itself and the teaching [about it]. Now, Mahamati, by the realisation itself is meant that it is the realm of inner attainment; its characteristic features are that it has nothing to do with words, discriminations, and letters; that it leads one up to the realm of non-outflows; that it is the state of an inner experience; that it is entirely devoid of philosophical speculations and [the doings of] evil beings; and that, destroying philosophical speculations and [the doings of] evil beings, it shines out in its own inner light of attainment. These, Mahamati, are the characteristics of the realisation. Now, Mahamati, what is meant by the teaching [concerning it]? It is variously given in the nine divisions of the doctrinal works; it keeps one away from the dualistic notions of being and non-being, of oneness and otherness; first making use of skilful means and expedients, it induces all beings to have a perception [of this teaching] so that whoever is inclined towards it, may be instructed in it. This, Mahamati, is the characteristic of the teaching. Let, therefore, Mahamati, you and other BodhisattvaMahasattvas (149) exert yourselves in this. 15. Realisation and teaching, self-attainment and doctrinal instruction—those who have an insight into the difference will not be led away by philosophical authorities. 16. There is no truth in any object that is imagined by the ignorant; deliverance is where there is no objective world; why is this not sought by the speculators? 17. The world of the Samskritas is observed as the continuation of birth-and-death, whereby dualisms are nourished, and because of this perversion [the truth] is not perceived. 18. There is just one truth, which is Nirvana—it has nothing to do with the Manas (intellection); the world seen as subject to discrimination resembles a plantain tree, a dream,1 a vision. 19. No greed there is, no anger, nor folly either, and again, no personal ego; from desire start the Skandhas, which resemble a dream.
1

The text has skandha; but svapna seems to be better.

LXIV

At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva requested of the Blessed One, saying: Pray tell me, Blessed One, pray tell me, Sugata, regarding what characterises wrong discrimination (abhutaparikalpa). Blessed One, tell me as to the how, what, why, and who of wrong discrimination, which, when rising and going on, constitutes what is known as wrong discrimination; that is to say, to what kind of thought is the term wrong discrimination applicable? or what kind of discrimination is to be called wrong? (150) The Blessed One said: Well said, well said, Mahamati; and again, well said, indeed, Mahamati! You who have been admitted [into the order of Bodhisattvas], Mahamati, think of this matter which is worth asking about, for the welfare of many people, for the happiness of many people, because of your compassion for the world, for the benefit of the multitudes, for the welfare and happiness of celestial beings and humankind. Therefore, Mahamati, listen well and reflect well within yourself as I tell you. Certainly, Blessed One; said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva, and gave ear to the Blessed One. Then the Blessed One said thus to him: When the multitudinousness of objects is wrongly imagined [as real] and attached to, discrimination goes on evolving; and, Mahamati, as people are attached tenaciously to the notion of grasping, as they have not ascertained in their minds as to the nature of the objective world which is no more than the Mind itself, as they have fallen into the dualistic view of being and non-being, and, Mahamati, as they are nourished by the habit-energy of the views and discriminations of the philosophers, they perceive the multitudinousness of external objects [as real] and become attached to them; and for this reason a system of mentation—mind and what belongs to it —is discriminated and is spoken of [as real], and with the assertion of an ego-soul and its belongings, the system goes on functioning. Said Mahamati: As you say, Blessed One, when the multitudinousness of external objects is wrongly imagined [as real] and attached to by people, discrimination goes evolving on; and they fall into the dualistic view of being and non-being,1 they nourish the views and discriminations of the philosophers which are based on the notion of grasped and grasping; ( 151) and as they perceive the multitudinousness of external objects [as real] and become attached to them, a system of mentation—mind and what belongs to it —is discriminated and is spoken of [as real] and goes on functioning owing to the fact that the external world is not recognised as nothing but the Mind itself, and that the multitudinousness of things is tenaciously clung to as subject to [the notion of] being and non-being. This being the case, Blessed One, the multitudinousness of external objects which is characterised with the dualism of being and non-being, is to be said neither existent nor non-existent, and does not render itself to the formation of the philosophical views. [Inasmuch as the external world owes its existence to

discrimination, it in itself must be said to be devoid of all forms of dualism.] Blessed One, in the same way the highest reality is declared to be devoid of [all forms of logical analysis such as] the means of proof, sense-perception, syllogistic arguments, illustration, reasoning, etc. How is it, Blessed One, that while, on the one hand, the discrimination of multiplicity is said to go on operating on the strength of the attachment which attaches itself to the multiplicity of external unrealities, the attachment, on the other hand, to the highest reality does not give rise to discrimination which goes on functioning in its own way? Is it not, Blessed One, unfair reasoning on your part to say, "It gives rise [to discrimination]" in one place, and to say in another place, "It does not"? 2According to the Blessed One, depending on and attaching to the dualism of being and non-being, there evolve views characteristic of wrong discrimination as when the magician produces varieties of people that are not at all real and complete objects. Thus signs of existence and non-existence are falsely imagined and go on so imagined; [but in fact existence itself is] devoid of discrimination. If so, how does one come to cherish the dualism as held by a man of the world?
This is omitted in T'ang. The whole passage below does not appear in Sung. The text seems to be confused and it is difficult to make out what it really means. The present translation is merely tentative. It mainly follows the T'ang interpretation; Wei gives no sense as far as one can see.
2 1

Said the Blessed One: Mahamati, discrimination, indeed, does not evolve, nor is it put away. Why? Because there is no evolving of discrimination as regards being and non-being; because the perception of objective realities is not real; because all that is seen is to be recognised as nothing but the Mind itself. (152) Mahamati, discrimination does not evolve, nor is it put away. But, Mahamati, for the sake of the ignorant who are addicted to discriminating the multiplicity of things which are of their own Mind, it is said by me that discrimination whose first function is to produce effects takes its rise owing to the attachment to the aspect of multiplicity as characteristic of objects. How otherwise, Mahamati, can the ignorant and simple-minded have an insight into the Mind itself which they discriminate, and see themselves freed from the notion of an ego and what belongs to it, and also freed from the wrong conception of cause and effect? And, again, how can they recognise that there is nothing but Mind itself and cause a revulsion at the inmost seat of consciousness (cittasraya)? How can they have a clear perception of all the stages and attain the inner realisation of the Tathagatas, which transcends the five Dharmas, the three Svabhavas, and the idea of reality as well as discrimination? For this reason, Mahamati, I state that discrimination takes its rise from our attachment to the multiplicity of objects which are not real, and that emancipation comes from our thoroughly understanding the meaning of reality as it is and also the

meaning of multiplicity of things which evolve from discrimination. So it is said: 20. Those who, regarding the world as evolving from causes and conditions, are attached to these notions as well as to the fourfold proposition, fail to understand my teaching. 21. The world cannot be predicated anywhere as being, or as nonbeing, or as being-and-non-being, as is discriminated by the ignorant who regard it as subject to causes and conditions, 22. When the world is seen [to be unpredicable with such notions as] being, non-being, or being-and-non-being, (153) a change takes place in the mind, and egolessness is attained. 23. All things are unborn because they are born of causation; anything that is born of causation is an effect, and from an effect nothing is produced. 24. From an effect no effect is produced; [if you assert this,] you commit the fault of a double effect; and this double effect being untenable, no existence comes from an effect. 25. When the Samskrita [i. e. anything produced] is regarded as free from [the dualism of] depended and depending, there decidedly is Mindonly, and hence my teaching of Mind-only. 26. The [Mind as] norm is the abode of self-nature which has nothing to do with a world of causation; of this norm which is perfect existence and the highest Brahma, 1 I speak. 27. An ego-soul is a truth belonging to thought-construction, in which there is no real reality; the self-nature of the Skandhas is also a thoughtconstruction, as there is no reality in it.
The Chinese all have "the Pure" for this. Does it mean "the Absolute" cleansed of all dualistic impurities?
1

28. The sameness is of four kinds: individual forms, cause, the coming into being,1 and the sameness of non-ego is the fourth: these are subjects of discipline for the Yogins. 29. [There is a state which is] removed from all philosophical views, free from imagined and imagining, of no attainment, and of no birth —this I call Mind-norm. 30. Of neither existence nor non-existence do I speak, but of Mindonly which has nothing to do with existence and non-existence, and which is thus2 free from intellection. (154) 31. Suchness (tathata), emptiness, realm of truth (dharmadhatu), the various forms of the will-body— these I call Mind-only. 32. Multiplicity of objects evolves from the conjunction of habitenergy and discrimination; it is born of Mind, but is regarded by people as existing outwardly: this I call Mind-only. 33. The external world is not, and multiplicity of objects is what is seen of Mind; body, property, and abode— these I call Mind-only.
1

Bhavaja, coming into existence.

lips. jaws. it will not be made manifest by means of words. and meditation. according to words. not tathata. Certainly. Mahamati. But. all alone in a lonely place. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who is conversant with words and meaning observes that words are neither different nor notdifferent from meaning and that meaning stands in the same relation to words. Further. It is. Mahamati. [By means of this light] he can say: This is my property and so is kept in this place. issuing from the teeth. discriminations erroneously go on. meaning is different from words. etc. why should not the BodhisattvaMahasattva grasp meaning from words? What are words? What is meaning? Said the Blessed One: Then. it is otherwise with the wise. what is meaning? (155) The Bodhisattva-Mahasattva is said to have grasped meaning well. which. tongue. by means of his transcendental wisdom ( prajna) which grows from learning. the Triple vehicle. Just so. how is speech produced? Depending on discrimination and habit-energy [or memory] as the cause. there is the conjunction and the distinction of sounds and letters. the one vehicle. but meaning is entered into by words as things [are revealed] by a lamp. like a man carrying a lamp to look after his property. Mahamati. mentation. palate. Mahamati. the [three] Svabhavas. artha]. statements are erroneously made. when. Blessed One. he walks the path leading to Nirvana. and gave ear to the Blessed One. thinking. and the cavity of the mouth. (156) It is by the ignorant that discriminations thus go on. if a man becomes attached to the [literal] meaning or words and holds fast to their agreement in regard to the original state of Nirvana which is unborn and undying. Mahamati. Now. the five [Dharmas]. listen well and reflect within yourself well. As varieties of objects are seen in Maya and are discriminated [as real]. the BodhisattvaMahasattvas can enter into the exalted state of self-realisation which is free from speech-discrimination. make mutual conversations possible. according to the Chinese versions. If. I will tell you. by means of the lamp of words and speech originating from discrimination. LXV At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: This is said by the Blessed One that the BodhisattvaMahasattva and others should not grasp meaning [or reality. Mahamati. The Blessed One then said this to him: Now.. he will come to cherish views either affirmative or negative. Mahamati. Further. Blessed One. Thereupon said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. and causing a revulsion first at the source of habit-energy by his self-knowledge (svabuddhi). abides on the stages of self-realisation where he leads a life full of excellent deeds.1 . This is speech.2 Tatha. Mahamati.

and transcendental. belongs to the Bodhisattvas and takes its rise when they thoroughly examine things of imagelessness. line 15) is dropped. if it were so as they are seen. you will quickly realise supreme enlightenment. 11. Transcendental knowledge which is free from the dualism of being and non-being. 1Those who following words. worldly knowledge" and "Tathagatahood" which is restored here according to T'ang and Sung. Mahamati. 1 So it is said: 34. 37. 157. not to speak of its making the whole passage obscure. The use of vijnana in this sense is unusual in the Lanka. being and non-being. nor are they otherwise. Further. aryajnana. The ego-soul is not with the Skandhas. and when you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are well conversant with these distinctive features of Jnana and Vijnana. Vijnana falls into [the dualism of] form and no-form. 2 1 (157) Vijnana is subject to birth and destruction. Mahamati. line 1) does not appear in T'ang. and Jnana is not subject to birth and destruction. but Jnana is marked with the transcendence of [the dualism of] form and no-form.3 According to the Chinese versions. it is omitted in this translation. Further. 36. Abhinivesam pratitya (p. As all things are unreal. super-worldly. all would be seeing the truth. and tad yatha mahamate anyatha hi maya-vaicitryam drashtavyam avyatha (p. Jnana is of three . there is neither defilement nor purity. and buddhi are frequently used as synonyms. are bound for hell because of their assertions. nor are the Skandhas in the ego-soul. and is characterised with multiplicity. 35. 3 The passage between "Now. line 17—p. Now. 8-13. while jnana. discriminate and assert various notions. I will tell you about the features of Jnana (absolute knowledge) and Vijnana (relative knowledge)2. There are three kinds of Jnana—worldly. worldly knowledge belongs to the philosophers and to the ignorant and simple-minded who are attached to the dualistic views of being and nonbeing. 156. Super-worldly knowledge belongs to all the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas who are attached to the notions of individuality and generality. p. Vijnana is characterised with accumulation and Jnana with non-accumulation. 155.The reading is move or less after T'ang. prajna. They are not as they are discriminated. is found in the Sanskrit text inserted after the next paragraph. LXVI Further. The reality of objects is seen being discriminated by the ignorant. and as it is partly a repetition of what precedes. and realise egolessness at the stage of Tathagatahood. Mahamati. things are not as they are seen. see into the state of nobirth and no-annihilation. nor are they otherwise. 155.

Citta is bound up with an objective world. has nothing to do with combination or concordance. and Vijnana are devoid of thoughts and discriminations. this belongs to the Bodhisattvas and not to the Sravakas. (158) and as it neither enters nor goes out. Karma is accumulated by Citta. Again. with me. Vijnana attaches itself to the multitudinousness of objects. (3) the transformation of cause. They are: (1) the transformation of form. 40. Mahamati. Citta.1 43. there are nine kinds of transformation as held by the philosophers endorsing the doctrine of transformation. it excludes the world of beings. LXVII Further. 42. that which assertains birth and decay. Manas. attain the state of non-discrimination. (7) the . The Tathagata's Jnana is pure.kinds: that which assertains individuality and generality. whereby the wise grow powerful. 1 2 After T'ang. Again. according to Sung and T'ang. Manas. it is productive of excellent sense and is devoid of purposive-ness (samudacara-varijitam). and that which assertains no-birth and no-decay.1 Jnana. not mata. (5) the transformation of view. [resting] in quietude in the most excellent patience [or recognition of truth]. and Prajna evolves in the exalted state of imagelessness and in the excellent conditions. (4) the transformation of concordance. and Vijnana. 1 Read trisamgatyutpadayogalaksanam (lines 15-10). 2 Jnana is characterised with unattainability. 2 T'ang and Sung have inserted here: Vijnana is characterised with attainability. Further. and asamgatiyogasva� (line 16). Jnana evolves with reflection. 39. when devoid of thought and discrimination. So it is said: 38. (6) the transformation of origin. Prajna. is of three kinds. that of the Sravakas evolves from their attachment to the world of beings. 3 Is this in accord with the general drift of thought maintained in the text? T'ang and Sung have: Citta. and one acquires by Prajna the state of imagelessness and the powers. Vijnana is produced from the concordance of the triple combination. Jnana is devoid of attachment. Mahamati. and discriminated by Jnana. the Tathagata's Prajna is spotless2 because of its being in accord with Mind-only. it is the inner state of self-realisation by noble wisdom. it is like the moon in water.3 it is the Sravakas and not the Bodhisattvas that try to reach reality by means of discrimination. My Prajna has nothing to do with the two vehicles. individual signs are discriminated. (159) (2) the transformation of characteristics. 41. Read amala. in its self-nature. Mahamati. and all things are manifested.

it is like the birth and death of a barren woman's child. Mahamati. The Buddhas do not discriminate the world as subject to the chain of origination. and. ( 160) Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened One. Mahamati. For example: gold is seen made into a bracelet. are the nine views of transformation expounded by all the philosophers in accordance with their secret teaching. and (9) the transformation of manifest work. Arhat. or what not. like this thickening and ripening each transformation is a transformation rising from discrimination. and shall no more become attached to words . So it is said: 44. concerning the characteristics of our deep attachment to existence and of our detachment from it. that is. varieties of articles [made of it] are all different in form. nor are they otherwise. pray tell me Tathagata. in their transformations. it is like perceiving the rise and disappearance of things in a dream. Mahamati. but they regard the causation which rules this world as something like the city of the Gandharvas. Mahamati. In the same way. what is regarded by the ignorant and simple-minded as the evolving of objects is no more than the discrimination of their own mind. as it is like seeing things that evolve in a vision and a dream. there is really nothing evolving. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva asked the Blessed One to explain concerning the deep-seated attachment to the existence of all things and the way of emancipation. These. we shall know what is the skilful means concerning them. Mahamati. Mahamati. by the transformation of form is meant the alteration of form in appearance as gold takes various shapes when made into all kinds of ornament. which is in its middle-way existence (antarabhava)—they who [thus] imagine [the birth of a child] are not wise men. though the gold itself remains the same. there is a general transformation of things which is discriminated by other philosophers as coming from a causal agency. Now. 45. LXVIII At that time. which is discriminated by the philosophers. really there is nothing transformed. They are not right. such as the thickening of milk into curds and the ripening of fruit into a liquor. are what is seen of Mind itself and have no reality of their own. a necklace. for the external objects of which being and non-being are discriminated.transformation of nature. When I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas understand well the distinction between attachment and detachment. and they are all founded upon the dualism of being and non-being. (8) the transformation of manifest conditions. saying: Pray tell me. In the same way. The transformation of the form in time. Blessed One. nothing disappearing. and the embracing [of the soul] in the elements and sense-organs. a fylfot. All differentiation in transformation is to be regarded as due to discrimination.

Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said. and. with their own thread of discrimination and attachment. I will. Mahamati. [shall be able to] enter the stage and abode of Buddhahood. enwrap not only themselves but others and are charmed with the thread. to causation. of the characteristics of the stages and no-stages. and the attachment to the triple vehicle and the one vehicle. and deliver discourses on the Dharma in the world of all beings and ill accordance with their needs. to the notion of being and non-being. When we understand well what is meant by attachment to the existence of all things and the detachment from them. and the Dharanis. . and the elements. Mahamati! Listen well to me then. and free them also from the false discrimination of birth and destruction. to the discrimination of birth and no-birth. of Samskrita and Asamskrita. and thus they are ever tenaciously attached to the notions of existence and non-existence. The Blessed One said to him thus: Mahamati. Blessed One. and to that arising from enlightenment. and free them from the dualistic notion of being and non-being in the contemplation of all things which are like a dream and Maya. Tenaciously attaching themselves to these the ignorant and simple-minded go on ever discriminating like the silk-worms who. finally. [shall be able to] establish ourselves where there is a revulsion at the deepest recesses [of our consciousness]. These and others. and. Mahamati. the self-control. to the discrimination of vehicle and no-vehicle. Mahamati. which is more than words [can express]. be well stamped with the stamp of the powers. we shall destroy our discrimination of words and letters. seeing that all things are like a dream. there are the deepseated attachments to signs of individuality. immeasurable is our deep-seated attachment to the existence of all things the significance of which we try to understand after words. well said. For instance. like Maya. are the deep-seated attachments cherished by the ignorant and simple-minded (162) to their discriminations. (161) behave ourselves with effortlessness like the moon. enter into all the Buddha-lands and assemblies. well furnished with the wisdom (buddhi) in the ten inexhaustible vows and shining with varieties of rays pertaining to the Transformation Body. the sun. to the discrimination of cessation and no-cessation. and. Certainly. which are discriminated. the psychic faculties. the attachment to the discrimination of being and non-being on which the philosophers are so dependent. [But really] Mahamati. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva should have his abode where he can see all things from the viewpoint of solitude. and reflect well within yourself. All things are to be seen as abiding in solitude where there is no evolving of discrimination. by means of our wisdom (buddhi).according to which we grasp meaning.. etc. I will tell you. and. and hold such views at every stage as are free from all the signs of selfdiscrimination. there are no signs here of deep-seated attachment or detachment. the jewel. and gave ear to the Blessed One. and the attachment to discrimination itself. Said the Blessed One: Well said.

1 Read buddhya. The ignorant take hold of the knowledge of existence according to words and are bound up like the silk-worm with their own discriminations. depending upon and attaching to the triple combination which works in unison. when the truth of this is thoroughly understood. They are greed. is nobody in bondage. Thus there are the five paths of existence for all beings who are found closely attached [to greed. as it is nothing but [the creation of] false imagination (parikalpita). except those who by reason of their perverted wisdom1 recognise bondage and emancipation. Mahamati. and folly]. anger. does it not. that there is neither defilement nor purification. there are three attachments deep-seated in the minds of the ignorant and simple-minded. LXIX Further. instead of budhya. Why? Because in all things neither being nor non-being is to be taken hold of. anger. closely attached to this there takes place a succession of births in the [five] paths. when the existence and non-existence of the external world are understood to be due to the seeing of the Mind itself in these signs. Mahamati. and folly. When the triple combination which causes the functioning of the Vijnanas no more takes place. because all things are of the nature of false imagination? . Mahamati. there is the continuation of the Vijnanas incessantly functioning. 47. nobody in emancipation. Further. Further. Blessed One. in all things that are variously discriminated by discrimination there is no self-nature. [the Bodhisattva] can enter upon the state of imagelessness where Mind-only is. Mahamati said: According to the Blessed One. according to your statement. The imagining of things not existent—this is characteristic of attachment [deeply seated in all beings]. and when this is kept in view. (163) no signs will be seen indicative of attachment or of non-attachment. hence their ignorance of attachment [deeply seated in their minds]. there is no rising of any combination. the net of attachment is cleared away. Mahamati. and because of the attachment there is a continued and deep-felt assertion of existence. This being so. there is the triple emancipation. it is but [the creation of] false imagination and there is nothing in the world which is to be conceived as indicative of self-nature. and [there] see into the solitude which characterises the discrimination of all things as being and non-being and the deep-seated attachments resulting therefrom. Blessed One. When one is cut off from this attachment. there are in all things no signs of a deep-rooted attachment or of detachment. Here. So it is said: 46.Further. and thus there is desire which is procreative and is accompanied by joy and greed. if. come to this.

and if there is no such self-nature as is discriminated by the ignorant and simple-minded. they also cherish in their own way the idea of a being with self-nature. Blessed One. they are what they are]. Blessed One. by their wise knowledge. the notion of reality that thus comes to be cherished may not be alike. if there is the self-nature of things such as is ascertained by the wise. for thus what constitutes the self-nature of reality becomes impossible to know. as they have no way to recognise the presence of an exalted reality (aryabhavavastu)? For they are neither perverted nor unperverted. [that is. [it is true that] according to the way the imagination is carried on. by their wise transcendental vision. the reality1 cannot be such as is discriminated even by the wise. Now. But.is discriminated by them. because they see the course of things in the aspect of being and non-being. is it that in order to have all beings free from the notion of being [which is realism] and of non-being [which is nihilism]. This is committing the fault of non-finality. because. by their wise insight. . for when the cause is not alike. parikalpa. it is just as you say. which is predicable with the notion of causation and no-causation. you in turn make them cherish a realistic view of existence1 by telling them to uphold the idea of the self-nature of reality. The self-nature of things is the discrimination of the ignorant and simple-minded. they are said again not to be such as are imagined? Vastu and bhava are both used here in the sense of reality. and prativikalpa are used interchangeably 2 1 Blessed One. by their wise knowledge. that is. can the ignorant and the simpleminded abandon their discriminations. and it is not as it. But according to you. Mahamati. by their wise insight. because the aspect of reality as it is in itself cannot be an object [of discrimination by anybody]. Blessed One. by their wise transcendental vision which is neither human nor celestial vision. Why? Because they are unable to have an insight into the self-nature of exalted reality. (164) Mahamati. Blessed One. How is it (165) that while things are said to exist owing to the imagination 2 [or discrimination]. pratikalpa. And Blessed One. the self-nature of reality conceived may vary.Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. [And they would say] that this is a realm that belongs to somebody else and is not that [of the ignorant]. it is the creation of false imagination. and yet you tell us that the reason why it is said that things are not really such as are imagined by the imagination is to make all beings discard their imagination. Blessed One. what is derived from the imagination cannot be the self-nature of reality. Said Mahamati: Blessed One. nothing indicative of self-nature is to be ascertained. what appears to the wise as the self-nature of reality is no more than the creation of their imagination. Blessed One. vikalpa. there is the self-nature of things such as is ascertained by the wise. Throughout this text. how. the latter alone fail to see reality as it is. while the imagination is kept on going with the wise as well as with the ignorant.

they are stamped well with the stamp of suchness which is gained by the triple emancipation. it is not true that I deny truth of solitude. the thesis.. (166) they are kept away from [dualistically] viewing an external world3 under the aspect of being and non-being. But in order to save all beings from becoming frightened.whereby they are led to cling to the realm of noble wisdom? Why do you deny the truth of solitude by teaching the doctrine of reality whose selfnature is [according to you] noble wisdom?2 Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. Mahamati. must be within the limits of existence itself.. and thereby knowing that what is seen is nothing but the Mind itself. Chinese and Tibetan. nor that I fall into a realistic view by upholding the noble doctrine of self-existing reality. LXX Further. Mahamati. 3 Viviktadharma. Mahamati. In the Appendix the whole section 69 is given in the original Sanskrit together with all the four versions. but there is no aspect of existence which can be regarded either as being or as nonbeing. and that the reason for this thesis is characterised with the quality of birth.. and the statement. the thesis: "All things are unborn" is not to be maintained by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva as valid. after making them realise by means of noble wisdom that reality in its self-nature is made the subject of attachment [by the ignorant]. Why? Of this thesis it is to be stated that anything of which something is asserted partakes thereby of the nature of being. who are addicted from beginningless past to the notion of selfnature.yathatathya (lines 2-3) being a curious repetition of the preceding lines is dropped in the translation. The translator is not at all satisfied with the result.. If. the very assertion destroys his thesis. will see that [this existence of] error has no form. 2 This whole passage ascribed to Mahamati is one of the most difficult passages in the Lankavatara. to be valid. and thus get away from such ideas of reality as to lead themselves to realism and nihilism.. the doctrine of self-nature is not taught by me. but abhinivesadastitva� according to T'ang and Sung. partly due to discrepancies. Mahamati. Mahamati. those who have realised by themselves truth of solitude as it really is and are abiding in it. the no-birth of all things is to be asserted by this thesis . it is told them that there is truth of solitude. Even when this thesis of no-birth is to be maintained within the extent of existence itself. As regards the thesis maintaining the no-birth1 of being and non-being. while it is being asserted by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva that all things are unborn. that all things are unborn is destroyed since it is dependent on the members of the syllogism. the notion of no-birth cannot hold itself in it. But. The thesis that all things are unborn acts against the one who holds it because it is born of the principle of mutuality. 1 Not abhinivesannastitvadrishtih (lines 8-9) as it stands in the text. they will have an intuition into the self-nature of all things by the wisdom which is acquired within themselves. this thesis.

55. But. logicians go on discriminating. these. 53. Literally. in accordance either with knowledge or ignorance. and all things are thus seen in [two] ways. 52.of no-birth.pratijna bhavati (lines 1-4) is omitted in the translation following T'ang and Sung. 51. is released from birth and destruction. this thesis is not to be upheld. Individual form. [no establishment is needed. so with [the thesis that] all things are empty and have no self-nature—neither is to be maintained by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva.2 Therefore. by means of this thought-constructed reality.. 2 1 As with [the thesis that] all things are unborn. so existence discriminated [as real] is due to the wrong discrimination of the ignorant. for they are in one way perceived [as existing] and in another way are not perceived [as such].. no Alaya-vijnana. there is no sound judgment in it. Mahamati. reality. this is to be pointed out by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. who move about in the realm of imagelessness. transcending all this. there is no reality in its self-nature. Mahamati.. As in a mirage in the air. when a certain conclusion is made depending on a cause. as it does not add to the clearing up of the meaning. . this thesis is not to be upheld. As a hair-net is what is wrongly perceived by those who are dimeyed. All things are unborn—[this thesis] is established by all the philosophers. The insight of the wise." Pratijnayam. let them not be frightened away from the Mahayana. Because many faults come out in connection with the members of the syllogism. All things are unborn—no such discrimination is made by transcendental knowledge. indeed. that things in their self-nature are like Maya. the thought of water is cherished where there is no water.. Let it be pointed out that all things are like Maya and a dream.. 50. There is no self-nature. 54. except when the feeling of fear is aroused in the minds of the ignorant. no reality. and because in these syllogistic members there is a mutual mixing-up of reasons. and are liable to tremble [at our teaching]. Mahamati. [but] nothing whatever is ever born. So it is said: 48. my sons will walk where there is no discrimination. The triple world is no more than thought-construction (prajnapti).] things are all linked by causation. (167) the very attempt defeats the thesis itself. is pure. are so many discriminations cherished by the ignorant who like a corpse are bad logicians. the ignorant and the simple-minded are addicted to the views of being and non-being. "is not born. — these are [only] a mental disturbance. (168) 49. is born of the triple emancipation. like a dream. thought-construction. no thought-construction. so things are seen by the ignorant otherwise than by the wise.

and that as this thought-construction is not to be seized as real. generality. knowledge which is known as discrimination no more evolves. such [knowledge as is unobtainable] is not ignorance. (169) 57. and the blind. a mountain. a rampart. knowledge evolves. (170) Blessed One. such is [transcendental] knowledge. generality. and selfnature overpower one another. or by earth. the fruit [of wisdom] is born to the wise. such is ignorance (ajnana). it is ignorance. Mahamati said: It is told by the Blessed One. and whatever statements one makes about it are no more than thought-construction. again. none evolves. such cannot be [transcendental] knowledge. Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. earthwork. wind. that [true] knowledge is gained independent of any object supporting it. it is not ignorance. water. Blessed One. and in the middle. wind. for the object to be known is there but the knowing faculty is lacking. generality. the seizing act of the seizer itself ceases. or fire. LXXI Further. rampart. Where there is something to be known. the aged. Blessed One. such as is unattainable is not [transcendental] knowledge. in the sameness of existence and nonexistence. Now. if knowledge is unobtainable because [such ideas as] individuality. and self-nature overpower one another? Or is it unobtainable because of the obstructions presented by a wall. Again. It is not because of the deeper sense that I say this. multiplicity. Blessed One. knowledge was not obtainable because of our not recognising individuality. unity and plurality. or blindness? If. Where all things are wiped away. multiplicity. outside. it is not [transcendental] knowledge. then. for in spite of the fact that objects to be known are before us we do not know them. water. but when [we . their pluralities. Blessed One. an earth-work. if knowledge is unobtainable because of the obstruction presented by a wall. Mahamati. [how is transcendental knowledge unobtainable?] Is it unobtainable because of our not recognising the generality and individuality of things. knowledge is possible [only] where there is a correspondence with that which is known. How does existence cease to exist? How does the sameness take place? When the mind fails to understand [the truth]. their unities? Or is it unobtainable because [such ideas as] individuality.56. or on account of the imperfection of the sense-organs as in the case of an infant. with the cessation [of the disturbance] the mind sees the sameness. mountain. age. or due to farness or nearness. Again. or fire? Or because of remoteness or nearness? Or does the knowledge fail to obtain its object of cognition because of [the imperfection of] the sense-organs due to youth. and when there is thus no seizing. even a state of imagelessness ceases to exist for the Yogins. it is to be called ignorance (ajnana). there is disturbance inside. or by earth. where there is nothing.

60. they are concerned with [such notions as] external objects. If [transcendental] knowledge fails to see an objective world which lies before it. As this [knowledge] is unobtainable. indications. about the characteristic features of the truth of self-realisation and about the discourses on it. this teaching belongs to the logicians. though various obstructions far and near. falsehoods. its own unique object that does not present itself [as an object]. So it is said: 58. and yet they declare that the cessation of discrimination is [the state of] the Mind-only. That [transcendental] knowledge is unobtainable is due to the recognition that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind. Blessed One. whereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas in future time. Said Mahamati: Blessed One. . such is to be called wrong knowledge. And because of their discriminating knowing and known. may keep ourselves away from the wrong logicians such as the philosophers and those who belong to the vehicles of the Sravaka and the Pratyekabuddha. existence and non-existence. they think of things as existent and non-existent. and as thus the triple emancipation is realised. its own object which is present. the ignorant and simple-minded keep on dancing and leaping fascinated with their wrong reasonings. clinging to the external world which is seen of the Mind itself. they are really unable to understand what is meant by the doctrine of Mind-only. If [transcendental] knowledge fails to know. If [transcendental] knowledge fails to see. and selfdiscriminations. substances. and declaring that [transcendental knowledge] is unobtainable. whatever statements we make about it are no more than thoughtconstructions. and. LXXII Further. abide in nihilism. on account of defective senses such as infancy. and that these external objects to which being and non-being are predicated are non-existent. old age. (171) and go on discriminating knowing and known. As they are tenaciously clinging to the thought of an ego-soul and all that belongs to it. 59. But logicians being under the habit-energy of the wrong reasoning which has been carried on since beginningless time as to existence and non-existence are unable to know all this. and blindness. it is just as you say. such is ignorance and not knowledge. there is unattainable knowledge [which is transcendental]. such is to be called wrong knowledge. they cling to the study of the discourses which are a means and do not know properly how to assertain the truth of self-realisation which is the truth unspoiled by the fourfold proposition.know that] there is knowledge gained independent of any supporting object. forms. while not knowing it. there is no evolving of knowing and known. Mahamati. and are unable to understand the truth of self-realisation and its discourse in words. Pray tell me. understanding what they are.

I will tell you. and reverently attended upon. worldly enjoyments are gained but not the Dharma [or Truth]? Said the Blessed One: The Lokayatika who is skilled in varieties of incantations and in the art of eloquence. Blessed One. and Pratyekabuddhas. So it is said: 61. and what he teaches being the mere prattle of a child as far as one can make out is not at all in accordance with truth nor in unison with sense. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. is what characterises the truth of self-realisation and discoursing on it. Mahamati: there are various materials and canonical texts and discourses by which sentient beings are taught according to their dispositions and inclinations. Mahamati. For this reason. For what reason is this said. Mahamati. Fully-Enlightened Ones of the past. Mahamati. listen well and reflect well within yourself. Arhats. of bothness and not-bothness. the Tathagata. and the teaching by the establishment of self-realisation. Manas. What is meant by the studying of the discourses is this. puts the minds of the ignorant in utter confusion by means of various reasonings. adored. I discourse with the ignorant and [disclose] self-realisation to the Yogins. Mahamati. that the Lokayatika who is [skilled in] various forms of incantation and in the art of eloquence is not to be honoured. the Fully-Enlightened One. who have fallen into the dualistic views of being and non-being— this I call self-realisation. that by devoting ourselves to the Lokayatika who is skilled in varieties of incantations and in the art of eloquence. by the philosophers. The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati. there are two forms of teaching the truth attained by the Tathagatas. the Lokayatika is said to be skilled in varieties of incantations and in the art of eloquence. They are: the teaching by discourses. which has nothing to do with logic. and Manovijnana. theorising. present. and future. which has never been tasted by any bad logicians. the Arhat. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: It was told at one time by the Blessed One. reasoning. LXXIII (173) At that time again. I have two forms of teaching the truth: self-realisation and discoursing. and illustrating. What then is the truth of self-realisation by which the Yogins turn away from discriminating what is seen of the Mind itself? There is an exalted state of inner attainment which does not fall into the dualism of oneness and otherness. Sravakas. which goes beyond the Citta. and in this you and the other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas are to discipline themselves. Blessed One. This. He . by [clever manipulation of] words and phrases. Certainly.(172) Said the Blessed One: Then. for what one gains from such devotions is worldly enjoyments and not the Dharma [or Truth].

materialism is asserted under various disguises which are explained by a hundred thousand different methods. Not being released of the transition from one path to another. pain. thus ruining himself. whereupon the one-thousand-spoked chariot was smashed to pieces. disease. In such a way. no service is to be shown him. Mahamati. the Lokayatika knows no deliverance from discrimination. there is in them [also] no truth existing by itself. Indra was a brilliant [Lokayatika] whose knowledge made him master of many treatises and who was himself the author of a work on sound. For this reason. While this is not at all the case with [all] the philosophers who have their own treatises and doctrines. or every one of my own serpent-hoods be cut off. how much more human beings! For this reason. though he may explain his materialism by using varieties of words and phrases (175) amounting to a hundred thousand. divisions will take place [among his followers] leading them to wrong reasonings and demonstrations. reasons. not being able to hold disciples. Mahamati. As he himself does not understand what all things mean. [the Lokayatika] has a system composed of various reasonings and exemplifications. and they do not recognise that theirs is materialism because of their stupidity. and. 1 Read apayasa instead of upayasa. Mahamati. Mahamati. age. leads the ignorant into bewilderment by means of various words.attracts the ignorant by making clever use of various words. But in after times. Mahamati. [but] he never leads them to the way of truth and right teaching. he puts the minds of the ignorant into utter confusion by his dualistic views. not understanding that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. In the argument the Lokayatika disciple who had assumed the form of a serpent defeated [the god-opponent]. and despair. and conclusions. the attainment of the Lokayatika does not go beyond the realm of the body and knowledge belonging to it. Mahamati. materialism splitting into many parties and adhering to varieties of reasonings is explained by the philosophers. phrases. No homage. he then makes them tenaciously adhere to the notion of coming and going (ayavyaya). being thus never emancipated from such calamities1 as birth. for he carries with him the cause leading to the birth of pain. The disciple then came down again to this world. puts the gods and fighting demons in utter confusion by means of various words and phrases. after five hundred years. Thus. the Lokayatika who is clever in various incantations (174) and in the art of eloquence. . lamentation.1 1 Read mohat instead of mohohat. and attaching himself to the idea of self-nature in external things. each of whom clings to his way of reasoning as he knows no truth existing by itself. Making up a thesis he challenged the god: Either your one-thousand-spoked chariot be smashed to pieces. the Lokayatika is to be shunned. examples. sorrow. knowing well even the minds of the animal world. divisions will abound because of this. no reverence. He had a disciple who assuming the body of a serpent went up to heaven and got into the society of the god Indra.

materialism which is not the truth of self-realisation but is something like the discourses of all the philosophers? The Blessed One said: I do not teach materialism. is all explainable? Is all unexplainable? Is there an ego-soul? Is there no ego-soul? Is this world real? (177) Is this world notreal? Is there another world? Is there no other world? Is another world existent or non-existent?1 Is there emancipation? Is there no emancipation? Is all momentary? Is all not momentary? Are space. Mahamati. phrases. as there is no realm of form based on discrimination. is all one? Is all different? Is all characterised with bothness? Is all characterised with not-bothness? Is all to be regarded as subject to causation since all is seen as born of varieties of causes? This. I remember. means destruction. the Brahman Lokayatika said this to me: Gautama. emptiness. But I teach. if all is created. or that all is eternal. Guatama. dualism ceases. is the sixth school of materialism. and conclusions. is all created? I said this to him: Brahman. one enters into the triple emancipation where is the state of no-form. Mahamati. or that all is unborn. 2 1 . when one abides in Mind-only. Owing to the cessation of discrimination. Mahamati. Apratisamkhyanirodha. Brahman. it is born of accumulation. I do not teach anything approaching the discrimination of the philosophers. and effortlessness. when I was staying in a certain place. to the assemblages of the gods. beyond which there is no external world.Said Mahamati: If all the philosophers teach materialism by means of various words. this is the first school of materialism. there is nothing to get attached to. demons. and for these reasons the discrimination of what is seen of the Mind itself does not take place. Mahamati. Going. Brahman. Hence it is called deliverance. examples. That which is not coming-and-going is designated unborn. that which is not coming-andgoing. who come from various countries—I say. Thus [to state that] all is non-eternal. but are their own selfish assertions tenaciously maintained. if all is uncreated. saying: Gautama. this. Mahamati. a Brahman Lokayatika approached where I was and having approached suddenly asked me. one comes to recognise that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. For what reason? Because there are no external objects.2 and Nirvana. or that all is born. coming means production and mass. Gautama. O Gautama. is the tenth school of materialism. are they created or uncreated? Is there the middle existence? Is there no middle existence? The Chinese translations omit this question. Now. does not the Blessed One too teach materialism by means of various words and phrases. Again. nor coming-andgoing (ayavyaya). which are not the truth as it is. (176) Mahamati. is all uncreated? Brahman. and human beings. this is the second school of materialism. "Annihilation taking place without premeditation"—one of the three noneffect-producing objects (asamskrita). Again.

there is that which does not belong to materialism and which is not reached by your wisdom nor by that of the philosophers who cling to false discriminations and wrong reasonings as they fail to see the unreality of external objects. Hence the question whether they are created or not requires no answering. there is something that does not belong to you. Brahman. It is not mine. Further. and action? or is it causeless? Brahman. By this is meant the cessation of discrimination. this Brahman materialist said this to me: Gautama. . and causation exist in enumeration. Nirvana. it belongs to me. Gautama. Mahamati. Brahman. Mahamati. When it is recognised that there is nothing beyond what is seen of the Mind itself. there is a triple concordance of an ego-soul. it is not out of accord with reason. as discrimination is no more born. too. the Brahman Lokayatika said this: Is the triple world to be regarded as caused by ignorance. and further. by general consent. and an objective world. Brahman. and conclusions. Brahman. I do not belong to the school of causation. this is materialism. sense-organs. This is not understood by you and others who cherish the notion of an ego-soul and its continuity. and not because an external world is seen as the object of cognition. Brahman. except that I teach the chain of origination as far as the thought-constructed world of grasped and grasping exists depending on discrimination. it does not belong to you. Brahman. [The Brahman asked. This. but such is not mine. So long as there is a mental perturbation which makes one cling to an objective world of discrimination. space. According to the philosophers. Mahamati. though it is not beyond the truth of general consent. desire. Again. there is materialism. Mahamati: If so. that the triple world has its cause in the habit-energy of discrimination going on since beginningless time on account of error and wrong reasoning: for discrimination takes place. nor independent of varieties of words and phrases. by means of reasons. is there any philosophy that is not of the world? All the truth that is taught by all the philosophers by means of varieties of words and phrases. are all things to be conceived (178) under the aspect of individuality and generality? This.1 This is not of materialism. By abiding in its own abode is meant that it ceases to evolve. it is your worldly philosophy. because it is not recognised that there is no external world but the Mind itself. belongs to materialism. the discrimination of being and non-being ceases. this twofold question again belongs to materialism. nor to the school of no-causation. discrimination abides in its own abode. O Brahman.] Is there any philosophy that is not of the world and yet belongs to the general opinion of the world? Brahman. belongs to me. it is said to have ceased to evolve. as thus there is no external world as the object of perception. I explain. as realities they are unobtainable. Gautama. examples.I then said this to him.

thus: "Discrimination ceases. Brahman. by the words." That by this self-abode is meant the self-abode of reality is gathered from such phrases as yathabhutarthasthana-darsanam (p. 6). Blessed One.yathabhutasvalakshanavasthanavasthitam (p. In short. having in view present and future generations. for one who serves the Lokayatika skilled in various incantations and in the art of eloquence. 1. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. vikalpasyapravritteh svastho. he talks of the cessation of discrimination which will take place when there is the cognition of an external world as something seen of one's own discrimination. yathabhutavasthanadarsanam (p. 1 . The self-abode of reality is where reality is seen as it is in itself. who assumed the body of a Brahman and said thus: Gautama. Brahman. 200. and when he was thus sent off he silently departed. who came to me. an abode. The young man thus refuted and put to silence made himself invisible without asking me anything about my own teaching. There is no allusion in the Chinese versions to this dialogue between Krishnapakshaka and the Buddha. an intense affection. is not of materialism. "the objects of worldly enjoyment" and "the Dharma"? (180) Said the Blessed One: Well said. or as the suchness of existence. Mahamati! You have thought deeply about this twofold meaning. which stands in opposition to his.2 desire (trishna). loko nishkriyah (p. the clinging to various signs. 16) is negated and svasthane 'vatishthate forms a separate sentence. 1. (179) a vanishing-and-appearing. Said Mahamati. a solicitation.1 he thought within himself: This son of the Sakyas stands outside of my own system. or as something solitary (viviktadharma). At that time there came to the Blessed One the King of the Nagas. I am come from White Isle. Mahamati. 1. an attachment. well said.Brahman. 124. continuity. e. is materialism of yours but not mine. he belongs to the school which holds the cessation of signs and causes. is there not another world? Now. Mahamati. and attachment to a cause. A better reading of the Nanjo text may be to follow the T'ang and the Wei. 3). absolute. called Krishnapakshaka. a philosophical view. according to which vikalpah (1. I will tell you. you too ask me how. if there is any comingand-going of the Vijnanas. 6). he is a pitiable fellow. a touch. 1. 2 Samtatih instead of sattvanam. whence do you come? Gautama. etc. that is another world. listen well and reflect well within yourself. 1 Mahamati. Then. I was thus questioned by the Brahman materialist. according to T'ang and Sung. Brahman. 199. Blessed One. What is meant. assemblage. young man. and one abides in the self-abode. Certainly. a theory. there are worldly enjoyments and not the attainment of the Dharma. 112. 1). i. And. this.

Mahamati. the Citta. catvari samgrahavustuni: charity. while nihilism rises from believing in the annihilation of causal conditions and in the non-existence of a cause. discriminations. to a dualism.The Blessed One said this to him: What is meant by a worldly object of enjoyment. discrimination ceases to assert itself. and takes hold of the [ten] inexhaustible vows. This is called the object of worldly enjoyment by myself and other Buddhas.2 and are brought into subjection by the moral precepts (sila). death. abiding. unsound reasonings.1 one becomes (181) sovereign master of all things by virtue of a life of effortlessness. 64. is the attainment of worldly enjoyments and not that of the Truth. the Dharma so called which is [subject to] the conditions of rising. the duality too is of the Mind. when the various stages of Bodhisattvahood are thoroughly perceived one after another. being free from materialism. lamentation. kindly spirit. All that is taught by the philosophers to no purpose is materialism. despair. what is meant by the attainment of the Dharma (Truth)? When the truth of Self-mind and the twofold egolessness are understood. Mahamati. and dualistic notions. where. that is. when the nature of the egolessness of things and persons is seen into. age. they are removed from philosophical views by transcendental knowledge (prajna) and are nourished by the emancipations. there is no selfrealisation. and destruction. Hence it is called the Dharma. Manas. however. benevolent deeds.3 Read anishthapada. 2 1 63. instead of anadishthapada. sorrow. is the conclusion with regard to worldly enjoyment and the Dharma. and when one enters upon the path of baptism by the wisdom of all the Buddhas. attracted by. Mahamati. So it is said: 62. owing to the procreative force of desire. It is materialism which one learns by serving the Lokayatika. and Manovijnana are turned away. Beings are subdued by the reception (samgraha). . and impartiality. handled. enter into a dualism on account of a wrong view. Eternalism rises from embracing a doctrine of no-causation. while existence1 is [observed as divided into] the grasped and the grasping. This. There are four ways of receiving others. though not the wise. There is nothing but that which is seen of the Mind itself. 3 Missing in Sung. I teach. and tasted. Mahamati. 65. I teach to my group of disciples one self-realisation which has nothing to do with cause and effect. there arise all kinds of disaster such as birth. and appear again in the Skandhas. it is that which makes one get attached to an external world. it has nothing to do with eternalism or nihilism. the philosophical views lead the ignorant. etc. as one is thereby released from all philosophical views. to nihilism and eternalism. pain. As a rule. where the realistic view of cause and effect is cherished. and further. Mahamati? It means that which can be touched. wiped off. This. disease.

. Dhatus.1 In this they cherish the notion of Nirvana. 1 2 Abhavena(?) in Sung. Eternity and non-eternity. or to the indifference to the objective world. the world is seen as of Mind itself. what does this term designate? What is the Nirvana that is discriminated by all the philosophers? Said the Blessed One: Then. Blessed One. listen well and reflect well within yourself. Again. Certainly. some philosophers explain deliverance by the getting-rid of the [dualistic] view of knower and known. (183) or where there is no recollection of the past and present.(182) 66. 'the made and not-made. are alarmed by the notion of form. Mahamati. Some philosophers conceive Nirvana to be found where a system of mentation no more operates owing to the cessation of the Skandhas. Again. when there is no rising of discrimination. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. and Ayatanas. Again. and "going" (vyayam) is the not-seeing2 of the effect. there is materialism. "Coming" (ayam) means the originating of the objective world as effect. they are never destroyed. Some conceive deliverance to be the cessation of discrimination where one sees permanence and impermanence. LXXIV At that time again. According to the Chinese translations. The Blessed One said this to him: As to such Nirvanas as are discriminated by the philosophers. some explain deliverance by going to another quarter and abode. 68. because then there is the cessation of all the substrate. when the discrimination of objects ceases. as when a wind stops blowing. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Nirvana. or to the recognition that all things are impermanent. I will tell you. and yet not understanding that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. As long as mentation goes on. Again some conceive this to be Nirvana: that in consideration of generality and individuality recognisable in all things inner and outer. some explain the discrimination of various forms as the bearer of pain. there are really none in existence. 67. or when a fire goes out." discrimination ceases. or when a seed is burnt. just as when a lamp is extinguished. But. maintaining their being throughout the past. this world and that world—all these and other [ideas] belong to materialism. and seek their happiness in formlessness. present. Nirvana is talked of by the Blessed One. which is explained by the philosophers as the non-rising of discrimination. when one thoroughly understands the "coming-and-going. Mahamati. Nirvana does not consist in mere annihilation.

some philosophers owing to their foolishness declare this to be Nirvana: that there is a primary substance. [his reasoning] ends in setting the mind to wandering about and becoming confused. Mahamati. there is a supreme soul. a being. where. Again. and the indestructability of all things. Mahamati. where . By these discriminations. existent or nonexistent. conceive that Nirvana consists in recognising this fact. conceive Nirvana in the recognition of the twentyfive Tattvas (truths).and future. there are others who. Mahamati. a supreme spirit. variously formed precious stones. Again. -[and there is no room for discrimination. some non-being. while some conceive that all things and Nirvana are not to be distinguished one from the other. Mahamati. some conceive being to be Nirvana. nimitto (line 10) is to be cancelled. from which there is oneness and otherness. they all conceive Nirvana dualistically and in a causal connection. Some cherish the thought of Nirvana as where there is the union of qualities and their owner. there is an insight into the abode of reality as it is. some in the destruction of the passions by means of knowledge. where. seeing that time is a creator and that the rise of the world depends on time. Mahamati. or the pointedness of a thorn. getting rid of the four propositions. and they conceive Nirvana to consist in this non-awakening. 1 According to the Chinese translations. nothing disappearing here. bothness and not-bothness. a nourisher. Mahamati. Nirvana is where it is recognised that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. some in the king's observance of the teaching of the six virtues. but there is nothing rising. (184) some in regarding Isvara as the free creator of the world. and that they produce all things from the transformations of the qualities. and clinging to it they have no awakening because of stupidity. where there is no attachment to external objects. Some imagine that Nirvana is where they see the self-nature of things existing all by its own nature. each philosopher relying on his own text-book from which he draws his understanding and intelligence. a vital force. Again. explain Nirvana in the following wise: that is. some philosophers conceive Nirvana to be the attaining of the true path. such as the variegated feathers of the peacock. nor are they acceptable to the wise. Some.] Mahamati. recognising the nature of the Selfmind. Mahamati. as Nirvana is not to be found anywhere. because [the truth] is not such as is imagined by him. examines [the subject] and sins against [the truth]. Again. Again some conceive that Nirvana is an ego-soul. Some conceive Nirvana to consist in the extinction of merit and demerit. Some think that the world is born of interaction and that there is no [special] cause other than this cause. and they are seen differently by each. (185) one does not cherish the dualism of discrimination. All these views of Nirvana severally advanced by the philosophers with their reasonings are not in accord with logic. roaring with their allknowledge as a lion roars. all philosophers imagine Nirvana. Some.

The ignorant are delighted with discoursing and false reasoning [but] they are unable to raise any great intelligence towards truth ( tattva). forms are visible but not in the way as seen discriminated by the ignorant. 71. which is not real. [The truth] is told [differently] discriminated in the different sutras because of names and notions. 75. when it is thoroughly understood that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. the Mind is seen by the ignorant in a dualistic form in the mirror of habit-energy. by the attainment of the exalted Dharma which lies within the inmost recesses of one's being. and the two kinds of hindrance cleared away. 70. discrimination ceases. Mind is no other than multiplicity. and the Citta. the philosophers imagine they are emancipated. but emancipation is not to be found there. there is thus no emancipation in them. Manas. 1. 77. where. 74. 72. because of their imagination stupidly carried on. and their is thus no emancipation for them who are of the dualistic school of being and non-being. Released of bound and binding and free from all expediencies. the two forms of egolessness are recognised. The triple world is no other than discrimination. this is not understood by the ignorant. discrimination sees multiplicity. Divided into many a school are the systems of the philosophers. all the philosophers are beguiled. 6). [and yet it is] devoid of qualified and qualifying. where the stages of Bodhisattvahood are passed one after another until the stage of Tathagatahood is attained. 1 73. Delete kalpayanti (p. Wrongly imbued with the ideas of cause and effect. . in which all the Samadhis beginning with the Mayopama (Maya-like) are realised. discoursing is a source of suffering in the triple world. 185. When it is not thoroughly understood that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. the two forms of passions subsided. (186) but theirs is no more than imagination. 76. and Manovijnana are put away:1 [here indeed they say Nirvana is to be found]. (187) 78. it is not the way of emancipation. Like an image seen in a mirror. [yet] apart from words no meaning is attainable. is put after the paragraph preceding the last one in the Sanskrit text and also in Sung. while truth is the extinguisher of suffering. dualistic discriminations take place. there are no external objects. where the idea of truth is not adhered to but treated with indifference because of its causing a bewilderment. This whole paragraph which ought to be where it is in the present translation. 69. Nirvana is severally conceived by the philosophers.grasped and grasping are no more obtainable. where all logical measures are not seized upon as it is realised that they never assert themselves.

hence this egolessness. Mahamati replied: Blessed One. It is told by me that all things are egoless. Mahamati. nor is the being of a horse of cow-nature. they are not free from discrimination. The same is to be known exactly about all things being empty. . Mahamati. concerning the self-nature of Buddhahood. The Blessed One said: Then. Mahamati. Mahamati. Why? Because the error of dualism would here be committed. and without self-nature. the Tathagata is something made. Arhat. an expression or that which is expressed. predicated or predicating. Arhat. Mahamati. For example. ask me as you desire. his self-essence being attainment. The four propositions. like a barren woman's child. the FullyEnlightened One to be considered unmade or made. indeed. Mahamati. unborn. which is not desired by myself and other Tathagatas. knowledge or that which is knowable? Is the Blessed One different from all these expressions. and that which is neither a being nor a non-being is outside the four propositions. he is impermanent. ( 188) like a hare's horns. all the preparations brought forward [for the realisation of Tathagatahood] will be useless. If he is something unmade. That which is outside the four propositions is no more than a word. The Blessed One said: If the Tathagata. belong to worldly usage. understanding well what constitutes the self-nature1 of the Tathagata. he is neither made nor unmade. or a barren woman's child. or not? 1 Tathagata-svabhavakusala. This [exemplifies] the case of neither being nor non-being. Mahamati. things are not each without its own individuality. Blessed One. Fully-Enlightened One. is neither a being nor a non-being. according to which I will answer. whereby I and other BodhisattvaMahasattvas. the Arhat. they are such as they are. In the same way. anything made would be a Tathagata. What I mean is that all things have each its own individuality which does not belong to another. As it is beyond them.LXXV At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to him: Tell me. each is such as it is by its own nature. because of their never having been made. that they are devoid of selfhood. and thus the ignorant and simple-minded fail to understand the signification of egolessness by reason of their discrimination. a barren woman's child is a mere word and is beyond the four propositions. Mahamati. the being of a cow is not of horse-nature. instead of svakusala. the wise know it to be not subject to measurement. So is the meaning of all the terms concerning the Tathagata to be understood by the wise. Each of them is not without its own individuality. If. by this is meant. may have both ourselves and others awakened [in the truth]. Tathagata. neither an effect nor a cause. Fully-Enlightened One is to be described by those expressions. is the Tathagata. if he is impermanent. That which is neither an effect nor a cause. as in the case of a cow and a horse. an effect or a cause.

If the Tathagata is different from emancipation. a distinction is seen in the Yogins. this is the self-nature of Buddhahood which is removed from all senses and measurements. 80. So it is said: 79. it has nothing to do with knowledge and that which is to be known. it is neither the Skandhas nor not-Skandhas. therefore. neither the Skandhas nor different from the Skandhas. he can be described in terms of emancipation. that which is unborn is not subject to destruction. so is the left from the right. That which is neither an effect nor a cause is something unconditioned. the right horn of a cow is thus different from her left horn. it is free from predicated and predicating. If he is not different from the Skandhas. Mahamati. they are two separate entities. That. neither knowledge nor that which is knowable. if he does he is impermanent. Mahamati. as the one is short and the other long. In the same way. . The same can be said of varieties of colours. that which is not subject to destruction (190) is like space. and. There is something which is nowhere to be seen by anybody as the Skandhas. it is neither an effect nor a cause. In the same way. nor bound-up with oneness and otherness. It is not something made nor unmade. space is neither an effect nor a cause. enlightenment. knowledge is neither different nor not-different from that which is known. there will be no distinction in the attainments of the Yogins. If they are different. Mahamati. If he is not different. what description can we make? 81.In the same way the Tathagata and the Skandhas are neither notdifferent nor different. the one is longer or shorter than the other. neither that which is expressed nor expression. that which is removed from all measurement is not expressible in words. That which is unconditioned goes beyond all idle reasonings. the case is like a cow's horns. As they look alike. neither predicated nor predicating. he is impermanent as (189) the Skandhas are something made. That which goes beyond all idle reasonings. That which is released from senses and measurements is neither an effect nor a cause. that is the Tathagata. neither effect nor cause. and. causation. which is neither eternal nor noteternal. nor is it other than the combination. Mahamati. they are not different. this is the essence of perfect enlightenment. of that which is nowhere to be seen by anybody. they are different. Thus the Tathagata and the Skandhas are neither different nor notdifferent the one from the other. he partakes of the nature of a material object. [This can be said] of all things. with bothness and not-bothness. Mahamati. neither effect-producing nor not-effectproducing. the Tathagata is neither different nor not-different from emancipation. [the Tathagata] is neither different nor not-different [from emancipation].1 that which is not expressible1 is something unborn. —this is something removed from all measurement.

I will tell you. nor is he without signification. all these objects each in its way are designated with many names. There is something that is not to be seen by the discrimination of its being. Blessed One. nor is it to be known as nonexistent. akasa. accompanied by nonbeing there is being. being is not to be discriminated. Certainly. . If all things are unborn. This is what goes beyond the comprehension of the philosophers. 83. is a non-entity meant? And is it another name for the Tathagata. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. Now. deha. no one can take hold of anything because nothing has ever been born. sarira. as thus non-being is not to be known [by itself]. Mahamati. Those who cling to mere words. Sugata. as neither born nor disappearing. nor is he to be conceived as all things are. Pratyekabuddhas. Blessed One. listen well and reflect well within yourself. (192) Nevertheless. (191) 85. Mahamati. they behold properly. they are corrupted and lead the ignorant to corruption. are immersed in dualism. The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati. 84. pani. the earth is prithivi. bhumi. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Tell me. is synonymous with the Tathagata. For instance. LXXVI At that time again. as is declared by the Blessed One? It is taught by the Blessed One that all things are subject neither to birth nor to destruction because they are not to be seen in the dualistic aspect of being and non-being. I refer to him as unborn. not knowing what is meant by an ego-soul and egolessness. When they see my religion liberated from all detriments. there is another name for the Tathagata when his Dharmakaya assumes a will-body. what can this something be. gagana. they do not defile the world-leaders. and it is declared by you that this being subject neither to birth nor to destruction is an epithet of the Tathagata. nor is he to look around for causation [in order to appear before others]. and if that is another name of something. Mention is made in the canonical books of the Blessed One's being subject neither to birth nor to destruction. Blessed One. The unborn. such is the self-essence of all things. tell me. Blessed One? The Blessed One said: Then. Mahamati. hand is hasta. and those Bodhisattvas still abiding in the seventh stage. Blessed One. there is non-being.82. 1 After Sung. the body is tanu. vasumdhara. Indra is [sometimes known as] Sakra. Mahamati. kara. the sky iskha. the Tathagata is not a non-entity. Accompanied by being. [sometimes? as] Purandara. by this being subject neither to birth nor to destruction. Sravakas.

as Balin. as Reality. they do not have their own truth. but meaning is not. Purandara. clinging to the words of the canonical books. as Bhutanta (End of Reality). as Rama. Mahamati. as Limit of Reality. as the Victor. as Isvara. as Bullking. 1 This is missing in T'ang and Sung. as the Sun. some as the Self-existent One. while others recognise me as One who is never born and never passes away. Mahamati. esteem. as Brahma. Mahamati. and they address me by these names not knowing that they are all other names of the Tathagata. as Indra. as the Eternal. as Buddha. amounting to a hundred thousand times three asamkhyeyas. as Sameness. it has no substratum. They have no confidence in the texts where the selfstanding truth is revealed. Again. as Varuna. it is otherwise with the thought that is never dependent on letters. as Emptiness. thus in full possession of one hundred thousand times three asamkhyeyas of appellations. Mahamati. as is known to some. some recognise me as the Tathagata. as the Doctrine of Buddha-cause. As meaning is freed from existence and non-existence. Mahamati. as Nemina. their being or non-being is not attainable. as Emancipation. As to letters. as Causation. nor are they without their self-nature. (193) as the Dharmadhatu. some as Leader. like the moon in water which is neither in it nor out of it. as Rishi (Ascetic). in this world of patience. these deluded ones would declare that as words are so is meaning. as the Will-made Mind. as Vishnu. as the Truth of the Path. praise. as Suchness. is due to their ignorance as to the self-nature of words. I am known to the peoples. anyone that discourses on a truth that is dependent on . as Arishta. the Tathagatas do not teach the doctrine that is dependent upon letters.synonymously used and discriminated. and. 1 Though they honour. Thus. that words (194) are subject to birth and death whereas meaning is not. under many names. For what reason? Because meaning has no body of its own and cannot be different from words. that meaning is not otherwise than words. as Vinayaka (Remover). as the Undying. Sakra. That the unintelligent declare words to be identical with meaning. as Parinayaka (Guide). in this world and in other worlds. And. neither more nor less. they do not distinguish ideas. as the Formless. as Kapila. and revere me. Of these. as Vyasa. as Suka. since in their study of all things they follow mere words as expressed in the texts trying thereby to gain into the meaning. Mahamati. it is not born. for I come within the range of hearing of ignorant people. But this is not understood by the ignorant who have fallen into the dualistic conception of continuity. as Truth. The same. as the All-Knower. and fail to see that it is one of the many names of the Tathagata as in the case of Indra. as Nirvana. but on account of these different names different objects are not to be imagined. they do not understand well the meaning of words and definitions. Mahamati. can be said of myself. words are dependent on letters. as Non-duality. Mahamati. They do not know. they imagine that not being subject to birth and destruction means a non-entity. as Soma (moon). as Original Source ( pradhana).

If they well understand what characterises all the stages of the Dharma and are adequately equipped with the interpretation of words and expressions. and Bodhisattvas. Mahamati. For this reason. it is declared in the canonical text by myself and other Buddhas and Bodhisattvas that not a letter is uttered or answered by the Tathagatas. Upadayanupadayat in this connection is not quite intelligible. Being properly embraced in the Mahayana they will. When there is the recognition of the fact that all things are characterised with imagelessness and that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. in order to remove them from [the bondage of] the Citta. Mahamati. The good Dharma being embraced.letters is a mere prattler because truth is beyond letters. 1 Therefore. For what reason? Because truths are not dependent on letters. the Buddha-seeds will not be destroyed. According to the Chinese versions. It is not that they never declare what is in conformity with meaning. when they declare anything. When the Buddha-seeds are not destroyed. Mahamati. and Sravakas. Pratyekabuddhas. and when the scriptures disappear there will be no Buddhas. When thus these excellent abodes are attained. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva is not to become attached to the words of the canonical texts. Embracing all beings they will embrace the good Dharma. what is to be taught and to whom? For this reason. Pratyekabuddhas. Pratyekabuddhas. Mahamati. the BodhisattvaMahasattvas will see to it that [all beings]. a son or a daughter of a good family who conforms himself or herself to the letter will ruin his or her understanding of ultimate reality 1 and will cause others to fail to recognise [the truth]. Fully-Enlightened Ones in response to varieties of faiths on the part of beings. it is according to the discrimination [of all beings]. religious discourses are given by myself and other Tathagatas. being established in the . let the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva be in conformity with the meaning (195) and not with the letter. the canonical texts sometimes deviate from their straightforward course. and not for the attainment and establishment of selfrealisation which issues from noble wisdom. the excellent abodes will be attained. If. there is the discarding of the dualistic discrimination. they will [in turn] embrace all beings. Manas and Manovijnana. then. they will properly enjoy by themselves the bliss of formlessness while others are properly established in the Mahayana. and when there is no one [to teach]. Continuing to cherish wrong views. and have a good understanding of the meaning and reason of all things. and Bodhisattvas. the truth is not declared1 [in words] the scriptures containing all truths will disappear. Mahamati. Mahamati. Arhats. owing to the functioning of the minds of sentient beings. and who have no adequate knowledge as to the interpretation of words. Sravakas. Being embraced by the Buddhas. Bodhisattvas. be in the embrace of the Buddhas. Mahamati. Sravakas. one's own assertion is confounded by the philosophers who do not understand well what characterises all the stages of the Dharma. Mahamati.

Words are bound up with discrimination and are the carrier of transmigration. the finger-tip may be taken wrongly for the thing pointed at. means to be conversant with meaning and not with words. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. (197) you should energetically discipline yourself to get at the meaning itself. you should most assuredly discipline yourself in this and not be like one who grasping his own finger-tip sees the meaning there. To give another illustration. For instance. they are to be left to themselves and to be shunned by truth-seekers. the people belonging to the class of the ignorant and simple-minded. Be not like the one who looks at the finger-tip. let son or daughter of a good family take good heed not to get attached to words as being in perfect conformity with meaning. and this much learning. this is said to be learned much in meaning. Meaning. (196) they will discourse on the Dharma in conformity to its true nature (tathatva). 1 Read paramartha after Sung and Wei. let seekers for meaning reverently approach those [who are much learned in it]. Mahamati.Mahayana. it puts a stop to all idle reasonings. Mahamati. and it is called the truth (tattvam). and will not grasp ultimate reality because of their intent clinging to words which are no more than the finger-tip to them. in like manner. to whom [suppose] somebody gave uncooked food to eat. Therefore. said: There is nothing specially distinguishable in the Buddha's teaching of . and fortifying themselves with the tenfold supernatural power and assuming various forms. Therefore. Now the true nature of things ( tathatva) is characterised by non-differentiation and trueness. it is neither coming nor departing. Mahamati to whom the Buddha's spiritual powers were added. like those of a childish group. but those who are attached to words as being in accord with meaning. For this reason. Being so. this one is to be considered to be out of his sense because of his not knowing how to prepare food properly. Mahamati. it will not manifest itself to anybody unless he is well disciplined in it. So it is with that which is neither born nor destroyed. Mahamati: boiled rice is the proper food for infants. when a man with his finger-tip points at something to somebody. Mahamati. because the truth is not of the letter. Therefore. the meaning is alone with itself (vivikta) and is the cause of Nirvana. are born there [in the excellent abodes]. are unable even unto their death to abandon the idea that in the finger-tip of words there is the meaning itself. To be conversant with meaning means [to ascertain] the view which is not at all associated with any philosophical school and which will keep not only yourself but others from falling into [the false views]. is attained from much learning. In this case. and with a thorough knowledge of various wishes and characteristics of beings. Mahamati. LXXVII Further.

both you and they assume external causation. and your own teaching leaves nothing contradicting behind. while the Blessed One too declares that the world takes its rise from ignorance. Why? Because all the philosophers also declare. while following various courses of transformation. Mahamati. desire. there must be many Tathagatas [rising at the same time and in the same locality]. and you. Why? Because. pray tell me. goes beyond the dualism of being and non-being. But mine is not that which falls into the dualism of being and non-being. abiding. because in them there is a cause pointing to no-birth and no-annihilation. there is no distinction between your teaching. Blessed One. The Blessed One said: Mahamati. deed. Blessed One. that to which the philosophers ascribe the characteristics of no-birth and no-change is the self-nature of all things. Blessed One. their selfnature is neither born nor annihilated. discrimination. and Nirvana to be unborn and not to be annihilated. we can say that there is something of Buddhahood in the teaching of all the philosophers. Blessed One.no-birth and no-annihilation. has nothing to do with birth. it is what has been imagined by all the philosophers as well as by yourself. that the world rises from causal agencies and causation. supreme soul (pradhana). too. Blessed One. How is it not non-existent? Because (199) multitudinousness of objects is to be seen as like Maya and a dream. Isvara. their causes to be unborn and not to be annihilated.. Blessed One. Mine. Thus. if there is nothing distinctive in your own teaching. It was declared by the Blessed One that many Tathagatas are not born simultaneously in the same district in one world. For this reason this teaching of yours has nothing distinctive. The philosophers declare. my [teaching of] no-birth and noannihilation is not like that of philosophers who also speak of no-birth and no-annihilation. Both thus refer to causation. nor is it like their doctrine of birth and impermanency. etc. I say that it is not non-existent. the difference being in names only. they are seen [in one sense as individual objects] and not seen [as such in another sense]. what constitutes their essential nature is not abandoned. is neither existent nor non-existent. How is it not existent? Because there are no characteristic signs to be perceived as belonging to the self-nature of things. (198) while. and that of the philosophers. Mahamati. which work in accordance with the law of causation. Blessed One. again they are . Though your notion of the elements may differ in form. Now as the elements are indestructible. declare space. creator (prajapati). Aprati-samkhyanirodha (annihilation). you assert that all things are neither born nor annihilated as their being and nonbeing is unattainable. and destruction. If there is anything distinctive by which the teaching of the Tathagata excels that of the philosophers. [With them] there are nine substances which are regarded as unborn and not to be annihilated: atoms. So with the rise of external objects. But if the rule of cause and effect with regard to being and non-being holds true.

which belongs to the Tathagatas. here is a city of the Gandharvas where children see magicallycreated people. Mahamati. with the ignorant that they have a confused perception of birth and no-birth. discrimination no more rises. The ignorant work and discriminate but not the wise. a dream. It is.2 Added after the Chinese translations. like the rising of magically-created people. This all is unborn. In like manner. They are nothing else. and many others. things are existent and non-existent. 1 LXXVIII So it is said: 86. [the doings of the ignorant] are unrealities discriminated. Mahamati. By formlessness. No-birth and no-annihilation. For this reason. There is really nothing made or unmade. there is the attainment of self-realisation by means of noble wisdom. . an insight into formlessness excels. and one is thus established in his own abode which is the realm of no-work. for magically-created people are neither born nor annihilated. But when it is understood that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. they are seen to be like the city of the Gandharvas. going in or coming out. When [reality] is discriminated other than it is. it excels not. realities confounded. and when. but this is not understood by the ignorant. I call it Nirvana. 2 This digression on Nirvana somehow found its way here. To illustrate. is meant the disappearance of discrimination. and when what is alone by itself is not seen there is no disappearance of discrimination. 87. along with the turning-back of the entire system of mentation (citta-caitta-kalapa). except that the ignorant cherishing false ideas imagine the birth and annihilation of objects. but that does not mean that there are no objects. not so with the wise. as form causes another birth. I teach the doctrine of no-cause. all things have nothing to do with birth and destruction. In order to remove [the notion of] birth and to accomplish [that of] no-birth. but causeless. For this reason. and Maya. By Nirvana. merchants. It is the same. there is the clinging to the idea that all things have their self-nature (200) and what is alone by itself is not seen. Mahamati.1 this I call Nirvana. like magically-created figures. It is owing to this discrimination characterised by perturbation that such takes place. Mahamati. however.[something in one sense] graspable [and in another sense] ungraspable. Mahamati. because here is no question whatever as to their existence or non-existence. By false ideas it is meant that objects are not judged as they are in themselves. they are like the city of the Gandharvas. is meant the looking into the abode of reality as it really is in itself. objects are here. and not an insight into form. but Wei has animitta instead of anirodha. and imagine that they are really people going in and coming out. Mahamati.

not even the grasping of mind. 89. 97. a hair-net. then the view maintained by the philosophers of birth and destruction is done away with. when the theory of no-birth is declared. the getting-rid of the twofold Svabhava [parikalpita and paratantra]. therefore. 1 2 According to Sung and T'ang.]4 When things (samskrita) are perceived as neither subject to causation nor above it. no non-existence. Maya. the giving up of a causal agency. Sung has "law-stream" and Wei "my law. but nothing is really existing.] Non-being is not no-birth. by whom. When things are seen by [transcendental] knowledge. (201) which rise into view causelessly. my law-eye3 is never destroyed. Considered one by one combination is there. Pratyekabuddhas. Maya. without self-nature1 and empty. 92. 99." 4 According to Sung. 91.4 How. The mind liberated from its objective world. 98. according to T'ang. Here is a reality which does not belong to the Sravakas. nor is it a being's name. [The Blessed One answered. 96. this is what characterises no-birth. neither does it belong to the Bodhisattvas who have entered upon the seventh stage. nor is it a name without a [corresponding] object. 94. [things are like] a dream. According to T'ang and Sung." 3 Netri.88. the establishment of the Mind-only—this I state to be no-birth. and without self-nature. and a mirage. 95. unborn. so is the multitudinousness of the world. "theory of causation. and wherefore does the theory of no-cause make its appearance? [The Blessed One answered.] Is non-being no-birth? or does it look for causation? or is it a being's name without a [corresponding] reality? Pray tell me. nor does it look for causation. The getting-rid of [the idea that] things are caused. [the city of] Gandharvas. 90. a . As is a dream. a turning-up at the seat of mentation—this I state to be no-birth. (202) the being liberated from the alternatives of being and non-being—this I state to be no-birth. where. 93. nothing is left to be seen. when the theory of no-cause is pointed out. the removal of [the dualism of] imagined and imagining. the city of the Gandharvas. No external existence. nor to the philosophers. I declare that they are empty. the philosophers are horrified. By keeping down the theory of no-causation. they are not subject to combination and are unobtainable. it is not as it is conceived by the philosophers. a hair-net. the world appears to exist. when combination is dissolved. Tell me how things are unborn. The doing away with the notion of cause and condition.2 no-birth is demonstrated. [Mahamati asked. [Mahamati asked].

. or seeds. then the mind gains tranquillity. (203) birth has no sense when the chain of dependence is severed. there is neither birth nor annihilation. and in this no-birth there is a recognition. indeed. If there is any other existence born of concatenation. 106. free from the faults of the philosophers. emptiness. when there is a dissolution of the system.mirage. [the world] is empty. 111. a wheel. Thus too all these words will be understood. because of its being empty. having no self-nature. etc. have never been born. and this is not intelligible to the ignorant. etc. Nothing is born.1 the abandonment of all the philosophical views. 1 2 This line may better be dropped as an interpolation. 112. A system [of mentality] may have its rise and fall owing to causation. 109. as nothing else but concatenation. When a dissolution somewhere takes place among the members of the system. 100. but because of its being empty in the sense of being unborn.. When this entire world is regarded as concatenation. this means the presence of something outside concatenation itself. its birth is no-birth. 104. 107. desire. All things are devoid of self-nature. here is one who is to be recognised as an advocate of no-causation as he destroys concatenation. 102. I talk of this conventionally according [to the theory of] concatenation.1 110. non-being is not. those [who hold this view] are not established in the principles of correct reasoning. —this is what characterises no-birth. there is the rising of things and their dissolution. —these are external concatenations. It is only in accordance with general convention that a chain 2 of mutual dependence is talked of. 105. nowhere is beingand-non-being. a vessel. that is. clay. 108. except that where there is a system. this goes against the law of concatenation. and in their original nature are like the sky.. karma. If concatenation works [from outside] like a lamp revealing all kinds of things. etc. etc. If there is anything born somewhere apart from concatenation. the elements. things separated from concatenation belong to the discrimination of the ignorant. Samkata. 101. Ignorance. There is another kind of no-birth which is the self-essence of things realised by the wise. —these are the inner concatenation. a ladle. 103. there is no-birth. As there is nothing generating. not. such existence ceases as is discriminated by the philosophers by means of [such categories as] oneness and separateness. being is not.

this is called impermanency. 115. there is just one vehicle. the difference comes from varieties of diseases. solidity—such notions are discriminated by the ignorant. the missing one is supplied in a footnote from Wei. 117. motility. but not by me. I teach people with my doctrines. but the passions and powers are differentiated. (5) Some imagine that there is an objective existence (bhava) which is called impermanency. impermanence—this is the discrimination of the philosophers. My doctrine does not vary. fluidity. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Impermanence.(204) 113. and for this reason causation is declared. This is what constitutes anutpattikadharmakshanti. for instance. Blessed One. is this right or wrong? And how many kinds of impermanency [are there]. 1 116. but. and you. 114. hence the denial of self-nature [as constituting the realness of objects]. saying that in a continuous. The physician varies his treatment according to diseases though there is no difference in the principle [of healing]. form2 itself is impermanent. [in order to save] generations of beings from their disease of passions with which they are ill. Blessed One? Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. (7) Some say that not being born is impermanency. 1 . auspicious is the eightfold path. Mahamati. declare in the canonical texts that all composite things are impermanent. there is a system of relations. to be subject to birth and destruction is the nature of things. in the beginning there is something born which ceases to exist—this is impermanency. uninterrupted existence of all things there takes place a change in their natural flavour. the "recognition of all things as unborn. What are the eight kinds? (1) Some say (205) that there is origination and then cessation—this is impermanency: that is to say. (4) Some regard impermanency to consist in the changing of form (rupa). (6) Some imagine that existence and non-existence—this is impermanency. knowing the power of their senses.3 Both T'ang and Sung have seven. because of all things being impermanent." which is considered the supreme spiritual attainment of Bodhisattvas. and because of impermanency being inherent in them. Heat. If there is an object coming to exist and yet is non-existent. not eight. In like manner. no individual objects exist. (2) Some explain impermanency as the changing of shape. milk going through a transformation turns into sour milk. The present text also enumerates only seven. there are eight1 kinds of impermanency as discriminated by the philosophers. LXXIX At that time again. too. by what law of causation is there the recognition of it? Things here are of mutual origination. Blessed One. and that such an invisible decomposition happens to all things. (3) Some say.

and as this is not understood. there is a cause. and there will be one entity contained in all things. By impermanency that is no-birth is meant that there is neither2 permanency nor impermanency. is the nature of impermanency that is no-birth. When there is thus no differentiation of cause and effect. Mahamati. If there is an [objective] existence to be known as impermanence. nothing is seen. It is like a stick or a stone. by the conception of impermanency as objective existence is meant that there is a discrimination in [the philosopher's] own mind as to that which is not permanent and that which is not impermanent. and not for birth. but it is not in the understanding of the ignorant and simple-minded. The negative particle na is inserted here according to Sung. What is the sense of this? (206) It means that there is a thing called impermanency which in itself is not subject to destruction. and there is the disappearance of all things as the effect. This not seeing of anything is another name for no-birth. as to the disappearance of all things. and there is no distinction between cause and effect. Mahamati. all the philosophers cherish the view of impermanency that is based on birth. the impermanency of all things is an example of dissimilar effect. Mahamati. rupa. this means that impermanence the cause is impermanent because it partakes of the nature of . This. When the notion is cherished of a cause-producing effect. [This is the philosopher's meaning but] as we actually see things about us. all things are permanent since no cause exists to render them otherwise. But the distinction between cause and effect is observed in them. is meant that things made of the elements1 are by nature subject to destruction and have nothing in them one can take hold of. the [same] effect is not produced. Further. nothing is born. and for the seventh Wei has this: "Again there are other philosophers according to whom impermanency consists in not being [existent] at first but coming later to exist. 1 2 Bhuta before bhautika (line 10) may better be dropped." 3 2 Now. Mahamati. that in all things there is no [dualistic] evolution of being and non-being. but by whose working there is the disappearance of all things.Or matter. and that nothing is seen to exist. while the elements themselves are never set in motion. In case it does. When the cause is of a dissimilar nature. as they are separated from the substances that subsist—this is called impermanency. or like a hammer breaking other things to pieces while itself remains unbroken. when things born of the elements cease to exist. by impermanency that exists in existence and nonexistence. there is no such differentiation of cause and effect. This is the eighth in Wei. That is to say. it will be characterised with the nature of an effect-producing cause. there is no such mutual differentiation which compels us to say that here is impermanency the cause. even when they are examined into the last atom. and if not for impermanency there will be no disappearance of all things. and we cannot say: Here is impermanency as cause and there is the effect.

is not the destruction of the elements primary and secondary but of their external forms whereby the elements assume different appearances as short or long. Hence the conclusion that the conception of origination-impermanency is untenable. because each has its self-nature different from the others. The [mutually] separated origination of the elements is impossible because there is no correspondence between the two. If the elements themselves are impermanent all our everyday experiences come to naught. they are by nature not subject to destruction. All things then are not to be regarded as impermanent but as permanent. By the impermanency of external shapes is meant the impermanency of form (rupa). and disappears. its future is not yet here as things of the future are still unborn. as the primary elements and the secondary elements are neither different nor not-different. [But. By the conception of impermanency in consideration of changes taking place in external form is meant that the elements primary and secondary are not subject to dissolution. This is cherishing the view of the Lokayatika. while the elements themselves are neither set in motion nor destroyed because they cling to the notion of self-nature [as eternally unchangeable]? The conception of impermanency as existing in the first origination which ceases to continue [is not tenable for three reasons]. the elements cannot produce one another. even when closely examined until atoms are reached. Each individual one cannot produce itself because there is no differentiation in it. because according to the philosophers the elements are indestructible.] it is an established fact that the entire triple world with its elements primary and secondary is born.the effect which is impermanent. it will come under the three divisions of time. While there is no disappearance in the nature of gold. in the present it breaks up together with things of the present. It passes away together with things past. the ornamental articles variously change in form. . This view is cherished by the Samkhya school. Mahamati. If impermanency [as the cause] resides within all things. How do the philosophers conceive a separate existence of impermanency which is independent of the elements primary and secondary. Mahamati. according to which all things are reducible to mere words because their selfnature is never seen as born. What is known as dissolution. What is seen as ceased to exist is the external formation of the elements. but. in fact. (208) what is impermanent is thus the external shape and not the elements. By the impermanency of changes is meant the changing of forms (rupa) and not the changing of the elements themselves as is seen in various ornamental articles of gold which assume various forms. nothing is destroyed in the elemental atoms. (207) Form [or matter] results from the combination and variation of the elements. abides.

There is no destruction of things. when each goes asunder by itself.] there is nothing in the world but the Mind itself. So it is said: 118.] 121. an ego-soul and what belongs to it—they exist not. as an [independent] existence. as form. because of discrimination there evolve the dualistic indications of perceived and perceiving. .1 Then a man ceases to cherish the discrimination of existence and non-existence which rises out of his own mind. Discrimination (209) rises from discriminating a world of effect-producing works. multiplicities of external existences are not accepted. because he does not understand the truth that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. 120. I am neither for permanency nor for impermanency. no birth. as transformation of external forms. [According to the Buddha. impermanency comes up to them as a subject for discussion. To these philosophers there is no destruction. are not to be described as permanent or impermanent. immersed in varieties of views the philosophers discriminate impermanency.These and other views of impermanency as changes are discriminated variously by the philosophers as is here described. or of the highest. However. nor their continuation. he sees that things. 119. the elements are permanent as regards their self-essence. there is the destruction of what constitutes the elements primary and secondary. and all that is of duality has its rise from the Mind and is seen as perceived and perceiving. the triple world is taught as not being anything else but the Mind itself.2 the triple aspect of all things as distinguished as of this world. when it is recognised that because of discrimination there is a duality. Mahamati. and of the highest. Sarvatirthakara (line 6) is dropped. Why? For these reasons: external objects are not admitted. either of this world or of a higher world. Fire may burn all the elements but their self-nature can never be burned. the elements abide for ever as regards their self-essence. there are no such things as the elements primary and secondary. 1 2 Read after the Chinese. Mahamati. the discussion concerning the existence and non-existence of the external world ceases because Mind-only is understood. is the outcome of worddiscrimination. nor their disappearance. nor their differentiation. but this is not understood by the ignorant and simpleminded. there is no rising of the elements. according to the Chinese. As [the meaning of] discrimination is not understood by all the philosophers who have fallen into wrong ideas of dualism and who are people of no [spiritual] attainment. By the deluded philosophers the notion of impermanency is discriminated as origination-cessation. no discrimination takes place when this world is not recognised. who ever discriminates impermanency? [This is the position of the philosophers. of a higher world.

for when this further development is thoroughly understood by myself and other BodhisattvaMahasattvas all may be saved from being confounded by the happiness which comes from the attainment of perfect tranquillisation and also from falling into the confused state of mind of the Sravakas. (210) outside Mind-only. for with them there is something effect-producing." in [CHAPTER FOUR] LXXX (211) At that time again Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Pray tell me. attain perfect tranquillisation in every minute of their mental lives. Pratyekabuddhas. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. "On Impermanency. the BodhisattvaMahasattvas. etc.122. and philosophers. Blessed One. which is not however the case with the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. The Blessed One said this to him: Those Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who have reached the sixth stage as well as all the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas attain perfect tranquillisation. they do not attain perfect tranquillisation in every minute of their mental lives which is possible at the seventh stage. Therefore. Mahamati. Their attainment is due to understanding the aspect of all things in which their self-nature is discriminated as good and as not-good. Sravakas. are not attainable. etc.. and Pratyekabuddhas cease cherishing discriminative ideas that arise from . Certainly. Brahma. about the state of perfect tranquillisation (nirodha) and its further development as attained by all the Bodhisattvas. The abode and realm of Brahma. until the seventh stage there is not a well-established attainment of tranquillisation in every minute of their mental lives. giving up the view of self-nature as subsisting in all things. and Pratyekabuddhas. of grasped and grasping. at the eighth stage the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas. Blessed One. the Lankavatara-Mahayana-Sutra. Said the Blessed One: Then listen well and reflect well within yourself. Therefore. Sravakas. At the seventh stage. I will tell you. and in their attainment of perfect tranquillisation there is a trace [of dualism]. They cannot attain to [the clear conviction of] an undifferentiated state of all things (212) and the cessation of [all] multiplicities. Here Ends the Third Chapter. —I declare all to be of Mind-only.

he knows the differences obtaining in the various elements of enlightenment. point out the virtues of Buddhahood which are beyond conception. Mana and Manovijnana. failing to understand fully that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. and Manovijnana. rising and disappearing. Mahamati. and thereby they will not enter into Nirvana. The grading of the stages is arranged by me lest the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. he examines into [such subjects as] ego-soul and what belongs1 to it. there is really nothing rising. the continuous development of the successive stages and all the multiple doings of the triple world [—they are all of Mind itself]. When the stage of Tathagatahood is not fulfilled there would be the cessation of all doings. From the first stage up to the sixth. the Buddhas. but the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. all is nothing except what is seen of the Mind itself. This is not understood by the ignorant. Mahamati. for there is the working of habitenergy which has "been accumulating since beginningless time owing to false reasoning and discrimination. grasped and grasping. should fall into the philosophers' wrong way of viewing things. at the eighth stage there is Nirvana for the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas and Bodhisattvas. 1 The Chinese reading is here adopted.the Citta. that as it is born of a discriminating mind there is no ego-soul and what belongs to it. they perceive that the triple world is no more than the Citta. Mahamati. [the Bodhisattvas] do not enter into Nirvana. Manas. Therefore. . the egolessness of persons and things. At the seventh stage. individuality and generality. therein cherish the thought of Nirvana. not knowing what is meant by individuality and generality and failing to understand the continuous development of the successive stages. But. Further. engrossed in the bliss of the Samadhis. ( 213) Therefore. 1 Read according to T'ang. and Manovijnana. that is. nothing disappearing. the Bodhisattva properly examines into the nature of the Citta. he skilfully ascertains the fourfold logical analysis. he enters successively upon the stages. and that there is no falling into the multitudinousness of external objects except through [the discrimination of] the Mind itself. and if [the Bodhisattvas] were not supported [by the Buddhas] the Tathagatafamily would become extinct. and. the Blessed Ones. the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas at the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood are so intoxicated with the happiness that comes from the attainment of perfect tranquillisation. Mahamati. The ignorant turning their self-knowledge (svajnana) towards the dualism of grasped and grasping fail to understand. but the Bodhisattvas are kept away by the power of all the Buddhas1 from [being intoxicated by] the bliss of the Samadhi. Manas. he enjoys the bliss of self-mastery. I and all the Buddhas1 establish the doctrine of the stages which develop successively as do all the doings of the triple world.

heard. as they have abandoned thoughts of discrimination evolving from the Citta. they have the discriminating idea and knowledge of Nirvana. They have abandoned adhering to and discriminating about such notions as the Citta. Nirvana does not mean extinction. and self-nature. and being awakened he thinks: "Is this real or unreal?" He thinks again: "No. and Manovijnana. they are moved with the feeling of love and sympathy owing to their original vows. it is neither real nor unreal. Manas. they have not given up the things promoting the cause of Buddhism. when they have an intuitive understanding of the [true] nature of all things. there is for them the . Mahamati. It is like a man crossing a stream in a dream. which is not that of the truth of absolute solitude. and also observing how the mind and what belongs to it carry on their discrimination. and they become aware of the part they are to perform as regards the [ten] inexhaustible vows. the BodhisattvaMahasattvas never relax their efforts to practise the teachings of the Buddhas. when the Bodhisattvas face and perceive the happiness of the Samadhi of perfect tranquillisation. he is awakened from the dream. because of their attainment of the inner insight which belongs to the stage of Tathagatahood. and for this reason my Manovijnana experiences even in a dream all that has been seen by myself. (215) after passing through the first up to the seventh stage. and recognised. thought. however. observe that "there is no more rising in them of discrimination since all things are seen as like Maya. as they [now] recognise that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. Thus. there is the perception and discrimination of all things as existent and nonexistent. By reason of the habit-energy of discrimination which has been accumulated by experience ever since beginningless time. as multiplicities of forms and conditions are seen.they are thus unable to overcome the hindrances and habit-energy growing out of their notions of generality and individuality." In the same way. suppose that while sleeping a man dreams that he is in the midst of a great river which he earnestly endeavours with all his might to cross by himself. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas of the eighth stage of Bodhisattvahood. Mahamati. and Manovijnana. Manas. For the Bodhisattvas. they do not enter Nirvana. they have done away with the thought of discrimination concerning all things. therefore. Mahamati. whatever they do all issues from their transcendental knowledge. and [further] observing that. but before he succeeds in crossing the stream. Mahamati. For instance.. etc. and adhering to the egolessness of persons and things and (214) cherishing views arising therefrom. But the fact is that they are already in Nirvana because in them there is no rising of discrimination. there is the cessation of all things as to grasped and grasping which rise from one's ardent desire for things. With them the discrimination of grasped and grasping no more takes place. they will exercise themselves to make those who have not yet attained the truth attain it. and external objects.

" The Sagathakam. 1 [CHAPTER FIVE] LXXXI (217) At that time again. The abodes and the stages of Buddhahood are established in 1 the Mind-only which is imageless—this was told. Mahamati. Why? Because either way there is a fault connected with it. and the first is the eighth. the [highest] stage that is left belongs to me. [only] the truth of absolute solitude (viviktadharma) is taught here in which the discrimination of all the images is quieted. For.attainment of the recognition that all things are unborn. Mahamati. instead of cittamatre nirabhase... Self-realisation and absolute purity—this stage is my own. and the ninth is the seventh. So it is said: 1.. And.. the Fully-Enlightened One. 5. If he is impermanent. And the second is the third. the Akanishtha [heaven] shining brilliantly. Mahamati. 4. V.2 there I preach the various vehicles which belong to my own stage. as it stands here. and auspicious transform the triple world. the Tathagata is neither permanent nor impermanent. in ultimate reality there is neither gradation nor continuous succession. The [first] seven stages are [still] of the mind. 2 According to T'ang. the two stages. 2. they who are bright-coloured. charming. has cittamatram nirabhasam. But the Tathagata is not permanent [in the same sense] as the uncreated are permanent. "On Intuitive Understanding. it is the highest station of Mahesvara. but here the eighth is imageless. and will be told by the Buddhas. 3. what fault is connected with either assertion?1If the Tathagata is permanent.. Its rays of light move forward like a mass of fire. and the third is the sixth. what gradation is there where imagelessness prevails? The Fourth Chapter. permanent or impermanent? Said the Blessed One: Mahamati.. the Arhat. and the seventh is the eighth... while others have already been transformed. is told..] have [still] something to rest themselves on. he will be connected with things created. he will be connected with the creating agencies. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: Is the Blessed One. (216) 6. 7.. Because the Skandhas which are . 105. But [from the absolute point of view] the tenth is the first.. according to all the philosophers the creating agencies are something uncreated and permanent. Some worlds are being transformed. [the ninth and the tenth. the Tathagata. and the fourth is the fifth.

Mahamati. The destruction of the notion of permanency and . Mahamati. as long as there is word-discrimination. Arhats. but the Tathagatas do not originate from the discriminating of unrealities. Fully-Enlightened Ones.. and this sustaining principle of existence is not like the emptiness of space. Mahamati. Arhats. a garment. the Tathagata cannot be permanent. (219) there follows the faulty notion of permanency and impermanency. (218) and it is improper to speak of it as characterised with the faults of oneness and otherness. Mahamati. this knowledge. Mahamati. or a camel. 1 Following T'ang. there is permanency and impermanency because of its not being one. of bothness and not-bothness. this knowledge of enlightenment belonging to the Tathagatas comes forth from transcendental knowledge (prajnajnana). Further. destructibility is their nature. or a fly. Mahamati. Because of this fault of the permanency of no-birth. etc. the Tathagata is neither permanent nor impermanent. Arhats.predicable as qualified and qualifying are nonexistent. which are all connected with impermanency. the Tathagatas. Pratyekabuddhas. however. Fully-Enlightened Ones are neither permanent nor impermanent. and Manovijnana. On account of no distinction being made. is not understood by the ignorant and simple-minded. of permanence and impermanence. indeed. indeed. a piece of wood. a brick. the Tathagata is not permanent for the reason that [if he were] he would be like space. Dhatus. and because the Skandhas are subject to annihilation. Mahamati. abides. or a frog. Mahamati. Again. space is neither permanent nor impermanent as it excludes [the idea of] permanence and impermanence. However. there is another sense in which the Tathagata can be said to be permanent. all that is created is impermanent as is a jug. [with the Tathagata] as with them here is the permanency of no-birth. and Ayatanas. would be something created. it is like the horns of a hare. as it is attained intuitively by the Tathagatas. That is to say. which. The triple world originates from the discriminating of unrealities. For this reason. non-dualistic1 because all things are characterised with non-duality and nobirth. Whether the Tathagatas are born or not. For this reason. and philosophers. the Tathagatas. the Tathagata is permanent. or an ass. is. Mahamati. which is the regulative and sustaining principle to be discoverable in the enlightenment of all the Sravakas. and the preparations one makes for Tathagatahood would be useless. Mahamati. and the Skandhas. or a fish. indeed. this Dharmata. How? Because the knowledge arising from the attainment of enlightenment [ = an intuitive understanding] is of a permanent nature. permanent. the Tathagata. Fully-Enlightened Ones do not come forth from the habit-energy of ignorance which is concerned with the Citta. straw. Thus all the preparations for the knowledge of the All-Knowing One will become useless as they are things created. or a horse. Manas. [the truth of] absolute solitude is. Mahamati. Where duality obtains. Mahamati. or a snake.

"On the Deduction of the Permanency and Impermanency of Tathagatahood. Dhatus. by destroying the knowledge that is based on discrimination. The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati. So it is said: 1. there is the functioning together of the triple combination from which effects take place. [and yet] by keeping permanency and impermanency in sight.impermanency as held by the ignorant. what here goes under the name of . 2. those who always see the Buddhas will not expose themselves to the power of the philosophical doctrines. Here Ends the Fifth Chapter. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said: Certainly. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva made a request of the Blessed One. comes from the getting rid of the knowledge that is based on discrimination. and not from the getting rid of the knowledge that is based on the insight of solitude. Blessed One. not dvayam. Said the Blessed One: Then. and Ayatanas. tell me about the rising and disappearing of the Skandhas. and thus they know not what Nirvana is. listen well and reflect well within yourself. I will tell you. fail to understand the extinction of pain. disputes never arise. But the philosophers not knowing this are tenaciously attached to the idea of a cause [or a creating agency]. the Tathagata-garbha holds within it the cause for both good and evil. tell me. As this is not understood. when it is understood that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of the Mind itself. Like an actor it takes on a variety of forms. and [in itself] is devoid of an ego-soul and what belongs to it. and gave ear to the Blessed One. saying: Blessed One. all is in confusion. Mahamati. what is it that comes to exist and to disappear? The ignorant who are attached to the notion of rising and disappearing. Sugata. [the idea of] permanency and impermanency is kept back. In case there is no ego-soul. Mahamati. and by it all the forms of existence are produced. 3. When permanency and impermanency are adhered to all the accumulation [one makes for the attainment of reality] will be of no avail. Because of the influence of habit-energy that has been accumulating variously by false reasoning since beginningless time. [CHAPTER SIX] LXXXII (220) At that time again. By keeping away permanency and impermanency." 1 Read advayam. As soon as an assertion is made.

When the sense-organs which seize [upon the objective world] are destroyed and annihilated. As to the other seven Vijnanas beginning with the Manas and Manovijnana. the Alaya-] body itself subsists uninterruptedly. the Tathagatagarbha becomes quiescent. 1 According to T'ang and Sung. As they [only] know the egolessness of the self-soul. thus mutually conditioned and conditioning. and (221) thoroughly pure in its essential nature. they are not the cause of emancipation. and the egolessness of all things is obtained. because of the not-rising [of the Vijnanas]. When an insight into the five Dharmas. observing the truths of the Buddha which go beyond thought and his own original vows. Dhatus. they do not give exact information regarding pleasure and pain. but by means of the self-realisation which is not generally gained by the paths of discipline belonging to the Sravakas. and Ayatanas. Thus establishing himself at the Bodhisattva stage of Acala (immovable). It is like a great ocean in which the waves roll on permanently but the [deeps remain unmoved. Why? Because the evolution of the Vijnanas is depending on this cause. adhering to names and forms. but this does not belong to the realm of the Sravakas. and philosophers. the three Svabhavas. they are born with false discrimination as cause. quite free from fault of impermanence. in which truths of emancipation are well understood. greed is begotten in turn. Supported by the Buddhas in Samadhi. they have their rise and complete ending from moment to moment. (222) he obtains the paths leading to the happiness of the ten Samadhis. and with forms and appearances and objectivity as conditions which are intimately linked together. the other things immediately cease to function. there is no cessation of the seven evolving Vijnanas. he obtains . Pratyekabuddhas. as they [only] accept the individuality and generality of the Skandhas. they do not realise that objective individual forms are no1 more than what is seen of the Mind itself. or there is the realisation of the four Dhyanas. by setting up names and forms which originate from greed. [But] when a revulsion [or turning-back] has not taken place in the Alayavijnana known under the name of Tathagata-garbha. thus there is the attainment of perfect tranquillisation in which thoughts and sensations are quieted. whereupon the Yogins are led to cherish herein the notion of [true] emancipation. [the Bodhisattva] may not be led astray in the path [of enlightenment] by those philosophers who hold different views. there is the evolving of the Tathagata-garbha. and there is no recognition of pleasure and pain which are the self-discrimination of knowledge. unconcerned with the doctrine of ego-substance. Pratyekabuddhas. that is.Alayavijnana is accompanied by the seven Vijnanas which give birth to a state known as the abode of ignorance. not entering into the happiness of the Samadhi which is the limit of reality. By causing a revulsion in the continuous development of the graded stages. and those who are disciplining themselves in the exercises of the philosophers.

when this is adhered to. there is neither objectivity nor its appearance. except. to make them see into the egolessness of things. For this reason. This is meant for the Sravakas who are not free from attachment. This does not belong to the realm of speculation as it is carried on by the Sravakas. Pratyekabuddhas. let you and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas discipline yourselves in the realm of Tathagatahood. which is the product of intellection since beginningless time. fine. . penetrating thought-power and whose understanding is in accordance with the meaning. with the Tathagatas it is an intuitive experience as if it were an Amalaka fruit held in the palm of the hand. So it is said: 1. For this reason. This. when things are viewed as they are in themselves. Sravakas. Mahamati. This is not the case with the Tathagatas. do not abandon working hard and are never frustrated [in their undertakings]. while walking in the noble path of self-realisation and abiding in the enjoyment of things as they are. duality ceases. endowed with subtle. Mahamati. but it appears to them devoid of purity. [Therefore]. but when rightly understood.the ten paths of discipline which belong to the noble family [of the Tathagatas]. The Garbha of the Tathagatas is indeed united with the seven Vijnanas. and for Queen Srimala to whom the Buddha's spiritual power was added. as it is soiled by these external defilements. pure knowledge. who are attached to the letters of the canonical texts. Mahamati. Pratyekabuddhas. The mind. Mahamati. there arises duality. that this realm of Tathagatahood which is the realm of the Tathagata-garbha-alayavijnana is meant for those Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who like you are endowed with subtle. fine. such as philosophers. But. (223) and in another where the Bodhisattvas. Mahamati. there will be neither the rising nor the disappearing [of an external world of multiplicities] in the absence of the Tathagata-garbha known as Alayavijnana. this realm of the Tathagata-garbha is primarily undefiled and is beyond all the speculative theories of the Sravakas. in the understanding of this Tathagata-garbha-alayavijnana. the [pure] realm of Tathagatahood was expounded. Mahamati. so that you may not rest contented with mere learning. and Pratyekabuddhas. the Yogins. was told by me in the canonical text relating to Queen Srimala. Mahamati. Mahamati. and other philosophers. and it is not for others. and philosophers. if you say that there is no Tathagata-garbha known as Alayavijnana. are supported [by my spiritual powers] —that the Tathagata-garbha known as Alayavijnana evolves together with the seven Vijnanas. let those Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who are seeking after the exalted truth effect the purification of the Tathagata-garbha which is known as Alayavijnana. is seen like a mere image. there is the rising and disappearing of the ignorant as well as the holy ones. 2. and [also obtains] the knowledge-body created by the will which is removed from the [premeditated] workings of Samadhi.

there is a reversion to ignorance. But. Blessed One.3. the [eight] Vijnanas. and the twofold egolessness. karma . Blessed One. discrimination. the [eight] Vijnanas. pray tell me. By [recognising] the distinguishing aspects of the twofold egolessness. As thus they cling. but it is otherwise with the wise. and (225) where they come face to face with the abode of happiness belonging to the present existence as well as to the Samapatti (tranquillisation). Sugata. and they become tainted. listen well and reflect well within yourself. the [three] Svabhavas. know not my truth. and the twofold egolessness. the ignorant cling to names. the [three] Svabhavas. and the twofold egolessness. I will tell you. and that by entering into all the Buddha-truths we can enter even into the ground of the Tathagata's inner realisation. and fall into the notion of an ego-soul and what belongs to it. the [eight] Vijnanas. where they are kept away from such views as eternalism and nihilism. ideas. their minds move along [these channels]. concerning the distinguishing aspects of the five Dharmas. form. saying: Pray tell me. Said Mahamati: How is it that the ignorant are given up to discrimination and the wise are not? Said the Blessed One: Mahamati. Mahamati. I will tell you about the distinguishing aspects of the five Dharmas. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva made a request of the Blessed One. realism and negativism. as the ignorant do not understand that the five Dharmas. the Manas resembles a jester.1 1 Sung and T'ang seem to be incorrect in their reading of this LXXXIII At that time. they enter into the course of the Tathagata's inner realisation. together with the external objects which are regarded as existent and nonexistent— [all these are no more than] what is seen of the Mind itself—they are given to discrimination. Said the Blessed One: Then. and signs. the [Mano-] vijnana together with the five [Vijnanas] creates an objective world which is like a stage. As thus they move along. right knowledge. (224) so those who cling to the letter. I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas will be able to establish those truths while effecting a continuous development through the various stages of Bodhisattvahood. Mahamati. The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. [When these are thoroughly comprehended] by the Yogins. and cling to salutary appearances. they feed on multiplicities of objects. The Citta dances like a dancer. 4. Certainly. The five Dharmas are: name. the [three] Svabhavas. and suchness. It is said that by these truths we can enter into all the Buddha-truths. As the ignorant grasp the finger-tip and not the moon.

a woman. saying that this is an elephant. etc. he discerns that the course of all things starts with the notion of Maya. Mahamati. abiding. they do not understand that all things are like Maya. Further. time. by "discrimination" is meant that by which names are declared. a horse. that things rise from their false discrimination. a pedestrian. a wheel. or a man. Sravakas. this I call "suchness. Saying that this is such and no other. and have no self-substance to be imagined as an ego-soul and its belongings. appearing to the sense of hearing. When erroneous views based on the dualistic notion of assertion and negation are gotten rid of. When [all] the conditions [of truth] are brought to consummation. the ignorant move along with appearances. —all this I call "appearance. and folly is accumulated. Further. Mahamati. to move forward. Mahamati. like the water-drawing wheel. taste. the moon in water. for they follow names and appearances. and there is thus the indicating of [various] appearances. and idea. atoms. and when there is thus no falling back into the stage of the philosophers. for instance. smelling. 1 According to T'ang and Wei. that they are devoid of qualified and qualifying. he earnestly desires to put a stop to speculative theorisation. And because of folly. is perceived as sound. odour.." Mahamati. and in like manner that which.born of greed. each idea thus discriminated is so determined. and assert1 that they are born of Isvara. tactility. and the Manovijnana. and destruction. anger. tasting. transmigrating in the ocean of birthand-death (gati). Further. and after the attainment of the noble truth of self-realisation. the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva does not regard name as reality and appearance as non-reality. and have nothing to do with the course of birth. by "appearance" is meant that which reveals itself to the visual sense (226) and is perceived as form. a Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who is established on suchness attains the state of imagelessness and thereby attains the Bodhisattva-stage of Joy (pramudita). Mahamati. there is no more rising of the Vijnanas. for nothing comes to annihilation." Further. and Pratyekabuddhas. nothing abides everlastingly. As karma is accumulated again and again. by "right knowledge" is meant this: when names and appearances are seen as unobtainable owing to their mutual conditioning. or a supreme spirit. and. he is kept away from all the evil courses belonging to the philosophers and enters upon the path of supra-worldly truths. they are unable. a mirage. Mahamati. the body. and when the Vijnanas cease to rise as regards the objective world of names and appearances. ( 227) and going up in succession through the stages of Bodhisattvahood he finally reaches . When [the Bodhisattva] attains the stage of Joy. their minds become swathed in the cocoon of discrimination as the silk-worm. it is said that there is right knowledge. by reason of this right knowledge. that they are born of the discrimination of what is only seen of the Mind itself.

Right knowledge and suchness. and suchness— appearance is that which is seen as having such characteristics as form. the eight Vijnanas. (228) When the twofold clinging to an ego-soul and what belongs to it is stopped. with varieties of rays of transformation. are indestructible. —the notion and the discrimination are of simultaneous occurrence. Then. Of these. and no other.2 Again. Mahamati. etc. this is such and such. name and appearance are known as the Parikalpita [false imagination]. After reaching here. This comes from imagining unreal individual appearances [as real]. right knowledge. After being at the stage of Dharma-Cloud. images. and psychic faculties are in bloom. —this is "appearance. have entered into suchness. the discrimination thus supporting the notion of selfnature which subsists in the multiplicities of objects. " saying this is mind and this is what belongs to it.the stage of Dharma-Cloud (dharmamegha). of the five Dharmas—name. is the notion of an ego-soul and what belongs to it. he shines like the moon in water. in order to bring all beings to maturity. Pratyekabuddhas. distinctive features. etc." Out of this appearance ideas are formed such as a jar. T'ang and Wei have citta-mano-manovijnanarahitam. or as having their own characteristics complete in themselves? 1 2 According to Sung and T'ang. and Tathagatas into the state of self-realisation by means of their noble wisdom. That these names and appearances are after all . Mahamati said: Are the three Svabhavas to be regarded as included in the five Dharmas.. there is the birth of the twofold egolessness. Mahamati. he preaches the Dharma to all beings according to their various understandings. LXXXIV Further. Perfectly fulfilling1 the [ten] inexhaustible vows. colours. discrimination." When names are thus pronounced. like the rising of the sun and its rays. Mahamati. and thus they are known as Parinishpanna [perfect knowledge]. As the BodhisattvaMahasattvas. Mahamati. powers. shape. in these five Dharmas are included all the Buddha-truths and also the differentiation and succession of the [Bodhisattva-] stages. he reaches as far as the stage of Tathagatahood where the flowers of the Samadhis. is called the Paratantra [dependence on another]. Mahamati. appearance. they attain the body which is free from the will and thought-constructions. The Blessed One said: The three Svabhavas. discrimination which rises depending upon them. and the entrance of the Sravakas. Mahamati. self-control. this is "name. Further. Bodhisattvas. by which one can say. Mahamati. appearances are determined1 and there is "discrimination. by adhering to what is seen of the Mind itself there is an eightfold discrimination. and the twofold egolessness—they are all included [in the five Dharmas].

while right knowledge and suchness are the Parinishpanna. recognised. and all the Buddha-truths. the idea is to terrify those ignorant and simpleminded ones who. and widely shown. and future are like the sands of the river Ganga. the Buddhas of the three divisions of time are not measurable by the measurement of the sands of the Ganga. Fully-Enlightened Ones are said to be like the sands of the river Ganga. this is "right knowledge. tenaciously clinging to the idea of permanency and impermanency. and in them are included the three Svabhavas. But this comparison is only given out. do not take it in its literal sense. This has been realised by myself and the Tathagatas. made public.unobtainable because when intellection is put away the aspect of mutuality [in which all things are determined] ceases to be perceived and imagined— this is called the "suchness" of things. the twofold egolessness. exact knowledge. 6. reflect well with your own wisdom and let others do [the same] and do not allow yourself to be led by another. . source. in agreement with this. Why? Because an analogy which is superior to anything of the world and surpasses it cannot be called an analogy. Name. the Svabhavas. Fully-Enlightened Ones do not give out such an analogy that has in it something resembling and something not resembling and that is superior to the world and surpasses it. and discrimination [correspond to] the first two Svabhavas. Mahamati. Arhats. reality. 1 (229) These are. self-substance. [the truth] is rightly understood as neither negative nor affirmative. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: It is told by the Blessed One in the canonical text the Tathagatas of the past. appearance. in which the Tathagatas. The five Dharmas." Samadharmeti va that follows here is probably to be dropped on the strength of the Chinese versions. discrimination ceases to rise. and there is a state conformable to self-realisation by means of noble wisdom. since there is in it something resembling and something not resembling. Sravakas. and the twofold egolessness—they are all embraced in the Mahayana. present. by myself and the Tathagatas. In this. Mahamati. LXXXV At that time again. limit. Arhats. Blessed One. follow up the wheel of transmigration. (230) The Tathagatas. So it is said: 5. and giving themselves up to the ways of thinking and the erroneous views of the philosophers. The Blessed One said: Mahamati. Blessed One. Mahamati. the five Dharmas. is this to be accepted literally? or is there another distinct meaning? Pray tell me. the eight Vijnanas. When. for. the eight Vijnanas. and Pratyekabuddhas. the unattainable. Mahamati. which is not the course of controversy pertaining to the philosophers. And this suchness may be characterised as truth. truthfully pointed out.

Mahamati. To illustrate." They are non-discriminative. thinking how this could be realised.. because [the ignorant] are incapable of believing. separated from defilement. the Tathagatas are said to be like the sands of the river Ganga. and however much they are tossed about by the fishes of the philosophers. elephants. no one has ever seen the Udumbara flower blooming. the conflagration that will break out at the end of the Kalpa may burn the earth but does not destroy its self-nature. and their powers. lions. nor will anyone. seek after the excellent state. Therefore. Mahamati. the self-realisation of noble wisdom which has been attained by the Tathagatas. Because of their original vows. [sometimes] a comparison is made use of. they were seen and are to be seen. Arhats. however. the Tathagatas are at present in the world. But. The truth transcends all the notions that are characteristic of the Citta. in them there is nothing describable by analogy. like the sands of the river Ganga. Mahamati. it is told them that the appearance of the Tathagatas is not like the blooming of the Udumbara flower. and this is in consideration of those people who are to be led by me. Mahamati. Mahamati. because they are free from imagination and discrimination. the Tathagatas [whose hearts are] filled with all the happiness of the Samapatti are not troubled by imaginations and discriminations with regard to beings. the Tathagatas. and self-control are like the sands. anxious to escape the intricacies of the wheel of existence. Mahamati: as the sands of the river Ganga partake of the character of the earth. Mahamati. The truth is the Tathagatas. they are not troubled by imaginations and discriminations. For example. porpoises. is like the river Ganga. FullyEnlightened Ones. therefore. the establishment of the truth itself is pointed out. And thus there is an unbelief on the part of the ignorant and simple-minded. while. for they do not resent. But it is told in the canonical text that the Tathagatas appear as rarely as the Udumbara flower. the earth is not consumed because of its being inseparably connected with the element of fire. When. Manas. buffalos. To say that the Tathagatas appear as rarely as the Udumbara flower has [really] no reference to the establishment of the truth itself. Mahamati. pure in themselves. tortoises. are free from partiality because of their being devoid of likes and dislikes. it surpasses beyond measure anything in the world that can be offered as an analogy to it."We are down-trodden. because they are the same and impartial [to all things]. In the same way. the sands of the river Ganga are tossed about by the fishes. crocodiles. because they will thereby see that the attainment of Buddhahood is not a difficult undertaking and will pu1 forward their energy. psychic faculties. that is to say. etc. (231) There is indeed no room for analogies to enter in the realm of self-realisation which is effected by means of noble wisdom." or "We are not. but they are free from imagination and discrimination. (232) and it is only the ignorant and simple-minded that on . by the ignorant who belong to other schools. saying. and. and Manovijnana.To those who.

the rays of light of the Tathagatas are beyond measure. but not that which has no physical body. the knowledge of the Tathagatas which is exercised for the maturing of beings is neither exhausted nor augmented. that which has a physical body is subject to annihilation. "going away" means destruction. because the Dharma is without a physical body. the habitenergy of false speculations and erroneous discriminations which have been . how can I talk of the sense of "gong away"? The sense of "going away. Blessed One. In the same way. In the same way. To illustrate. Mahamati said: If. Not being known. is never destroyed. Mahamati. To illustrate. (233) Mahamati. who are endowed with a great compassionate heart." Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga are drawn along with the flow of the stream. the Tathagata's teaching in regard to all the Buddha-truths takes place along the flow of the Nirvana-stream. To illustrate. To illustrate. Mahamati. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga do not assume another nature than itself remaining forever the same. and for this reason the Tathagatas are said to be like the sands of the river Ganga. Fully-Enlightened Ones are neither evolving nor disappearing in transmigration because in them the cause of making them come into existence is destroyed. however much they are compressed for the sake of the ghee and oil. the Dharmakaya of the Tathagatas. it is never consumed. which arc-emitted by them in all the Buddha-assemblies in order to bring beings to maturity and arouse them [to the knowledge of the truth]. In the same way. Mahamati. and the Dharma is not a physical body. In the same way. Mahamati. is annihilation. when it is understood that the objective world is nothing but what is seen of the Mind itself. the Tathagatas. are destitute of them. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga are unconcerned whether they are carried away or whether more is added into them. Mahamati. 1 After T'ang. as long as all beings have not yet been led into Nirvana by the Tathagatas. in tathagata ("thus come") there is no sense of "going away". In the same way. however hard they are oppressed with pain for the sake of beings. Mahamati. how is the emancipation of beings knowable? The Blessed One said: Mahamati. the primary limit of transmigration of all beings is unknowable. To illustrate. Mahamati. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga. Arhats. the Tathagatas never abandon their deep concerns1 and original vows and happiness as regards the Dharmadhatu. Mahamati: the sands of the river Ganga are immeasurable. In the same way. but not where there is no water.account of their falling into false ideas imagine the earth being consumed by fire. and this is not known by the ignorant and simple-minded. the primary limit of transmigration is unknown. Mahamati. like the sands of the river Ganga. But as it supplies the material cause to the element fire.

and there is a revulsion [or turning-back] at the basis of discrimination—this is emancipation. the Skandhas are anasrava. Manas. see the Tathagata. listen well and reflect well within yourself. Blessed One. Mahamati. Mahamati.. Tathagata. is another name for discrimination. of this world (235) or of super-world. and not annihilation. what is meant by all things being momentary? The Blessed One replied: Then. all things we speak of. the system of the five Vijnanas is . Blessed One. and Manovijnana. When that is got rid of. like the sands of the Ganga. effect-producing or not effect-producing. Certainly. receptive or non-receptive. there cannot be any talk about endlessness. regarding the momentary destruction of all things and their distinctive signs. 8. of evil flowings or the non-flowings. But when it is not recognised that all things rise from the discrimination of the Mind itself. Fully-Enlightened One. LXXXVI At that time again. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One. e. Arhat. Mahamati. Mahamati. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. they are imagined good or bad. the five appropriating1 Skandhas have their rise from the habit-energy of the Citta. Mahamati. Manovijnana. as long as there is attachment to the notion of an ego-soul. Sugata. 1 Again. knowing and known are found to be quiescent. are called the non-outflowing goods. What are the eight? They are the Tathagata-garbha known as the Alayavijnana. Apart from discriminations ( 234) there are no other beings. Tell me. discrimination asserts itself. Mahamati. Therefore. and so is the essence [or nature] of Buddhahood. Mahamati. the happiness of the Samadhi and the attainments [resulting therefrom]. When all things external or internal are examined with intelligence. tell me. Buddhas] as neither destroyed nor departed for ever. To be endless in limit. So it is said: 7. Like the sands of the Ganga they are devoid of all error: they flow along the stream and are permanent. When this is understood discrimination ceases. Mahamati. Blessed One. which belong to the wise by reason of their abiding in the happiness of the existing world. Manas. All the Skandhas are self-appropriating. In short. and the system of the five Vijnanas as described by the philosophers. i. The Blessed One said this to him: Mahamati. e.going on since beginningless time is removed. and they are good or bad. I will tell you. faulty or faultless. all things. Mahamati. by good and bad are meant the eight Vijnanas. Now. Those who regard the removers of obstruction [i. not tainted with evil outflows. or self-grasping.

gold. This is not understood by the ignorant and simple-minded who are addicted to the doctrine of momentariness. which is together with the Manas and with the habit-energy of the evolving Vijnanas— this is momentary. the nature of enlightenment is momentary. moving on. perceiving the difference of forms and figures. it comes to an end. those who are desirous for this world of form. discriminate in the sense of momentariness? LXXXVII Further. failing to recognise the hidden meaning of all things internal and external. Mahamati said: It is again said by the Blessed One that by fulfilling the six Paramitas Buddhahood is realised. is set in motion. In the same way. the wise would lose their wiseness (aryatva). and the entire body moves on continuously and closely bound together. Mahamati. nor does it suffer pleasure and pain. vajra. they cherish nihilism whereby they even try to destroy the unmade (asamskrita). and the Manovijnana in union with the system of the five Vijnanas. the Tathagata-garbha is together with the cause that suffers pleasure and pain. Mahamati. etc. the worldly Paramitas [are practised thus]: Adhering tenaciously to the notion of an ego-soul and what belongs to it and holding fast to dualism. What are the three? They are the worldly. but as it fails to understand that there is nothing in the world but what is seen of Mind-only. and the relics of the Buddha. But.. If. but they have never lost it. Mahamati. What are the six ( 237) Paramitas? And how are they fulfilled? The Blessed One replied: Mahamati. Mahamati. as their thoughts are infused with the habit-energy of discrimination which cherishes the view of momentariness. will practise the Paramita of charity in order to obtain the various realms of existence. Of these. owing to their specific character. momentary is the Alayavijnana known as the Tathagata-garbha. But [the Alayavijnana which is together] with the habit-energy of the non-outflows (anasrava) (236) is not momentary. there is the rising of another Vijnana [-system] following the cessation of the first. the super-worldly. and there is an undivided succession and differentiation of good and bad. Mahamati. and the highest super-wordly. gold and vajra remain the same until the end of time. there are three kinds of Paramitas. Mahamati. Not understanding the momentariness and non-momentariness of all things. remaining the same they are neither diminished nor increased. But the ignorant do not understand it. the ignorant will practise . Mahamati. the system itself of the five Vijnanas is not subject to transmigration. are never destroyed but remain the same until the end of time. it is stupefied by the fourfold habit-energy. not remaining still even for a moment—this I call momentariness.together with the Manovijnana. Further. it is this that is set in motion and ceases to work. Mahamati. nor is it conducive to Nirvana. How is it that the ignorant.

Dhyana. etc. As to the Paramita of Prajna: when the discrimination of the Mind itself ceases. Mahamati. and seeds. energy. on account of discrimination. and. As to the super-worldly Paramitas. not subject to destruction. [the Bodhisattvas] practise the Paramita of charity. perceiving that there is nothing in the world but what is only seen of the Mind itself. a lamp. not to fall into the philosopher's notion of Nirvana—this is the Paramita of Dhyana. they just practise morality and this is the Paramita [of morality]. the meaning of momentariness is discriminated by means of the analogies of a river. Attaining the psychic powers they will be born in Brahma's heaven. impermanent. patience. All things are non-existent. 10. free from all thoughts of attachment to individual objects which are of the Mind itself. While dealing with an objective world there is no rising in them of discrimination. are desirous of enjoying Nirvana for themselves. as to the highest super-worldly Paramitas. like the ignorant. then there is the Paramita of Prajna. discrimination moves on in the [six] paths. when [transcendental knowledge] is exercised for the accomplishment of self-realisation. 11. These. Owing to the uninterrupted succession of existence. [they are practised] by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who are the practisers of the highest form of spiritual discipline. and Prajna. The created (Samskrita) are empty. and a revulsion takes place at the basis. Mahamati. To exert oneself with energy from the first part of the night to its end and in conformity with the disciplinary measures and not to give rise to discrimination—this is the Paramita of energy. and. I say. who. Again. Not to cherish discrimination. they are not-momentary. are the Paramitas and their meanings. . that seizing and holding is nonexistent. momentary—so the ignorant discriminate. when things are thoroughly examined by means of intelligence. are thus performed by them. To practise patience with no thought of discrimination rising in them ( 238) and yet with full knowledge of grasped and grasping —this is the Paramita of patience. LXXXVIII1 So it is said: 9. that is. Birth and death succeed without interruption — this I do not point out for the ignorant. quiescent. and unborn— this. and in order to benefit and give happiness to all sentient beings. and understanding that duality is of the Mind itself. there is no falling into dualism. is the meaning of momentariness. the Paramitas of charity. while previous karma is not destroyed. they are practised by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas whose thoughts are possessed by the notion of Nirvana. they see that discrimination ceases to function.the Paramitas of morality.

where is the abode of the middle existence? 13. somehow. If mind is set in motion. the cause is an unreal one. has not pronounced. the nature of Buddhahood as realised [by them]—how can there be momentariness in them? 17. and left-over karma? Blessed One. The attainment of the Yogins. Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One: [How was it that] the Arhats were given assurance by the Blessed One of their attainment of supreme enlightenment? [How can] all beings attain Tathagatahood without realising the truths of Parinirvana? [What does it mean that] from the night when the Tathagata was awakened to supreme enlightenment until the night when he entered into Parinirvana. that the primary limit is unknown and yet cessation is knowable. being in the state of transformation. a word." The proper place for this section is after the section on "Momentary" and before the "Paramita. and how can they be causal agencies? Here Ends the Sixth Chapter "On Momentariness. the Buddha-relics. and the heavenly palace of Abhasvara are indestructible by any worldly agencies. Ignorance is the cause and there is the general rising of -minds. Ever abiding are the truths attained by the Buddhas and their perfect knowledge. Maya-like forms—how can they be otherwise than momentary? Realities are characterised with unreality. how can one know of its momentary disappearances? 15. between these times the Tathagata has not uttered. it is not complete. (239) where does it find its dependence as form is not established in time? 14. execute the works of the Tathagatas? How is the succession of momentary decomposition explained which takes place in the Vijnanas? [Further. gold. [facts of] karma-hindrance are said to be shown [by the Tathagata in the incident of] Canca the daughter of a . when form is not yet born. The city of the Gandharvas.12. what do these statements mean] that Vajrapani is constantly with [the Tathagata] as his personal guard. their activities. somewhere. 16. 1 [CHAPTER SEVEN] LXXXIX (240) At that time again." or what is the same thing the latter is wrongly inserted where it is found in in the text. If another mind is set in motion in an uninterrupted succession of deaths. [What is the meaning of this] that being always in Samadhi the Tathagatas neither deliberate nor contemplate? [How do] Buddhas of transformation. that there are evil ones.

Mahamati. Arhats. Mahamati. is declared according to the hidden meaning.. is purified when the egolessness of things is distinctly perceived. who. an empty bowl. that is. I will tell you. etc. (242) he is free from the twofold death. that the abandonment of passion-hindrance by the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas is not different [from that by the Tathagatas] is due to the sameness of the taste of emancipation. (241) said Mahamati the BodhisattvaMahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. Mahamati. Manovijnana. This is not understood by the ignorant whose minds are torn asunder by the notion of emptiness. and are not transmigratory. are desirous of attaining the Nirvana of the Sravakayana. The Blessed One said this to him: The realm of Nirvana where no substratum is left behind is according to the hidden meaning and for the sake of the practisers who are thereby inspired to exert themselves in the work of the Bodhisattvas. There is an eternally-abiding reality [which is to be understood] according to the hidden meaning. The original Tathagatas. dharma-hindrance is given up because of the disappearance of the habit-energy [accumulated in] the Alayavijnana. he has relinquished the twofold hindrance of passion and knowledge. but this does not apply to the abandonment of knowledgehindrance. of Sundari the daughter of a mendicant. are characterised with momentariness because they originate from habit-energy. Mahamati. Mahamati. etc. Mahamati. eyevijnana. Because of his right thinking and because of his unfailing memory. he neither deliberates nor contemplates. . What transmigrates. but this is not done by the Dharmata-Buddha.. how can the Blessed One with these unexhausted evils attain all-knowledge? The Blessed One replied: Then. he is no more at the stage of the fourfold habit-energy. for [then] the Manovijnana ceases to function. the Sravakas in transformation are given assurance [as to their future Buddhahood] by the Body of Transformation. the Tathagatas who are accompanied by Vajrapani are the Tathagatas transformed in transformation and are not the original Tathagatas. they are destitute of the good non-flowing factors. Further. it is now thoroughly purified. because it is something that has neither antecedents nor consequents.Brahmin. however. and by means of such words that are original and independent. Knowledge-hindrance. Mahamati. is the Tathagatagarbha which is the cause of Nirvana as well as that of pleasure and pain. In order to turn their inclination away from the Sravakayana and to make them exert themselves in the course of the Mahayana.. Fully-Enlightened Ones. without contemplation. but passion-hindrance is destroyed when first the egolessness of persons is perceived and acted upon. Manas. Blessed One. Certainly. the seven Vijnanas. there are Bodhisattvas practising the work of the Bodhisattva here and in other Buddha-lands. This giving assurance to the Sravakas. listen well and reflect well within yourself. The Tathagata points out the Dharma without deliberation. Mahamati.

Knowledge is produced by the Buddhas. the eye-vijnana. and theorisation. on account of the cessation of the six Vijnanas the ignorant and simple-minded look for nihilism. and on account of their not understanding the Alayavijnana they have eternalism. The following gathas do not seem to have any specific relation to the prose section. "On Transformation. [These Tathagatas] are abiding in the joy of existence as it is. Nihilism and the idea of impermanency rise because of the Manovijnana. are indeed beyond all sense and measurement. So it is said:1 1. The primary limit of the discrimination of their own minds (243) is unknown. Pratyekabuddhas. and the path is pointed out by them: they move in it and not in anything else. beyond the reach of all ignorant ones. Further. Sravakas. eternalism rises from [the thought that] there is no beginning in Nirvana. Nirvana that leaves no remnant. it is pointed out that the assurance of Buddhahood is given to all that are freed from faults. [the Buddha of Transformation] does his work for sentient beings. in them there is no Tathagatahood. —this is told according to the hidden meaning in order to give encouragement to the timid. as they have reached the truth of intuitive knowledge by means of Jnanakshanti. Existence. which belongs to the noble realm of self-realisation. and philosophers. 2. he teaches the doctrine meeting conditions." [CHAPTER EIGHT] (244) At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva asked the Blessed One in verse and again made a request. Here Ends the Seventh Chapter. 4. Ultimate intuitive knowledge. etc.Mahamati. form (rupa).. Like the potter who is dependent on various combinations. Thus Vajrapani is not attached to them. but not the doctrine that will establish the truth as it is. intelligence. there is no Nirvana with the Buddhas. saying: Pray tell me. . but apart from them there is no Tathagatahood either. Emancipation is obtained when this discrimination of Mind itself ceases. The three vehicles are no-vehicle. Mahamati. Mahamati. 5. this is where the Manovijnana takes its rise and the Alaya and Manas abide. theorising—this is the fourfold habitenergy. With the abandonment of the fourfold habit-energy the abandonment of all faults takes place. therefore there is no Nirvana with them. 1 3. desire. All the Buddhas of Transformation do not owe their existence to karma.

or staying a while at the stage of Sravakahood and Pratyekabuddhahood. and eternalism. even those philosophers who hold erroneous doctrines and are addicted to the views of the Lokayata such as the dualism of being and non-being. they will finally reach the highest stage of Tathagatahood. which was made a subject of severe criticism by their opponents. which was probably done earlier than the Ravana chapter. hence this addition in which an apologetic tone is noticeable. but of the three Chinese versions it appears here in its shortest form. Fully-Enlightened One regarding the merit and vice of meat-eating. who. is not to eat any meat. having assumed the form of a living being. he who promotes one taste for mercy and is the Fully-Enlightened One. Mahamati. let the Blessed One who at heart is filled with pity for the entire world. 1 Blessed One. These meat-eaters thus abandoning their desire for [its] taste will seek the Dharma for their food and enjoyment. thereby I and other Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas of the present and future may teach the Dharma to make those beings abandon their greed for meat. will prohibit meat-eating and will themselves refrain from eating it. said Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva and gave ear to the Blessed One. This chapter on meat-eating is another later addition to the text. Blessed One. Tathagata. T = 2. listen well and reflect well within yourself. and who possesses great compassion in compliance with his sympathetic feelings. The Blessed One said this to him: For innumerable reasons. or the one or the other. W = 3. or brother. I will tell you. so that I and other BodhisattvaMahasattvas may teach the Dharma.Blessed One. O World Leader. or daughter. (245) why not prohibit in his teachings the eating of flesh not only by himself but by others? Indeed. It already appears in the Sung. and when acquiring another form of life may live as a beast. teach us as to the merit and vice of meat-eating. eat . Mahamati. and. has not been your mother. It is quite likely that meat-eating was practised more or less among the earlier Buddhists. or as something standing in some relationship to you. as a domestic animal. as a bird. there is not one living being that. nihilism. regarding all beings with love as if they were an only child. or father. will cherish great compassion towards them. or son. in various degrees of kinship. whose nature is compassion. strongly crave meat-food. How much more. or as a womb-born. under the influence of the habit-energy belonging to the carnivorous existence. I will explain them: Mahamati. Arhat. Said the Blessed One: Then. The Buddhists at the time of the Lankavatara did not like it. or sister. who regards all beings as his only child. the Bodhisattva. Cherishing [great compassion]. in this long course of transmigration here. Certainly. [this being so] how can the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva who desires to approach all living beings as if they were himself and to practise the Buddha-truths. the proportion being S = 1. they will discipline themselves at the stages of Bodhisattvahood and will quickly be awakened in supreme enlightenment.

seeing meat-eaters at a distance. and therefore. on earth. feeling pity. thinking. even those minute animals that are living in the air. Mahamati. [they would say. the Bodhisattva should not eat meat. Mahamati: When a dog sees. or any other [being]. Mahamati. "They are death-dealers. The flesh of a dog. and. how much more those who love the Dharma! Thus. a pariah. or in the water? Why do they go wandering about in the world thoroughly terrifying living beings. For the sake of love of purity. [the eating of] meat is to be avoided by him. let people cherish the thought of kinship with them. it does not consist of meat and blood. for they are to them the threat of death. Mahamati. is what is eaten by the Rishis. etc. even from a distance. will perceive in them. by their keen sense of smell. refrain from eating meat. and. In order to guard the minds of all people. Mahamati. it is not [compassionate] of a Bodhisattva of good standing to eat meat. and like the carnivorous animals. they will even kill me. Mahamati. meat which is liked by unwise people is full of bad smell and its eating gives one a bad reputation which turns wise people away. Mahamati. let them refrain from eating meat. attained the notion of protecting [Buddhism]. Mahamati. Even in exceptional cases. on earth. refrain from eating meat. let the Bodhisattva. to abide in great compassion. he is terrified with fear. because of its terrifying living beings. living in the air. Mahamati. blood. an ass. Mahamati. wherever there is the evolution of living beings. etc. (247) the odour of the Rakshasa and will run away from such people as quickly as possible. there are some in the world who speak ill of the teaching of the Buddha.the flesh of any living being that is of the same nature as himself? Even. So with Bodhisattvas whose nature is compassion. let the Bodhisattva refrain from eating meat. the Rakshasa. listening to the Tathagata's discourse on the highest essence of the Dharma. Mahamati. . For fear of causing terror to living beings. (246) refrains from eating flesh. refrain from eating flesh. disregarding the life of a Sramana and destroying the vow of a Brahmin? There is no Dharma." There are many such adverse-minded people who thus speak ill of the teaching of the Buddha. a bull. For this reason. is sold on the roadside as mutton for the sake of money. let the Bodhisattva whose nature is holy and who is desirous of avoiding censure on the teaching of the Buddha. who is disciplining himself. Mahamati. Mahamati. Mahamati. To illustrate.. a fisherman.] "Why are those who are living the life of a Sramana or a Brahmin reject such food as was enjoyed by the ancient Rishis. The food of the wise. For instance. the Bodhisattva should refrain from eating flesh which is born of semen. whose desires are for meat-eating. Therefore. no discipline in them. and in water. let the Bodhisattva refrain from eating meat. or man. let the Bodhisattva who is disciplining himself to attain compassion." In the same way. thinking that all beings are [to be loved as if they were] an only child. a hunter. a buffalo. a horse. that is not generally eaten by people.

Mahamati. [The meat-eater] sleeps uneasily and when awakened is distressed. which brings many evils and keeps away many merits. there is generally an offensive odour to a corpse. when sons or daughters of good family. even while living this life. whose nature is pity and who regards all beings as his only child. which is gratifying to the unwise but is abhorred by the wise. how can I permit my disciples. he is never satisfied. there is no regularity in his eating. whether it be that of a dead man or of some other living creature. wishing to exercise themselves in various disciplines such as the attainment of a compassionate heart. and which was not offered to the Rishis and is altogether unsuitable? 1 Delete pitakhadita (line 7). or when they attempt to sit on a couch or a seat for the exercise. he trembles without knowing why. When I teach to regard food as if it were eating the flesh of one's own child. it keeps away many evils. let the Bodhisattva whose nature is pity. refrain from eating meat. Mahamati. let the Bodhisattva. digestion. there is no distinction in the odour. He ceases to entertain any thoughts of aversion towards all diseases. Therefore. wholly refrain from eating meat. the holding a magical formula. retire into a cemetery. therefore. Mahamati. the odour emitted is equally noxious. and nourishment. who is ever desirous of purity in his discipline. and his spirit is seized by demons. in order to guard the minds of all people. let the Bodhisattva. or to a wilderness. when flesh is burned. let the Bodhisattva. wholly refrain from eating meat. In his eating 1 he never knows what is meant by proper taste. Mahamati. Mahamati. wholly refrain from eating meat. who is desirous of benefiting himself as well as others. Frequently he is struck with terror. he leads a solitary life. the food I have permitted [my disciples to take] is gratifying to all wise people but is avoided by the unwise. His visceras are filled with worms and other impure creatures and harbour the cause of leprosy. which makes his hair rise on end. When flesh of either kind is burned. He is left alone in an empty hut. He dreams of dreadful events. Mahamati. or taking a drug. wholly refrain from eating meat. or a forest. Now. to eat food consisting of flesh and blood. or the perfecting of magical knowledge. where demons gather or frequently approach. let the Bodhisattva refrain from eating meat. ( 249) Recognising that his mouth smells most obnoxiously. Mahamati. ( 248) let the Bodhisattva whose nature is full of pity and who is desirous of avoiding censure on the teaching of the Buddha.For this reason. Mahamati. or starting on a pilgrimage to the Mahayana. it is productive of many merits. which goes against nature. and it has been prescribed by the . As even the sight of objective forms gives rise to the desire for tasting their delicious flavour. seeing that thus there are obstacles to the accomplishing of all the practices. they are hindered [because of their meat-eating] from gaining magical powers or from obtaining emancipation.

beans. lentils. panther. etc.ancient Rishis. kinsmen. relatives. food prepared with these is proper food. honey. Mahamati. In consequence of this he was alienated from the society of his friends. etc. such ones will fall into the wombs of such excessive flesh-devouring creatures as the lion. Mahamati. they ate meat even [after becoming] king. and because they were excessively attached and devoted to meateating they gave birth to Dakas and Dakinis who were terrible eaters of human flesh. and. who have planted roots of goodness. On account of their evil habit-energy in the past when their food had been flesh. his greed to be served with it. Because of their descending from the union with a lioness. etc. and children were born to her. jackal. clarified butter. after going through many a birth. who have no attachment to body. who being compassionate desire to embrace all living beings as their own person. (250) It comprises rice. wolf. wild-cat. His excessive fondness for meat. life. Mahamati. Long ago in the past. etc. Mahamati.. who do not covet delicacies. molasses. Even a god who became Indra the Powerful. is liable to bring misfortune both upon himself and others. sugar cane. in this life they lived in a village called Kutiraka ("seven huts"). they will fall into the wombs of still more greedily flesh-devouring and still more terrible . devoid of discrimination.. (252) the royal children were called the Spotted-Feet. Mahamati. and who. there was another king1 who was carried away by his horse into a forest. are not at all greedy. After wandering about in it. counsellors. oil. kidney beans. In the life of transmigration. King Sivi feeling pity for the innocent [pigeon had to sacrifice himself to the hawk and thus] to suffer great pain. under the influence of the habit-energy belonging to the carnivorous races. even Indra who obtained sovereignty over the gods had once to assume the form of a hawk owing to his habit-energy of eating meat for food in a previous existence. coarse sugar.. barley. and property. who are possessed of faith. who had thus to place himself on the scale. owl. treacle. there lived a king whose name was Simhasaudasa. will greedily desire the taste [of meat]: it is not for these people that the above food is prescribed. who are sons and daughters of good family. not to speak of his townsmen and countrymen. he committed evil deeds with a lioness out of fear for his life. wheat. this is the food I urge for the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas who have made offerings to the previous Buddhas. (251) stimulated his taste for it to the highest degree so that he [even] ate human flesh. Mahamati. who are all men and women belonging to the Sakya family. Mahamati. there may be some irrational people in the future who will discriminate and establish new rules of moral discipline. hyena. and who regard all beings with affection as if they were an only child. he then chased Visvakarma appearing in the guise of a pigeon. tiger. how much more those who are not Indra! Mahamati. In consequence he had to renounce his throne and dominion and to suffer great calamities because of his passion for meat.

Such as these. they will string together in various ways (254) some sophistic arguments to defend meat-eating. the ignorant and simple-minded are not aware of all this and other evils and merits [in connection with meateating]. There are even some. Kaurabhraka. beginning to lead the homeless life according to my teaching. Being under the influence of the thirst for [meat-] taste. They think they are giving me an unprecedented calumny when they discriminate and talk about facts that are capable of various interpretations. alas. there may be some unwitted people in the future time. that seeing these evils and merits the Bodhisattva whose nature is pity should eat no meat. 2 who. but who are in thought evilly affected by erroneous reasonings. and carry the Kashaya robe about them as a badge. They may talk about various discriminations which they make in their moral discipline. Mahamati. nowhere in the sutras is meat permitted as something enjoyable.Rakshasas. in most cases nets and other devices are prepared in various places by people who have lost their sense on account of their appetite for meat-taste. and in water. being so devoid of compassion. that are moving about in the air. Mahamati. Imagining that this fact allows this interpretation. Falling into such. Mahamati." 2 According to T'ang. how much more numerous [evil] qualities that are born of the perverted minds of those devoted to [meat-eating]1. Mahamati. and that it is mentioned among permitted foods and that probably the Tathagata himself partook of it. Mahamati. etc. If. in the majority of cases ( 253) the slaughtering of innocent living beings is done for pride and very rarely for other causes. And. Mahamati. there will be no destroyer of life. Though nothing special may be said of eating the flesh of living creatures such as animals and birds. and thereby many innocent victims are destroyed for the sake of the price [they bring in]— such as birds. Again. how much more [difficult] attaining Nirvana! 1 The text has all this in the plural. on land. it will be with difficulty that they can ever obtain a human womb. 1 It is not true. who. when he did not order others to kill it. that meat is proper food and permissible for the Sravaka when [the victim] was not killed by himself. Mahamati.. Mahamati. who are like Rakshasas hard-hearted and used to practising cruelties. Mahamati. Kaivarta. [they conclude that] the Blessed One permits meat as proper food. would now and then look at living beings as meant for food and destruction— no compassion is awakened in them. meat is not eaten by anybody for any reason. are acknowledged as sons of the Sakya. Both T'ang and Wei have here a sentence to the following effect: "Those who do not eat meat acquire a large sum of merit. Mahamati. that one addicted to the love of [meat-] taste should eat human flesh! Mahamati. when it was not specially meant for him. being addicted to the view of a personal soul. nor it is . are the evils of meat-eating. I tell you. But.

after explaining each point meat obtained in these specific circumstances is not interdicted. and are on their way to the Mahayana. how can I. how much less the food of flesh and blood. and being possessed of compassion. I do not permit. having the thought of an only child for all beings. who. permit the Sravakas to eat the flesh of their own child? How much less my eating it! That I have permitted the Sravakas as well as myself to partake of [meat-eating]. the interdiction not to eat any kind of meat is here given to all sons and daughters of good family. or if I said it was proper for the Sravakas [to eat meat]. how much more the Tathagata! The Tathagata is the Dharmakaya. and one joined to another in a regular and methodical manner. mortification. he is thoroughly emancipated in mind and knowledge. whether they are cemetery-ascetics of forestascetics. is unconditionally and once for all. And. who would say that meat was eaten by the Tathagata thinking this would calumniate him. Meat-eating. I had the mind to permit [meat-eating]. wishing to cherish the idea that all beings are to them like an only child. Mahamati. conceive the idea of regarding all beings as an only child. Mahamati. the noble Sravakas do not eat the food taken properly by [ordinary] men. Mahamati. he regards all beings impartially as an only child. a tenfold prohibition is given as regards the flesh of animals found dead by themselves. Mahamati. Such unwitted people as these. So it is said: . in order to accomplish the end of their discipline. has no foundation whatever. He has ejected the habit-energy of thirst and desire which sustain all existence. if they wish the Dharma and are on the way to the mastery of any vehicle. and Bodhisattvas is the Dharma and not flesh2-food. meat-eating I have not permitted to anyone. There may be some. he abides in the Dharma as food. he does not abide in any flesh-food. in any manner. such as I am. the sons and daughters of good family. which is altogether improper. Mahamati. If however. Mahamati. and will fall into such regions where long nights are passed without profit and without happiness. Mahamati. is not proper for homeless monks. (255) In the canonical texts here and there the process of discipline is developed in orderly sequence like a ladder going up step by step. prohibited for all. he is the All-knower. he is a great compassionate heart. Mahamati. I would not have forbidden. the food for my Sravakas. and in any place. But in the present sutra all [meat-eating] in any form. Mahamati. are possessed of compassion. practise contemplation. Mahamati. or Yogins who are practising the exercises. (256) he is All-seer. Thus. I will not permit. ail meat-eating for these Yogins. I would not forbid.1 Further. Mahamati. I tell you.referred to as proper among the foods prescribed [for the Buddha's followers]. he keeps away the habit-energy of all evil passions. his is not a body feeding on flesh. Pratyekabuddhas. will follow the evil course of their own karma-hindrance.

it causes a bad reputation. 14. greed is born. as [flesh] is produced of semen and blood. and onions are to be avoided. From imagination. 12. to those who do not. Do not anoint the body with sesamum oil. 13. Let not the Yogin eat meat. perforated with spikes. trespassing against the words of the Muni. Let the Yogin always refrain from meat. 4. they are both evil-doers and [the deed] matures in the hells called Raurava (screaming). not asked for. and garlic. Mahamati. onions. Liquor. Those evil-doers go to the most horrifying hell. etc.2 7. and as [the killing of animals] causes terror to living beings. etc. by the Bodhisattva-Mahasattvas and those who are Victor-heroes. meat-eaters are matured in the terrific hells such as Raurava. refrain from eating meat. (257) for the living beings who find their shelter in the cavities and in places where there are no cavities may be terribly frightened. it is food for the carnivorous. there is attachment to stupefaction. I say1 this. and born deprived of intelligence. From eating [meat] arrogance is born. from arrogance erroneous imaginations issue. Mahamati. and not impelled. 10. There is no meat to be regarded as pure in three ways: not premeditated. you should know that meat-eaters bring detrimental effects upon themselves. To those who eat [meat] there are detrimental effects. merits. meat. Amisra (mixed) in T'ang.1. 1 2 The text as it stands requires fuller explanation. and there is no emancipation from birth [and death]. 9. 8. Unintelligible as far as the translator can see. (258) he will be born again and again among the families of the Candala. therefore. allium. Meat is not agreeable to the wise: it has a nauseating odour. for flesh money is paid out. those sentient beings who feed on one another will be reborn among the carnivorous animals. it is forbidden by myself as well as by the Buddhas. instead of bruhi as in the text. 6. 3. and from imagination is born greed. contemptuous. it is not to be eaten. do not sleep on a bed. [The meat-eater] is ill-smelling. 11. is evil-minded. and the Domba. 5. he is pointed out in the teachings of the Sakya as the destroyer of the welfare of the two worlds. One who eats flesh. For profit sentient beings are destroyed. and for this reason refrain from eating [meat]. the Pukkasa. . various kinds of liquor. as [the eating] involves transgression. and by greed the mind it stupefied. Let the Yogin refrain from eating flesh as it is born of himself. 1 2 Brumi. 2. Mahamati.

hindrances. 20. "On Meat-eating. who will retain them in memory. "Meat is proper to eat. tiger. unobjectionable. [Meat-eating] is forbidden by me everywhere and all the time for those who are abiding in compassion. From the womb of Dakini he will be born in the meat-eaters' family. saying. and permitted by the Buddha. he belongs to the lowest class of men. Bodhisattvas. ( 259) follow the proper measure and be averse [to meat. 21." the Lankavatara.. the Anglimalika. and then into the womb of a Rakshasi and a cat. 17. the Nirvana. etc. 23. if one devours [meat] out of shamelessness he will always be devoid of sense. 24. and suspecting. Let one avoid all meat-eating [whatever they may say about] witnessing. because of this fact. They are: . liquor. the Mahamegha. and future. these theorisers born in a carnivorous family understand this not. [CHAPTER NINE]1 (260) At that time the Blessed One addressed Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva: Mahamati. etc. and thus] let the Yogin go about begging. and will be recited by the Buddhas of the past. it is like a child's flesh. 18. wolf. 16. [Meat-eating] is condemned by the Buddhas. There may be in time to come people who make foolish remarks about meat-eating. endowed with knowledge and wealth. 39-40.1 1 from For the phrase "The essence of the teaching of the Buddhas (sarvabuddhapravacanahridaya). As greed is the hindrance to emancipation. I will recite them here for the benefit of the proclaimers of the Dharma. [he who eats meat] will be born in the same place as the lion. in the family of the Brahmins or of the Yogins." see pp. hearing. 19. present. Meat-eating is a medicine. Here Ends the Eighth Chapter.15. so are meat-eating. etc. because it hinders the truth of emancipation. and Sravakas. the Essence of the Teaching of All the Buddhas.. are recited. do not eat meat which will cause terror among people. you should hold forth these magical phrases of the Lankavatara. again. and the Lankavatara. will be born. Therefore." 22. One who avoids meat. Meat-eating is rejected by me in such sutras as the Hastikakshya. [not to eat meat —] this is the mark of the wise. which were recited.

Mahamati. ghule. dinakare—svaha. a Garuda. or a Rakshasa. vutte—patte. cule. mance—dutare. phula. wailing and crying. or a Yaksha. pale—munce. patte—katte. dime—hime. or a Naga. or a Kumbhandi. or a Rakshasi. or an Aujohari. or a Gandharvi. or a Dakini. ghula. munce. or a . hine—cu. or a Yaksha. retain. padmadeve—hine. or a Yakshi. and [the evil ones] will. or a Bhuta. or an Asuri. Another later addition probably when Dharani was extensively taken into the body of Buddhist literature just before its disappearance from the land of its birth. or a Naga. or a Pisara. or a Kataputani. I will tell you. When a religious symbolism takes a start in a certain direction. —no one of these will be able to effect his or her descent [upon the holder of these magical phrases]. or a Yakshi. or a Mahoraga. They are: Padme. Asana (sitting). proclaim. or a Kumbhanda. bandhe—ance. kale. kale. or an Asuri. cale—pace. yule—ghule. marde. sputte—katte. pramarde. nime—hime. on him or her no [evil beings] should be able to make their descent. any son or daughter of good family should hold forth. Whether it be a god. dutare—patare. kale—atte. pace—badhe. If any misfortune should befall. patare—arkke. or an Asura. munce—cchinde. or an Amanushya. vame—kale. Whether it be a god. Mahamati. sarkke—cakre. ghule—pale. are the magical phrases of the Lankavatara Mahayana Sutra: If sons and daughters of good family should hold forth. proclaim. or a Pisaci. Dharani has also attained a high degree of development as in the case of Mudra (holding the fingers). or a goddess. and realise these magical phrases.Tutte. no one should ever be able to effect his descent upon them. tutte—vutte. and the symbolism itself begins to gain a new signification which has never been thought of before in connection with the original idea. Mahamati. tutte—jnette. hime—tu tu tu tu (4)—du du du du (4)—ru ru ru ru (4)—phu phu phu phu (4)—svaha. or an Austaraka. bhinde. culu. bhanje. or a Mahoragi. 1 (261) These. or an Apasmari. or a Daka. or a Kataputana. or an Aujohara. or an Asura. If. let him recite the magical phrases for one hundred and eight times. or a Nagi. or a Garudi. Dharani is a study by itself. or a Nagi. or a Kinnara. amale— vimale. hini. phule—yule. The mystery of an articulate sound which infinitely fascinated the imagination of the primitive man has come to create a string of meaningless sounds in the form of a Dharani. or a Kannari. other magical phrases. or a Gandharva. turn away and go in another direction. or a Garuda. it pursues its own course regardless of its original meaning. retain. or a Bhuti. In India where all kinds of what may be termed abnormalities in religious symbology are profusely thriving. Its recitation is now considered by its followers to produce mysterious effects in various ways in life. pala. or a Mahoraga. or an Amanushyi. and Kalpa (mystic rite). katte—latte. yula. katte—amale. or a Kinnara. or a Apasmara. hime—vame. cakre—dime. vimale—nime. cule (262)— phale. or a Kinnari. realise these magical phrases. or a Garudi. arkke—sarkke. matte—vatte. or a goddess. patte— dime dime—cale. or an Austaraki.

verse 8. verse 3. or a Daka. or a Gandharva. (263) These magic phrases are given by the Blessed One to guard against the interference of the Rakshasas. And destroying a net of the philosophical views. (Chapter II. verses 151.) (265) 6. or an Austaraki. including those that have never appeared in the text. or an Apasmari. out of which about 208 are repetitions of those which have already appeared in the main text. or a Gandharvi. (Chapter II. These repetitions are systematically excluded in T'ang. or a Pisaca. [SAGATHAKAM]1 (264) Listen to the wonderful Mahayana doctrine. (Chapter II.) 3. verse 2. or a Kumbhanda. 2 This remark refers only to the first six verses. the [whole] Lankavatara Sutra will be recited. or a Bhuta." The verses enumerated in the Sanskrit text are 884. or a Bhuti. The subjects treated are many and varied. or an Aujohari.)3 7. and it is frequently quite difficult to disentangle them and give them a semblance of order. or an Austaraka. It is probable that it was added later into the text.) 9. Composed into verse-gems. (Chapter II.) This section entitled. while Wei.Mahoragi. "Sagathakam." consists entirely of verses. with a few exceptions. The reader may use his own judgment in the matter.) 2. verse 178. 152. or an Apasmara. In this English translation I have followed the method of T'ang. (Chapter II. verse 1. By him who will recite these magic phrases. verses 6. repeats them all. or an Amanushya. Here Ends the Ninth Chapter Called "Dharani" in the Lankavatara. or an Amanushyi—no one of these will be able to effect his or her descent upon [the holder of these magical phrases]. or a Kumbhandi. 7. or a Dakini. or a Kataputani. Declared in this Lankavatara Sutra. (Chapter II.) 4. (Chapter II. or a Pisaci. 5. When we know more about the historical circumstances of the compilation of the various 1 . The Chinese translations have here the following: "At that time the Blessed One wishing to declare again the deep signification of the Sutra uttered the following verses. or a Rakshasa. or a Kataputana. At that time Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva said this to the Blessed One:2 1. The verses are in a most confused condition. or an Aujohara. 8. or a Rakshasi.

17. one who is removed from thought and knowledge perceives the Mind-king. 22. the Dhatus. but I am not enlightened nor do I enlighten others. the Skandha-continuity. 14. severally as eightfold. (Chapter II. 21. one abides permanently in the palace of lotus-form. 18. the ignorant discriminate and [think] "I am the enlightened one in the world". verse 154. there is neither Samskrita (or things made) nor Asamskrita (or things not made). and. The root is constantly nourished by habit-energy. verse 143 and the first half of 144.sutras we may be able to see how these repetitions came to be inserted here and also may learn something regarding the relation which this "Sagathakam" section stands to the preceding part of the Sutra.) 13. The original source on which all sentient beings are dependent is beyond theorisation. and empty are a personal soul. 11. they rise because of imagination. By wrong discrimination the Vijnana[-system] rises.1 like waves on the great ocean.) 12. as the imagination itself is empty. (Chapter II. " showing that the verses were originally an independent body. 16. There are some omissions. but I do not teach external signs. Let it be known that without self-nature. 1 (267) 23. as ninefold. which is a later development. (Chapter II. all doings cease and emancipation obtains. one goes beyond the ten stages of Bodhisattvaship. unborn. what fools they are! 20. and not a ninefold one. Except for discrimination. Abiding in it one attains a life of imagelessness.) 25. 3 These verses are not repeated in the same order as they are in the prose section of the text. (266) the mind moves along with an objective world as iron is drawn by the loadstone. what is imagined is empty. In the Samadhi known as Maya-like. To me teaching is an expedient. (Chapter II. knowing and known are transcended. This requires attention. verse 156. causation. 15. verse 179. performs religious deeds for all beings. 19. which is born of the realm of Maya. the ignorant because of their attachment to existence seize on signified and signifying. The Sutra itself maintains a system of eight Vijnanas. and all is not within all. 10. the ignorant hold on to them as a barren woman does to the child of her dream. and [the notion of] existence and non-existence.) 24. A knower of all things is not an all-knower.)1 . like a manycoloured jewel. These irregularities take place throughout the "Sagathakam. (Chapter II. firmly attached to the seat. When a "turning-back" takes place in the mind. verse 149. too. These individual objects are not solid [realities].

and brick. there is no doubt. so are all things essentially [mere appearances]. The Buddhas appear on earth in their innumerable transformationbodies beyond calculation. 40. 38. and removed from mind and its belongings. like Maya. One self-nature (svabhava) I teach. There is neither seizing nor seized. . These things are empty. (Chapter II. those who thus see all things. touch. 37. it is like a mirage in the air. 28. he sees me.1 36. and work as of the same nature. 30. Omit the line in parentheses. in conformity with truth. when the mind goes astray there appears this world and that. 33. but he who has transcendental knowledge sees it neither rising nor disappearing. then he is accomplished in his contemplation. The ignorant because of their stupidity see [an objective world] as taking its rise and disappearing. (268) 29. see nothing whatever. When the truth-seeker sees [the truth] devoid of discrimination and free from impurities. a world-teacher. 31. and everywhere the ignorant following them listen to the Dharma. as it is non-existent. [a wise man] does not discriminate a world. (269) recognising the world as such. removed from the two Svabhavas [i.. and are there [in the heaven] awakened to enlightenment. which belongs to the exquisite [spiritual] realm of the wise. Those who are always above discrimination. verse 181. like a dream. This verse and the following one do not appear in T'ang. though Maya itself is non-existent. and self-control. and unborn. 39. are in the celestial palace of Akanishtha where all evils are discarded. The world is the same as a dream. e. and their being and non-being is unobtainable. neither bound nor binding. 2 1 35. but the transformed ones are awakened here [on earth]. In causation which governs being and non-being things do not originate. which is removed from speculation and thought-construction. wood.2 34. 32. [the wise] see property. the Parikalpita and the Paratantra]. they appear to the intoxicated as like fire-flies because of their constitutional disturbance. This mind is the source of the triple world. therefore multiplicities appear. As Maya is manifested depending on grass. likewise is the world essentially [appearance].26. and they are also missing in the prose section. and so are the multiplicities of things in it. Though multitudinousness of things has no [real] existence as such.) 27. in the triple world the mind is perturbed. like a mirage. are thoroughly adept in the Samadhis. like a dream. psychic faculties. like an affected eye. death. all is like Maya. In this there is nothing of thought construction. without self-nature. Such attain the powers.

deluded in the cage of transmigration. abides no longer in the body. released from conditions and unsupported by thought of self. But this body. middle. and solidity. it is false imagination rising from delusion. verses 147 and 148. pure. For the last quarter Wei has: "The honoured one of the world preaches these doings. 1 (270) 44. What is known as multiplicity-seeds multiply in the mind (citta). and there rages an ocean of views as regards ego and things (dharma). 42. there is a somewhat [perceived as real]. When bound in conditions there evolves a mind in all beings. fluidity. because of perversion there is Maya. but as they do not understand the truth. being bound up with the two Svabhavas there is the transformation of the Alayavijnana. all-pervading.41. verse 146." T'ang: "The person who perceives this well will be honoured by the world. I say. 47. There is an essence2 entirely covered by thought-constructions and hidden inside all that has body.) (271) 49. they are [recognised] by me to be Paratantric. (Chapter II. 54 and 55. and above multiplicity. (Chapter II." 2 Gotra (眞性) according to T'ang. 48. immovable. and [yet] producing multiplicity. the ignorant imagine birth and are delighted with dualism. I see no [mind rising]. motility. 43. form (samsthana) and senses are made of the eight substances. The world is no more than thought-construction. in what is revealed. they imagine that there is something [real] to take hold of. 46. 45. desire. verse 99. and ending. they are. Maya. [however]. there is neither signified nor signifying. in this imagination there is no perfect knowledge. Things are discriminated by the ignorant as heat.) . 50.2 as they evolve thus [relatively]. this [one] is my child who is devoted to the truth of perfect knowledge. is not the cause of perversion.) 56. however. Even because of the mind being deluded. When the mind. removed from existence and non-existence. 51. they go astray in this abode of the triple world. when released from conditions. In the intermingling of causes and conditions. Ignorance. 53. the ignorant thus discriminate this phenomenal world (rupa). (Chapter II. [There is one thing which is] released from [such conditions of existence as] beginning. unrealities asserted. and karma—they are the causes of mind and its belongings. to me there is no objective world. When the field of mentation gets confused. when the world is clearly perceived as such and there takes place a revulsion1 [in the mind]. 52. the ignorant imagine the birth [of all things].

or Maya.1 the world is something imagined. and again there is the Alaya as thought-construction (vijnapti). (Chapter III. turning-over. it is thus [homeless]. etc. This heap of bones. the moon. but it does not thus exist to the transcendental wisdom [of the wise]. (272) 57. 58. Depending upon the Mind. Because there is that which is seized and that which seizes. and the delusion about them rises and ceases in accordance with conditions. I teach suchness (tathata) that is above seized and seizing. by means of mental images (prajnapti) good students handle the various aspects of the world. without a world of individual objects (rupina). All things existent are unborn. seeing that all beings are unborn. As a picture shows highness and lowness while [in reality] there is nothing of the sort in it. and goes on dancing with the various Vijnana-waves. mind rises in all beings. 70. the analysis of the elements—[these are subjects of meditation]. empty like a dream. There is the highest Alayavijnana. 59. the psychic faculties. it is to be regarded as such. which is error. The triple world has nowhere to place itself. Read cittacaittanam karakam. the Gandharva's [castle. nor a being. and [cessation when] the Vijnana ceases. So the flood of the Alayavijnana is always stirred by the winds of objectivity (vishaya). the Buddha-image. the various powers belonging to the Mind. I teach that birth is something not to be recognised really as such. [there is birth when] the Vijnana is born. and examples. 62. or turning-back. 71. 1 Here I have followed T'ang.. this and no other is an external world which is imagined by the ignorant. By such examples as flame. 67. 69. A proposition [is established] by means of conditions. 68. fire-]wheel. 66. there appears [within] a mind and. there grows a full acceptance of the truth that nothing is ever born (kshanti-anutpatti). empty. the will-body. or turning-up. reasons. .1 2 Paravritti. either within nor without. 60. there are no such signs visible [in the world] as are imagined by the ignorant. the sun. (273) such as a dream. The visible world (drisyam) has always the appearance of the city of the Gandharvas and that of fata morgana.) 65. mirage. verses 79 and 80. nor a person exists in the Skandhas. 63 and 64. He will then attain the Samadhi called Maya-like. the self-mastery. Neither an ego. so in things existent there is thingness seen [as real] while there is nothing of the sort in them. hair. and without self-substance. 61.

81. As long as those philosophers who get confused in their reasonings and who are unable to go beyond the realm of words. and the gems. 82. (Chapter II. 83. and one seed and all seed also. and so does the Buddha's nature work on its own accord. and in one mind you see multiplicity. verse 51. 77.) 80. he thus attains calmness and establishes himself in the state of no-form (animitta). As an object painted black is taken by the unwise to be a cock.) . (Chapter III. The ignorant. of a Sravaka. though there is no gold. 76. so by the ignorant who do not know. apprehend existing things to be really such as they appear to be. There are no Sravakas. then we have [the truth of] suchness (tathata).72. the will. there is a turning into a state of noseed. abode. distinguish the discriminating from the discriminated—so long they do not see [the truth] of suchness. 74. the discrimination of these representations are the seizing agents. abiding. the elements. but when [within the mind] a turning-away from the course of sense-objects (dharma) and the ego-soul (pudgala) takes place. for him the earth has changed into gold. verse 52. if. (274) 73. who sees the world in golden colours. though in fact they owe their origin to Maya or a mirage. and property are three representations ( vijnapti) seized upon [as objects]. [the desire] to hold. the sameness comes from non-discrimination. — each functions in its own way without discrimination. The sun. which is discriminated by the twofold Svabhava [of imagination and relative knowledge]. and disappearance. verse 140. thus defiled since beginningless time with the mind and what belongs to it. or as eternity and non-eternity. Body. however. When one seed is made pure. no Pratyekabuddhas here. wrongly perceived by the dim-eyed]. this is a transformed manifestation of the Bodhisattva whose nature is compassion itself. the moon. 79. the lamp-light. (275) they [really] have nothing to do with such notions as birth. Things known as defiled or as pure are like hairnets [that is. hence the designation all-seed. 78. one recognises the form of a Buddha. 75.) 86. It is like a drugged man whoever he is. from superabundance there is birth and general confusion from which there grows a multitude of seeds. 84.1 85. The triple world of existence is no more than thought-construction. the triple vehicle is understood in like manner. (Chapter II. One seed and no-seed are of the same stamp. When the Yogin by means of his transcendental wisdom understands that all things existent have no self-substance.

a hair-circle. (Chapter II. the ignorant are delighted with the dualism of discrimination. As memory [or habit-energy. is used in this text in two different senses. If Mind evolves at all depending on individual forms as conditions. there is no visible world outside [Mind itself]. When the mind is evolved. 98. if otherwise why is not the painting produced in the air?1 99. When the self-nature of existence is understood there is no need of keeping off the delusion. 2 Citta which is generally translated "mind.) 90. then Mind is condition-born. (278) 102.) 92. it apprehends the various sense-fields. The Sanskrit as it stands is unintelligible. 96. 2 The first line of verse 94 properly belongs to the preceding verse. it is not a something produced by a cause. —they are non-entities yet they appear as if they were entities. (Chapter II. verse 170. Manas is that which has reflection as its characteristic nature. just as a painting depends upon the wall [on which it is painted]. all that is seen before us is delusion. and a fata morgana. verse 53. When it stands in the series of 1 . for which reason it is called a Vijnana. the nature of an objective existence is thus to be regarded. forms begin to manifest themselves. verse 144.) 91. when memory is cut off. vasana] grows in various forms the Mind is evolved like the waves. then the Yogin by his transcendental wisdom sees the world shorn of its appearances (abhasa). 100. no forms. no-birth is the self-nature of existence. [it is declared that] Mind-only exists. The Gandharva's air-castle. I have followed the T'ang. 1 94. Mind is grasped by mind. it is due to delusion that things are imagined to have come into existence.2 The two verses 83 and 84 on "seed" (bija) require fuller explanation to make them more intelligible. Mind is by nature pure. (Chapter II." either with the "m" capitalised or not. therefore. (Chapter III. An individual mind is evolved by clinging to Mind in itself. The Mind is evolved dependent upon a variety of conditions. Mind (citta2) is the Alayavijnana. verse 141. This gatha may be regarded as a question to which the following few verses are a reply. verse 48. (276) 88. really [if] no minds. memory (habit-energy) has no existence in [mind which is like] the sky. there is no evolving of Mind. Nothing has ever been brought into existence. 97. (Chapter III. 101.) 89. Maya.) (277) 95. seeing thus one is released. (Chapter II.87. the mind is due to [the accumulation of] delusions since beginningless past. and the doctrine of Mind-only will not be held true. verse 136.) 93.

It is also used in a general sense meaning mentation. 176 and elsewhere. 111.) (279) 110.Citta. it is not in accord with reason to say that [individual] realities (vastu) exist. one sees that all things are devoid of self-substance. the functioning Vijnana is either good or bad.) 105-109. and acting—they do not at all [in reality] exist. 9 and 10. citta has an absolute sense denoting something that goes beyond the realm of relativity and yet that lies at the foundation of this world of particulars. for no such perception is possible. verses 1-5. and multiplicity too.1 114. the sense-fields resemble a dream. Citta is always neutral. indeed. there rises something which one perceives [as objective reality] — this is called worldly knowledge. v. the error [is to see] multiplicity. 104. we speak of nondiscriminative [knowledge]. (281) as the nature of reality is . It is important to keep this distinction in mind. v. That non-existence and existence is recognised. 133. 122. If there is non-discriminative knowledge. 112. v.) 119. it establishes itself as the result [of discipline in the realm] of no-appearance. (Chapter II. it would not be possible to talk about the non-existence of self-substance. verse 132. this comes from the nature of reality being erroneously understood. is due to erroneous attachment of the ignorant. transcending the measure of thought. it means the empirical mind. v. 174. v. vv. That which exists only as word and not as reality —such is not to be found even in worldly knowledge. 130. Manas. Although there is no selfsubstance. because of Mind. See also my Studies in the Lankavatara. therefore. When theLanka speaks of "Mindonly. v.) 120. (Chapter II. If things are regarded as existing by themselves. they exist because of their being so designated in words. 177. it goes beyond all the realms belonging to the various stages. act. Manas functions in two ways. p. there are no individual forms (rupani). but in ultimate truth (paramartha) none exists. (Chapter II.) 118.) 115. (Chapter IV. they are not." it refers to this something defined here.) 116(280)-117. 121. and. 176. 103. (Chapter II. 113. (Chapter II. and Vijnanas. 123. 173. 1 This verse is missing in Wei. According to worldly knowledge (samvriti) everything exists. (Chapter II. Besides this. If such errors were granted. actor. The sense-organs are to be known as Maya. in ultimate truth. if there were no words to designate their existence. In self-realisation itself there are no time[-limits].

Discrimination. The world is everywhere filled with Buddhas of Maturity. . (Chapter II.1 139. (Chapter II. there is something perceived where there is really no self-substance.4 beings. What is seen as multiplicity is the mind saturated with the forms of evil habits. There are no stages [of Bodhisattvaship]. whose secret meaning you should know. 142. 133. v. 168 and 169. that which is bound. and the setting up of discrimination. the visible world is to the people whose minds are saturated with the forms of ignorance. ( 283) the giving of names to these appearances [regarding them as real individual existences] is characteristic of the imagination. so the ignorant perceive an objective world rising with its various aspects. (Chapter II. Discrimination is cut asunder by non-discriminating discrimination. 125. that which is discriminated. it is found everywhere and in every body. there are no [recognisable] marks where Mind-only is. Buddhas. Transformation[Buddhas] and those that appear transformed—they all come forth from Amitabha's Land of Bliss. no bodies of transformation. and [Buddha]lands. What is uttered by Buddhas of Transformation and what is uttered by Buddhas of Maturity constitute the doctrine fully developed in the sutras. Dharma[-Buddhas]. 126. no truths.erroneously understood.3 Buddhas of Transformation. 135-137.) 138. no [Buddha]lands. no more takes place. vv. Mind is all. As a man whose eye is affected with a cataract perceives a haircircle because of his delusion. we have the characteristic mark of perfected knowledge(parinishpanna). When the constructing of appearances and names. 132. the truth of emptiness is seen into by non-discriminating discrimination.) 129. it is by the evil-minded that multiplicity is recognised. Bodhisattvas.) (282) 131. The Issuing5[-Buddhas]. like golden leaves in a painting. because of mental delusions one clings to forms and appearances regarding them as objective [realities]. The constructing of appearances (nimitta) created by delusion is the characteristic mark of Paratantra (dependence) knowledge. and its cause: these six are conditions of liberation. 130.) 134. 124. 139. Sravakas are [products of] imagination. Like an elephant magically created. vv. binding. 127-128. 36. 150. (Chapter III. Pratyekabuddhas. 141. v. all is indeed non-existent.2 140. 37. which come from the union of conditions and realities. 35.

(284) in Mindonly there is no objective world. 152. 149. they resemble the Gandharva's castle. and detached from imagination. as people take refuge in relative knowledge (paratantra). By reason of false imagination (parikalpita) all things existent are declared unborn. there is [in fact] no such external world. [transcendental] knowledge (jnana)1 belongs to the realm of Suchness. mind rises in no other way. Do not discriminate discrimination. but they are not exactly non-existent either. they get confused in their discriminations. but I suggest the following: "When the constructing of names and appearances no more takes place in it. All these individual objects (dharmas) have never been born. [this world of] delusion is discriminated as to that which is perceived and that which perceives. 144. discrimination asserts itself. but here vikalpita. When relative knowledge is purified by keeping itself aloof from discrimination. [Relative] knowledge (vijnana) takes place where there is something resembling an external world. hence the evolution of this fallacious world. there is a state of imagelessness. Imagining by this imagination. it is an error to recognise an external world." Both Wei and T'ang here understand sanketa in the sense of "union. 145. 148. there are only causal signs indicative of reality—this is the characteristic mark of perfected knowledge. there is no truth in discrimination. 2 1 146. and mind thus ceases. . and this mind is the product of imagination. What is uttered by the Bodhisattvas and what is uttered by the teachers—they are both what is uttered by the Buddhas of Transformation and not by the Buddhas of Maturity. When a turning-back (paravritta) takes place. an external world is recognised in distortion. (285) 153. there is a turning-back to the abode of suchness. and mind is liberated. 151. but in reality there is no such dualism in it. Mind is set in motion in various ways. but just the Mind. 147. [the conception of] selfsubstance is due to imagination. and magical creations. self-substance is conceived to rise by the conditions of origination (pratyayodbhava). a dream. 4 Nairmanika. which is the realm of the wise. v.) 150. when one is released from discrimination there is liberation. (Chapter II." 3 Vaipakika. Brought together by the evil habit of erroneous reasoning. 5 Nisyanda. This is the reading of T'ang. 161.143. The mind of all beings is that which perceives something like objective reality. Generally parikalpita.

attaining the stage of Joy he will go to the Land of Bliss. which is free from appearances and beyond thought. 160. the unsurpassed Mahayana.) 157. Through the stages of Pesi. 175. In Vedali.) 168. and discrimination goes on increasing. when the dualistic imagination ceases there grows [transcendental] knowledge (jnana). to the world. v. lips. the realm of the wise. (Chap. 155. He will declare my Vehicle. and the sores are nine. 158. in the southern part. The vehicle realised within my own inner self is not the realm that can be reached by dialecticians. With knowledge gained by discrimination. and discrimination goes on like a parrot. he is the destroyer of the one-sided views based on being and non-being. From the union of mother and father. When the Mind is agitated by habit-energy (or memory) there rises what appears to be an external world. his name is Nagahvaya. and hair are supplied. The first line of verse 156 is a part of the preceding one. thou shouldst know that there will be one who bears the Dharma. those who imagine something real in the midst of . and cavity. but the Mahayana [or Great Vehicle] is not definite. In the realm of conditional origination. pray tell me who will be the bearer [of the Mahayana]? O Mahamati. To those who see [the world] clearly and properly. 148. the five. the realm of suchness.154. ( 286) nails.2 163-164. v. the eye begins to distinguish forms. Ghana. Philosophical doctrines are definite. 1 As to the distinction between Jnana and Vijnana see p. nourished by the wind of karma and the four elements. when sometime is past after the Sugata's entrance into Nirvana. Cf. 159. a Bhikshu most illustrious and distinguished [will be born].135 et seq. it is set in motion by the thoughts of beings. 2 1 166. After the passing of the Teacher. teeth. it comes to maturity like a fruit. 162. human speech is produced from the combination of the palate. when ready to spring forth it is born. When [the baby] is just born. and the five. 161. (Chapter II. the Alaya gets connected with Manas. the boil grows— an unclean mass bearing a variety of karma. Chap. it is like a worm growing in the dung. (287) 167. II. and Arbuda.1 156. there is no such external world as is discriminated by the ignorant. "there is" and "there is not" do not take place. the separation between that which perceives and that which is perceived ceases. 3. VI. The verses are wrongly divided here. like a rat in a pot of ghee. 134. for this line properly belongs to 162 and not to 163. v. the red together with the white grows up. it is not an abode for those who see wrongly. v. like a man waking from sleep. 165. The five.

they are abiding in the aspect of reality.) . nothing is destroyed. 182. is imagined by the ignorant to be of [genuine] gold. [Individual existences are] appearances. apart from the sign. suchness. essence (dharmata). (288) 174. transcendental knowledge is something not imagined. an echo—they are all born in the same manner. (Chap. 44 and 45. the whole existence as it is perceived by the wise. thus names are established in order to get rid of confusion. there is delusion from discriminating names. (Chap. 169. and from the [the notion of] being born. Whatever things that are thought to have been in existence in the past. III. (Chap. vv. 180." but these philosophical views are far away from my teaching. images. 183-184. (Chap. a dream. this has been repeated. from conditional origination. 11. the truth becomes [thus] wrongly [represented]. 170. The giving names to all things existent has always been going on for hundreds of generations past. The whole existence is not perceived by the ignorant as it is perceived by the wise.) 188-189. v. or to be in existence at present.) 181. like a mirage. Non-duality.) 185. ultimate limit. like Maya. II. is being repeated constantly. Things existent are discriminated by the ignorant in the threefold form of discrimination. has no marks [of individuation]. vv. — all such are unborn. but [in reality] there are no individual self-substances and the notion [itself] belongs to discrimination.) 178. the Gandharva's [castle]. 159 and 160. an endless mutual discrimination is thus taking place. not of gold though looking like it. but the logicians do not understand. Language belongs to the realm of thought. —all these I teach as belonging to the aspect of perfected knowledge (parinishpanna). Things have no beginning. the whole world falls into confusion. therefore. 175. nothing doing in the world. non-discrimination. 9 and 10. no end. vv. 173. 179. vv. [The philosophers argue that] the primary elements are unborn and like the sky are imperishable. 186-187. (Chapter III. a wheel made by a revolving fire-brand. nothing is produced. to come into existence in the future. 171. so all things are imagined by those who reason wrongly. III.conditional origination say. As a spurious necklace. 1 and 2. If this designating does not take place. "there is" and "there is not. III. 176-177. transcendental knowledge (prajna) being discriminated by thought falls into a duality. 172. emptiness. This [world] is just a sign1 indicative of reality (dharmata). (289) there is no creator.

6 and 7. emptiness unborn is the better. it is just in a general way of speaking that there is birth. III. that which rises from entering into the various paths of living beings. IV. and destruction. vv.) (291) 197. 199-200. [because] emptiness born leads to destruction. those who discriminate are deluded just like a deer running after a mirage. one is disengaged therefrom. The triple existence is transitory. (Chapter II. the fruit of Pratyekabuddhahood which is above speculation is what I teach. Not to be attached to anything existent. 204. and Abhidharmas. and that which is obtained in a dream.) 211. that which comes from the sustaining power of the Buddhas. empty. The visible world is likened to the hare's horns as long as all beings go on discriminating. the limit. therefore a mind is evolved. and the Dharmadhatu. Transcendental knowledge is deep. External objects are imagined. is to walk all alone. thus I teach the doctrine of generality to the Sravakas. III. 192. (Chap. Nirvana. 198. devoid of the ego and what belongs to it. (Chapter III. far-reaching.) 201. 12-14.) 210.) 207 and 208. —these I point out as synonymous. being deluded they see not themselves. those endowed with corporeality are dependent on relative knowledge. 203. 194-196. . emptiness. they are not established in egolessness. Vinayas. Existence in its conditional relations cannot be [described] as unity or diversity. [more] discrimination goes on. and that which has its birth by entering the various paths of beings —these powers are not1 born of the maturing [of the disciplinary exercises]. (Chap. the various will-made bodies. 54 and 55. By clinging to discrimination. (Chapter II. truly knowing what the truth of solitude is. 212. see also verse 139.(290) 190. 193. There are four psychic powers: that which comes from the maturing [of the disciplinary exercises]. follow books and not the inner meaning. exalted. verse 150. (Chap. that which comes from the power of the Buddhas. and perceives all the Buddha-countries. verse 153. verses 56 and 57. vv. 202. Suchness. The psychic power which is obtained in a dream. for the Sravakas I teach transitoriness. 191. emptiness born is another. cessation. 1 Sanketa.) 209. vv. Emptiness unborn is one thing. when the cause of discrimination is put away. Those who discriminate purity according to the Sutras. 205(292)-206. this I teach for the sons of the Victorious One.

217. suggests in one way that this verge section has no organic relation with the main text. which has no existence. Nirvana. but 'bhijna na vipakajah. Read after the Chinese and Tibetan versions. Arhatship. [space6].8 After the Chinese. As long as external objects (bahyam)1 are discriminated as possessing individual marks. 1 214. The Alaya is released from the body. as the ignorant do not understand. 4 Bhranti. 7 Naikayikas. when one thus perceives [that existence is] an error. or does it refer to the Alaya? 6 According to the Chinese. The past and the future. 222. 221. Not vijnana-vipakajah. "greedily attached." according to Wei and T'ang. The Citta in its essence is thoroughly pure. —of these I talk because of worldly convention. and the Manas is with the Vijnanas. 215. and there are quite a number of them in the Sagathakam. The [spiritual] realm attained by Dhyana-devotees." "an external world. words. "a delusion. they belong to the Vijnana-5 realm that surpasses thought. 219. it is said that there is the birth [of realities]. the mind is confused (vimuhyate)2 being unable to see its own delusion. literally." 5 Should be jnana. but it is accomplished in a dream. The mind being influenced by habit-energy. and the seeing of the Buddhas—these are the secret seeds that grow in enlightenment.(293) 213. The enlightenment attained by the Pratyekabuddhas. "they who belong to the Nikaya. a personal ego. the Vijnana is deluded with something resembling an objective world. Why is birth spoken of? Why is not the perceived world spoken of? When the perceived world. there rises a something resembling real existence (bhavabhasa).4 one even gets into suchness. but ultimate reality is beyond the letter. an objective world exists not. Buddhahood. is yet perceived as existing. The existence of such verses as this. 2 1 . the Manas solicits the [various] paths of existence. (294) 220. what is that which is spoken of? To whom is it? and why? 216. karma. and perceiving it is befooled.3 218. The two vehicles7 and the philosophers are one in their dependence on [wrong] views. habit-energy is always casting out [its seeds]. and the exalted state of the Buddhas—these three are beyond thought. they are confused in regard to Mind-only. 3 Pralubhyate. the Manas is defiled." 8 What this verse purports to mean is difficult to gather from the contents of the Lankavatara as we have it here. and imagine an external existence. After Wei. What is seen is one's own mind.

it disappears when [its nature] is recognised. intelligence. a personal soul. indeed.1 tranquillity. though enveloped with habit-energy the mind itself remains undifferentiated. people are born and die. and [to have risen] from Isvara. being and non-being. Maya. (295) then there is the attainment of the will-body and of the Buddha-stage. 236. thought-construction. When all false speculation subsides. The duality of the world. mind seeds (cittabija) take their rise in the way images [appear in a mirror] or [waves roll on] the ocean-waters. and things subject to causation—by distinctly understanding what they are. Vijnana cease to rise. The Vijnana which is the seed of transmigration is not evolved when this visible world is [truly] recognised. 225. The mind (citta) is not separate from habit-energy. 230. and it goes along with the five Vijnanas. 226. 235. one abides with the truth. 3 Jnana for prajna. 229. 232. [The philosophers] imagine the world to be of oneness and otherness. and mind—they are all like a dream. like a picture on a wall. inner and outer. T'ang. like a hair-net. qualified and qualifying are removed. 227. The world is empty and has no self-nature. when birth and death are linked together [as one]. or from a supreme spirit. Like figures in Maya. in the same way the ignorant because of their stupidity [imagine] there really is bondage and release. Causation. the Dhatus. and the self-nature of all things. When the Citta. Another name for Manas is discrimination ( vikalpa). to talk of permanency and impermanency is the view maintained by followers of birth and not by those of no-birth. the dualism of being and non-being—where are these teachings? for whom? whence? wherefore? and of what signification? Pray tell me. or other causal agency. it leads the world to the truth as it is not confused with speculative reasoning. 228. Skandhas. 224. the truth. error no more rises. (296) 234. to those who are confused in the teaching of Mind-only. one is established in imagelessness. or from time. nor is it together with it. as long as there is discriminative knowledge. 1 2 The Chinese read gati (path or course). Manas. Citta (mind). of bothness [and not-bothness].223. is free from individual marks. Asmara. Seeing the world as like Maya and a dream. I teach such things as Maya.3 error keeps on rising.. or spontaneously. 233. 231. etc. and not mati. removed from speculative reasoning. . The inner realisation attained by the wise always abides in a state of no-memory2.

The mind emancipated is truth constant and everlasting. which is a perfectly white garment. error rises from error. but as what is imagined by discrimination has no reality.) 246. when the Mind itself is thoroughly understood. As long as there is something attained. . I say. so is the Alaya in the body. the Citta frees itself from turbidity. released from the four propositions. The essence of mind is pure but not the mind that is born of error.237. all is told to belong to the realm of Mind. The [first] seven stages are mind-born and belong to the two Svabhavas. individual objects and realisation. but reality is the truth that is [absolutely] pure. 244. by understanding [the nature of] all things. 247. self-nature is [truly understood in] the realm of the wise. the Parikalpita (false imagination) continues to take place. since a mind purified leaves traces of defilement. devoid of being and nonbeing. and the world of desire. Removed from the triple continuity. there are four principles which constitute the dogmas of logic. As space is neither existent nor non-existent. when it is regarded as removed from discrimination and as resembling Maya. of no-form. The world is born of causation. (Chapter II. therefore Mind is not perceived. the remaining [two] stages and the Buddha-stage are the Nishpanna ("perfected knowledge"). The error [or the world] is discriminated when it is seen as characterised with varieties of forms and figures. the mind (citta) becomes Buddha. As long as discrimination is carried on. 248. 250.. 252. error neither rises nor ceases. Varieties of habit-energy growing out of error are united with the mind. (Chapter II.) 245. There is reality (vastu). (297) 242. and Nirvana are in this body. there is so much error rising. 251. when names and forms are removed self-nature becomes pure which is the realm of the wise. The world of form. belonging to the realm of the wise. 239. and the essence of mind (cittasya dharmata) is not perceived. all things ( bhava) are always like Maya. Two things are established by me. verse 171. nor is it to be said defiled. 240. the essence making up the self-nature of things (298) and suchness is devoid of discrimination. 243. etc. a dream. I say. 249. is enveloped and fails to display itself. Habit-energy born of the Manovijnana is like dirt wherewith the Citta. it is not to be qualified as pure. verse 131. one is emancipated. it is devoid of existence as well as of non-existence. 241. When the Manovijnana is "turned over" ( vyarritta). 238. 253. they are perceived by the ignorant as objects externally existing.

263. When the Samskrita is seen as devoid of qualified and qualifying. (Chapter II. The attainment of the fruits. ( 300) whether things are born of cause or of no-cause. 256. The eye. let him review the realm of knowledge. the [remaining] two truths2 and the Buddha-stage are where transcendental knowledge functions. Delusion itself is no more than truth. space. 255. Nirvana. consciousness is indeed born of the Alaya. with transcendental knowledge (prajna). he will cease discriminating an external world. light. the most excellent knowledge of egolessness sees no [duality in the world] because of imagelessness. nor grasping. establishing himself where suchness has its asylum he will pass on to Mind-only. nor is meaning born of name. There is nothing grasped. but it is where Samskara is observed [in its proper bearings]. and attention (manas) —out of this [combination] there is the birth of consciousness ( vijnana) in people. 260. such is discrimination. nor one who grasps. no objects. 262. truth is neither in Samskara nor anywhere else. When the [Yogin] enters upon Mind-only7. Name is not born of meaning. 259.1 258. Pain belongs to mind. accumulation is the realm of knowledge (jnana). he sees not [even] the Mahayana. Hsin-liang means "mindmeasurement. But why does T'ang use hsinliang for wei-shin in this particular case while wei-shin is used in the preceding line? Does cittamatram mean here simply "mental or intellectual measurement" and is not used in the technical sense in which the term is found elsewhere in this sutra? 1 257. and the eightfold path — when all these truths are thus understood. (299) when he establishes himself in the state of imagelessness. The state of non-striving (anabhoga) is quiescent and thoroughly purified with the [original] vows.) "Not" (na) is replaced by "he" (sa) in one MS. all predicates are discarded and thus the world is seen as of Mind itself. 261. let him review the realm. By passing on to Mind-only. 264. for in the days of Sung wei-shin had not been thought of. there are no names. he passes on to the state of imagelessness. those who carry on their groundless discriminative way of thinking lack intelligence. 1 .1 Cittamatram here and in the following verse is rendered in T'ang as 心量 (hsin-liang) and not the usual 唯心 (wei-hsin). form. May this be a better reading? 2 Referring to the Four Noble Truths.254." the term used in Sung throughout for cittamatram. verse 145. there is Buddha-knowledge thoroughly purified. Let him review the realm of mind. have no discrimination! 265. and he will not be confounded with individual signs.

while Wei has. Leaning on the Alaya for support the Manas is evolved. the Yogin attains the knowledge of Mind-only. no Samskrita. There is no primarily working fire. he discourses on thought-construction. What is established by a proposition (samaropa) is a proposition. no dharma-essence. no Skandhas. no greed. since the Mind is seen. no Nirvana. And then there are no twelve elements (anga). no passing away. Let one not think of the Manas. the Dharma is seen when cessation takes place. individual signs. 268. and no duality either. the Vijnana rises from Alaya. as one sees into [the truth of] egolessness. there is no duality of dharma and adharma. . 277. no birth. and reality from the point of view of permanency and impermanency. there is no time. no bondage. no perversion. nor let him think in his meditation of birth and no-birth.2 no working done. Delusion (prapanca) is the evil one who is to be broken down.1 267. the body. 270. path of karma. There is neither a speaker nor speaking nor emptiness. no effects produced.266. no power. when this is clearly perceived. [The philosophers imagine] a permanently existing creator engaged in mere verbalism. 1 2 The reference is not clear. And there are no Buddhas. By maintaining the Mind-only. no truths. 280. The passions. nor are there any sense-organs. 274. "karma in work." 276. by establishing the Mind-only permanency and annihilation are seen [in their proper relationship]. but when the Mind is not seen there rises a net of philosophical doctrines. the world. 278. (301) the oneness of meaning thus taking place is not to be known by a dually operating mind. 279. the idea of reality is removed. oneness is not attained in five ways. There is no rising of the causation[-chain]. 275. depending on the Citta and Manas the Vijnana-system is evolved. they are like a city of the Gandharvas. no final limit. "karma and its effects". and thus the truth is abandoned. no fruition. creators. fruitions—they are like a fata morgana and a dream. highest truth is beyond words. no Dhatus. suchness is the essence of mind. no deliverance. T'ang has. being and non-being is to be transcended. 269. Imagining himself to be standing on a truth. no evil thought of. no causal agents. 271. he has no longing for. They do not discriminate duality. 273. because of the cessation of all the notions [that are cherished by the philosophers] I declare [there is] Mind-only. of limit and no-limit. There is no state of being to be called neutral [or inexplicable] (avyakrita). no Nirvana. 272.

a cloud. Dirt is revealed within purity but purity itself is not soiled.3 305-310. those who manifest themselves according to the thoughts of sentient beings. (Chapter II. 296-302. There are three kinds.1 293. and what is thus perceived by them is born of habit-energy. „ 183.) 287.281. 304. „ 40. (Chapter III. (302) by entering into the Mind-only. As reality and non-reality can be predicated of existence that originates from causation. an image. verse 38. Mind is not born of the elements (bhuta). This is omitted in both T'ang and Wei. 285. (Chapter III.) 288. of the Bodhisattvas: those who have not yet reached Buddhahood.) (303) 290. „ 182. and born of the Dharma.) (305) 311. Mind is invisible [when defiled with error]. nor is there an ego-soul. —these are not element-made. . the born of the vows. and those who are seen in the likeness of the Buddha. All that is element-made is not form and form is not elementmade. Mind is not born of the visible world. and the Sravakas disengaged from greed and anger. „ 41. verses 184-190. and abode. verses 191-196. verse 43. („ III. There are no Skandhas in Nirvana. one escapes from becoming attached to emancipation. a sun. („ III. Mind is not visible. 1 291. property. (Chapter II. therefore. the city of the Gandharvas.) 295. Maya. the view of oneness and otherness definitely belongs to them. and abode.) 286. 284.2 294.) (304) 303. 292.1 This is a repetition of the latter half of verse 282 and the first half of 283.) 289. property. nor any individual signs. a dream. 283. There are three kinds of my Sravakas: the transformed. It is the habit-energy of people that brings out into view something resembling body. also. it is the habit-energy of people that brings out into view body. It is a man's mind that is perceived as something resembling (samnibham) the form of a star. („ II. It is error (dosha) that causes the world to be externally perceived as it is manifested to people. showing that the insertion is probably due to a clerical mistake. 282. a moon. as when the sky is veiled with clouds. Mind is neither a being nor a non-being. („ II. it does not reveal itself because of habit-energy. Mind is nowhere to be seen.

the elements are the cause. there is one land of the Buddhas. verse 42. doing. There are no such things as the past. and fruition—all is no more than a dream-event. Another reading is: "There are three kinds of Bodhisattvas. 316. 320. 323. and with the Pratyekabuddhas and Buddha-sons. being always a Maya-like existence. Substances and forms of thought-construction are like things born of Maya. but fearing to cause greater confusion in the numbering of the whole "Sagathakam" I have followed Nanjo. water. and so with the Buddha. There are five kinds of the Icchantika. From beginning to end the Buddhas. present. if all element-made objects were the elements. 317. (306) they appear like a dream and a city of the Gandharvas. there is neither qualified nor qualifying in them. and also of the second half of 282 and the first half of 283. Sravakas. it is one realisation. work. there are seven forms of emancipation. six kinds of my egolessness. and also four kinds of knowledge. there is neither permanency nor impermanency. Of birth and no-birth there are eight and nine kinds. and there are eight kinds of form. the earth.1 315. form (rupa) would be element-made. etc. are the result. there are three forms. there is one. 321. 319. they have no [tangible] form. The first half of this corresponds to the first half of Chapter III. 314. . which is the Mahayana." 1 313. 318. verse 42. The elements are uniform. there are no element-made objects in the elements. and future. so with the families which are five. The Skandhas are divided into twenty-five. There are one hundred and eight doctrines. and three kinds of Sravakas. and Buddha-sons have never been born. 2 The first half of 292 and the second half of 293 correspond to Chapter III. Nanjo's verse divisions are to be revised I think in some places. and there are two kinds of Buddhasons. There are eight worlds of formlessness. As to the Buddhas. twenty-four Buddhas. 3 This is the T'ang reading. but something looking like a Buddha may be seen according to the thoughts of each sentient being. (307) the mind is removed from what is visible. Likewise with emancipation. is the knowledge of self-realisation.312. 322. four kinds of mind-streams. while the second half of 292 and the first half of 293 are practically a repetition of 290. they are a mirage and a fifth. whether the attainment is instantaneous or successive. removed from faulty theories. and six kinds of Nirvana. The elements are devoid of selfhood. Dhyana is divided into six. immovable and highest. there are five vehicles and no-vehicle. Disjoined from causal agencies.

let him have an exact understanding in the meaning of the Sutras and the Vinaya. families of kings. abodes of the gods. He is not to sleep on a perforated couch. if anyone should voluntarily give him a garment—let him accept it. . or copper. 336. 331. he who is intent on disciplining himself may not learn the science of mechanics. goods. or shell. 1 2 According to the Chinese The source is unknown to the translator. or iron. Inconceivable transformation-death is [still] in union with habitenergy. silver. egolessness. 327. and the rising of things by causation. —they are all born of karma and are born of desire. the worldly life. brass. the knowledge of the [Buddha-]land. families of the Yakshas and Gandharvas. or clay. grain. 329. islands. the wandering about in all the countries. Let [the Yogin] dress himself in three garments. or a cemetery. the conception. 330. the leaving. land. wanderings. Dhyanas. Let the Yogin have white cloth dyed in dark blue or brownish-red with cow-dung. the inconceivable realm of fruition. 335. or under a tree. or mud. when interrupted. and let him not associate with men of the world. 333. [A Buddha] is seen [doing all these things]. such I call the Yogin. Worlds. the vehicles. guarding his senses. nor horses.2 he is not to have a bowl made of gold. [The Bodhisattva] is not to keep1 money. Families of the moon and stars. or leaves. Thus the abode in the Tushita heaven. elephants. (308) 332. 325. or in an open place. 328. Is prajnaptirupam (form of thoughtconstruction) the same as vijnaptirupam of the Abhiaharmakosa? 1 324. emancipation is taught. gold. forests. slaves. The Yogin is permitted to carry a bowl of full Magadha measure made of either stone. or quartz. Thus. the revolving of the wheel. or in a cavern. nor is he to smear the ground with mud. the Alaya. the truth. philosophers. etc. The Yogin whose final aim is to discipline himself may carry a curved knife four fingers long for cutting cloth. the birth. for the sake of sentient beings who are wandering and moving about from one place to another. or fruits. the net of passions is destroyed. 334.The text gives no clue to this. kine and sheep. 326. The Yogin who disciplines himself in the exercises is not to be engaged in buying and selling: [if necessary] let the attendant see to it — these are the regulations I teach. Let the Yogin prepare his abode in an empty house. death is put a stop to. 337. whether in the cemetery or any other place. or among the straw. Thus. the attainments. but he is not one born of the womb.

From self-discrimination the world is imagined. or persons of rank. In the monasteries food is always regularly cooked. the powers. The [true] insight is always removed from assertions as well as from negations. (310) 350. The Yogin should not cherish the thought that the world exists from such causal agents as atoms. 348. 349. this is not a desirable relationship for Yogins. The Yogin should have a distinct understanding of the undefiled truth of self-realisation and as to what the stages [of Bodhisattvahood] and the Buddha-stage are and be anointed on the great lotus [seat]. let the Yogin have a clear insight into the five Dharmas. whose aim is to discipline himself in the exercise. Gathering truth from the Vinaya. and egolessness. . 347. In houses where a death or a birth has taken place. let him look ahead not more than the length of a yoke. When the Yogin finds himself in a large company. and when it is purposely prepared [somewhere else]. nor that it is born of causes and conditions. (309) is not to approach for his food kings. 345. The Yogin. let the Yogin perceive existence as always like unto Maya and a dream. Not thinking how to obtain food and drink. 339. and abode. 341. let him pay homage over and over again to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Wandering through all the paths. from the teachings in the Sutras. the psychic faculties. The Yogin should regard the world as removed from birth and death. it is not proper for the Yogins to take their food. but holding his body upright. 351. the Yogin before long will attain the Samadhi. and the selfmastery. he becomes averse to existence. Mind itself. When birth [and death] is not discriminated. princes.338. in the confusion of a company. or supreme soul. 342. 340. it is not proper for the Yogins to take their food. When he goes about begging food. or with Bhikshunis [women-mendicants]. 346. 344. which is born of varieties of habit-energy. 343. for it means to share a livelihood with them. or where Bhikshus and Bhikshunis are mixed together. though it is seen in the aspect of qualified and qualifying. as exempt from the alternation of being and non-being. ministers of state. time. let not [the Yogin] discriminate the triple world which appears as body. or in the houses of friends and relatives. and directing his steps toward some quiet cemetery he will begin various practices. property. let him conduct himself in the way bees treat flowers.

The attachment to existence is not abandoned for the fear of being nihilistic. —these are all empty. Wei has: "Apart from Mind there is no rising. verses 162-164. When Mind-only is understood.2 364. and removed from the alternatives of being and non-being. as a mind is changed into [many] thoughts. suchness is removed from intellection (citta). 363. After T'ang. the ignorant imagine there is emancipation. discrimination ceases. To realise this is said by myself and [other] Buddhas to be [the attainment of] Buddhahood. As it becomes thoroughly known that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind. knowledge. Birth and no-birth. 359. as they fail to understand [the real nature of] external objects they destroy the Middle Path. (311) 358. seeing the rise [of all things]. as there is no visible world. [Mind] is not risen. this is the Nirvana as held by the wise. is the abandonment. 361. the attachment to duality is destroyed. Nothing is born. (Chapter II. but as there is no understanding [in them] as to the rise of a mind. 357. the duality is not to be cherished. and yet things are being born. yet perceives that Nirvana is devoid of the faults of the philosophers. here the Middle Path is reached. neither permanent nor subject to annihilation. 365. Unity being transformed into plurality. (312) all over millions of worlds what is seen simultaneously is like a lunar reflection in water. and this is imagined by them to be the Middle Path. As it is understood that there is nothing but what is seen of the Mind. rain falls and fire burns. 366. if there is any other discrimination one is committed to the philosophers' views.1 this is taught by myself and other [Tathagatas] to be the Middle Path. indeed.352-354. and they try to teach the Middle Path by means of assertion and negation. Where there is no possibility of discrimination taking its rise. how can they destroy their attachment to duality!1 362. [According to the philosophers] there is a reality born of no-cause. because of its not being annihilation. . They imagine the theory of no-cause but their no-cause is nihilistic. they declare that there is Mindonly. 356. If a man.) 355. there is no self-nature in all things. there is no visible world. nothing dies and yet things are passing away. external objects are abandoned and discrimination no more takes place. There is Mind-only. not the destruction of the discriminated. 367. being and non-being. as discrimination ceases." No rising of a visible world? 1 360.

and varieties of other forms. and in each ten different ones. distinguishing it from the third which is Nirmana. verses 199-202. which in reality exists not. the five Transformation Buddhas." verse 651. 371.) 379. The fourth one thus in the Shingon is known as the Nishyandakaya. the Transformation Buddha. for all things are empty being devoid of birth [and death]. I follow T'ang.2 After T'ang and Wei. The Self-nature Buddha. no-mind is also born of Mind. 382. Chapter III. 373. On account of self-discrimination which causes errors and sets false reasonings in motion.2 Cf. 384. according to a continuous flow of their own seeds. when understood varieties of forms and appearances are of Mind-only. When a [spiritual] revulsion [takes place in them]. (Chapter II. one of the Indian Shingon 2 1 . Mind is of Mind-only. 372. There are thirty-six different Buddhas. The Buddhas in [every] land are those of transformation. sentient beings see their Buddha-forms. the ignorant are bound up with ideas in what they see. think. The text as it stands is difficult to understand. 369. verse 197. in accordance with the thought of all beings they share their lands. and a group of thirty-six Buddhas—they are all of the Self-nature Buddha.368.) (313) 375-378. When existence is discriminated there are varieties of appearances. discrimination is set in motion. the will-body.or Nirmitakaya. 381. I never enter into Nirvana. Sravaka-forms. from the world of no-form and of form down to the hells where helldwellers are. the selfmastery.1 383. 1 370. or understand. The five transformation bodies (pancanirmita) may mean those transformation Buddhas who manifest themselves in the five (sometimes six) paths of existence in order to save the sentient beings that are suffering there in the endless wheel of transformation. the Enjoyment Buddha. in like manner the Dharma-Buddha's world may appear in its multiplicity. this last transformation or manifestation is distinguished from the generally accepted transformation-Buddha and is given a special position by itself. (Chapter II. hear. (314) suchness is no other than discrimination and discrimination is no other than appearance. By assuming Buddha[-forms]. and the "Sagathakam. For the sake of beings [the Buddhas] show forms by means of noform. According to the Shingon doctrine of the fourfold Dharmakaya.) 374. The Dharma-Buddha is the true Buddha and the rest are his transformations. 380. Pratyekabuddhaappearances. (Chapter II. When [the mind is] bound up with error and appearance. they will attain the Samadhi called Maya-like. verses 25. they declare Mind-only. the ten stages. This verse is quoted by Amoghavajra (704-774). where [the doctrine of] the one vehicle and the triple vehicle is taught. verse 198. and all this originates from Mind-only.

When one depending upon the mind recognises an external world. speech. while they are not.Fathers. . [As they are] like the city of the Gandharvas. By means of a triple mentality I teach the self. in one of his works called 略述金剛頂瑜伽分別聖位修證法門經 (the Taisho Tripitaka. Owing to seeds of habit-energy [that grow from the recognition] of an outer world. [When it is understood that things are because of] the combination of self-seeds and an external world (grahya). Habit-energy as cause is one.1 418. and Vijnana. 385-(315-316)-406. The Citta. who settled in China. yet they are perceived [as if they were real]. The twofold egolessness. 410. then one attains the essence of Tathagatahood. are thus said by me to be of the Mind. or Maya. the six (indryas). the five Dharmas. and their behaviour. verses 101-123. and thereby the relativity aspect1 is grasped. as they are like the stars. Because of the Alayavijnana the Vijnana[-system] is evolved. a mirage. the Manas and Vijnana removed. the eighteen (dhatus). and thought. 412. 417. so is the relativity aspect of existence (paratantra). but as far as form (lakshana) goes it is triple. and there is no third cause. When the Citta-form is put aside. — these belong to the realm of the Buddhas. 409. (318) this is the way in which a picture of one colour appears variously on the wall. 1 2 Tantram = paratantram. 411. senses.) 407. 416. and Vijnana. 414. the ego-attachment is abandoned. the essence of Tathagatahood (gotram tathagatam) being pure is devoid of doings. the twelve (ayatanas). with verse-divisions occasionally varying. and Vijnana are devoid of self-nature. Manas. Manas. the [three] Svabhavas. but the Citta. because of inner support there is something externally appearing. or things seen in a dream. error takes place from these two [causes]. the Citta. and the [three] Svabhavas abandoned. Kalpitam = parikalpitam. (Chapter II. Nanjo Catalogue. and the [five] Dharmas. 415. No. 1433). error is produced. Manas.2 (317) 408. No. the twofold egolessness. The unintelligent imagine the Samskrita and Asamskrita to be permanent. a hair-net. 870. the [three] Svabhavas—they do not belong to my essence. 419. I owe this information to Professor Shoun Toganowo. Depending on that and from that cause error is produced. of Koya Buddhist College. an echo. 413. they are not. The pure [essence of Tathagatahood] is not obtained by body. and that which is grasped is variously imagined. the five Dharmas. discrimination takes place.

There is neither being-and-non-being. no shadow from the post. and from the Nishyanda the Nirmita. and the selfmastery. to be released from cause and form (hetulakshana). 424. this is true. at the eighth." is teaching meant for the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. At the seventh stage no faults arise as to body. 426. so are no [Vijnana-]waves stirred when the Alaya[-ocean] is pure [and quiet]. 423.) (320) 434. and not for the sons of the Buddha. At the fifth and the eighth stage the Bodhisattvas acquire proficiency in mechanical arts and philosophy and attain kingship in the triple world. I establish thought-constructions where all things are non-existent."family. nothing obtains in Mind-only. lit. saying "This is true. but not in the highest truth. . 429. As no pictures are separable from the wall. they become non-existent. the Law-Cloud. to attain the eighth stage and the Buddha-stage—this is the essence of Tathagatahood. 421. —these are not discriminated [by the knowing one]. 427. to be embellished with the Samadhis and the powers. the final abode [of consciousness]. To be pure by means of the psychic faculties. to be provided with varieties of the will-body—these belong to the pure essence of Tathagatahood. while the rest are taken up by the two vehicles. and the Tathagata-stage—they belong to the essence of Buddhahood. 430. 431. It is taught that from the Dharma[-Buddha] comes the Nishyanda. 432. the Good-Wisdom. emptiness and no-emptiness. things are. (Chapter VI. To discriminate. Things born of words seem to belong to an objective realm. The Far-Going. the Buddhas who have achieved self-mastery over their minds teach the ignorant the seven stages. Since sentient beings are differentiated as to their mentality and individuality. verse 4.420.1 these are the original Buddhas. but when it is perceived that they are born of words. speech. 422. 433. nor the aspect of momentariness. this is false. To be undefiled in inner realisation. Birth and no-birth. to be confused in things not having self-nature—this belongs to conventional truth." (319) 425. there are neither thought-constructions (prajnapti) nor substances (dravya). 428. whatever expressions and experiences that belong to the ignorant are not of the truth as it is (tattva). the rest are transformed bodies. and thought. According to conventional truth (samvriti). it seems to him like having crossed a great river in a dream. in Mindonly [no such things] obtain. 1 Gotra. self-nature and no-self-nature.

(Chapter III.) 440.) 457-458. and. or substances. as they understand the egolessness of things. (Chapter II. 452. there is no external world. —these are the names for discrimination. Life.) 448. verses 7-8. and yet they are spoken of [as if real]. The world originates from habit-energy. but there is not a single atom in existence.) 438-439. therefore.) 450. The Citta. they are nothing but the Mind itself. [Of the three Svabhavas] one is Parikalpita.) 437. or atoms. 443-444. (Chapter II. stand still. 442. verse 135. the hare's horns." or saying again. verses 205-207.) 449. discrimination. 456. verses 125-126.435-436. both being and non-being are merely imagined. all that which sets the triple world in motion. the [Mano-]vijnana together with the Vijnanas cuts the world in pieces as objects of Citta. 461.) (322) 451. Manas. the Vijnana. (Chapter II. the Alaya. and. verse 209. (Chapter II. therefore. are synonyms of Mind. Manas. As the elephant who is immersed in deep mud is unable to move about. (Chapter III.) 459. (Chapter II. (Chapter II. (Chapter II.) 470-471. 441. Manovijnana. nor is there its negation. so are all things imagined. (321) there is nothing to be seen externally. (Chapter II. verses 15-19. verse 172. and suchness is Parinishpanna. Do not discriminate. verses 157-158. (Chapter II. 462-464. verses 123 and 129. who are deeply intoxicated with the liquor of Samadhi. (Chapter II. verses 127-128. (Chapter II. for there is no reality corresponding to the imagined. 1 After T'ang. (Chapter II. the vital principle. thought-construction. warmth. this is always taught by me in the sutra.) . The body is maintained by the Citta. so the Sravakas. the Manas always cognitates. verse 210. Space. there is no external world. verses 203-204.) 445-447. verses 3-5. (323) the Alaya. those who see into this are emancipated.) 465-469 (324).) 453. 454. "Here is no emptiness". and a barren woman's child are unrealities. mutuality is Paritantra. Vijnana. verse 208. The ignorant imagine that things originate from the accumulation of qualities. saying "Here is emptiness. there is nothing whatever to be designated as being and non-being. 460. Forms seen as external are due to the imagination of people. 455.

as the ignorant fail to understand as regards the Mind itself. not knowing what the nature of the external world is. no statements. 495. like a hair-net. Because of the combination of appearances and seeds there are the twelve Ayatanas. (Chapter III. verses 20-33. Because of mind and what belongs to it. 493. which is separate from the Skandha-appearance. 492. 491. one perceives the world to be the Mind itself and is released from all sufferings. 498. to discriminate is characteristic of the Parikalpita (imagination). to the dim-eyed. (327) as dualism is [primarily] external to people's minds. When one's doings. together with the passions primary and secondary. 500-501. [Some say that] an ego-soul really is. 490. there is no rising of it. but owing to the fault of not recognising Mind itself. Thus the rope in its own nature is neither the one nor the other. One's habit-energy is the origin [of all things] which are mutually and uninterruptedly knitted together. no syllogistic members to the intelligent who know that the external world is the reflection of their own Mind. are brought to light. 489. Like images in a mirror.472. people imagine an external world. 474-487 (325-326).1 I talk of doings. [but] there is after all no ego-soul in them. verses 82-83. discrimination is evolved. but there is no external world as it is discriminated by the philosophers. The extinction-knowledge attained by the Sravakas. No external forms are in existence.) 488. the mind to the ignorant is seen enveloped in habit-energy. Discrimination goes on in the world imagined by selfdiscrimination. are under bondage to [the idea] of causation. Like the ignorant who not recognising the rope take it for a snake. [the ignorant] are comfortably established in the triple world. they imagine the Samskrita [as real].) . people go on with their discrimination over the rope. no illustrations. 473. and [that] of the Pratyekabuddhas and Bodhisattvas—all takes place by getting rid of the passions. The insight that pluralities are of the Mind itself is withheld from the bewildered who. the birth of the Buddhas. 496. 497. not knowing that it is of Mind itself. depending on the imagination. 499. 494. (Chapter II. Do not discriminate by discrimination. There are no reasons. and the fourfold proposition. or that the Skandhas really exist. there is discrimination. that an external world of appearances is evolved is due to the discrimination of selfnature. because of the combination of subject and object. what is external is what is seen of the Mind itself.

depended and depending. in the world. it means that there is something which is not recognised by the intellect.1 512. how does it [really] take place? 503. the imagination itself has no reality. 513. Form (rupam. don't cry. which has no real existence. putting itself under causation. if the wise and the ignorant walk the same way. The philosophers cherishing wrong ideas and the ignorant have theories of oneness and otherness. how is the self-nature of beings an error? Pray tell me. "O son. reality is not the subject of discrimination to the wise.. 1 asraya and alambana. While the imagined is being imagined. 509. nor is it not-existent-and-non-existent. 507. they understand not that the world. discrimination is carried on.(328) 502. a garment. nor are things as they are for this moment anywhere separated from causation. that which [is real] with the wise must be a falsehood. If people discriminate erroneously regarding the Samskrita since the beginningless past. and what is seen [as external] is nothing but the Mind. 514. they go astray from reality. and yet it is nowhere separated from causation. there are so many of them. The being [which is realised by the wise] having never been in existence is not united with causation. when the Mind itself is not perceived discrimination is evolved. therefore their mind is undefiled. In like manner I make all beings covet varieties of imagined fruit (329) whereby I [lead them to] the truth that goes beyond the antithesis of being and non-being. however. as is the case with a jar. because their doctrines are false theorisings. 508. but the ignorant do not comprehend." 510. The supreme Mahayana is beyond the realm of words. [The doctrines] thus advanced by the Sravakas and philosophers are tainted with jealousy. The nature of all beings is non-existent. or matter) has no reality of its own. is like Maya and a dream. etc. subject to causation. this is not what is discriminated by the ignorant. 516. When the visible world is thus approached. O Muni. it is primarily unborn and yet born. its meaning is well elucidated by me. 505. pick the fruit. When it is said that there are no such things imagined as the ignorant imagine. 511. It is like the mother who fetches for her child a fruit from the air. If it is said that something exists with the wise. saying. seeing that discrimination has no reality. The unobtainable essence (alabdhatmaka) is indeed unborn. To the wise there is nothing erroneous. . it is anywhere neither existent nor non-existent. the ignorant whose mind is uninterruptedly defiled goes on imagining the imagined. 515. 504. while its essence is not obtainable. 506.

matter and impermanency. and yet in another sense it is the reason of this existence subject to causation. 525. If karma disappears by causing a transformation in the world of matter (rupa) and the Vijnanas. permanence and impermanence no more obtain. The Parikalpita and the Paratantra are mutually dependent and are not to be differentiated. 520. so with. space-relations are banished. 1 The whole verse is not at all clear. it is released from existence and nonexistence. — depending on these four conditions all kinds of imagination are carried on. they are mutually conditioning. and transmigration ceases. but without which this world of cause and effect is impossible. removed from coming and going. If people's karma which is in combination with them is destroyed. know well how to turn over ideas and reach the other shore of the Vijnana. If karma is destroyed together with matter and Vijnanas. karma-succession being thus destroyed. Appearance. whereby there is the union of matter and Vijnanas. and yet is subject to transmigration. the absolute is thus in one sense unobtainable. ( 330) those who take the sun and the moon for an element—they are not my sons. (331) 527. the Parikalpita becomes suchness. 522. the idea of matter is shaken off. 526. how can one speak of their being and non-being? 529. When this transformation takes place. 523. the Paratantra is not born. when the Paratantra is understood. and name. no attainment of Nirvana. self-nature. The meaning of this and what follow is this: there is an absolute being which precludes all form of qualification. form (samsthanam). Apart from oneness and otherness the [Pari-]kalpita is not knowable. there is no distinction of all things as they are removed from being and non-being. 1 518. 528. Mind (citta) and matter are neither different nor not-different from discrimination. there will be no transmigration.1 519. but karma released from the fault of being and non-being abides with the Alaya. thus with matter and impermanency. While matter and Vijnanas pass into annihilation. This is the seal of emancipation belonging to those sons who [have embraced] my teaching. karma abides with the being of the Alaya which is not destroyed.517. When the Parikalpita is thoroughly understood [as to its nature]. . those who imagine Brahma god or the authority of Isvara. Those who are equipped with a noble insight and are thoroughly conversant with the suchness of reality. 521. Those who believe in the oneness or the manyness [of cause]. 524. matter will then subsist as it differs in no way from karma.

though the essence (gotra)2 of all beings appears various. 543. 法眼. 538. no-signs. 1 2 T'ang. they are engaged in controversies asserting and negating. such Yogins]. 531.530. personal soul. etc. (333) 544. what appears to their imagination resembles a hairnet. all things being non-existent. doctrines. how can there be any distinction between the wise and the ignorant? Nor will there be anything characterising the wise who are disciplining themselves for the triple emancipation. all things have no self-being. and at that time. there will rise disparagers of the Dharma. As their insight is bound up with being and non-being. a mirage. being bound up by ignorance and desire there is the evolution of beings possessed of a body. which is not the Yogin's [view]. 539. In this way. As is understood by the wise. there is no karma. 537. then. a dream. a Buddhist] may associate with them [i. If beings themselves are not and yet they become the cause of transmigration. 535. e. If beings are non-existent to you. He who studies under the Buddhas may not live together with those who cherish dualism and are destroyers of others. If things are not existent as discriminated by the ignorant. the Gandharva's city. and senses —of these I talk for the sake of the Sravakas. If beings are not existent as discriminated by the ignorant. it has nothing to do with karma. Because of varieties of defilement cherished by beings there is transmigration. as the visible world is non-existent. 536. then there will be an emancipation which is independent of people's strivings. they abandon the life of the Bhikshu. When the Parikalpita is destroyed my Dharma-eye (netri)1 is destroyed. he [i. read after Wei. As they are not taken into the company of the intelligent. e. But if there are Yogins who see a being separated from the imagination (332) and released from existence and non-existence. 532. Wei. and the sense-organs are completed. 534. Likewise. there will be no evolving of the sense-organs in these beings. and as they destroy the Parikalpita. nor is the path born of karma. 性. Maya. It is like a mine in the earth producing gold and precious stones. 法輪 or 我法. and there takes place within my teaching [the controversy of] assertion and negation. 540. individuality and generality. 533. causation. 541. . there are no defilements for any one. and yet it furnishes people with various means of subsistence. it harbours no cause of strife in it. The Skandhas. none of whom are worth talking with as they are destroyers of my Dharma-eye. but according to the discriminations of the ignorant things appear to exist. 542.

pure suchness—of these I talk for the sake of the Bodhisattvas. the inner realisation. nor cloth in a straw matting. That the world is born of a supreme soul and that changes are due to the qualities. 549. the powers (vibhuti). 559. . a thing imagined has no reality. and will ruin the people with their evil theories. and so qualities by qualities. That life and the body so called were not and then evolved. If the eye. let not my disciples be disturbed by [my] drawing on the dualism of being and non-being. Things born of causation are non-existent—this is the realm of the wise. I will make my own statement. as there is nothing to be characterised as causation. 557. they will talk about the non-existence of work. 547. In the time to come there will be [a class of ignorant people headed by] Kanabhuj. nobody would doubt if horns grow on a bitch. crowns. the stages [of Bodhisattvahood]. 550. it must have had a beginning. etc. non-reality never has its rise. or a she-camel. and Vijnana were not and now they are. 554. 558. straw-mats. (334) 552. —this is what the school of Kapita teaches its disciples. There is no reality. no non-reality. yet things are imagined by the theorisers. would be produced from lumps of clay.545. No-cause. but it is not the right way of thinking. 551. their views being warded off. and there are nine permanent substances—such evil theories they teach. 556. all such controversies as this have been declared by me [as untrue]. atoms are causeless. The statement has been made first [against the philosophers] and their views are warded off. form (rupa). The world is originated from atoms. nor is there any [world of] causation conditioned by causation. 548. If it is said that originally the world was not and then evolved. If all the innumerable things in the triple world were not and then evolved. While I [first] make a statement in behalf of the philosophical systems. but my statement is that there is no primary limit to transmigration. and they destroy the self-being of all things [saying that] it is another being. A straw-mat is not found in cloth. [They say that] substances are produced by substances. In the time to come there will be disparagers of my teaching who. will talk about being-and-non-being and its works. cloth. putting on the Kashaya robe. Mind-only. why is it that by some combination anything is not produced from any other thing? 555. 546. or a donkey. 553.

573. property. but reality born of imagination is something other than mind and is unobtainable. no Paratantra. when I speak of the giving-birth of things that have no selfnature. For these cittamatra. 569. [The philosophers may say that] if there is no external reality. and is removed from qualified [and qualifying]. T'ang has 唯識 instead of 唯心. In the state of imagelessness there is no reality. or as a finger cannot touch its own tip. 563. but Mind itself is not dualistic. [Further they may say that] on account of an objective world of realities.560. In a transmigration that has no beginning. how can there be a mind without a cause? [The doctrine of] Mind-only1 is [therefore] untenable. 565. 1 572. In this respect Wei is consistent. it is on account of a hidden meaning. 564. for it has 唯心 throughout. no Parikalpita. and as free from the alternatives of being and non-being. 571. As a sword cannot cut itself. in [that of] a hare's horns. how can Mind exist without objective reality? The [doctrine of] Mind-only1 [therefore] is untenable. there is no rising of imagination. when there is no nourishing mind. (335) and eternally causeless. When it is said that there is something resembling body. removed from cause and condition. When the world is regarded as like Maya and a dream. this is the mind that is of the world. indeed. no five Dharmas. My statement is free from the alternatives of being and non-being. this reality does not belong to imagination.2 (336) 570. 561. Mind-only too will be non-existent. is seen under the aspect of duality. neither those who deny nor those who affirm comprehend my teachings. then the mind flows clear of defilements. 566. and causeless. 568. But suchness and Mind-only1 are realities belonging to the teaching of the wise. there will be something of objectivity in [the notion of] space. If a mind is said to evolve on account of perceived and perceiving. a mind. where can an objective semblance take its rise? . and not for cittamatra. no twofold mind. a hair-net. is removed from cause and condition. an objective world nowhere obtains. exempt from cause and condition. has nothing to do with birth and destruction. and abode produced in a dream-like manner. Ordinarily 唯識 is for vijnanamatra or vijnaptimatra. a mirage. then the Mind-only obtains not. The dualism of giving-birth and being-born belongs to the nature of things. When existence is always regarded as resembling the Gandharva's [city]. 562. 2 After T'ang. Mind cannot see itself. If multiplicities of forms are born of imagination. 567. When an objective reality is of mind. people's minds are aroused.

indeed. a garment. but there is nothing that is causeless. 615.) 614. then this must have still another [reality to depend on]. 616. how can a mind be born? Pray tell me. 620. when there is no objective world. As there is nothing existing now. Suchness.. where there is no complete cause. 577. [reality-]limit.574. they look for each other and are mutually conditioned. Nirvana. (Chapter III. As all this is causeless. The Mind is manifested. Thus when something [of magic] depending on some objects is destroyed. by imagining causes and conditions. so there was nothing existing previously. etc. thus you should know. 617. (342) it is owing to the magician that the magic scene is perceived by the people. there is no [real] existence. verses 86-117. may it not end in reaching nowhere? 618. 581-613 (338-341). how does individualisation1ever come to exist? 579. there is neither mind nor objective world. no-birth of all things. the magical charm is effected. visesha here is evidently citta. dualism ceases at the moment of seeing. self-being—these characterise the highest truth. looks for non-existence. 1 According to T'ang. the triple world is devoid of doings. 619. in like manner. how will there be anything of discrimination? . where there is no objective world. the something thus depended upon must be causeless. horns will grow on a hare. 578. (337) if there is no objective world since the beginningless past. the Dharmadhatu. non-existence does not prove non-existence. how can a mind which is bound up with an objective world take its rise? 576. If it is thought. 580. this is committing the fault of non-finality. If there is any growth from nothingness. O Muni. thinking that something grows out of nothing. as the mind is not born. emptiness. If anything grows from nothingness. There is non-existence when proof of existence [is produced]. let no discrimination take place. The ignorant. and a horn. there is no objective world of pluralities whose cause is in the beginningless past. 575. pieces of wood. again. who cherish [the notion of] being and non-being. If [it is said that] there is another reality which is depended on. a crown. that something appears depending on something else. existence. the poor will become rich. Depending on leaves. nor the pebbles. are unable to understand that all things are causeless and unborn. The statement that a hare has no horns is made out of the reasonings concerning a jar. The magical net is neither the leaves nor the pieces of wood. pluralities of objects depending on some [other] objects are manifested to the people.

632. spiritual discipline (yoga) is taught by the Buddhas who are free from theories and speculations. without depending on anything. the Vaiseshika. 634. Tell me how something looking like body. and abode are appearances and their rise is due to habit-energy. For the ignorant things are said to be causal. 626. discrimination being thus unobtainable. walk about in the Mind itself like a bird moving in the air. So people with all their discrimination move along. Having no self-nature. and such is also proclaimed by me. 635. are destitute of the truth of solitude. The discriminated by discrimination exist not. (344) 636. 623. Discrimination now being unobtainable. 624. discrimination not being aroused. nor is there multitudinousness of objects. a mind takes its rise from [recognising] objectivity. property. 622. When discrimination is seen [as to its true nature. the Brahmin theologians. As a bird moves in the air according to its fancy without abiding anywhere. as if moving on earth. 628. All things are unborn and have nothing to do with being and nonbeing: all is nothing but Mind and is delivered from discrimination. 625. appearances are born of irrationality (ayukta). 630. and abode rises from the Mind. Thus. When thought is divided into many. it becomes pure where the wise have their abode. (343) cherishing views based on being and non-being. the Samkhya. Body. There is no such objective world as is discriminated by the ignorant. property. and discrimination itself does not obtain. it is not aroused.1 633. their rise is due to discrimination. and owing to the absence of validity. If all this is the Mind. followers of Siva. discrimination ceases. when it is clearly perceived that what is seen is the Mind itself. Objectivity discriminated makes the world.2 then both . the teaching lacks in validity. but not for the wise. being empty. it is noticed that] name and sense are to be disjoined ( visamyukta). being unborn. being free from defilements—to whom is this taught by the Buddhas as well as by yourself? 629. when the Mind goes astray on account of habit-energy. it manifests itself like images.621. 627. where does the world stand? Why are men seen coming and going on earth? 631. How does appearance take its rise? Why is Mind-only? Pray tell me. how can a mind rise? Mind-only then is not tenable. For the sake of the Yogins who are pure in mind. the naked philosophers. when the self-nature of Mind is liberated. being like Maya. there is no emancipation. there is neither transmigration nor Nirvana.

1 637. the Vijnana is set in motion in eight ways. they all subside. When the world is seen detached from knowledge and knowability. by not seeing into [the true nature of] Self-mind. this verse gives us a new outlook in the philosophy of the Lankavatara. Pray tell me the why of discrimination. thus the aspects [of selfnature]3 are three.) 639. Svabhavalakshana. When the immovable is seen. 648. this is the way of all the Buddhas. and discrimination ceases to go forth.knowledge and knower will be discarded. ego and its belongings. 645. (Chapter VI. Not clear. they cannot be numbered. nor is there any cause to set the Vijnanas in action. why not by the Skandhas?2 643.1 those who wish to get enlightened in any other way will not attain enlightenment for themselves. the elements differ from one another. in spite of their struggle to run away from his all-embracing love. 647. 1 2 Read after T'ang. there is no growth. but when imagelessness obtains they all cease. 2 This is the reading of T'ang. The Sanskrit text is too obscure for intelligent reading. discarding qualified and qualifying? . then the mind is liberated because of seeing the egolessness of things. then there will be no more discriminating of the two. discrimination evolves. the Alaya sets up in the Manas the consciousness of an ego and its belongings. 646. there is no meaning to it. 3 That is. verse 5. From the differentiation of an objective world and the senses. oneness and otherness being discarded. seeing them as free of individual signs. Amitabha Buddha pursues sentient beings. 640. if [we say that] form is produced by other qualities. nor for others. there is cessation and nothing is aroused. Why is the world said to be disjoined from causes. which is. 638. of Mind-only. when this is penetratingly perceived. and one is released of the Samskrita. Nothing evolving. and the Vijnanas. When [the notion of] individuality is abandoned. how can they produce such pluralities of forms (rupa)? 642. This means that in spite of our discriminations and imaginings we cannot get away from the control of Mind-only. and of the world. (345) 644. Thus interpreted. primary and secondary. To abandon both name and sense. as is taught in Shin Buddhism. By seeing into [the nature of] Mind there is the cessation of discrimination as regards works and words. we have no elements. work and cause being removed. 641. When dualism is cherished. When one is emancipated from the Ayatanas and Skandhas. Four of the Skandhas are formless (arupina). religiously expressed.

which is wrong. (Chapter III. and there is no dependence on anything. Chapter III. the animals. hungry ghosts. 653. realism does not arise. [one will attain] an excellent emancipation. so is the mind born and broken up. (Second line only. (346) when things are regarded as subject to causation. 657-662 (347). the fault of permanency is avoided. [but] the Mind being asserted. Discrimination is neither existent nor nonexistent. In like manner discrimination also rises and disappears with every single form. 665. there is something other than the Mind. when a chain of causes is held to be impermanent. When [the world] is not understood with intelligence there is nihilism. where there is discrimination. The gods. verses 62-68. In the Sanskrit text this line is made to belong to the next verse. By maintaining the combination of causes and conditions. nothing is ever destroyed. where sentient beings are born. verse 62. Different expressions are distinguished but none is verifiable. as it is not clearly perceived that what is seen is of the Mind. 667. There is neither birth nor destruction where the ignorant see impermanency. The Mind is seen as manifold when visible forms are discriminated. 664. 652. the fourfold proposition obstructs [the way of truth]. be it superior. 655. guarding all that is good. Discrimination not rising. 666. there is a turning-back (paravritti). one is born in these [six] paths. As one form changes into another. inferior. as it is clearly understood that what is seen is of Mind-only. outside of it there are no living beings. . and Yama's abode—these six paths of existence are enumerated.) 1 2 Not quite clear. 2 How is the unseen [born]? By what does the impermanent world come into existence? 656. therefore.) 663.1 654. thence I tell my disciples how uninterruptedly and momentarily birth[and-death] takes place. because [the dualism of] a mind and an external world is clung to. The company of the Bhikshus is taught by you that there is birth and death at every moment.649. a primary causal agency is warded off. no discrimination is set to work. According to one's karma. mankind. there are living beings. in all these there is a necessary implication which rises from the notion of a primary causal agency. or middling. pray tell me its meaning. how is it that this does not give rise to realism (astitva-drishti)? 651. the Asuras. what is seen [as real] is due to [the idea of] a causal agency. 650.

and the path (pratipad)—this I teach to sons of the Victor. about the truth in order to check dualistic views. but when it is seen [in its true nature]. Discrimination may rise in two ways. perceived [or grasped] and perceiving [or grasping] are manifested. When causation[-born] and no-causation-born [are distinguished]. and karma. 1 The measure of two extended arms. for the fault of non-finality is committed. O Mahamuni. this is owing to discrimination. 674. As long as the notion of cause and effect is upheld. one abandons dualism. this is your teaching as well as that of [other] Buddhas. 671. 679. (349) 676. nor is the mind [properly] set to work. 680. such are not the wise ones. 678. there rise causation-born and nocausation-born. 672. for in all things not being born there is the awakening of intelligence. there is neither birth nor death. When one is released from the fourfold proposition. but1 where there is the birth of things. the rise of the world becomes impossible. this is called causation. 670. no non-existence. non-duality is suchness. things are differentiated. desire. At every moment there is a disjunction.. this is due to the rising of dualistic notions. measuring one vyana.668. etc. [so that] I and others may not cherish the [dualism of] being and nonbeing. The fourfold destruction of things is told by the unenlightened.2 Pray tell me.. for it behoves the Bodhisattvas not to lose the life of enlightenment as realised by the Buddhas. As faults and defects are sought. and causation. are originated by ignorance. 675. discrimination is said to rise in two ways. And [thus] we may keep ourselves away from the philosophers' teachings and also from the Sravakas and Pratyekabuddhas. ignorance and suchness. When dualism is upheld. cause. not to be dualistic is suchness. 669. (348) when one is liberated from the notion of form ( rupa). there are effect. there is no difference between the philosophers. the cause of its rising. O Lord.1 there is a world. the principle is not established. the attaining of cessation. there are permanency. 673. it will never rise [again]. etc. the simple-minded discriminate objects as belonging to the world and to the super-world. let one not discriminate. this is wrong. this being committed. . From the viewpoint of relativity the notion of Svabhava has been upheld. etc. Within the body. [If one should think that] the Vijnana. By clinging to the three Svabhavas. [in fact.] there is no existence. but in order to ward off one-sided views the Svabhava is not to be discriminated. 677.

a hair-net. —these are other names for form (rupa). 685. What is regarded by the philosophers as unborn is my own teaching wrongly viewed. from 692 to 694 is altered in this translation. one should not imagine anything different from this. 690. 688. or not? Pray tell. square and round. a multitude of clouds. All things appear like a cloud. because of imagination (parikalpa) there are long and short. (350) 684. General discrimination belongs to the Citta. the rising of existence. and being one—these are synonyms.1 I teach Mind-only which is removed from [the dualism of] being and non-being.. there is general discrimination (samkalpa) and particular discrimination (vikalpa). they are like a vision. and yet the philosophers discriminate the world as born of a self-creating agency. 689. The numbering. imagination to the Manas. and the first half of the following verse is brought over here to complete 691. 1 . knowing what dualism means. not being born is said to mean not having any abode. a rainbow. so is no-birth. Because of objective appearances being asserted. [but reality] is neither the qualified nor the qualifying. In the world [another name of] hasta (hand) is kara. Maya.681. In order to crush the philosophical views. they are born of selfdiscrimination. —all these are held by the philosophers. The verse 679 here is composed of the second half of 679 and the first line of 680 in the Sanskrit text. 683. and one should not imagine it to mean a nothing. (351) 692. and [the latter is] imagined to be indistinguishable [from theirs]. and emptiness. 686. and is not translated. Are all things to be regarded as unborn. therefore. [the ignorant] are bewildered by them. not to be born. Indra [is also called] Sakra and Purandara. etc. Not being born. if one does. O Mahamuni. I teach the doctrine of no-birth. one should not imagine it to mean a nothing. To be delivered from [the notion of] cause and no-cause. in the same way [there are many synonyms] for this existence. but the wise always rise above them. The first half of this verse numbered 692 in the Sanskrit text is evidently inserted here by mistake. reality. 2 1 682. limit. etc. suchness. Emptiness is no other than form. but this is submitting a faulty argument. no-birth. 687. That which follows forms the first half of verse 678 in the Sanskrit text. Those who have acquired the knowledge of proper reasoning by making use of [the idea of] no-birth and its meaning. and particular discrimination to the Manovijnana. One should discard [the view of] birth and no-birth which causes various philosophical theories. faulty views will follow. The doctrine of causelessness. are said to have an understanding of my doctrine. 691.

693. of no-birth. Sentient beings do not understand it. have no self-nature. regarding cessation and coming back into existence. to escape the errors of the philosophers and to be released from the perverted theory of causation. Discriminations are carried on by those who are enveloped by evil theories and doctrines. Pray tell me as to the graded succession of the stages. so it ought to be explained. 703. whereby [each Vijnana] takes in an objective field according to its class. the wise are those who are free from discrimination. the notion of a causal agency [is involved] on which they depend. The elements being rejected. etc. but the Buddhas are thoroughly free from dualism. all things are empty. 694. 1 Padma ikshana! according to T'ang. O Lotuseyed One. and have never been born. In the doctrine of causelessness. 696. Do not discriminate discrimination. etc. and deeds [as ordinarily performed] are mixed with motives. pray tell me about the rise and cessation of discrimination. Things are said to be unborn. as this is understood and the meaning of reality is seen as it is. one understands what is meant by no-birth. momentary. nobirth. in order to be released from being and nonbeing. For on account of [the wrong views concerning] birth. when discrimination is carried on. but not by the Tathagatas. 697. how does the society [of the holy ones] come into existence when all things are not? 695. 699. There is error where dualism is maintained. there is dualism which does not lead to Nirvana. By separating oneself from [the dualism of] perceived and perceiving. 704. Effortless deeds come from nothingness. of birth. the mind conforms itself to the nature of the wise and is no more set in motion. there is no birth of things. 702. the mind is born as views are cherished as regards one existence or another. 698. Tell me the [right] view that goes with skilful means. O Mahamuni. there is neither evolution nor cessation. Accumulated by false reasonings.. and yet not to destroy cause and effect. Pray explain to me. . the cause of serenity is not recognised. Pray tell me. 705.. O Most Excellent of Teachers. all the contradictions [involved in the statements made] before and after. but as the elements as appearances are always the Mind. there is a combination of varieties of appearances [and Vijnanas]. (352) 700. original vows. how is this? Pray tell me. 701. discrimination is set in motion. 706. and I have no chance to discourse on the nature of being. there is no society [of the holy ones] for me.1 for the world cherishes dualism and is bewildered with wrong views. Recognising external forms.

714. The Rupa-skandha (matter) and the Vijnana (-Skandha)—there are these two Skandhas and not five. the highest reality. The mind is to be regarded as a reflected image originating in the beginningless past. (Chapter VI.707. while it is devoid of oneness and otherness. and is not element-made. atoms. 713. etc. are to be referred to white. Time-interruption. By the statement of no-birth. Like the Gandharvas' city. because they adhere to the alternatives of being and non-being. The primary elements are of different qualities. but this is not clearly understood by the ignorant so that [the thought of] an ego-soul and individual objects is cherished. The ignorant addicted to dualism cherish [such thoughts as] dualities. destruction. the Sravakas [that is. original matter. The nature of birth [or existence] is like an image appearing in a mirror. 720. it is something of reality but not reality itself. which appear depending upon causes and conditions. and white to blue. what are [regarded as] secondary elements are not made by them. 717. the nature of water is to wet. 709. how can matter be produced by the elements [when they are of such contradicting natures]? 718. those who are Arhats. when Maya is made to be born of no-causation. Fire burns matter (rupa). Maya. 719. .. and primary cause. those who are dependent upon their own power. those who are attached to the doctrine of causation. There are five [classes of] Sravakas. 712.) (354) 716.. both being and non-being are emptiness. Blue. this injures the truth of the statement. and how can they produce1 this world of matter (rupa)? [Each of] the elements has its own seat. Maya is seen and destroyed. of this I have talked in a hundred ways. one should realise it truly as it is in itself. [various] forms [of matter] are inseparably conjoined with one another. they are different names for the Skandhas. which. and those who are dependent upon [the power of] the Buddha. the present world evolves. (353) 708. matter is mind[-made]. hearers] generally. 710. and fail to understand the means of emancipation. etc. the wind scatters matter. 711. It is on account of general usage that a dualistic discrimination is set up as regards persons and things. By the separation of mind from what belongs to it. 715. is not altogether non-existent. the birth of all things is not no-birth [in a relative sense]. verse 3. cause and effect being produced [in the same mutual way]. and mutuality—these four are imagined as involved in the idea of impermanency by the ignorant who are not endowed with intelligence.

730. (356) its non-existence contradicts the truth. and because of stupidity they uphold the dualism of being and non-being. 3 The statements about form here are not quite intelligible. Varieties of forms (sansthana) and figures (akriti) are not produced by the primary elements. they do not understand.] a being born in the world of formlessness is of noform. the advocate of non-ego is a destroyer. cutting off (chela). 732. the naked philosophers. That egolessness is the true doctrine follows from the nonexistence of beings. what else is there? 731.1 734. etc. they are evolved from the Alaya. 725. it is united with the Citta but disunited with the Manas. The Vijnana. If karma is form (rupa). they do not grasp one field all at once. 729. Literally. When form is not evolved. There is a truth (tattva) characterised by purity. therefore. no Vijnanas arise. 722. as there are no beings. The theorisers wish to see the Skandhas in the middle existence.721. are addicted to the dualism of being and non-being. qualified and qualifying. no Vijnanas. it will be the cause of the Skandhas and the objective world. 728. it is not visible. As the philosophers imagine causes other than the unborn. and the advocates of Isvara the creator. cold and heat. there are eight kinds of it.. the senses are not the senses. The Samkhya and the Vaiseshika followers. the theorisers do not understand. [If one says that] emancipation is attained without exerting oneself. There are four abodes of it. the Blessed One declares that the senses. 723. are characterised with momentariness. 726. etc.2 causing even the cessation of the Vijnana. Manas and the six Vijnanas are by nature united and removed from oneness and otherness. is united with the senses.3 1 2 A repetition of verse 627. [they wish. how does it arise from the nonexistence of form? As there is nothing existent innerly or outwardly. beings without attachment will not be abiding [even] in the world of formlessness. there is neither a vehicle nor a driver. 733. and do not know what solitary reality is.1 (355) 724. it abides with knowledge. born of habit-energy. The Citta. Effect and effecting and effected. likewise. 727. but the philosophers declare them to originate from the elements primary and secondary. this is no doubt a philosopher's theory. . If form is to be found in the world of formlessness. —such-like and all [other things] are not to be explained away by theories. 1 After T'ang.

If attachment is determined and mind and what belongs to it are designated. birth. what illustrations will the theorisers produce to prove their notion of an ego-soul? 745. Probably they contain allusions to the Abhidharma doctrines. . To pass away instantly after birth.. etc. However. this is the Tathagata's womb (garbha) which does not belong to the realm of the theorisers. 740. or as attachment. and the ego-soul.735. 746. the burned and the burning are simultaneously there. nor is there the uninterrupted-ness of all things. as discrimination moves about. the wise who are devoid of the fault of being are not committed to a definite theory. How without determining form (rupa) can the Vijnana take its rise? How without the rising of knowledge can transmigration take place? 736. 739. 4 This is not clear. The ego (atma) characterised with purity is the state of selfrealisation. As when fire burns. what is it that is not seized by the theorisers? 744. 3 Read after T'ang.. how is it that on account of the attachment there is the determination by oneness?4 Not clear. Those theorisers who are destitute of the principle are lost in the forest of Vijnanas. The sixth [Vijnana] is not to be understood as non-attachment. Those theorisers who are without knowledge are frightened at eternalism and nihilism. karma. —this is not the teaching of the Buddhas. (357) the ignorant are unable to distinguish between the Samskrita. this and the following two or three stanzas are difficult to understand very clearly as there are no references in the text to the ideas discussed here. they are brought to the goal like fire. 738. effect. By reason of attachment. the ignorant grasp after names. attainment. the mind shines forth all the time. 737. as is understood by T'ang. [others] to be different from the Manas. Are they later additions taken from somewhere else? 2 1 742. one is born in the various paths. [Some imagine the ego-soul] to be one with the Citta. Whether there is birth or no-birth. etc. there is resemblance and nonresemblance in the principle. A number of verses in these pages that give no sense as far as we can see in their several connections are not at all in cognation with the general thoughts of the Lanka. attachment2 exists in oneness as well as in otherness. the Asamskrita.3 741.1 743. they wander about here and there. so is attachment to an ego-soul. the wise comprehend the meaning. seeking to establish the theory of an ego-soul. Dana evidently stands here for upadana. The senses and their objective worlds are meant for the stupid but not for the wise.

or in water. where they are invisible. 1 Is this correct? 754. 761.. By distinctly understanding it [i. As the beautiful colour of gold and gold among pebbles become visible by purification. varieties of karma are accumulated by them. As the unintelligent cannot take hold of a mind and what belongs to it as a group. Like the essence of the medicinal herb. they are not destroyed but remain as they are. 753. As when a garment is cleansed of its dirt. The Mind is primarily pure.. etc. The Buddha is neither a soul nor the Skandhas. with the Manas. 758. etc. and their functions which are connected with the Skandhas. the unintelligent thus seek something of an ego-soul within the Skandhas. (358) 748.747. The ego [primarily] pure has been defiled on account of the external passions since the beginningless past. and purification from the passions which are abandoned by means of contemplation and insight. 757. or when gold is removed from its impurities. those who have no wisdom do not see the ego-soul within the Skandhas. there rises the knowledge of the principle. but the Manas. or underneath the ground. 759. and in union with the ego-soul—this is what is taught by the best of speakers. . and thus there are defilements giving rise to dualism. so do [they seek] a soul in the Skandhas. so is the ego freed from its defilements. are other than that. or in a kettle-drum. e. 760. (359) and what has been added from outside is like a [soiled] garment to be washed off. The Alaya where the Garbha (womb) is stationed is declared by the philosophers to be [the seat of] thought in union with the ego. so [they cannot find] an ego-soul in the Skandhas. 752. 749. 750. or like fire in the kindling. it is free from limitation and non-limitation. is with the secondary passions. Imagining that a melodious sound obtains in a lute. The Mind. 756. I take my refuge in him. The Mind primarily pure is the Tathagata's Garbha which is good but is attached to [as an ego-soul] by sentient beings. As one tries to find precious stones in the treasure-house. When one thus knows what are the characteristics of attached and attaching by the analysis of the Skandhas. primarily pure. but this is not the doctrine approved [by the Buddhas]. so the ego-soul is not visible within the Skandhas to those who have no wisdom. he is knowledge free from evil outflows. 751. the doctrine] there is emancipation and insight into the truth. so is the Alaya among the Skandhas of a being. clearly perceiving him to be eternally serene. As the womb is not visible to the woman herself who has it. 755. a conch-shell.

768. no selfmastery. I belong to the Katyayana family. and ghee—each has its own taste. they are to be ejected by the convocation of the Bhikshus and are never to be spoken to.762. show it to me. the theorisers [imagine it] to be causeless and not-functioning. wiping away the faults of the philosophers. he does not see the Mind in the mind. no highest anointing. the unenlightened cannot see them. It is not easy to determine the purport of these verses as they stand all by themselves without any explanatory prose. 1 . burning up the forest of egolessness. 773. "Show me your own discrimination. but one who has not tasted it will not know what it is. 767. Things are differentiated but the Mind is one— this is not perceived. The doctrine of an ego-soul shines brilliantly like the rising of the world-end fire. which is a mistake. Trying to seek in five ways for an ego-soul in the accumulation of the Skandhas. sugar-cane. as to the meaning contained in it. descending from the Suddhavasa. I and those Tathagatas have generally disclosed the meaning of Nirvana in three thousands of the sutras. This is the course of the past. how can one accurately determine it? 770. but the wise seeing it are liberated.1 766. Trying to find permanency and emptiness in all things. In fact these verses in the Sagathakam which have no direct connection with the main text. When the Yogin reflects upon the mind. they are given up to the dualistic views of being and non-being. This and the following verse again seem to contradict the Buddhist doctrine of non-ego. sesame oil. and some really violate the Buddhist doctrine of Non-atman as far as we know. are mostly difficult to know precisely what they intend to signify. "If there is an ego. the world]." a sage would declare. Molasses. and honey. etc. so with the ego-soul within the Skandhas. there are no stages. 1 765. no psychic faculties. whence is the rising of this perceived [world]? (361) 772. I teach the Dharma in order to lead sentient beings to the city of Nirvana. an insight comes forth from the perceived [i. except those that are quite obvious in meaning. e.. sugar. no excellent Samadhis. (360) 764. the unintelligent fail to see it. the mind is not accurately determined. 763. sour milk. When there is no true ego-soul. Those who hold the theory of non-ego are injurers of the Buddhist doctrines."1 The statements so far made here regarding an ego-soul (atman or pudgala) as they stand seem to contradict one another. 771. By means of illustrations furnished by the sciences. 769. If a destroyer should come around and say.

786. Kapila. one-eyed. it is removed from all defects. the passions are destroyed by knowledge. a disciple. 787. The Buddhas are not Samskrita-made. The religious life (brahmacarya) is not found in those especially. manifested in some of the homeless monks and not in anybody else—so it is declared. The world-ruler is endowed with the celestial marks and the secondary characteristics though not manifested. aged. nor in those who are given up to the feeling of enmity. 783. etc. but at the Akanishtha in the world of form one is awakened to Buddhahood by getting rid of greed. and this is not clearly recognised by the ignorant. 1 Is this correct reading? 785. the good Dharma will no more prevail in the world. however. all is unborn. The creating agencies are unborn. Kanada. 782. (362) they belong to the nature of a Cakravartin. it is an insight attained by selfrealisation. the Buddhas are not so named because of these [marks]. the cause is not the producer. etc. 780. which is a sharp sword gained by discipline. Rishabha. a jar. together with its four castes. Vyasa's Bharata will appear. Rishis. kings.774. How is non-ego possible? How are things like Maya. The objective world is not the cause of bondage. 788. and others. blind. why is imagination carried on as regards creating agencies? 779. After the passing of the Leader of the Sakyas. after the Mleccha will rage a warfare. and then the Mleccha who are bad kings.? How about being and non-being? If suchness reveals itself to the ignorant. the birth of all things is told by means of a light. 775. the Kauravas. (363) and after this age of vice. The Maurya. After passing through these ages the world will be thrown into confusion like a wheel. 784. both the created and the conditions of causality are unborn. The theorisers explain a cause to consist in the simultaneity of antecedent and consequent. What characterises the Buddhas is knowledge (jnana). the Gupta. the world of desire will be consumed. They become. . and then the age of vice. Rama. 781. and then the Maurya. these will follow me: Vyasa. but are endowed with the marks [of excellence]. 776. and the Dharma. it is devoid of the defects of intellection (drishti-dosha). The heavens will again be restituted and therein the world will take its rise. 778. young. the Pandavas. Because of things done and of things not done. fire and the sun being united. the cause is bound up in the objective world. who are deaf. how is non-ego non-existent?1 777. Then one hundred years after my passing. Not in the world of desire nor in [the world of] no-form is Buddhahood attained. dumb. the Nanda.

Vishnu and Mahesvara will teach about the creation of the world. so that the body may be covered with robes in every way different from the appearance of the philosophers. who are the removers. in due time let him go about begging and keep away from things vile. my father is the wise Prajapati. 794. Vishnu. (364) 792. the world will [again] fall into confusion. I belong to the Katyayana family. 801. the age of triads. and my name is Viraja the Victor. commentaries. 797.1 histories. but Mekhala and his disciple being too weak [the doctrine] will disappear at the end of the Kalpa. . The Vedas. 802. and I. 793. and the past events." 795. the age of two. the Lion of the Sakyas will appear in the age of vice. by narratives. things like this will take place after my passing. Viraja.789. Let the Yogin preach the doctrine. and charity will again prevail with the revival of the Dharma.. Vyasa. I and others in the golden age. "So indeed it was. Preparing properly-coloured cloth. but after a long reign over the worlds he will retrograde on account of desire. and that of Vyasa in the narratives (so-indeed-it-was). In the abode of light he enjoys the four worlds by means of the teaching based on the Dharma. Making vows. 803. Mahamati being given assurance and anointed. worship. and Kanaka. 796. I shall enter into Nirvana. Krakucchanda. After the golden age there will appear a leader by the name of Mati. [my family name] is "The Moon-Protected" (somagupta). which is the badge of the Buddhas. (365) 800. decorated with precious stones he will be born as a god and a world-lord. thus-I-have-heard's. etc. 1 Literally. 791. annotations. 799. who is a great hero (mahavira) well acquainted with the five forms of knowledge. There will be the teaching of the Lion of the Sakyas told in the thus-I-have-heard's. and as my father and grandfather. Kasyapa. prose-compositions. and others—these Buddhas all belong to the golden age. and the other two will appear among mankind. and the age of vice. 790. Mati will hand [the doctrine] over to Dharma and Dharma to Mekhala. let him drink water filtered through a cloth and carry the hipstring. Mahesvara—such other philosophers will appear after my passing. 798. My mother is Vasumati. being descendants of the lunar race (somavamsa). have the cloth dyed with bluish mud and cow-dung making it nondescript in colour. He will be born in a heaven filled with light. I was born in Campa. have it further cleaned. Siddhartha of the Sakya family. Thus there are the golden age. I shall become a homeless mendicant and teach the doctrine in a thousand ways.

816. If the one were the many. author of the Sabdanetri. 820. Akshapada. Kautilya. and Yajnavalka will be like him. Vagbaliratha. without cutting it into tens. 805. he will be the protector of all that is good. all would be without a causal agency. [Their teaching] will be like a lamp. which will come after. Katyayana will be the author of a sutra. Bhutanta. is sent forth by means of a bow or sling. which is the teaching of the theorisers. for then nowhere would diversities be seen. not in the age of vice. 810. Balin the king will be a great ruler. a staff made of wood. or a piece of wood. chief of the gods. Pancacudaka. rice is not the cause of barley. and Asvalayana. Brahma. this is the destruction of a causal agency. When I take my abode in the forest-ground. Brahma with his retinues and many gods will give me an antelope's skin from the sky. how can the one be the many? 813.1 have the upper garment patched with spots like the eyes in the tail of a peacock. be bathed in the water of knowledge. The great Yogin will be called Viraja the Muni. like a seed. wheat does not produce corn. Masuraksha. but where are the many? If the one becomes the many. the happiness of mankind. Let all receivers be like the wind. and then the ruler will vanish. if the patches are otherwise distributed it will excite in the ignorant a desire to possess. 1 Is this right? 807. Pranetri the Lokayata will be found in Brahma-garbha. Vrihaspati. Not in the age of two. When an arrow. 811. Siddhartha of the Sakya family. 817. From sesame no beans grow. not in the age of triads. and a discus. Medhavin will appear in the times that follow. they will appear in the age of vice. (366) 808. Let the space between the eyes be two or three fingers apart. this is the teaching of the theorisers. the teacher and pointer of emancipation. a girdle. Bhudhuka will write astronomical works. but in the golden age world-teachers will appear. or a stone. 818. 806. and practise the triple refuge. The one cannot be the many. and donors be like the land. one hits and another falls. 812. and exert himself diligently throughout the three periods. because of similitude. Let the Yogin always keep the fire of greed under control. and attain Buddhahood. Balin will appear to promote the welfare of the world.804. Without removing the marks. so it is with good and bad. Valmika. (367) 815. will appear in the future. 814. 819. . who are highly virtuous Rishis. he is the badge of all the Munis. There will be Panini. 809. will give me the hairy skin of a deer.

by speculation. 837. will give me most exquisite garments and a begging bowl. the theorisers are not enlightened. which they say is. 831. 840. but there is no self-nature. by the traditional teachings (agama). no transformation takes place. the saltiness of salt. the truth (satya). which has nothing to do with it. [and imagine that] the no-birth [theory] is [thereby] established.821. 838. 839. but this is done in words only. Seeking for a cause in the doctrine of no-birth. they are not able to ascertain definitely about the ego. we may speak of the Samskrita and the Asamskrita. (370) so is the soul in the Skandhas devoid of oneness and otherness. to be is not to be attached to. 823-828. Indra and Virudhaka and others. the womb of a pregnant woman. 1 836. As a flash of lightning is seen and unseen as the sun passes through a slit of a door. —does not [each] evolve like the seed? 834. It is noteworthy that the repetitions grow less as we approach the end and that the subjects referred to are less congruous with those of the text. and qualities are regarded as differentiated. in water. Let it be known that those who reflect and practise meditation can be released from the evil theories by training themselves in the three things: the path (marga). being the seat of all sentient beings. (368) 822. As an image is seen in a mirror. too. 833. various are effects and causes. accompanied by the celestial beings. that it is bound to birth and destruction—this is the imagination of the theorisers. Defiled by logic.1 by wrong views. The Samkhya philosophy is twofold. It is certainly their mistake to think that the ego is perceivable along with the Skandhas by reason of oneness and otherness. There is transformation owing to primary matter. . and action is self-originating. Primary matter is with all existing beings. As quicksilver is pure and not soiled by dirt. When I am in the forest-ground. it is not as it is imagined by the ignorant. Otherness is not otherness. 830. (Chapter VI. (369) in primary matter there is action. so is the transformation of all things. so is the Alaya pure. That the mind is set in motion by ignorance which has been accumulated by thought since beginningless past. there is neither non-being nor the Samskrita. and the insight (darsana). The Sagathakam may be an independent collection. etc.)1 829. or in an eye. 832. verses 12-17. but it does not exist in any way other than clinging. 835. The onion-odour of onion. so is bothness not bothness. [To say that] an ego is found in the Skandhas is like saying that the horse-nature is in the cow-nature. [one may say that] that which is unborn is born.

It should be known that the womb-born. 1 2 After T'ang. "Destroying". knowledge that is known as the Samskara seizes the Samskara-path. I have the body that goes about in the [six] paths of existence. to try to go beyond without an examination is of no more worth than a barren-woman's child. with names and forms. 846. according to T'ang. I observe with a divine eye which is of transcendental wisdom and is removed from the flesh. but since the wise see into reality (sadbhava) as it abides in itself. and other various bodies of sentient beings are born of the middle existence and descend into the [six] paths of existence. and the fifth is beyond description. (371) is the view and discourse of the philosophers. To say that the passions are quieted and destroyed apart from right reasoning and scriptural teaching. and the mind is born.1 849. 847. as heavenly and free from the Samskara. The Vijnana not being born there is no ignorance. 843. The ego-soul is not. 848.841. The three divisions of time and no-time. and as abiding with the Samskara. Being confused in mind the ignorant view Nirvana as the disappearance of the existent. devoid of existence and non-existence. as emancipated and un-emancipated. [with this I observe] sentient beings. It is seen that [beings] are distinguished as ugly-coloured and beautifully-coloured. and a seed? 852. 851. Transformation is to be ascertained as having nothing to do with the philosophical doctrines. it goes beyond the human world and is not the possession of the theorisers. though] mentioned by the theorisers. there is no Vijnana. 3 Read after T'ang. With the [pleasant] touches of the gods and the harassings of the hells. no Vijnanas would ever evolve. they have a truer insight. ignorance being absent. One should first examine into the nature of an ego-soul and keep oneself away from attachment. Transformation [which is the actual state of existence] is to be ascertained as removed from birth and destruction. Knowledge that is the cause of the Samskara is not to be described by the Samskara. the physical bodies of all living creatures as devoid of the Samskara and Skandhas. a lamp. the egg-born. and giving an abode2 to views of an inner ego. (372) 854. 850. this is what is known to the Buddhas [only. if it were not for the middle existence.2 . 842. how does this evolving come about? Is it not said that its appearing is like a river. which is not to be practised by the intelligent. this does not belong to the realm of the theorisers. and how can succession take place? 853. released from qualified and qualifying. the moisture-born.3 845. 844.

fire does not establish them. 1 2 Read after T'ang. but it only incites and does not produce. indeed. Hastisayya. The Samskrita and the Asamskrita are spoken of as devoid of attachment.. accomplish the most excellent discipline. sentient beings. As the ignorant make a sandal-wood drum by taking something else which appears like sandal-wood and aloe wood. whence is the rising of a sentient being [i. Thus [reality] is imagined to be something other than itself by the differentiation of knower and known. if it is imagined to be like fire. and what is beyond description is talked about. etc. and Nirvana—these are primarily pure. and be above imagination. 863 Those who see [reality] as it is in itself will see their passions burst asunder. 866. how can [the ego of] a sentient being be established? 857. 865. are purifying. but defiled by faults of the beginningless past. he is to conduct himself thus towards food. These two like the sun are always removed from effect and cause. Is this the right reading? 856. The wind.855. causal conditions [everywhere] but no causes. The mind. etc. By reason of the Manas. 868. makes fire burn. they are not differentiated. leaving the forest of bad analogies behind. there is the accumulation of the Skandhas and Ayatanas. he will have his mouth well cleansed of offensive and injurious matter.. because of this absence there are no causal agencies. Defiled by the bad theories of the philosophers. this is. are wrapped end enveloped with [the false discriminations of] the Manovijnana. 864. so is [true] knowledge [to be distinguished] from that of the theorisers. He who reflects rationally on this truth will attain serenity of mind. the dull-witted do not understand it. he will be released from attachment and realise the highest meaning. incited by it the fire goes out. they are like space. e. non-ego like a wealthy merchant moves on with mentation (citta). how is fire imagined by the ignorant for the establishment [of their ego]? 858. When he who is possessed of stupidity and imagination rising from his views of being and non-being is freed from the net of bad theories . further. Fire comes to exist in this world supported by the strength of mutuality. Having eaten he will rise holding the bowl empty. an ego-soul]? 859. That being so. 867. (373) 862. and the theorisers fail to understand. and thus he will light up the golden path of the Dharma. they imagine fire. they are [only] symbolically pointed out. 861. 860.. they reach the realm of the wise. etc.

From the Alaya all mental activities take their rise like the waves. be it known that it is all due to self-discrimination. and going beyond Sravakahood and Pratyekabuddhahood. the knowledge of the Maya-likeness of existence and the [will-]body [are obtained]. and from greed. When the world is seen as quiescent. 875. By entering into the [various] stages. [All things] momentarily divided but bound up in a continuous chain. There are transformations maturing from [the activities of] the Manas and the Vijnanas. 874. the mind ceases and the [first] stage of Joy is attained. All things are like Maya and a dream and the Gandharvas' city. Bound up by the faults [of speculation] since beginningless past. when these philosophical views are born. but are the product of Manas and the eyeVijnana. and the Vijnana comes from the Manas. [As he goes up through the stages] his insight into the truth of self-realisation will be purified at every stage. they appear in varieties of forms and characters. he is washed of the pigment and besprinkled by the Buddhas [with their own] hands. there is neither bothness nor not-bothness. A revulsion taking place at the seat [of consciousness. are taken hold of as real while they are of Mind itself. 871. etc. With that as cause and with that other as condition. it is Mind which is seen as manifoldness when it is hindered by wrong philosophical theories. such Samadhis of superior grade as the Maya-like. 879. [are attained]. When the dualism of being and non-being is abandoned. 872. Some philosophers are confused about the direction [of truth] because of their theory of causation. 876. with habit-energy as cause all things are born in accordance with conditions of causation. [the Vijnana system] is evolved. and there is anointment by the Buddhas. (374) others who are not wise abide in nihilism because of their negation of causation and reality. . From the splitting-up of moral conduct.tainted thereby. the Surangama. one will even pass over the seventh stage. vice. 869. they appear as a mirage. he performs deeds [of beneficence] for sentient beings in the same way as the moon reflects itself in water. 873. there is the growth of habit-energy which gives rise to something like an external world. 880. others are perturbed over conditions of causality. 877. and the self-masteries. 881. there is suchness and the right knowledge dependent on it. and [finally] they will reach Buddhahood. as a lunar reflection in water. and releasing himself from externality as well as from the philosophers. transformations take place. the psychic powers. a man becomes] like a multicoloured gem. the Manas is born of the Alaya. etc. he will discourse on the Mahayana. (375) 878. 870. and anger.

the gods. And the Great Muni tells That their cessation takes place thus. Kumbakarna. which does not yield any sense in this connection. and when this was found missing in the earlier copy of the Lankavatara.882." (376) All things are born of causation. T'ang—教由理故成.2 After Wei and T'ang. the Nagas.1 and a [multicoloured] gem. let him discourse on the truth of the emancipated ones. which is like a hare's horns. 883. karma. such is the Manas in relation to the eye[-consciousness] and form. 當依此教理. Wei has 結 for grantha and 相應 for yukti. 1 <<< <<< >>> . 2 This is the reading of T'ang. the Holy Mahamati the Bodhisattva-Mahasattva. grantha) is meant any literary production in which a principle or reason. The text has "hare's hair" which in this connection yields no sense. ignorance. therefore. By "text" (教. Ravana the King. Such are the eye." This addition shows that Wei as a whole may be a much later production even than T'ang. let there be reason [and the text]. the Yakshas. desire. 莫分別於異. Sarana. Wei and T'ang. And their cause has been told by the Tathagata. 依相應相應. or as ruta is to artha. This is missing in T'ang. and the Yogins. for such a passage is ordinarily regarded as the regular conclusion for a sutra. the Asuras. one is removed from death and destruction. are quoted in full: Wei—如依結相應. As the text [is completed] by reason. The two versions. the writer of the Wei original added it to complete the form. The truth of emptiness may be in a manner compared to a hare's horns and not to its hair. 理. the Gandharvas. (yukti) is expounded. 理由教故顯.1 Here Ends "The Mahayana Sutra Called the Arya-SaddharmaLankavatara. This contrasting the letter to spirit or meaning has been one of the main topics of the Lankavatara. let there be no other discrimination than reason. the Devas. When there is a revulsion (paravritti) from discrimination. Together with the Verses. Wei further adds: "When the Buddha preached this exquisite Sutra. 依法亦如是. such is the Manas in relation to the defiled. Grantha is here contrasted to yukti as desana or desana-patha is tosiddhanta or pratyatmagati. and other Rakshasas. the Bhikshus were all delighted and accepted [the teaching]. 勿更餘分別. Suka. 1 884. so is reason [revealed] by the text.

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