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How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter


PAGE 1 of 2 - How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor

Author GiorgosLazaridis January4,2012


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Reddit this There are several different AC motor types, each one with different operating and mechanical characteristics. The most common type though is the -so called- squirrel cage rotor. It is called squirrel-cage, because it's rotor looks like the exercising wheel found in squirrel or hamster cages. A typical 3-phase squirrel-cage motor has six connection leads in the electrical connection box for the three coils. If someone works with AC 3-phase motors, then it is important to know how to connect these motors in Star and Delta connection, and how to detect an electrical problem. There are basically 4 problems that the motor windings can suffer from:

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Brokencoil (infinite coil resistance) Short-circuitedcoil (less than normal or zero coil resistance) Leakingcoiltoground (current leaking from one coil to ground/neutral) Twoormorecoilsshort-circuitedwitheachother (current leaking from one coil to another coil) All of the above problems can be detected with a simple Ohm-meter. First of all, you need to understand how the coils are connected with the six motor leads that exist in the electrical connection box. Here is a photo from a typical electrical connection box:

As you can see, there are indeed six leads arranged in two rows. Since each coil has 2 endings, it is easy to understand that these six leads correspond can be separated in three pairs, and each pair is connected to one coil. It seems logical to separate these 3 pairs in a vertical pattern, but that is not correct. Instead, the pairs are in cross-pattern like this:

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How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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NEWinheaven!
You may now wonder, why the coils are connected in cross-pattern and not vertically... The answer is this: To easily bridge a permanent connection. A permanent connection is when the motor is connected in Star or Delta, and this connection cannot be changed. This is usually done if the motor is small (smaller than 3.5 KWatts) or the motor is driven by an inverter or some kind of electronic driver. A permanent connection is usually accomplished with 2 or 3 metallic bridges. Suppose for example that the motor is connected in Star. In a star connection, each one of the 3 phases (R-S-T) is connected at one end of each coil. The other ends of the coils are connected together in a common point. A star connection can be easily accomplished simply by bridging one of the two horizontal rows in the connection box of the motor. The phases are then connected on the leads of the other horizontal row:

Circuit Update: Voltage ControlledACLight Dimmer

Thisiswhywecallthistypeof connection"Star"(orY)

Astarconnectionisaccomplished Thisisaphotofromtheconnection simplybybridgingonehorizontal boxofamotorconnectedinStar rowintheconnectionbox

Kilews Torque Meter


www.Sumitron.com Measure Torque with High Accuracy Industrial Grade,Available in India Suppose now that the motor is connected in Delta. In Delta connection, the end of each coil is connected with the start of another coil. The 3 coils are then connected in a circle, creating thus 3 nodes. The 3 phases are then applied on these nodes. A Delta connection is easily accomplished by bridging the 3 columns in the connection box vertically:

Thisiswhywecallthistypeof connection"Delta"(fromthe Greekletter)

ADeltaconnectioniseasily accomplishedbybridgingthe3 columnsintheconnectionbox vertically

Thisisaphotofromtheconnection boxofamotorconnectedinDelta

There is one last thing to know: All 3 coils must have the same resistance. That is of-course easy to understand why, so there is no need to explain any further.

Checking the coils of an unconnected motor


Being a motor unconnected, means that there are no Star or Delta bridges on its leads. This is the most straightforward case to understand. All you have to do is try to find the coil pairs in the electrical connection box. Let's give numbers to the 6 leads:

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How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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Suppose that you start from lead 1 and you want to find it's pair. You connect the first probe of the ohm-meter to lead 1, and then you connect the other probe of the ohm-meter to leads A, B, C, 2, 3 and ground (motor chassis).If the motor has no problem, then you must find infinite resistance between all leads and ground, except from one lead. This one cannot be lead A though, because -as we said- coils are connected in cross pattern. Then, you repeat the same process but this time you connect the first lead of the ohm-meter to lead 2, and the second lead to leads A, B, C, 3 and ground. Notice that you do not need again between 2 and 1 since you've measured already before. Again, you must find infinite resistance between all leads and ground, except from one lead. This lead cannot be the one opposite to 2 (which is the lead B) and of course cannot be the lead that pairs with lead 1 (found from the previous measurement). Finally, you repeat the same process with the first probe on lead 3, and the second probe on leads A, B, C and ground. Now, you know exactly which of these 3 leads pairs with lead 3. If for example you found that lead B pairs with 1 and lead C pairs with 2, then obviously lead A pairs with 3. Additionally, you can compare the resistances between the pairs. If they are all equal, then you have a very well manufactured motor. A tolerance of 5% (and some times 10%) is generally accepted. If the difference is bigger, this could mean that some wires of the coil are short-circuited and the overall coil length is shorter. This is the most difficult problem to identify in such a motor. Usually, if the motor has short-circuited windings, it won't take long until this specific coil it is totally destroyed.
In short

You must find the same resistance between 3 pairs of leads ONLY These pairs must be in cross-pattern as explained before There must be absolutely no connection (infinite resistance) between all other combinations There must be absolutely no connection (infinite resistance) between the leads and the ground

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How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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At 24 July 2013, 0:15:50 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @Shawn Hall Always talking about Y connection, between common and any terminal is the lowest resistance, between two terminals is the highest.

At 16 July 2013, 22:22:42 user JosephWilfredUnekwu wrote: [reply @ Joseph Wilfred Unekwu] Thanks alot you just open my a new chapter to my knowledge.

At 12 July 2013, 8:02:01 user ShawnHall wrote: [reply @ Shawn Hall] When testing the windings od a single phase motor, Technician #1 says that the common and the run terminals show the lowest resistance. Technition #2 says that the pair of terminals with the highest resistance will indicate that the other terminal is the common. Who is correct? A. Technician #1 only. B. Technitian #2 only. C. Both technicions #1 and #2. D. Neither technicions #1 or #2. I think the answer is D?

At 14 June 2013, 23:32:38 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @Robert Chadwick 3-phase AC induction motor Star connection? Then it is dead.

At 13 June 2013, 15:56:29 user RobertChadwick wrote: [reply @ Robert Chadwick] I have a 3 phase motor, and I am able to the 3 leads that go into the motor I get no resistance between 2 of the leads, and 33 OHMS from either one of those to the third lead. what does that mean

At 3 June 2013, 10:43:16 user Eswaran wrote: [reply @ Eswaran] @samantha @samantha. if we change the connection RPM will not change. this 2 connections related for voltage & current only. if the connection is star current will low sameas voltage should be costant 415v. delta current will high but motor will start at littlebit low voltage also. RPM related only NO OF POLES and Effeciency of motor

http://www.pcbheaven.com/userpages/check_the_windings_of_a_3phase_ac_motor/index.... 12-Sep-13

How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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At 3 June 2013, 6:50:17 user danilodevera wrote: [reply @ danilo de vera] I had a 3 phase ac motor i want to to connect to power supply and the control was starting by star then delta (6 leads) my problem is the si lead came from motor has no marking for the 1,2,3,4,5,6 i cant determine the 1,2,3 and the 4,5,6.please help me

At 11 May 2013, 5:03:24 user TimRigsby wrote: [reply @ Tim Rigsby] Will a fifty hz 415 .37kw work on 480 60hz.....?????,I

At 1 May 2013, 22:06:31 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @kazi sahriar U1-V1-W1 goes to RST. U2-V2-W2 shorted all together for star connection.

At 29 April 2013, 0:41:01 user kazisahriar wrote: [reply @ kazi sahriar] dear sir, my problem is, I have a 3 phase motor which r 6 probe those r U1 V1 W1 & U2 V2 W3.so,how i can connect those terminal.Plzz tell me sir.

At 22 April 2013, 23:22:16 user ShelvindraBali wrote: [reply @ Shelvindra Bali] I want know if there is any type of book or software showing me all the connection daigrams of the motor. For example like 2star 2delta 3star 3delta 4star 4delta for different rpm and poles

At 16 April 2013, 9:38:23 user Idriss wrote: [reply @ Idriss] That is a very clear explanation. I have read so many topics on this, but this is the first time I actually get it.

At 3 April 2013, 1:57:29 user RADHAKRISHNAN wrote: [reply @ RADHAKRISHNAN] sir, IN the Motor Winding end wire in 3 phase A1A2, B1B2, C1C2 connected thro RYB the motor will run But if any changes in the terminal connection A2A1 / B2B1 / C2C1 if the motor winding will get Abnormal heat. Further, pleas give the diagram for the How to identify the A1, A2 B1, B2,C1,C2 by using TEST LAMP METHOD

At 21 March 2013, 23:53:42 user Geofry wrote: [reply @ Geofry] Thanks for the info above. Its help me a lot.

At 16 March 2013, 5:15:37 user tanveershah wrote: [reply @ tanveer shah] sir many regards kindly send me any post notification as to be more informative and conscious about my related field. thanx a lot

At 15 March 2013, 8:01:50 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis]

http://www.pcbheaven.com/userpages/check_the_windings_of_a_3phase_ac_motor/index.... 12-Sep-13

How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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@Vasilis Caravitis This is the worst case scenario... Star-Delta switches though have schematics how to connect them. You have to consult this schematic. There are 6 connectors, RST and UVW. You connect the first row of motor connectors to R-S-T and the second row to U-V-W

At 10 March 2013, 21:34:37 user VasilisCaravitis wrote: [reply @ Vasilis Caravitis] Hi, My problem is that I need to replace the Star-Delta change-over switch. The existing 5-position (broken) switch allows also reverse rotation, but I only need one direction of rotation. The rplacement is intended for single direction operation and has a different terminal pattern. How can I determine which cable goes where?

At 5 March 2013, 12:13:07 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @Decker auto electric This motor must be connected in star probably (i may be mistaken though). Connect the 3 poles on one side all together, and then apply RST to the other 3 opposite poles

At 4 March 2013, 14:04:59 user Deckerautoelectric wrote: [reply @ Decker auto electric] I got this electric motor that i can not Figure out how to connect the internal Wires coming out of the motor.. Could anybody help me on it??? 24 slot. 2 pole lapwinding 2 coils per group 6 groups. 295 rounds per coil. Pitch 1 to 11 440/220 volts 3 ph 3200 rpm There are only 6 leads coming out of motor But just can't get the motor running Thank a lot

At 16 February 2013, 8:33:43 user kevin wrote: [reply @ kevin] Hi does anyone have any ideas about wiring a six wire motor to use on a rotary phase converter because ive tried a few different ways but im getting nowhere, any help is appreciated.

At 6 January 2013, 13:00:17 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @samantha none, both will give you the same rpm. Delta will give you (if motor permits) more torque.

At 6 January 2013, 11:10:14 user samantha wrote: [reply @ samantha] pls tel me which connection is giving more RPM? (star or delta)

At 2 January 2013, 0:35:49 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @Abbas musa there is no formula. It depends on the wire thickness and length.

At 1 January 2013, 18:28:13 user geoff wrote: [reply @ geoff] Well presented explanation. This is a good site for electrical mechanics.

At 1 January 2013, 7:42:05 user Abbasmusa wrote: [reply @ Abbas musa] helo... Am 4rm Nigeria.please, what is the formula used for calculating the winding resistance of a.c asynchronous motor using the volt-ampere method?

http://www.pcbheaven.com/userpages/check_the_windings_of_a_3phase_ac_motor/index.... 12-Sep-13

How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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At 19 December 2012, 18:16:37 user JohnRomano wrote: [reply @ John Romano] Six wires are not a problem. I have a motor that I looked at today that had 9 wires, and two ways to set up. The first is high voltage and the other is low voltage. What is the correct way to check the motor for proper connection?

At 13 December 2012, 7:46:52 user KHALID wrote: [reply @ KHALID] GOOD EXPLANATION, I LEARN TOO MUCH FROM THIS TOPIC.

At 12 December 2012, 12:36:44 user ThamirKareem wrote: [reply @ Thamir Kareem] Dear Sir, I would like to know the connection (star star/star) two speed three phase squirel cage motor also the connection (star/-star) that i saw those connection in ASIA type motors and supporting your answering by drawings(line voltage is 380vac)thankyou

At 23 November 2012, 3:43:56 user Aamirmehmood wrote: [reply @ Aamir mehmood] I like very much improve knoldge my self thanks

At 12 November 2012, 8:54:39 user mahroof.o wrote: [reply @ mahroof.o] it'S EASY TO UNDERSTAND............

At 3 November 2012, 12:04:58 user jonashamata wrote: [reply @ jonas hamata] This is good and clear

At 31 October 2012, 0:27:30 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @atish kumar read 'Checking the coils of an unconnected motor"

At 28 October 2012, 4:29:59 user atishkumar wrote: [reply @ atish kumar] I have the same doubt that.. How would you go about testing the start & end of each motor winding prior to powering up the motor, either by the use of a multimeter or a battery and a volt meter. I understand that one could power up the motor and check the current being pulled by each phase, if there is a serios unbalance on a single winding, then turn that winding around, BUT I would like clarity on how to sort out the windings start and end before power up.

At 24 September 2012, 7:30:09 user ganesh wrote: [reply @ ganesh] may be ur ohm meter problem.

At 19 September 2012, 20:03:18 user kaac.perera wrote: [reply @ kaac.perera] i like this web site

At 24 August 2012, 0:16:52 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis]

http://www.pcbheaven.com/userpages/check_the_windings_of_a_3phase_ac_motor/index.... 12-Sep-13

How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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@marcus usually 3-phase motors with 3 wires are internally Y or delta connected. It must be on the plate.

At 23 August 2012, 22:23:58 user marcus wrote: [reply @ marcus] and if your three phase motor only has three wires not six - what way do you test it then?

At 21 August 2012, 14:29:29 user T.Sethuramkumar wrote: [reply @ T.Sethuram kumar] Today i got different problem what actually happen one motor got tripped continually so i checked the motor amps its high 12A so i checked the name plate there full load current 12A so that i removed the load and checked after that also same current 12A how it's i confused because with load 12A without load also 12 A so that i checked the winding resistance that is ok 3phase equally, after that i checked bearing that also good winding also good then how this it's happen anybody knows kindly reply me

At 18 July 2012, 1:19:57 user FranciscoGavina wrote: [reply @ Francisco Gavina] (Portugal) Great tutorial. I am 51 years old, I am self taught. I'm unemployed. I like learning things of quality. I like to diversify knowledge. It will not let me grow old. Thank you. Gavina.

At 21 May 2012, 4:30:55 user GiorgosLazaridis wrote: [reply @ Giorgos Lazaridis] @Ian Ellis there are 6 connectors on a 3-phase squirrel cage motor. You can test them with multimeter, ohm-meter or battery by following the instruction if the first page of this theory, at the bottom (Checking the coils of an unconnected motor)

At 19 May 2012, 22:29:49 user IanEllis wrote: [reply @ Ian Ellis] How would you go about testing the start & end of each motor winding prior to powering up the motor, either by the use of a multimeter or a battery and a volt meter. I understand that one could power up the motor and check the current being pulled by each phase, if there is a serios unbalance on a single winding, then turn that winding around, BUT I would like clarity on how to sort out the windings start and end before power up.

At 6 January 2012, 11:43:50 user Kammenos wrote: [reply @ Kammenos] @George excellent! I am working on a simple coil checker tool (that is why i uploaded this theory after all). I will check this link and see if i can add it as a function. ;) thanks.

At 5 January 2012, 15:42:46 user George wrote: [reply @ George] one other thing. NEVER WORK ON AC system by yourself, ALWAYS have another person there as the SAFETY person. To switch off the power, and/or save your butt/ life if anything goes seriously wrong

At 5 January 2012, 15:39:19 user George wrote: [reply @ George] @Paul - there are two methods for checking phase of windings mentioned on cr4.globalspec.com/thread/71498 One uses a push button DC voltage and a galvanometer . The other uses live AC voltage on 1 winding against the other 2 windings connected in series to see if there is a net 0V AC or double the test winding Voltage, BUT beware YOU ARE WORKING WITH LIVE AC POWER. So make sure that you have tested for earth faults. [A multimeter is not really the greatest here a megger would be better] AND DO NOT TOUCH ANYTHING WHEN LIVE - use INSULATED PROBES

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How to check the Windings of a 3-Phase AC motor with an Ohmmeter

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At 5 January 2012, 8:17:57 user Kammenos wrote: [reply @ Kammenos] @Paul :D :D i'll tell you a little secret. The motor that is the photos, is a repaired motor that had a burned coil. The (not so good) technician that repaired the coils connected one of them the opposite direction. I tried hard to find a way to measure that problem, but had no luck with simple instruments. You connect it in the supply and if it makes noise and does not rotate, or rotate with no torque, then change connection...

At 5 January 2012, 8:03:36 user Paul wrote: [reply @ Paul] Just wonderin... Some time ago I also had to figure out how to connect a 1.5KW three phase motor but on this motor there was not such a nice board for connecting the wires. It basically had 6 loose wires dangling from it. A big problem would be if one of the phases is connected backwards relative to the other 2. How do you check for that? In the end I just (sort of) guessed, but I took some extra precautions to prevent destroying a perfectly good motor. I guessed right but didn't feel happy about it.

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