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Management Training

:
By The Book
By F. Ray Miller and Laura E. Miller
Adaptive Leadership Qualities of Leadership Empowerment and Motivation Goal Setting and Feedback Coaching Managing Difficult Situations Listening Skills Straight Talk - Making Your Point Managing Change Managing Conflict Performance Evaluations Team Building

Twelve Exceptional Self-Study Courses to Enhance Your Management and Supervisory Skills

Management Training: By The Book

F. Ray Miller Laura E. Miller

Dedication
This book is dedicated to all those committed to making a difference.

Use of this book and its contents are for the sole use of the purchaser and are not to be shared electronically or in any other form with anyone other than the person who purchased it. No part of this book may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage retrieval system without the written permission of the authors. Pages, forms, job aids and tools presented throughout this book may be printed and or copied for the purchaser’s use only.

Copyright © 2008 Ray and Laura Miller. All rights reserved.

Visit www.thetrainingbank.com to order additional copies.
E-mail: cantrain@thetrainingbank.com Telephone: 1(416) 698-8230

Foreword

W

e wrote this book because we wanted to help you maximize your effectiveness as a manager. Let’s face it, your days are filled with dealing with problems, reports and customer or employee problems. Time is something you don’t have a lot of, and while you know deep down that improving your effectiveness as a manager is important, the priorities of the day seem to continually get in the way. The good news is you bought this book. Highly effective managers are more productive and successful in their careers. Their employees are more motivated, and perform their jobs more effectively. This book will help you to enhance your managerial or supervisory effectiveness. The topics we have selected for this book represent the most commonly asked for topics we have been getting for our classroom and online training programs for the past three years. These twelve courses include detailed explanations, examples, tools and exercises which will help you to enhance your skills. We have been training managers and supervisors in the skills detailed in this book for over 20 years. The concepts, theories and best practices provided really work. We know that you are time compressed so we have attempted to filter out as much of the theoretical as possible and focus our attention on specific steps and actions which you can take. What we have covered in this book are really the nuts and bolts of many of the key management practices and approaches. When you implement what we cover in this book, you will see significant improvements. If there are topics that you do not see included, fear not. We are already working on Management Training: By The Book Part Two and we have provided a listing of the topics at the back of this book. Just a few comments about the way this book is structured. Each Chapter (Course) contains an introduction page which also includes a description of the objectives of the course and some discussion concerning why the topic is important. You will also see an icon like this you can take related to the topic being discussed. quite often. This indicates specific action steps that

Included in this book are several exercises, assessment tools and worksheets designed to help you implement what is presented. Feel free to print these out so you can work on them. One last thing before we get started: why not take a couple of minutes and develop a list of the reasons why you want to improve your effectiveness as a manager or supervisor. Please print the following page and jot down your thoughts. Then refer to this list from time to time to remind yourself of why you are doing this and the pay-offs you expect to achieve.

“Whatever I have tried to do in life, I have tried with my heart to do it well.”
- Charles Dickens

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank

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Why I want to improve my effectiveness

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Negative Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study Getting Employee Feedback Learning Exercises 45 47 50 51 55 58 63 70 72 Course 4: Empowerment and Motivation Introduction and Objectives The Impact of Low Motivation What Can a Manager or Supervisor Do? A Model for Motivating Employees Establishing a Motivational Baseline What Motivates Your Employees? What Motivators Does Your Environment Lack? Fill The Gaps Communicate Your Plan to Your Staff Evaluate Staff and Environment Periodically Learning Exercises 77 79 80 84 85 87 88 89 92 92 93 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page iii . Mental and Spiritual Health Learning Exercises 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 Course 2: Adaptive Leadership Introduction and Objectives What's Your Style? What is Personal Autonomy? Determining an Employee's Level of Personal Autonomy Your Management Style for Different Levels of Personal Autonomy Topic Challenges Other Learning Exercises 27 28 29 31 33 36 38 Course 3: Goal Setting and Feedback Introduction and Objectives The Importance of Goal Setting and Giving Feedback What Can Interfere With Goal Setting and Giving Feedback? Effective Goal Setting Providing Effective Feedback .Positive Feedback Providing Effective Feedback .Table of Contents Page # Course 1: Qualities of Leadership Introduction and Objectives What is Leadership? The Qualities of Leadership Genuine respect for others Humility Honesty and Integrity Confidence and Courage Influential Decisive Effective communicator Core Values Driven by constant improvement Physical.

Table of Contents continued Course 5: Coaching Introduction and Objectives What is Coaching and why should you do it? The Old Way – Command and Control How to Become a Coach Focused Coaching Coaching and Goal Setting Tracking Performance In Summary and Learning Exercises 97 98 99 100 102 106 106 107 Course 6: Listen Up! – How to Listen Effectively Introduction and Objectives Speaking and Listening – The Rules Barriers To Effective Listening Listening Styles So I’m Listening – Now What? When You Know You Can’t Listen But You’re Not Listening Improving Your Listening Skills Learning Exercises 111 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 Course 7: Straight Talk: Making Your Point Introduction and Objectives The Three Critical Elements Is Your Message Clear? Making Your Point: General Tips Making Your Point: Next Time Learning Exercises 127 129 131 133 134 137 Course 8: Managing Difficult Situations Introduction and Objectives What Are Some Typical Difficult Situations? Why Do We Avoid Difficult Situations? What’s The Impact? What Can a Manager Do? 15 Difficult Employee Situation Case Studies Learning Exercises 141 142 143 144 145 147 163 Course 9: Managing Conflict Introduction and Objectives Personal vs. Functional Conflict Situations With The Potential For Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict When To Go to Your Manager That Tricky Situation Conflict Case Studies Learning Exercises 167 168 169 170 174 175 177 179 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page iv .

Table of Contents continued Course 10: Managing Change Introduction and Objectives Dynamics – What Causes Resistance to Change Managing Change and Reducing Resistance General Points About Managing Change Mechanics of Change Management Change Management Process / System Designing a Change Management Process Learning Exercises 185 186 187 189 190 191 193 195 Course 11: Team Building Introduction and Objectives Great Teams Stages of Team Development Cycling Through Team Stages Roles of Team Members When Your Team’s Not Working Rewarding Teams and Team Behavior Effective Team Building Case Study Learning Exercises 199 201 202 210 214 215 218 219 222 Course 12: Conducting Performance Evaluations Introduction and Objectives Performance Management versus Performance Evaluation Performance Evaluations: What’s The Purpose? Performance Evaluations and Legal Issues The Performance Evaluation: Key Components The Performance Evaluation Process Conducting the Performance Evaluation Follow Up on the Performance Evaluation Case Studies Performance Evaluations: Common Mistakes In Summary and Learning Exercises 231 233 235 236 237 238 240 241 242 246 247 255 256 About the Authors About The Training Bank Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page v .

Eisenhower “You must manage as if you need your employees more than they need you.“Leadership is the ability to decide what is to be done and then to get others to want to do it.” .Peter Drucker Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page vi .” Dwight D.

Qualities of Leadership .

" etc. friend. When the company faces a significant challenge or uncertainty. Ask a hundred management scholars and you'll get a hundred different opinions on the qualities of leadership." "visionary.and that titles and authority alone won't earn respect. Occasionally. Because they're human." That's it in a nutshell. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 1 . leaders make mistakes and own them . so do their followers. its customers and its employees.i. someone will offer what we think is a truly distinguishing observation. the leader's calm demeanor bolsters confidence and motivation in others. Maybe it's a manager you work with . Leaders have a genuine. Their decisions are decisive and well founded in arguments that support the core values of the company. Leaders believe that their followers are capable of anything and as a result. But something about that person caught your attention.maybe not. They know that their power rests on the relationships they build with others . They made you believe you were capable of more than you thought.at least for a moment. Chances are they made you feel significant. They're consistent in their actions and words and show no favoritism.e." What are they? Is a person born a leader or can they be trained as a leader? Can anyone learn to be a leader? Can an employee be a leader or do you need to have people reporting to you to lead? The list goes on and on. The good news is that when you boil them all down there are some very common themes that appear." "confident. They made you dream . First let's discuss "leadership" in some general terms. The term "follower" sounds like an obedient golden retriever but we'll use it anyway. It may not even be someone you know from work . your imagination and your admiration. GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 offers an overview of Leadership in general terms describes key competencies or characteristics associated with leadership provides an exercise to identify the leadership qualities in others provides a downloadable self-assessment for evaluating your personal leadership strengths and weaknesses Why is this important? No doubt you know someone who you would consider a leader. unquestioned respect for the individuals around them. What really defines a leader is their ability to make individuals feel committed to a cause or challenge. That's what leaders do. etc. a coach. But not only do they feel committed. "You don't often notice or think about the qualities of a leader.and they expect and tolerate mistakes from others. In our leadership training class we routinely ask the audience to define the qualities of a leader. Many participants suggest traits like "charismatic. Leaders make those that choose to follow them feel important and significant.Qualities of Leadership For decades organizational scholars have debated the qualities of a "leader. they take action. teacher. What's noticeable is how they make you feel.

have the qualities of leadership but never get the chance to demonstrate them." He accepted no personal ownership for the problem. that all along there had been a leader . maybe all. they wait for someone else to step forward and take that chance.they didn't even have a process designed! And. That's when the consultant took him in private.apathy. So instead. Often times the person that steps forward is ostracized as a "non-team player" because they don't conform to popular wisdom. The meeting broke ."Shouldn't we get Senior Management to appoint a leader to oversee this effort.. cynicism.. It's also the model you may want to use for your own development or for assessing leadership in others. John approached the consultant and suggested he and the consultant speak with Doug to explain that John was project leader and get that clarified. your friends..." or ".. your spirituality.Qualities of Leadership Introduction: What is Leadership? Leadership is unique. The process of managing projects cut across all departments and functions so.John."Its scope is larger than planned.. experiences. Other times someone with leadership potential may grow frustrated because their company offers no opportunity to exercise that potential. Some people. By acknowledging yourself as a leader you'd be forfeiting one of the true traits of a leader .".yet they couldn't get buy in on the system . At the meeting an adjunct member (Doug) posed a question . But naturally. John spoke up and acknowledged that the project was off course and rattled off some reasons why . They wait their whole life for that single situation that forces them to reach deep down and find the courage to step outside what's comfortable. your physical fitness. "Lack of support from other areas. The remainder of this module will examine a model of leadership that we've drafted based on other models of leadership.it's tough to schedule work. Can you really be an effective leader at work if you don't devote the same intensity to your personal and physical life? Truly effective leaders maintain a healthy balance among all facets of their life..?" The irony is. they were building the project management application? Frustration was beginning to manifest itself in the destructive behaviors that tear apart a team .end of the year . cliques. Let others decide you're a leader by your actions and attitude. They'd work into the night to build a prototype to meet one group's specifications then find out someone else didn't like it. How could you? A leader accepts that he/she can always improve. implementation dates were set.since the consultant assisted with process and project management a couple of the members confided in him. No sooner did the team get out of one meeting and they'd be back in another. your commitment to community and fellow man. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 2 . opinions were plentiful. A consultant was working with a team charged with the development of a client-server based. and shortcomings. most people fear the unknown.... project management application at a large bank. The two are inseparable... observations of personal strengths.humbleness. If you are serious about developing your leadership qualities recognize that it should be a life long pursuit .. communications sent out and training scheduled .and one that you'll never fully achieve... And remember. of course. They fear the ridicule of taking a stance or an unpopular position.. It occurs when an individual with the right motivations meets the right opportunity.those close to the project knew John just got slammed like a screen door in windstorm. In the long run their vision can direct the company to new opportunities. Your family. theory.. anger. The team agreed it was time to go to senior management and ask for support. Still.all play a role in shaping your leadership qualities. leadership spills outside of the workplace... your thirst for knowledge . A Lack of Leadership An Example.

Early on when team members had concerns about a lack of buy in. ill attended. John was reluctant to go to management. the team tried to appease everyone.. Rarely were specific tasks assigned to members so progress was difficult to gauge. See if you can think of a person who demonstrates each quality better than anyone else. or we sort of have..Qualities of Leadership Introduction: What is Leadership? continued In the consultants' opinion. with no agenda or documentation." is the crux of this example. or I think we might. Doug was the one showing leadership by sticking his neck out to bring the problem into the open. Meetings were called on the fly.."maybe we should.no plan to get from point A to point B. informal leader with their concerns instead of the formal leader? We all recognize leadership when we see it.... How many times have you seen it . Review the list and think about each one before moving on to the detailed sections. John had developed a very passive approach to leading the project. That in itself suggests some universal traits.... What matters is the opinion of followers. When a team is suffering members will rally behind the person who steps forward . Rather than seek the ear of upper management and gain consensus on a design. The next section describes the ten characteristics of effective leaders.. He was indecisive . Leadership by appointment and title means nothing..problems persist and team members flock to an un-appointed. The fact that someone asked the question "Shouldn't we get a leader. Needless to say there was no project plan that united members . With a sincere commitment and a willingness to be self-critical anyone can develop those leadership traits. Facilitation fell to whoever spoke the loudest since John's voice conveyed little energy or confidence.. In the above example." so there were few consistencies the team could use to guide them.. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 3 ..whether or not it's the person who owns the title of leader. No vision.

Mental and Spiritual Health The first trait we'll look at is "Genuine respect for others". 1. Genuine respect for others 2. Physical. Decisive 7. After you have completed reading this course. Go to the next page to learn more. Effective communicator 8. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 4 . Humility 3.Qualities of Leadership The Qualities of Leadership Here are the qualities we'll examine in detail. Without that you can't expect "others" to respect you. Core Values (predictable) 9. Confidence and Courage 5. Honesty and Integrity 4. Driven by constant improvement 10. Influential 6. use the leadership selfassessment (printable exercise) which is found on the last page of this course to evaluate yourself on the behaviors associated with these qualities.

It's how you apologize when you're wrong. etc. Is not influenced by gender. Read on. Thanks co-workers for their efforts and hard work. then resistance and conflict erupts. You may say. 4. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 5 ." But. Is sensitive to co-workers' personal life and commitments outside of work. Follows all guidelines for avoidance of discrimination and harassment in the workplace. preferential treatment by managers. 2. when they allow inequities. So how does someone decide whether or not you respect him or her? It's in the way you speak to them. The key word there is perceive. 6. It's like the manager who can't admit mistakes and inadvertently teaches his staff to hide theirs. 5.their perception is their reality.Leadership Behaviors 1.e. Likewise we notice the person who takes credit for someone else's work. 7.Qualities of Leadership Genuine Respect for Others This is perhaps the fundamental trait of an effective leader.. regardless of position/title in a professional manner. It's in the way you listen. It's in the way you treat them no differently than you would the president of the company. race. religion. If history has demonstrated anything it's that when one group lacks a genuine respect for others. "Of course I respect them.. Does not tolerate inequity . 3. It's in how you thank them for their effort (if you do). If those around you perceive a lack of respect for them . Treats all employees with equity. if their perception is you don't . Speaks to all coworkers.i. or any other personal characteristics. selection or evaluation practices. It's in the way you respond to their requests for help. It's in the way you're sensitive to cultural and gender issues. Genuine respect for others . Takes time to listen objectively to the ideas and opinions of coworkers. If situation does not allow full attention he/she offers an opportunity for follow up..they'll never respect you. unfair interviewing. It's in how you credit them for their accomplishments. age. We all notice when someone is humble.

However. Leaders also have to be comfortable stepping back and letting others take the driver's seat when they're the experts. Here's an experience that speaks to the importance of respect and humility as leadership qualities. they were able to reduce foam residue by 8% and theorized a method to cut the residue another 4050%. they acknowledge the importance of the team. The team was quickly losing confidence that their hard work and ingenuity was not being realized.. Several commented that the team leader always spoke in terms of "I" rather than "we. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 6 . They were already angry that the team leader insisted on presenting the findings alone when he was not knowledgeable enough to speak to the specifics. Meanwhile team members had gotten a hold of the modified status reports. Due to the significant progress in the product viability there was talk that the team leader would be promoted to Product Manager Things unraveled fast. In short time the engineering team had identified a method to produce the product in larger batches cutting the production cost. In the reports the team leader took direct credit for supervising the processes when that was untrue. Due to the chemical nature the components had to be processed and treated before they could be combined to produce the solvent.it's okay to be open about it. He insisted that no communications be sent out by team members on the progress and that he would serve as the communication vehicle. By recognizing that. Not a bad policy from a project management standpoint but his method had a disastrous effect on the team. Another portion worked with R&D to address the foam residue. "It's okay to err.Qualities of Leadership Humility Leaders recognize that they alone cannot move the world. They know their power lies in the cumulative efforts and talents of their followers.almost. They need to work as part of a team. That's humility. Later they found a way to eliminate a major step in mixing the components of the solvent. Then came the kicker.a daunting task. as real people that anyone can follow and aspire to emulate. He also presented findings directly to management. Seemed progress reports from the Engineering and R&D teams were being reworded by the team leader and forwarded to management. Seemed everything was going better than expected . A team leader was appointed to oversee the effort. Instead. Progress ground to a halt as the team leader found himself trying to repair his relationship with the team and salvage his credibility with management.and it's okay to ask for help. The team members took up the challenge to reform the product in six months . The team leader took it upon himself to present the findings to upper management. The solvent would be used by large manufacturers to purify transport containers. Team members complained to the team leader and upper management. Humbleness also means accepting responsibility for personal mistakes and acknowledging when help is needed. The R&D team was taking longer due to the complexity of their task. They need to allow others to step into the limelight and be recognized." How much energy and resources are wasted in organizations because mistakes and failures are covered up? How many opportunities to learn and improve are lost because we're afraid to acknowledge problems? Leaders have to be seen as human. It was also expensive to manufacture." A subtle observation but an important one. Had the team leader made an effort to recognize the team they would have continued to give 110% to the cause. and the strengths and weaknesses of the individuals that comprise it. At a chemical manufacturing plant a team was tasked with improving the production process for a prototype industrial solvent. Humble leaders realize that they cannot move mountains by themselves. the inequity stole their motivation. By doing so you model a powerful quality to those around you. A portion of the team worked with engineering to analyze the production process. Perhaps the most effective leader is the one that fades into the scenery allowing the team to be recognized and steps into only to offer direction and encouragement. It says.. While the new solvent showed tremendous promise in this niche market it produced an unacceptable amount of foam residue...

Qualities of Leadership Humility continued Humility . 4. Actually honesty . 2.Leadership Behaviors 1. "Lying" may be too strong a term. Did you ever hear someone justify a situation by saying .or the lack of it . It's how willing a person is to dabble in the grey area. 3."I didn't lie . Ensures coworkers and team are recognized for accomplishments rather than promoting self." Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 7 .you didn't ask me. Encourages others to take the lead when they are the most knowledgeable or capable. When needed he/she asks for help from coworkers and management. Will assist with tasks and responsibilities "below" his/her level when coworkers or team needs support.in organizational terms is more subtle.

customers. to "creatively interpret data. integrity. Maintains the highest ethical standards when dealing with customers and suppliers or vendors.Leadership Behaviors 1. Everywhere in our lives we seek equity and fairness. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 8 . With integrity you build trust with those around you. Honesty and Integrity . Especially in large organizations where things become paralyzed in decision making because there are so many layers and levels of approval . and what can be done to improve them. Confidence is contagious. 3. It means telling your manager that the numbers regarding your productivity have slacked off. Openly admits mistakes and failures so they can be rectified.it's refreshing for someone to step out of bounds once in awhile. it is part of human nature to resist inequity. How many times are reports. he/she jeopardizes their honesty and integrity. Does not claim credit for accomplishments that he/she was not directly involved in. Honesty. Read on to learn more." to carefully word status reports in vague.Qualities of Leadership Honesty and Integrity Obviously a blatant liar is going to have a hard time motivating and convincing others to respect them. 2. while the worker bees get laid off? If history has taught us anything. Why does it seem certain laws apply to some but not others? How about taxes? How many times have you seen someone get the job for all the wrong reasons? Why is it when profits plunge. Honesty is the foundation of one's integrity. It means explaining openly how a mistake occurred and owning it if it's your fault. half-truths. But usually (not always) honesty in the organizational sense is more subtle. Does not manipulate data or information for personal gain or protection. and genuine respect promote one of the most crucial elements in a healthy work . executives get a raise. It's also rare. numbers and opinions massaged and sanitized out of fear upper management will be displeased with reality? Honesty requires sharing information with those around you rather than hoarding it. etc. management. If someone is willing to dabble in the grey areas. Then personal agendas can be tossed aside for that of the team. 4. Will maintain promises or at least offer an explanation why they can't be kept (promises to coworkers. to make empty promises to staff. It means telling someone that you think he/she doesn't have the skill set for the position they're interested in .but could develop them.) 5.equity.

will hunch its back. Speaks with a confident in tone. 2.only makes me stronger. 3. in the presence of the pack leader. If they have doubts. In times of true challenge it is the leader's confidence that inspires others Consider also the more overt signs of confidence. Avoids passive words and phrases such as "try. in their words and in their demeanor. those around them are sure to see it in their actions. The point is how you carry yourself conveys a message to those around you.. leaders just try harder. they're not a leader. Leaders have that something extra that gets others to buy into their ideas and jump aboard.. as a sign that it is submissive and loyal to the pack leader (If you try that one with your boss. Unless a person can influence others to follow their vision." "maybe. management.. and customers even when the message is negative.Leadership Behaviors 1.opportunity to learn and to take a step closer to the solution.. They may not conform to "the way we've always done things. This may sound a bit primal but we respond to physical queues the same way animals do. we'd be curious to know the outcome). If he/she panics followers will lose faith. Attempts new ventures that will improve the company/department performance even if those ventures are untried or unproven." Is comfortable and convincing when speaking to groups. 5. even how you lean into or away from conversation sends important messages regarding your confidence. bow its head and avoid eye contact." Believe it. Confidence and Courage . Leaders have the attitude "That which doesn't kill me. fully exposed. Sometimes it's in what they don't do. call us. a leader has to be secure enough in his/her convictions to advocate new directions even if the short-term response is rejection or ridicule. 6.Qualities of Leadership Confidence and Courage A leader is the first to believe in his/her abilities. Leaders understand that failure represents opportunity . sword drawn. When times get tough everyone can turn to the leader and vent. At the most blatant level a servant wolf will lie on its back. Helps others accomplish tasks rather than micromanage or interfere with their work. Speaks openly and honestly to co-workers. that intrinsic drive to try no matter what. Whether you are confident in stature and voice. The next page explains more. Leaders also have to rely on their courage when there is no one else to turn to. Maintains a calm. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 9 . Places his/her personal reputation on the line for challenging deliverables because he/she believes they are attainable. if you maintain eye contact." In fact. They can say "no" when unreasonable requests are made of them or their team. 4." "sort of. By trying to appease everyone a leader knows they can lose the confidence of others. But who does the leader turn to? He or she turns to that flame inside them. A wolf. and scarf waving in the wind. Having confidence and courage doesn't mean an employee or manager has to swing in on a chandelier. Rather than roll over and play dead. professional demeanor under times of stress and "crunch" times.

A leader's ego allows others to save face (at least publicly). To the leader. The leader's motivation should be to improve the good of the company or department.Leadership Behaviors 1. It means asking others to abandon the comfortableness of their current position and take the leap of faith that the leader's vision will lead to a better state. the answer could be as obvious as a finger in the eye but that means nothing unless others are convinced. 3. Communicates their idea in a way that is genuine and credible. The ability to persuade coworkers. To methodically defuse those anxieties the leader must first understand why someone is resistant or hesitant about an idea. The leader must provide empirical evidence that his/her recommendation will in fact lead to improvement. The leader must be flexible enough in his/her own thinking so as to alter his/her own plan of action so issues of resistance are minimized. While the leader sees change as a means to improvement others may be threatened because change suggests that the way they've always done things has been wrong. 5. If they don't have a track record of honesty and fair play those around them ill lose trust. Addresses resistance to change and accepts change openly. How does a leader influence others? First the leader must anticipate resistance to change.and looks for a leader. That means appreciating the motivations and anxieties of those around him/her. Unless that's done the group stagnates . By anticipating resistance. 2.Qualities of Leadership Influential Most times a leader's vision for the future means changing the status quo. Successfully builds and maintains relationships with individuals outside his/her sphere of responsibility. If anyone suspects the leader is out to promote his/her own interests then influence is lost. 4. Emotional arguments alone will rarely persuade others. Does not come across as manipulative or self serving. Listens effectively to concerns and issues and ensures they are addressed in order to build a true win-win relationship for all parties. Influential . concrete evidence) for his/her position or idea. Critical to a leader's ability to influence is their honesty and integrity. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 10 . management. Employees will gravitate towards those who provide clarity and direction. The leader must wait patiently as the group he/she is trying to influence arrives mentally at the same conclusion the leader is advocating. That requires someone to make a decision. When resistance occurs a leader must listen and respond with empathy to the concerns. Without trust influence is lost. Provides empirical support (data. listening to concerns and offering supportive alternatives a leader has laid the foundation for influencing others. Can effectively and convincingly communicate the benefit their idea will have for the company or organization. providing empirical justification for the change. and customers is absolutely paramount to a leader's success.

i. 3. After listening to the parties argue the leader decides a 50-50 split is the easiest solution. Escalates issues when a particular decision is out of his/her jurisdiction. if your company determines customers are dissatisfied with service. 5. when a decision can only be made by the leader. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 11 . an "employee leader" would help the manager convince appropriate decision makers and do his/her best to persuade that person that the change is worthwhile. For instance. Sounds obvious. Makes difficult decisions when no one will and communicates a rationale for the decision. By communication and focusing on specific business priorities and core values (see below) no decision comes out of left field. an employee suggests an improvement for his department by changing a work process that affects several other departments. Other times. Have you ever listened to someone present and idea when they're loaded with enthusiasm and passion . train and retain good service reps. "Decisive" doesn't necessarily mean the leader makes quick decisions. Other times it will appear the leader has facilitated a decision when in fact all he/she has done is allowed a compromise. In other cases a leader may not be able to make a particular decision . management shouldn't balk at spending more to hire. Makes decisions in a timely manner. The important point is leaders don't delay or avoid decisions. It's not uncommon for work to stagnate or grind to a halt because no one is willing to make an important decision. he/she is able to convey a rational basis for it. but how often are lofty strategic objectives lost in the trenches. In that case.but you're not exactly sure what they said? They know exactly what they mean but somehow it gets lost in the presentation. That way the entire group can come to consensus on the best course of action.e. 2. 4.Qualities of Leadership Decisive Individuals are more apt to follow a leader's aspirations if the leader appears decisive. For instance. It means the leader can structure dialogue with others so as to logically arrive at a consensus. When a leader makes a decision it will be consistent and logically supportive of business priorities and core values.Leadership Behaviors 1. suppose team members are arguing over how the yearly budget should be allotted. Maybe it was the easiest but was it the best? A leader would take the time to understand the business justification for both options. One group wants to purchase new software another wants to spend it on training. Takes time to fully understand all options before making or promoting a decision. Makes decisions that are logically consistent with the business priorities and core values of the company or department. Decisive ..

for a person to be an effective leader they must be an effective listener. presentations. Many people have values that guide their life. Can you really make effective decisions (decisive) if you don't listen carefully to the opinions of others? Effective Communicator . That skill is difficult for most people .." Their language is honest.Leadership Behaviors 1. and in a manner that all can relate to.) This is an aspect of leadership that few people ever take the time to think about in business . They will avoid the sterile. meetings. Just consider the other leadership qualities discussed.Due to the competitive nature of the marketplace and our industry. (email. This may require. concise and convincing manner. It's difficult to concentrate on their message because their physical appearance is a distraction. adjustments in our staffing and resource allocation. How can someone lead if he/she cannot convince others to follow? Have you ever watched someone give a presentation who is stammering and obviously nervous and weak kneed. Though effective at raising anxiety while telling employees little. concise. their decisions ." This excerpt was taken from an actual company wide announcement. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 12 . 5. If you're not willing to truly listen to someone can you demonstrate genuine respect? If you're not willing to listen to the concerns of others you won't dismantle their resistance to new ideas and your influence is lost. What's important to you at work? The next section describes core values in behavioral terms. confident manner.communication skills are critical. clear and accurate.yet it's quite common outside work. 2. Practices effective listening skills. Produces documents that are of the highest quality . In addition.Qualities of Leadership Effective Communicator . Leaders will take the time to explain the direction of the organization.. voice mail etc.everything. Considering "influential" is a key attribute of leadership . impersonal announcements that earn the label "corporate announcement. cryptic. convincing manner. 3. leaders must be able to stand confidently in front of a crowd and voice their opinion in a logical. we must adapt our strategic initiatives and realign our core operations to enhance our productivity and financial position. Finally. Utilizes all available company communication channels in an effective manner. We will publish additional communications as those determinations are made. 4. it is hardly the type of communication people associate with effective leadership. Verbalizes ideas and opinions in a very clear. Able to present ideas and opinions to audiences in a very comfortable.but in terms of leadership it is absolutely critical. bulletins. where necessary.professional.

Core Values . Leaders communicate and reinforce those values consistently. He/she is likely to make the same assumptions for staff. employee well being. The result is a culture shaped by the values of that leader. They're driven by an internal desire to constantly improve the business. her dialogue and the priorities she set for her operations. Excessive overtime and burdensome hours are likely to be curtailed since they could interfere with personal commitments. Beliefs that shaped her thinking.Leadership Behaviors 1. For instance. Makes decisions consistent with the company's core values. in some of the courses in this program we offer brief 4-8 steps or mini-frameworks for easy use.does my department or company have core values? If so. That value will manifest itself in time off policies that encourage and support family commitments. The VP successfully convinced corporate to change the policy. take a step as a leader and ask! A leader is never satisfied. Models the core values that management communicates to staff. Supports policies and procedures that reinforce core values. For employees it is especially important that you align yourself with the core values in your company so your actions and words support the company's objectives. The key point is this . 5. For instance. 4.Qualities of Leadership Core Values At a managed healthcare company the Vice President posted a set of core values that she believed should govern the way we do business. Two of those core values were: "Our customers' needs will dictate every action we take" and "Promote equity in the work environment by recognizing the vital contributions of all staff. her decisions. Why? It violated two of our core values. It wasn't equitable since it allowed some staff preferential treatment and at the same time it minimized the importance of customer service. These core values are softer and less tangible than management skills. Reinforces core values by recognizing co-workers who exemplify those values. 3. Once followers recognize a leader's commitment to core values they'll shape their own actions and behavior to comply with the same values. customer service. Work becomes ho hum and "good enough" is standard practice. You might be wondering . Go to the next page for more details. employees’ relationships with customers. Similarly. customer service representatives) got two weeks. and work ethic. Employees understand their role in supporting these core values.core values of leaders are obvious in both their words and actions. 2. Without that desire a group stagnates. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 13 . etc. Core Values are principles by which a leader chooses to shape his or her actions. That VP exemplified true leadership. Those mini-frameworks become tools for employees and managers in certain situations." At the same time there was a long standing policy in existence that allowed clinicians three weeks of vacation while non-clinicians (i. If a leader is successful in communicating and modeling core values others will learn to adjust their thinking and recommendations to support those same values. Communicates a consistent set of core values regarding business quality.e. suppose a manager decides that to be truly productive he/she must maintain a healthy balance between work and family life. Her actions and decisions were predictable because they were shaped by strong values and beliefs that she held important.

Qualities of Leadership Continuous Improvement Some companies market their Total Quality Management campaign to customers as leading edge. laugh openly. and spiritual . If you neglect your personal needs . Just as a leader constantly pushes him/herself to improve his/her skills. physical health. For employees this means constantly asking yourself: "Is there a way to improve my performance or the performance of my team?" Driven by Constant Improvement . They ask their manager for aggressive. A leader won't settle for just getting by. If someone is truly a leader they will never settle for good enough. but realistic targets to better their performance. 2. even small ones. measuring.you'll lose your edge as a leader Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 14 . and performance a leader expects the same of others. Abides by policies and procedures that exist for monitoring. Without a balance in your life you can't be an effective leader at work. and improving quality. knowledge. Demonstrates constant improvement by way of data and results. The two are inseparable. but ask employees and they'll either agree politely or if cynicism gets the best of them. They constantly challenge every department and every person to find ways to improve products and service. 4. as long they're constantly on the look out for them. their business will. Constantly raises expectations for product and service quality rather than settling for mediocrity or "acceptable" performance.Leadership Behaviors 1. Praise co-workers for suggestions and ideas that improve quality. If leaders stagnate.family. 3. They look for ways to make improvements. More often than not the company seems to fight fire after fire and is lucky just to maintain the status quo. mental health.

Being physically fit also suggests a discipline characteristic of leaders. You must take deliberate actions to reduce stress and use it constructively. personal. attitudes and decisions against a framework of ethical and moral standards. 4. and otherwise send signals to others that he/she cannot handle the pressure. and work. Manages stress effectively so it does not interfere with the quality of his/her work. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 15 . family/personal. you don't have to run marathons.Leadership Behaviors 1. Those who can effectively deal with stress actually use it as a fuel to drive their accomplishments. Spiritual health? This may strike a nerve with some because it can be misinterpreted as religious commitment. Just as they have a core set of values that drives their spirituality they have core values that drive their efforts at work. and work obligations. Recognizing that you are not perfect and that you must constantly work to better all facets of your life is a key characteristic of leadership. Belief in a higher power (whatever your devotion) propels an individual towards the ideal self. Overwhelmed by stress. You'll also have a chance to assess your own leadership skills. healthy balance between family. Periodic absences will stall and stagnate important initiatives and undermine the confidence of staff. a person who is physically fit is more confident and that confidence is perceived by others. Devotes time and attention to proper exercise and diet to maintain good physical health. an employee or manager will make hasty decisions. Physical. Maintains a productive. This discipline pervades every aspect of a leader's life. community. Constantly critiques his/her own behavior. with the responsibility of leadership comes the stress of leadership. Now. Constant physical ailments wear on an individual's ability to concentrate and focus. They devote time to all aspects of their well rounded life. Here's why we think it's important. Mental and Spiritual Health . They pursue the ideal organization. Mental and Spiritual Health We firmly believe that someone must have a certain degree of physical fitness to be effective as a leader. 3. decisions are jeopardized. bench press three hundred pounds and a have a cholesterol level of 10. 2. cut corners. Spiritual beliefs provide a doctrine that forces us to examine our own actions and motivations against a core of morality.how can they expect anything less of themselves? Finally. How about a few exercises to help apply these concepts? The next section provides an exercise where you identify someone you think exemplifies the characteristics of leadership. They expect their followers to expend energy to constantly improve . As for mental health. but then you shouldn't get winded walking to the water cooler either. That begins with recognizing the physical symptoms of stress.Qualities of Leadership Physical. That pursuit of the ideal self in spirituality spills over into the leader's work life. When fatigue sets in.

Did you ever stop to think about what makes them different . Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. That choice is your first important leadership decision so make it count. Exercise 2: Leadership Self-assessment Now it is time to assess your own leadership qualities? Try this self assessment. Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. (this exercise consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 16 .Qualities of Leadership Learning Exercises . Below is a short description of each exercise.and how you can develop those skills? Try this exercise to help you identify leadership behavior. These exercises are found on the following pages. We have provided three learning activities to help you apply what you have learned in this course. Leadership comes from within. You get to choose what kind of leader you want to be. Exercise 1: Who is a leader? You notice leadership in certain people. Please print out each of these exercises so you can complete them.

Write down." To take the exercise a step further contrast this person with someone who you feel was especially ineffective as a leader. More importantly. For instance. By contrasting the two you will begin to really highlight the qualities of leadership that you appreciate. Only you can apply them as real behaviors. rather than "He treated me with respect" . Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 17 .probe deeper: "He took the time to listen my ideas and provide feedback. in specific behavioral terms.Qualities of Leadership Exercise 1: Who is a Leader? (2 pages) The best way to apply these principles is to understand them in behavioral terms. Take some time to complete the exercise below: Exercise: Who is a leader? Think about your own work experiences. can you recall your emotions as you worked with these two individuals? How did they make you feel about your job? For Example: Positive Leadership behaviors Always challenged our team to find new ways to improve our work Spoke courteously to all employees Spoke passionately about new directions and possibilities for the company vs Negative Leadership behaviors Accepted work as usual Was abrupt and impatient when speaking with employees Showed little energy or enthusiasm for new ideas and challenges Complete this exercise in the space provided on the following page." "He always said thank you when I made an extra effort. what that person did that distinguished them as a leader. Does someone stand out as having a significant impact on your motivation and performance? Did anyone energize you to feel especially committed to a cause or project? Recognizing the qualities of leadership in someone else is one of the best ways of improving your own. We've provided words and theory based on academics and real life experiences.

For Example: Positive Leadership behaviors vs Negative Leadership behaviors What did you learn as a result of completing this exercise? Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 2. (Consists of 6 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 18 .

or my relationship with them. You do not want to lose your train of thought. Instructions • Complete all the questions on the self-assessment • Follow the instructions provided at the end of the assessment for scoring each section of the assessment Rate your general style for each item .not how you interact with certain people or situations. I personally thank fellow employees for their efforts or see that they are recognized by management. race. I treat all employees the same regardless of title. Ratings are based on a scale of 1 to 6 as follows: 1 Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3 Agree Somewhat 4 Disagree Somewhat 5 Disagree 6 Strongly Disagree Place a check mark indicating your response to each statement provided in the appropriate column to the right underneath the rating number that corresponds with the above scale. I hold in confidence personal information that others share with me. I keep promises that I make to others.Qualities of Leadership Exercise: Leadership Self-Assessment (6 pages) This assessment tool is designed to help you to evaluate your personal leadership skills. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 19 . It will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.) and do not judge others by them. We will provide instructions on scoring at the end of the self-assessment. Please do not complete the scoring at the end of each section until you have responded to all the statements. Genuine Respect for others 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I make time to listen to others' ideas and concerns. I appreciate individual differences (gender. Complete the selfassessment to identify areas where you can develop your leadership ability. age. etc. There are no right or wrong answers so err on the side of being self-critical since that is the only way you can improve. position. I understand when coworkers have personal problems and provide support so they can address them I speak to all employees in a professional and respectful manner.

I avoid distorting facts and data for personal gain.1 Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3 Agree Somewhat 4 Disagree Somewhat 5 Disagree 6 Strongly Disagree Humbleness 9 10 11 12 13 I admit when I make mistakes and own them before others. When assessing a problem situation I will first determine how I've contributed to it. I ask for the opinions of others and their help when needed. I look to coworkers when they are more knowledgeable regarding a task or topic. I bring bad news to the immediate attention of management. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Honesty and Integrity 14 15 16 17 18 I tell the truth at work even when it's not popular or easy to accept. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 20 . I tell people the reality of a situation rather than what they want to hear. I would not be threatened by someone because they had an important skill that I lacked. I comply with all business ethics pertaining to my job.

Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Influential 31 32 33 34 35 When presenting an idea or plan I make sure it is well thought out and based on facts and data. I take the time to listen to. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 21 . When making a suggestion I consider the impact it will have on others before presenting it to them. I remain calm in crisis situations. I welcome and encourage negative feedback regarding my performance. Rather than shy away from conversation in meetings I actively engage in it. I push myself to pursue new ways of doing business even if untested.1 Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3 Agree Somewhat 4 Disagree Somewhat 5 Disagree 6 Strongly Disagree Confident/Courageous 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 I state my opinion even if it's not the popular one. I have confidence in my abilities and knowledge. I hold myself accountable for my actions and performance. I present my ideas diplomatically so others are not threatened or offended. and understand others' anxieties and concerns regarding my ideas. I take the time to fix problems the right way even if it means the problem will temporarily get worse. I am physically comfortable speaking in front of a group. I do not avoid making eye contact when speaking to or meeting with anyone. I "stick my neck out" in front of coworkers and management if I believe I have the answer. I speak in a forceful and confident tone. I am usually successful at persuading others to implement my ideas and suggestions.

I make myself available to coworkers who have questions. I do not procrastinate when making difficult decisions. not just when pressed for an opinion. and understand others before forming an opinion about their ideas. I approach all challenges and obstacles with a logical problem solving approach. I abide by our department's priorities to govern my work. Rather than assume I understand tasks and priorities. I support the decisions of management or question them if I disagree with a course of action. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Core values 47 48 49 I can recite the values and principles that management considers important to our success. I make a conscious effort to listen to. I constantly check my personal priorities and goals with those of my department to ensure they are in sync. When I speak with others I am usually enthusiastic and positive. When I am in meetings I press for clear decisions so follow up tasks can be appointed. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 22 . I confirm that I understand them by asking questions.1 Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3 Agree Somewhat 4 Disagree Somewhat 5 Disagree 6 Strongly Disagree Decisive 36 37 38 39 40 I will help lead my team to consensus when there is obvious differences in opinion. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Effective Communicator 41 42 43 44 45 46 I am frank and open with others. I understand the priorities of my department and set personal goals to support them.

I maintain an effective balance between work and my personal life. personal improvement goals for myself. I make use of customer feedback or look for problems to improve the business. I constantly compare my performance with others to push myself. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Please turn to the next page to get instructions on scoring this self-assessment. I constantly offer suggestions/ideas on how we can improve our business. I set challenging.1 Strongly Agree 2 Agree 3 Agree Somewhat 4 Disagree Somewhat 5 Disagree 6 Strongly Disagree Driven by Constant Improvement 50 51 52 53 54 I constantly challenge myself to find ways to improve our business. Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Physical. Mental and Spiritual Health 55 56 57 58 I spend time exercising to improve my health. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 23 . I miss little time from work due to physical illness or stress. I engage in activities designed to reduce stress.

Scoring: Column Sub-Totals Factor Total value for each column Total Score √ √ √ √ 1 2 √ 3 4 5 6 1 6 1 5 1 4 2 3 2 1 6 5 4 6 21 4. Add the totals for Each quality together and place the sums total here 6.effective as a manager but need focused improvement Excellent Leadership skills . I keep promises that I make to others. Add up the check marks in each column and place the total for each column in the spaces provided to the right 2. Compare your total score to the scale below Below 75 76 to 158 159 to 241 242 to 348 You need major improvements in all aspects of your Leadership skills Ability to exercise basic Leadership skills is evident but significant improvement is needed Average Leadership skills are evident .Here are instructions on how to score this self-assessment. 1. Add the totals for each column together and place the sum total in the box to the right. (One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 24 . I constantly challenge myself to find ways to improve our business I make myself available to coworkers who have questions.consider mentoring coworkers or seek promotion to management Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan. Sample I will help lead my team to consensus when there is obvious differences in opinion. Multiply the total for each column by the factor provided here and place the total scores for each column in the space provided to the right 3. Complete this for each quality of leadership and place the sum totals for each quality in the space provided below Totals form above Quality of Leadership Genuine Respect for others Humbleness Honesty and Integrity Confident/Courageous Influential Decisive Effective Communicator Core values Driven by Constant Improvement Physical. I speak to all employees in a professional and respectful manner. Mental and Spiritual Health 5.

stop and continue doing immediately. THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 25 . identify what you will start. in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course.Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 26 . That choice is your first important leadership decision so make it count.Notes: Leadership comes from within. You get to choose what kind of leader you want to be.

Adaptive Leadership .

That takes a lot of effort . That is they regularly seek the opinions of their employees and they empower them to make decisions. increasing revenue. they'll just expect you to adjust your management thermostat and act accordingly. in every situation with the same personal style. their degree of experience. conduct some market analysis. Why can't they show some initiative? How come they don't seem motivated to do a good job? You've told them over and over Doesn't it sink in? Guess what? Part of the problem may be your management style People expect varying degrees of support and direction depending on the responsibility they're faced with. And. work on the budget. they assume you'll just automatically alter your style to fit their needs. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 27 . GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 introduces the concept of using different leadership styles describes how managers and supervisors can assess an employee's level of supervisory need based on their proficiency and determination explains how managers can apply Adaptive Leadership to help employees become more productive provides a series of mini-case studies that will quiz your understanding of Adaptive Leadership provides worksheets for managers and supervisors to assess the Personal Autonomy of their staff and for delegating work to the most appropriate employees Why is this important? If you can effectively apply the concept of Adaptive Leadership with your staff you will be able to develop high quality employees who can run the daily business while you focus on critical items like expanding market share.but forget it. you could be "overmanaging" or "under-managing. Simply put. design an advertising campaign .Adaptive Leadership You're faced with the same constant challenge.or at least awareness. if you address each employee. The trick is knowing when to alter your style. Some managers are more directive while others tend to be more participative. Employees need help. diversifying your business . You're buried with day-to-day problems." The best approach would be to recognize the individual needs of your staff and be flexible in the amount of coaching and direction you provide.your family! Every manager has a predominant style of interacting with employees. On the other hand. They make mistakes and you've got to correct them (or so you assume). How can you get more done? You want to develop a business plan. They won't tell you. You should also analyze each task versus your employee's strengths and shortcomings to determine an appropriate level of support. You should evaluate each situation as a unique set of circumstances. and their level of determination. you need to exercise Adaptive Leadership.

On the other hand." Other managers believe they need to do the thinking they solve problems. A Theory Y manager would be less effective with an employee who needs a lot of support and coaching to learn a new task. In the 1950's. each manager does fall somewhere within this wide continuum of theories. a Theory X manager would assume that if he or she left the building their employees would either be fast asleep at their desks. they make decisions.longevity in the job. Given their personal experiences and attitudes. Important research done by Douglas MacGregor in the 1950's differentiated among what he called Theory X versus Theory Y managers. picking bugs from their hair. The level of Personal Autonomy an employee has towards a job or new task is based on their Determination (motivation) and their Proficiency (ability. The next section describes the concept of Personal Autonomy. You need to determine the right style of management to use. It's an important concept when exercising Adaptive Leadership. eating bananas. However. MacGregor proposed what was for the time. Knowing your style is only half the equation. decision making. if you've got a seasoned employee who knows the job inside and out. etc. they involve employees in problem solving. A participative style of management wouldn't work well in this case. A Theory Y manager believes that employees are fully capable of problem solving and making suggestions and need little direct supervision from management. By determining an employee's level of Personal Autonomy managers can then adjust their management accordingly. Theory Y managers feel that employees are inherently motivated to do a good job and that they gain a sense of self satisfaction from their accomplishments. the key is to adapt your style based upon the particular employee and their needs. desire to do the job. You need to know the particular needs of each employee and the best way to interact with employees. "Thinking" is the responsibility of management as if it were handed down by divine intervention. In the strictest of terms. But before you can do that you need to assess your employee's level of personal autonomy. Employees do what they're told to do. Some people refer to this type of management as "hands off. They would also have a tendency to be less effective with an employee who has performance problems. he or she probably can't (or is reluctant to) make decisions and solve problems. He or she is just interested in keeping his or her head above water. At the extreme. That means you need to be very flexible with your style of management. Employees are expected "to do" obediently. They need constant oversight and policing. They believe employees are lazy and will avoid work whenever possible. But the needs of each employee will change depending on many factors . While the Theory Y style of management is more "participative" and widely believed to be more effective. confidence for success. Theory X managers are just the opposite. a considerable number probably exhibit this behavior in more subtle ways. Their general orientation to Theory X or Y then shapes their management personality. few managers fit this extreme.Adaptive Leadership What's Your Style? Some managers are very participative. he/she doesn't want (or need) you to dictate their every move and thought. The role of a manager is to create an environment were the natural tendencies to work and produce would thrive. one overriding style would be detrimental. experience). They can be trusted to do a good job because they want to do a good job. An understanding of this simple theory can assist managers in significantly increasing employee productivity. So let's take a moment to review this important theory. a landmark management concept identified as Theory X and Theory Y. He maintained that each manager's personal style of interaction fell somewhere along a continuum between Theory X and Theory Y. But how do you gauge an employee's level of Personal Autonomy? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 28 . Again. and seek their input and suggestions on improving the business. or surfing the Internet for lewd websites. If you have a new employee learning a job. These managers give employees the authority to make decisions and to take action. Of course. That is.

Scenario Two: You ask George. and he accepts the responsibility willingly. George asks you how he should handle this situation. to meet with a customer who is very upset. to meet with a customer who is very upset. He doesn’t act nervous or unsure of himself. You explain the problem and ask George to take care of it.Adaptive Leadership What is Personal Autonomy? The basis of Adaptive Leadership is this: Assess the needs of the follower and then adapt your leadership style to match those needs. He seems unsure of how to handle the customer and even reluctant to try. When we talk about the “needs of the follower” we are referring to the person’s level of PERSONAL AUTONOMY in relation to a task he/she is completing. To assess determination level consider the following: • • What is the level of confidence he or she is exhibiting towards the completion of this task? What amount of willingness or eagerness are they demonstrating? PERSONAL AUTONOMY = PROFICIENCY + DETERMINATION Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 29 . George is exhibiting a low degree of PERSONAL AUTONOMY regarding this task. “What can we offer the customer? What if the customer is still upset?” George is visibly nervous about talking with this customer. To determine someone’s level of Personal Autonomy you need to consider their proficiency with a given task and their level of determination to perform the task. one of your employees. He doesn’t ask what to do–he knows. You explain the problem and ask Sam to take care of it. Sam needs no further supervision from you on this task. You determine ability by considering the following: • • • • • • What level of experience does the individual have in doing this task? Has he or she done it before? How many times? How well did he or she perform the task? Has he or she done similar tasks that required skills that are transferable to the task at hand? Does he or she have all of the knowledge required to complete the task? Does he or she have all of the skills required? DETERMINATION Determination relates to the individual’s level of self-confidence and motivation to complete the task. So what does personal autonomy mean? Consider the following scenarios: Scenario One: You ask Sam. Understanding “Personal Autonomy” is essential if you are to become an adaptive leader. PROFICIENCY Proficiency relates to the level of ability the individual has in relation to the completion of a task. one of your employees. Sam is exhibiting a high degree of PERSONAL AUTONOMY regarding this task.

ask him or her questions. For instance. But how do you gauge an employee's level of Personal Autonomy? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 30 .Adaptive Leadership What is Personal Autonomy? continued While Personal Autonomy varies according to the task at hand. Though you're not very good. Those that have more personal autonomy are the ones that can quickly step in and help you with your workload. These are the ones you can delegate work to so you can concentrate on other priorities. But what if you didn't get much better? What if you're still losing balls left and right and you're score hasn't improved? Your motivation for the game starts to wane. Have you noticed that some people just show more initiative? Make an effort to assess your employees. start with a lower assessment and watch their reaction and performance. suppose you've decided to take up golf and you'd really like to learn the game. each individual has an inherent level of autonomy or innate self direction. By determining an employee's level of Personal Autonomy managers can then adjust their management accordingly. Go through the mental exercise of ranking them. If you are still not sure. You need to recognize the level of someone's proficiency and determination to perform their job and provide them with the right type of management support. When you're learning a new task doesn't it stand to reason that you have low proficiency? Maybe it's a task you've chosen so your determination is high. it's still fun. Employees are the same. If you aren’t sure of the person’s level of Personal Autonomy. Adjust your decision if necessary.

If your business is stagnant or you can't offer your high performers growth opportunities they're likely to lose their determination. PA3 . Consider them the "golden retrievers" of your staff. Often times. Allow mistakes as long as they learn from them. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 31 . This person needs some direct coaching so they can learn the new task. you need to find creative ways to challenge and reward these people. Since their determination is also questionable consider the job requirements and characteristics. Be patient. these individuals can also become demoralized easily if they are unable to develop their ability. one day you'll be able to delegate work to them without hesitation. While they are also motivated to do a good job as a new employee. While a new employee may have experience on their resume.that's not the issue. Of course.Low Proficiency and Low Determination Quite often this is a new employee. they do not have specific experience when performing the task for you. Don't be surprised when they give their two week notice. It is also possible that the situation could involve a seasoned employee faced with a new task they just don't want to do.High Proficiency and Low Determination Staff affected by burnout or that hit a plateau are commonly PA3 types. A PA3 may find their job boring and rote." As their manager.Adaptive Leadership Determining an Employee's Level of Personal Autonomy There are four levels of Personal Autonomy. when it comes to a specific task it is best to assume a low level of determination for the first time they complete a task. They are eager to learn. They have the ability . These individuals can make the transition to PA4 given the proper management fertilizer (the good kind). these individuals are stagnated by "office politics" or ceilings on their growth. These are also the ones who tend to run a bit further than your supervisory leash will allow. since meeting personal expectations is typically important to them. PA2 . Sometimes there are no formal opportunities for PA3's to "move up.Low Proficiency and High Determination If you have one of these types and take the time to apply the techniques of effective coaching. They are: PA1 .

Now learn the appropriate management style for those different levels (PA1. PA2. Most individuals will have one predominant level of self-directedness. "Does this person have the proficiency for this task?" Based on your answer. Not all will reach that level . Remember every job is comprised of a series of tasks. Let's face it. you want to develop all your staff with the target of becoming PA4 performers.keeping him or her challenged and motivated. knowledge & experience) an employee has for a job or task. follow the appropriate response and ask yourself. Ask them during career what their aspirations are. Simply ask yourself. This worksheet is provided in the Exercises section on the last page of this course.Adaptive Leadership Determining an Employee's Level of Personal Autonomy continued PA4 . While someone might be proficient in some of the tasks the question is. they will fluctuate to some degree. Ultimately. given different assignments. are they proficient in all the tasks associated with the completion of a job. However. your answer to the questions would be No and the employee's Personal Autonomy relative to that particular task would be PA1. To help you assess someone's Personal Autonomy Level we have provided a simple Personal Autonomy worksheet for assessing the levels of proficiency and determination in your employees. For this reason it is important to remember to determine personal autonomy levels based on each task required to complete a job. So far you've learned Adaptive Leadership entails gauging the level of determination (drive. PA3 or PA4) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 32 . So employees can have different levels of Proficiency and Determination for their job or a new task but what does that mean for the manager? How can a manager adjust his/her style based on an employee's level of Personal Autonomy? What specific things should a manager do to keep an employee as productive as possible? Now's the time to determine the appropriate leadership style. enthusiasm & motivation) and proficiency (ability.High Proficiency and High Determination Imagine all the free time you'd have if you had a staff full of these? Once someone reaches this level you're faced with the most difficult part of your job . That might temporarily knock them down to the PA2 level but they'll relish the opportunity to prove themselves. "Does this person have the determination for this task?" If for example an employee has no or low proficiency and has never performed the task before. people who reach this level are usually recruited by a competitor if you don't take care of them.that's ok. By using this simple decision tree to the right you can determine an employees Personal Autonomy level. These are the people that can expand your business and take it to new levels. You could give them an entirely new assignment outside their expertise if they're interested.

Follow-up after each step and give feedback. each of those steps may differ slightly depending on the PA level. At this point they will welcome specific direction. Share your plan with the individual 4.Adaptive Leadership Your Management Style for Different Levels of Personal Autonomy Adaptive Leaders modify their management style to based on an employee's PA level surrounding a specific task. PA 1 . Establish goals or time-frames for competing the reasonable “chunks” of the task. Monitor progress. Let's review the generic model first. Determine the level of "Personal Autonomy" for the individual 2. Is their productivity improving? Are they becoming more self reliant? This evidence would suggest a change in your style of leadership to a slightly less directive one. what the time requirements and other standards are.Adaptive Leadership Style . LOW SUPPORT The Modeling Style of leadership is effective in situations when the employee or team member is at a PA1 level of Personal Autonomy regarding a task. Provide the support you promised 5. Monitor his/her progress by scheduling specific meeting times (daily if necessary) and provide encouragement. 1. However. • • • • Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 33 . There is a generic five step approach for dealing with all four PA levels. • Review all aspects of the task: how to do it.AL1 – Modeling HIGH DIRECTION. Suggest development goals for the individual and how you'll support them 3. Let's review these. etc. resources which he or she can use. Arrange for training and/or a person with more experience to work with the individual. The PA1 employee has little confidence in their ability to do the task and is probably very anxious. adjust management style There are four unique Adaptive Leadership Styles which you can use based on the PA level of your employee. Look for evidence that they're progressing to the next level (PA2).

HIGH SUPPORT The Coaching Style of leadership is effective in situations when the employee or team member is at a PA2 level of Personal Autonomy regarding a task.) • • Focus your direction in the areas where they still need help. At this level the employee has some but not all of the expertise to complete the task. this can further decrease the individual’s level of determination.AL3 . Support is needed. Direction is not needed since the employee has the required knowledge. There is nothing worse than having someone explain how to do something which you already know. HIGH SUPPORT The Supporting Style of leadership matches with the PA3 level of Personal Autonomy. PA3 . task specific behavior as this will only frustrate the employee.Adaptive Leadership Style . In fact. • Avoid directive. Give positive feedback to bolster their self-confidence. Open the lines of communication.Adaptive Leadership Style .Adaptive Leadership Your Management Style for Different Levels of Personal Autonomy continued PA2 . however. and he or she is exhibiting a good level of determination (self-confidence is growing.Supporting LOW DIRECTION.AL2 – Coaching HIGH DIRECTION. and motivation is positive. • • Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 34 . skills and experience to complete the task. Acknowledge their positive level of motivation and confidence. since the employee is not fully self-confident or fully motivated to complete the task.

• Be sure you're assessment of them as a PA4 is accurate. he or she can truly be “delegated” that task.that means losing them. Yes .or a parent nurturing the growth of their own child. If you can't offer a challenge to this employee look proactively outside your department or area for an opportunity. Give this person the autonomy to complete the task on their own. Share your assessment and explain that you are committed to their motivational needs. These techniques are a "must" for anyone in a supervisory or management position . This is a case of nonleadership or abdication. Adaptive Leadership is a critical set of management skills since they apply to every individual in your organization.Delegating LOW DIRECTION. Ask the employee what will keep their job interesting and challenging.AL4 . If you treat the wrong employee as a PA4 it will appear as favoritism to the staff. therefore little direction is needed. it's easy to forget they still need reinforcements feedback. Self-confidence and motivation are high. • • • Note: There is no effective leadership style that has no direction and/or no support. Now that you know how to gauge an employee's level of Personal Autonomy and you know how to adjust your style of management to best fit that level of Personal Autonomy why not try a few Topic Challenges? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 35 .Adaptive Leadership Style . therefore little support is required. Managers often overrate individuals with whom they have a close relationship. recognition and appreciation. as evidenced by past performance of the task. The logic is obvious and it's well supported by research and experience.Adaptive Leadership Your Management Style for Different Levels of Personal Autonomy continued PA4 . The ability for task completion is there. LOW SUPPORT When an individual has high levels of both proficiency and determination regarding the completion of a task. but at least not to a competitor. Because these employees are completely self-directed. This is the highest compliment you can pay them.

PA2. cookies and pastry products for retail sale at supermarkets. About a year ago the company found itself behind schedule in addressing its Y2K problem . What stage do you think Ken is at (PA1. to cut costs. His job is to monitor the vendor's performance and to negotiate the best prices for the company. The VP of the technical division reassigned Martha to the Y2K Team. for about 17 years. See if you can determine the appropriate stage for this employee and how to handle the situation. Answers are provided on the next page. When interviewing it was one of the opportunities that Ken found very appealing. Tito.Adaptive Leadership Topic Challenges The following scenario represents an employee at a particular stage of development according to the Adaptive Leadership model. cutting into Chambers' shelf space. He'll serve as liaison to all product vendors for Here's to Your Health. PA2. Ken will be the Product Manager. At his last job he had a similar position working with vendors. one of the largest territories in the company. She loves her job. Over the past two years several of Chambers' largest customers (supermarket chains) had been bought out after fierce competition. Tito is responsible for a sales route covering an entire state. a regional bakery. PA3 or PA4)? What adaptive leadership style would you use with Martha? On a blank piece of paper describe the approach you would use to work with her. Scenario 1 Martha worked as a software developer at a large manufacturing plant for several years. Scenario 3 Tito has worked at Chambers. Six years ago he was recognized as salesperson of the year after generating the highest revenue in the company. Chambers makes bread. On the next page you will find the correct answer and an explanation. What stage do you think Tito is at (PA1. The company had to react. PA2. The numbers were "okay" but is wasn't the work Tito had produced in the past. She wouldn't be working on her software. She could meet with users and managers around the company to find out what they needed then go back to her cube and create a computer solution for them. The real challenge will be the integration of the invoicing and receivables systems. Chambers' market share in the region began to drop as the new supermarkets stocked national brand bakery items. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 36 . He was impressed that Here's to Your Health had done such a thoughtful analysis before electing to integrate the computer systems. was able to keep his job but he now reported to another sales manager rather than the VP of sales. PA3 or PA4)? What adaptive leadership style would you use with Ken? On a blank piece of paper describe the approach you would use to work with her. On the next page you will find the correct answer and an explanation. Martha knew the software well and had gained a reputation in the company as the "go-to" person for development. The territories in the company were consolidated. she'd be working on mainframe applications where they needed the most help. Scenario 2 Ken just started working at Here's to Your Health. Every project was different. He's done well as a sales manager. Ken is very computer savvy and thinks the project will be very challenging. The VP of sales noticed that over the past year the revenue out of Tito's territory had dropped noticeably. Ken knows of companies who have achieved that integration but he hasn't managed the process himself. It was either send Martha to the Y2K Team or management would have to eliminate her position and hire a contractor to work on Y2K. but there that company sold stereo equipment. The Y2K problem was too critical. operations had to be centralized. every project presented new challenges. It couldn't. a small chain of exercise equipment stores. He's also been tasked with integrating the invoicing system at Here's to Your Health with the receivables systems at key vendors. On the next page you will find the correct answer and an explanation. What stage do you think Martha will be at in her new position (PA1. It renegotiated its contracts with the new customers and built a good rapport. However. PA3 or PA4)? What adaptive leadership style would you use with Ken? On a blank piece of paper describe the approach you would use to work with her.the computer glitch expected to effect computers around the world on 01/01/2000. Martha had never worked on mainframe applications before and asked if management would reconsider the reassignment. Then go on to complete several learning exercises. She liked the creativity and problem solving involved.

He was attracted to that challenge during the interview. Here you need to use a "modeling" style of management with Martha.i.she enjoys problem solving. Tito needs a supportive style of management at this point. That will allow for some creativity. In this case you would share your observations with Tito. Be sure she receives ample training on the new software and the testing process. Topic Challenge #2 Answer: PA2 (High Determination / Low Proficiency) In this case. may be she can design the new testing manual. In this case you need to do something to address Tito's motivation. However. So you could assume his motivation for this job/task is high. These little things will still add value to the company and make the job more appealing to Martha. This will relieve some of her anxiety. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 37 . honest discussion is critical. In addition. She's lost her determination and her proficiency for this new task is low. gather customer feedback. you follow very definite steps. She lost a job where she was fully competent and successful. he came from a position where he managed the vendors for a stereo equipment store so exercise equipment is new to him. When she tests the software products and comes across problems encourage her to probe into the problem and recommend solutions. he's never actually managed that type of effort before so he doesn't have a strong skill set or experience to fall back on.something that will challenge him and take him out of the rut that he's in. Surviving the reorganization was good for Tito because he kept his job but he lost some of his stature and responsibility by being reassigned to another "peer" manager. Since she enjoys creative work and testing tends to be more structured . In this case the most appropriate style of management would be to "mentor" Ken. It was creative and challenging. He does have similar experience in terms of managing the vendor relationship but his knowledge of the products is weak. Clearly she's been knocked down to a PA1. Focus on increasing his proficiency by getting him familiar with the exercise products. This will raise her ability. Her determination will be more of a challenge.i. However. Find out what would motivate or challenge him.let her know that you understand it will take her a little while to get familiar with her new job.Adaptive Leadership Topic Challenges Answers Topic Challenge #1 Answer: PA1 (Low Determination / Low Proficiency) Poor Martha just got put through the wringer. find ways to improve the distribution process or reduce expenses .e. Her determination was high since she enjoyed the work that she was doing. However. Show her exactly what's needed. it's likely a technical consultant would be hired to work with Ken since no one at Here's to Your Health really has the necessary technical expertise. Reaffirm that he's a valued employee and that you know he's capable. Ken is obviously excited by the opportunity to integrate the invoicing system at Here's to Your Health with the receivables systems at key vendors. Given that his performance has slacked off recently it's apparent he's losing or lost his determination. Please complete the exercises found on the following pages. In this case. Give her regular feedback to improve her skills. Topic Challenge #3 Answer: PA3 (Low Determination / High Proficiency) Since Tito has been a top performer in the past you know he has the proficiency for the job. Additionally. Now she's moving to a position where the work is very structured (testing software) and she's working on a software that she's unfamiliar with.e. An open. Also . Also . Ken could serve as project manager for the effort. provide him with support for integrating the invoicing and receivables systems. Perhaps he can take on special assignments or projects .

(this exercise consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 38 . Exercise 1: Adaptive Leadership Exercise This exercise enables you to apply the technique of Adaptive Leadership with your staff! Exercise 2: Personal Autonomy Assessment Worksheet This exercise/tool will help you to assess the Personal Autonomy levels of your employees. These exercises are found on the following three pages. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. Please print out each of these exercises. Become an Adaptive Leader. Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. You will see a remarkable improvement in the performance of your employees. We have provided three exercises to help you apply what you have learned in this course. Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. Below is a short description of each exercise.Adaptive Leadership Other Learning Exercises .

PA1. or PA4? Why? Comments 2. Low Determination X Low Proficiency High Determination X Low Proficiency Low Determination X High Proficiency High Determination X High Proficiency .Adaptive Leadership Adaptive Leadership Exercise 1 (2 pages) This exercise will help you apply the principles of Adaptive Leadership with your employees. Ask the employee to rate himself/herself . Now present the concept of Adaptive Leadership to that same employee. . 1. Do not tell him/her how you rated them.Motivation X Ability . PA1 PA2 PA3 PA4 . Describe for them the factors of Determination and Proficiency. PA3. PA3.PA1. PA Level . The exercise requires you to evaluate one of your employees in terms of Adaptive Leadership. Once they're done compare your ratings. . PA2. In terms of the principles of Adaptive Leadership (Determination X Proficiency). What stage do you think this employee is at . . How close were you? Where did you differ? Comments Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 39 . Select one of your employees. Allow him/her time in private if needed. PA2. Below you'll find a recap of the employee levels described in the Adaptive Leadership model. or PA4. . .

Now select another employee and repeat this process. (Consists of 3 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 40 . if they're a PA1 how will you help them become a PA2? If they're a PA2 or PA3 how will you help them reach the PA4 level? Be as specific as possible . If you have an employee at a PA4 level (high determination and high proficiency) what can you do to keep them challenged and motivated? Comments 5. Now discuss with the employee how you will help them progress to the next level .set specific goals for them Comments 4. Use this form to help you organize your thoughts until it becomes second nature. Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 2.3.e.i.

project. It will also assist you in determining the type of management style you should use with the employee.Adaptive Leadership Exercise 2 Personal Autonomy Worksheet (3 pages) This tool can be used to estimate the level of Personal Autonomy an employee has for his/her job a task you've assigned them. Date 1) How much experience does the employee have doing the same job or task? Rating _____ None (0 pts) _____ Little (familiarity) (1 pts) _____ Some (working knowledge) (3 pts) _____ Extensive (capable) (5 pts) • • Are they able to work on the job or task by themselves? How difficult is this job or task (generally)? Criteria to consider • Has the employee done the same exact type of work at your company or another company? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 41 . special assignment etc. task. attendance.) The structure / membership of your company or department has changed Employee name: Description of new job. initiative etc. Note: An employees' level of Personal Autonomy depends on his/her level of proficiency and determination for a particular task or job You can use this tool when: • • • • • An employee has been given a new task or responsibility An employee has been promoted You notice a significant change in the employee's performance (good or bad) You notice a significant change in the employee's work ethic (quality and quantity of work.

e. Both require sales skills).) Criteria to consider • Has the employee worked on another job or task similar in nature (i.e.how similar is it? (i.2) How much experience does the employee have doing a similar type of job or task? Rating _____ None (0 pts) _____ Little (familiarity) (1 pts) _____ Some (working knowledge) (3 pts) _____ Extensive (capable) (5 pts) • If employee has similar experience . position requires employee to sell computer software. position requires employee to sell computer software. 3) How well has the employee performed this task or job in the past? Rating _____ Poor performance (1 pt) _____ Acceptable performance (2 pts) _____ Good performance (4 pts) _____ Excellent performance (5 pts ) 4) What level of enthusiasm does the employee have for the job? Rating _____ Cannot determine (0 pts) _____ Little enthusiasm (1 pts) _____ Some enthusiasm (3 pts) _____ A lot of enthusiasm (5 pts) • Criteria to consider • • Did the employee ask for this job/task? Has the employee expressed any concerns or hesitation about the job/task? Is this job/task a promotion or increase in responsibilities? Criteria to consider • • Have they done the job / task to your satisfaction? Can they consistently do the job/task to your satisfaction? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 42 . they have experience selling real estate. they have experience selling computer hardware.

. Scores Proficiency 0-7 Determination 0-4 Proficiency 0-7 Determination 5-10 Proficiency 8-15 Determination 0-4 Proficiency 8-15 Determination 5-10 Management Style Modeling Coaching Supporting Delegating Refer to the modules on Adaptive Leadership for tips on how to apply the appropriate adaptive leadership styles with your employee. . diligence. You will have a score for proficiency and one for determination. . learning experiences and feedback? How would you rate this persons work ethic (i. For instance if an employee was given a total score of 4 for proficiency and a 9 for determination he would fall under coaching (proficiency 0-7 determination 5-10). . Personal Autonomy (components) Proficiency (Questions 1 + 2 + 3) Determination (Questions 4 + 5) . commitment to job)? Criteria to consider • Has the level of responsibility in this persons career / job steadily increased? • Scoring To determine the score for this employee add the pts up for each question and enter the score below. Proficiency / Determination Score . That would mean for this assignment or job you should start by using a coaching style with the employee. Next determine where the scores fall.e. quality and quantity of work.5) Overall how would you rate this employee’s level of determination? Rating _____ Cannot determine (0 pts) _____ Low determination (1 pts) _____ Average determination (3 pts) _____ High determination (5 pts ) • Does this person seek out new tasks. (One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 43 . Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan.

stop and continue doing immediately.Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 44 . identify what you will start. in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course.

Goal Setting and Feedback .

"is it really this simple and obvious?" Then I realized.. Hewston? As a pup I kept Hewston in a carrying crate.. I know. GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 discusses the critical importance of setting goals and giving feedback discusses what can interfere with setting goals and giving feedback provides a description of how managers can set effective goals for employees provides a description of how managers should provide positive feedback to employees provides a description of how managers should provide negative/constructive feedback to employees provides a case study describing goal setting at multiple levels in a company offer tips for how a manger can ask for feedback provides an exercise so you can apply the approaches discussed Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 45 . In order to effectively manage and coach employees a manager must know how to set clear goals and provide effective. If he went on the floor .both negative and positive. The importance of goal setting and feedback was recognized by organizational scholars in the 1940's and is arguably the fundamental skill of effective performance management. you get the point . Negative feedback. As I reviewed the "One Minute Manager" model I was thinking. I let him stay out longer and longer until he'd go again. I was thumbing through the "One Minute Manager. Hadn't I applied the very same concepts to successfully paper train and housebreak my golden retriever. Goal setting and feedback provide the basis for performance management and developing the skills and abilities of your employees. I won't finish the story. timely feedback . yes it is. The only difference is you'll have a hard time cramming your employee into a carrying crate and if you smack them on the nose with rolled up newspaper they'll complain to Human Resources." published by Blanchard and Hersey in the early 1980's. back in the crate he'd go. The goal was set.Goal Setting and Feedback Not long ago. Eventually.this stuff works. When I let him out he'd immediately need to relieve himself so I'd put him on some newspaper. Then he connected hitting the newspaper with staying out of the crate. If you don't use goal setting to focus your efforts and improve performance you'll find yourself reacting to the same situations over and over. setting goals and monitoring is the cornerstone of effective management. Whether you're managing individual performance or deploying your strategic plan. They took a long established relationship between goal setting and feedback and put it creatively into terms a manager could understand and apply (read it if you get the chance).back in the crate. Positive Feedback. Their book was on the best seller chart for some time and was quickly appreciated as a must for all managers. After playing for a brief period. Take it from me.

Why is this important? Goal Setting and Feedback are the building blocks of effective management. etc. The reason should be obvious. i.that's an objective that's important to many people. Without clearly defined goals you will waste significant money. increasing sales.e.why do managers have a hard time using it effectively? The reasons are sometimes subtle but very powerful. coaching an employee. The effective setting of goals and giving feedback can be powerful motivators for employees. no way to monitor progress. improving service. Goal setting (like most of these techniques) seems so obvious . and energy. After awhile you'd probably abandon your diet.. time. Knowing the obstacles to goal setting is the first step to understanding and using goals to improve your employees and business. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 46 . what if you weren't allowed to weigh yourself? You could diet. you could exercise. Either way the result of both scenarios is pretty much the same. but you'd have no goal. But. completing a business expansion. Imagine you wanted to lose weight . liposuction and downsizing. Just about everything you do in your company has some goal attached to it. Providing timely and effective feedback keeps everyone focused on enhancing their performance. getting control of your finances. Read on to find out more. Many managers and organizations lack a reliable report card that measures performance. As absurd as it sounds many employees and managers work under those conditions.

Rachael knows her business would be more profitable if she spent some time analyzing trends in her customer volumes over the past few years then developed a plan to be better staffed and budget for the seasonal impacts. You're not doing them correctly. your skills or work habits? Scenario: Rachael has owned and managed a travel agency for about three years. their skills or work habits? Scenario: John manages a bakery that caters to corporate clients and upscale functions." Joyce reluctantly starts on desserts until John notices she's having a problem preparing them. Either she doesn't like preparing desserts or she doesn't know how. it also suffers from seasonal dips and spikes.. John now has to do the work of one of his employees while he should be focusing on other things 2. While the business has enjoyed regular growth and she's added staff. let me do this. she's made little progress towards that. as manager. You're not doing them correctly. Goal Setting and Feedback is at the heart of each one. However. The trick is maintaining the quality of the desserts while making them in mass to support large banquets and gatherings. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 47 . Since she was doing them incorrectly.i. Frantic to prepare for the dinners he tells her.i. let me do this. John should have showed her specifically what she was doing wrong and how to prepare the desserts. To illustrate this point let's look at each one briefly: 1. "Forget it. is constantly restocking supplies and cleaning up when she should be helping with the desserts. On top of that. the majority of managers and supervisors would answer "yes" to most or all of these questions. "Forget it.e. Are there things you could improve upon .. The bakery is swamped with orders and the crew is running behind on their preparation for several dinners that day. Instead his response.e. Are there things your employees could improve upon . Goal Setting and Feedback: Joyce may be reluctant to work on desserts for one of two reasons. His business has gained a reputation for its novel desserts and dinner pastries. "Joyce forgot about that stuff.Goal Setting and Feedback The Importance of Goal Setting and Giving Feedback To understand the importance of Goal Setting and Feedback to managers and supervisors consider the following questions: 1: Are there things your employees could improve upon . Joyce. Over his shoulder he yells. your skills or work habits? 3: Are you uncomfortable reprimanding employees and delivering negative feedback? 4: Do you want your employees motivated to do the best job they can? 5: Do you want to make more efficient use of your time at work? Of course.." Joyce wanders back to restocking and cleaning. we need you on desserts. He notices one employee." gave her no explanation of how to improve and left her demoralized.i. It seems like such a big task that she doesn't know where to begin.e.e.i. their skills or work habits? 2: Are there things you could improve upon .

Coworkers will see Jerry's behavior and the fact that it's allowed. She shows less initiative and her work is not quite the same quality. 4. type of travel.. has turned out to be less customer oriented than he should be. As managers or business owners. What if he doesn't? Goal Setting and Feedback: As a manager you have to seize these opportunities to redirect your employees otherwise you're reinforcing it. Why else would Jerry change? Also. manageable goal. our intuition tells us we should improve our business. We'll talk more about this later. He comes across as impatient by giving short answers and not devoting his full attention to them.Goal Setting and Feedback The Importance of Goal Setting and Giving Feedback continued Goal Setting and Feedback: This is very common. In this case. Many of these employees are self motivated – that is they just have a natural motivation to do the best job they can and they feel a sense of accomplishment from work. etc. separate the person from the behavior. He hasn't offended any of them but he's not winning them over either. However. dollar volume. She needs no supervision. The end objective seems like such a challenge we never take the first step. motivated employee (PA4 Adaptive Leadership) it's easy to take that person for granted. Managers tend to shy away from negative feedback for fear that the employee will take it as criticism. The key is to deliver it in a way that is not personal. you let it go and hope he gets better over time. That's a plus since other employees require more of your time than you'd like. knows her job very well and helps out her coworkers. enter or download all customer transactions for the past three years into a spreadsheet. But lately Mary seems to have lost her motivation. On several occasions you've delegated work to her so you can concentrate on other priorities. but it requires so much time and thought we become paralyzed to do anything. Mary grew stagnant. who likes telling an employee he's got a problem.e. identify type of data analysis to do. Besides. Studies show that challenging goals and feedback – positive praise and even constructive negative feedback! – are key motivators for most employees. i. Her job became rote. What happened? Goal Setting and Feedback: When a manager has a very capable. Instead. For instance. With no new challenges (goals) and little feedback from her manager she lost her motivation. rather than focus on improving profitability Rachael should simply set a sequence of goals to get there then focus on the first step. volume per quarterly. Are you uncomfortable reprimanding employees and delivering negative feedback? Scenario: Jerry. What you need to do is identify the sequence of steps (mini goals) to get to that ultimate objective and focus on one at a time. In other words. one of your new account reps. a starting point may be to gather seasonal data so her goal is "By 5/1/99. She's got a great work ethic. maybe even what to improve. even the best employee needs your attention." This way Rachael has a plan to better manage the seasonal impact on her business but is not overwhelmed by the effort to get there. Do you want your employees motivated to do the best job they can? Scenario: Mary has always been one of your best employees. You want to address it with him but you're afraid he'll take it the wrong way. by not addressing Jerry's behavior his manager lowers the service expectation for all staff. After that Rachael may decide that "By 5/15/99." That's a reasonable. 3. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 48 . For example.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 49 . you should be identifying mini development goals for each person so he/she can be more and more self directed. it's 6:00pm. As manager. She's supposed to provide her boss with staffing projections and a budget. Before you know it. training staff on the data entry screens and even entering data when they're behind. Goal setting is so simple in concept that it's often overlooked as a skill at all. Goal Setting and Feedback: As a supervisor or manager you've heard the expression. She should be working on a project plan for combining her unit and a second area. she finds herself chasing down data entry errors." If only you didn't have to spend so much time doing their work. Do you want to make more efficient use of your time at work? Scenario: Shirley manages a data entry unit at a small bank. But how often does a business become paralyzed because employees lack clear goals and objectives? How often have you told an employee to do one thing only to be left scratching your head wondering how the employee failed to deliver on what you thought was an obvious request? Don't take it for granted! Go to the next page to learn more. You're not relinquishing your management responsibility or authority." You spend all day addressing one problem after another. "fighting fires. Instead. you're going home late again. Forget the budget and project plan. Seems there's never enough time in the day to get her work done. You can only do that by coaching them through a sequence of small development goals. Your staff can manage themselves. If only your staff could "manage themselves. you're developing your staff. and tomorrow will be more of the same.Goal Setting and Feedback The Importance of Goal Setting and Giving Feedback continued 5.

A goal gets set. maybe it conflicts with other priorities or maybe it's just mismanaged. Messenger of death. monitoring and achieving goals. The form then goes to data entry where it no longer matches screens in the system. Feedback usually occurs when something goes wrong. Ideally. Now let's review some ways to make it work! The following model offers some simple steps for setting. True story. a customer service unit fills out request forms that are sent on to a data entry department for entry to a computer system. Shouldn't they measure whether or not that training actually improved the performance of participants back on their jobs? The paper chase. goals should be documented. It becomes an administrative burden that that no one takes seriously. who has time to sit down and think about tomorrow's goals? Did you ever notice how there isn't time to do things right. Take a look! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 50 . Okay ." For example. but we always make time to do things over again We measure the wrong things. We're quick to slap wrists when the wrong behavior occurs. This is a fancy term used by quality scholars to describe the phenomenon when one department in a company. formally or informally. Sub-optimization.Goal Setting and Feedback What Can Interfere With Goal Setting and Giving Feedback? It's too time consuming. shape or form. unknowingly sabotages the work of another.we reviewed some reasons why goal setting sometimes doesn't work. For whatever reason a target is missed and data gets "re-worked" to avoid the repercussion of failure. in some way. pursuing a goal. training departments sometimes measure their effectiveness by how many training sessions or in house presentations they provide. Now it takes three times as long to enter. Maybe it's unrealistic. Sometimes limitations in reporting systems or just the vagueness of a task like "customer satisfaction" makes goal setting and feedback difficult. Since few of us do that on a regular basis the annual performance evaluation is a real hoot. For instance. In the busy day to day efforts of management. In order to maintain their telephone response time the department rearranges the request form to reduce talk time. In layman terms think of it as "Robbing Peter to pay Paul. but how often do we take time to reinforce the right stuff? The numbers game.

Raise the bar periodically. Involve the employee/department in goal setting 2. Before setting a goal make sure that you and your employee(s) agree on the responsibilities of the job and the associated priorities. STEP 1: Involve the employee/department in goal setting It's critical that managers involve employees in setting their goals. Agree on how the goal will be measured 5. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 51 . Below is an easy to use model for setting goals with your employees: Steps to Effective Goal Setting 1. be sure the goal is challenging but realistic. but realistic 4. observable and measurable terms. In addition be sure they understand why the goal is important and how it will help your organization and/or customer. Document the goals 6. STEP 2: Define the Goal It is critical that you are very clear about what the employee is expected to do and how the job or task is to be done.Goal Setting and Feedback Effective Goal Setting Use goal setting to improve the skills and job knowledge of your employees. No one is motivated by a goal that is easy to accomplish or one that seems insignificant. On the other hand. STEP 3: Make it challenging. Make it challenging. Be sure the goal is included in their performance evaluation. Agree on a goal that requires a stretch or improvement by the individual or department. Goal setting can also be used to provide your employees with a more challenging and motivating work environment. but realistic If you're using goal setting to improve individual performance. no one wants the responsibility of parting the Red Sea with one hand tied behind his or her back. This means ensuring that you have identified each employee’s job requirements in specific. Define the goal 3. Provide Support Let's look at these in more detail.

John should have: Provided new hires with an orientation . John decides to send Roger to set up the corporate clients' gym since Roger is polished. While John is trying to unload the shipment as fast as he can he's wondering how many sales are lost because the new guy is trying to deal with the holiday rush. no one had set any goals with him to coach and improve his performance.Goal Setting and Feedback Effective Goal Setting continued STEP 4: Agree on how the goal will be measured Are you measuring the volume or output. Shipping invoices need to be initialized and filed in the Receiving Folder. Every bit of work can be described in terms of steps or phases. then monitored Bill's work closely. Also. Here is a brief example. It had taken him about twice as long as Roger to unload the shipments. Once you've got a rough idea of the process .? How will performance results be shared with the individual or staff? Who will measure performance and what action can the employee expect? If identifying goals is difficult. That leaves himself and Bill to run the store. etc. initially you need to spend more time directly coaching a new employee. measurable goals combined with coaching would have made a world of difference. Someone has to handle customers and someone has to unload deliveries in the warehouse. try to state the job or function in terms of a process. (Volume) GOAL: All equipment should be shelved according to the manufacturer’s name/product number. Bill has only unloaded two shipments previously and basically made a mess of things. (Accuracy) After each shipment that Bill unloads John could use this simple checklist to review his performance. (Speed) GOAL: All equipment should be verified against shipping invoices. He's only got two people on the floor today.the output or result is easier to measure. To Bill's defense he was relatively new . Remember. Every Wednesday suppliers deliver new equipment orders to the small warehouse in the back of the store. Roger and Bill. Is it taking him longer than it should? Is he getting faster and faster each time? Is paperwork completed correctly? Is equipment shelved properly? The reality is. monthly.5 hours to unload a shipment. He could give him immediate feedback (positive and negative) on his performance. It's holiday time so the store is especially busy. John Berry manages an exercise equipment store . To compound the problem one employee has called in sick and that employee was supposed to help a large corporate client set up a new gym.John knew Roger was better at unloading shipments than Bill . Made goals measurable . Roger has been with Here's to Your Health for several years and is John's "go to" man. equipment was stored in the wrong areas.part of a small chain called Here's to Your Health. Paperwork was filled out incorrectly. In that time he hadn't really received any formal orientation. no one verified Bill's work. Then John or someone else corrected them so Bill never learned from them. John should have defined exactly what was required when unloading shipments. They learned he made mistakes after the fact. John's got to make a decision. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 52 . accuracy or timeliness of the work? Is it measured daily. weekly.about 2 months under his belt. very capable and will present a professional image. What could he have done differently? Here.New employees especially need clear goals if they are to learn their new job.but how much better and better at what? This is the only way John could help Bill learn his new responsibility quickly. shipping invoices ere not confirmed. The process of unloading shipments should be broken down into tangible goals: GOAL: It should take one employee no more than 2.

Okay. Provide a safe. the questions he asks and how he helps them in their selection. I'd like you to take two hours out of every shift and review each of the distributor catalogues. seasonal selection. You want him to learn the different tires and accessories as soon as possible so he can work the floor alone. non judgmental environment so employees will come to you if they're having difficulty reaching their goal. Bill will learn his new job much faster if he can refer to a "report card" explaining his goals and offering feedback on his performance. Stretch goals are necessary to develop self-directed employees. You call him into your office and set a goal with him as follows: Manager Jim. Plan to monitor their work closely at first or to provide formal training. Is that all I'll be doing for the next few weeks? Jim Manager Jim Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 53 . Also. To keep employees focused on objectives. but I'll need some help in learning enough about all the tires. things like size. Using the above example. Other goals are for groups or the company at large such as Here's to Your Health will increase sales by 10% over the next quarter. I've asked Mike (another employee) to serve as your "buddy" over the next couple of weeks. A stretch goal is one that requires an employee to develop a new skill or to exercise an existing one at a higher level.5 hours. you need to know the differences among our products so you can help customers in making the best selection. STEP 6: Provide support If you're asking employees to stretch or improve performance by setting ambitious goals then they'll probably require some kind of support. goals have to be documented. It takes them out of their comfort zone. Tell them up front they'll probably make mistakes and for now that's fine. Group or company goals should be posted for all to see. Be sure to reinforce correct behaviors with positive feedback don't just tell them what they're doing wrong! Here's another example: Scenario: You're the manager of an automotive parts and repair center. You have a new employee (Jim) in your tire section whose responsibility it is to assist customers in selecting tires. Let's set a goal that in two weeks you should be able to cover the tire section on your own. Some are for individuals such as Bill should unload his next shipment in 3 hours rather than 3. Yeah. tread design and wear etc. This is both a motivator and a demonstration of management's commitment to the goal.Goal Setting and Feedback Effective Goal Setting continued STEP 5: Document the goals There are different levels of goals. and as a basis for performance evaluations. This is especially true of goals used when coaching an individual. Besides performance management if you ever find yourself dealing with a "difficult employee" documentation is critical. Here's a listing of the items you should know about tire selection. Listen to him as he deals with customers.

Mike or I will see how you handle some customers on your own. The manager or Mike." 3. if you need anything or if you're having a problem with any of the products. Make it challenging. devote about half your time to learning the sales and customer support process.00 raise in his hourly salary. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 54 . In this scenario. We'll increase hourly salary by $1. I can handle it. Jim's "buddy" will observe as Jim handles some customers on his own. Document the goals Some companies will document goals such as these in an employee's performance appraisal. In this case. In this case the measurement is less formal. What he's looking for is direction 2. there was a clear reward for accomplishing the goal. He set up Jim with a "buddy" to learn the sales and customer support process. On the other hand he hasn't allowed so much time that the goal is easy or unmotivating. You can set goals but if you don't provide employees with feedback on their progress . 6. Once he's demonstrated he can handle customers on his own the goal will be met. Positive feedback is a tremendous motivator when used effectively. Feedback is the second half of the performance cycle. handle the register. you should still check in the inventory. too. 5. Let's set a goal that in two weeks you should be able to cover the tire section on your own. Ok. keep the floor stocked. Alright. just let me know. Obviously. In this case. You may elect to be less formal. Involve the employee/department in goal setting The manager set time aside where he could talk with the employee specifically about the goal. Define the Goal The manager starts with a clear statement of what he expects Jim to accomplish – "Jim.it's like clapping with one hand.Goal Setting and Feedback Effective Goal Setting continued Manager No. But. But. 4. If employees sense your accolades are just lip service you can actually have a de-motivating effect on employees! Read on to pick up some useful tips for praising your employees. you need to know the differences among our products so you can help customers in making the best selection.00. but realistic The manager doesn't expect Jim to learn the product information overnight–or on his own. After two weeks. Jim would get a $1. Jim Manager Let's review this simple dialogue in terms of goal setting: 1. is there anything else you'll need? No. Agree on how the goal will be measured Some companies will use a written test or some sort of skills checklist to verify the job knowledge of employees. you can not offer your employees a raise each time they accomplish a goal. If you don't have any problems – you're on your own. Effective means genuine and sincere. Provide Support The manager told Jim to take time out of his regular shift to study the product catalogues. He also asked if there was anything else Jim needed and reminded Jim to let him know if he had any problems. since Jim is a new employee it's unlikely he'll have input towards the goal since he's learning his job. the manager provides Jim with a listing of items he should learn about each product. you should provide praise and show your appreciation for their effort. I'm sure you're going to do fine.

STEP 2: Make it timely... Reinforce their effort as soon as you become aware of it. Positive Feedback To give positive feedback’ follow these four simple steps: 1. Be specific 4.are you sure they know what's right? This takes a deliberate. Expect to monitor a new employee.. he's got a clue.. "You're doing a great job?" If it wasn't related to something specific you'd probably think.Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback .Positive Feedback You've set the field in motion. If you only provide feedback when they do something wrong . . Praise them right away 3. STEP 3: Be specific. Since positive feedback and negative feedback will be received quite differently by your staff. Be genuine STEP 1: Catch the individual doing something right." Ineffective feedback can actually be more demotivating than no feedback because the recipient loses confidence that his/her manager understands their performance. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 55 . you'll need to use a different approach for each. or one attempting a new task closer than normal. Catch the individual doing something right 2. This is especially important if they're learning a new task or lack self confidence in their ability.What if your boss poked his head in your office periodically and said."Yeah. Wrong! Feedback is critical from both a motivational standpoint and to manage performance effectively. now you can sit back. conscious effort by the manager/supervisor. Don't wait a month to tell your employee he or she did a great job on that project you gave them.

jotting notes. Catch the individual doing something right In this case that wasn't difficult.Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback . Yesterday.. with new employees especially. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 56 . Make it an effort on your part to deliver the praise. Then he went to your warehouse. the president of a consulting firm called with an emergency. Their electronic storage system went down and they couldn't access critical documents they needed for a client presentation the next day. To be sure your employee knows you're sincere .. The customer was able to prepare their presentation just in time. The only message you want to deliver now is – THANKS! Use positive feedback anytime you want to reinforce a particular behavior or work habit. "You did something good so I guess I better say something". You got a voice mail message from the president of the consulting firm vowing that due to Roger's outstanding service and ability the consulting firm would buy all their office equipment and computer hardware from your company going forward. the customer called you to say how delighted they were with the service they received.keep these items in mind. Deliver the message and nothing else This is another reason to go to the employee. the failed equipment wasn't from your company. or other problems (do that later). loaded the equipment into his car and worked at the customer's site for 6 hours to get the equipment installed. If you called the employee to your office to thank him/her and you were on the phone. you should make an extra effort to observe their work so you can catch them doing something right and reinforce (praise) their effort. got the call just after your business had closed. Go out of your way Go to the employee. In some cases.Positive Feedback continued Step 4: Be genuine This is a matter of the employees' perception. Realizing the urgency of the situation Roger gathered the necessary information from the customer. Nothing can be more demoralizing than positive praise that's delivered half heartedly. Also – when you thank them don't follow it up with other questions about work. arranging your desk – it would be obvious that thanking them wasn't your priority. How does the manager respond? 1. One of your service reps.. Roger. It's like saying. Fortunately. Example of Positive Feedback Scenario: Your company sells and installs office equipment and computer hardware. don't have them come to you. Roger was unable to get a hold of his supervisor who had left for the day.

To be sure your employee knows you're sincere . Be genuine Remember.Positive Feedback continued 2. "You did something good so I guess I better say something…".. So I replaced it with one of our models and transferred all their files. That does two things. their FileMore data system went down and they couldn't retrieve any of their files. Well. You're an example for all of us. It's like saying. If you wait too long until after the employees' accomplishment the importance of their effort is minimized. Gerald couldn't say enough about your product knowledge and professionalism. Roger Manager 3. Nothing can be more demoralizing than positive praise that's delivered half heartedly. He left me a voice mail this morning and said they were buying all their equipment from us going forward – thanks to your service.. If you don't have something nice to say don't say anything at all. 4.keep these items in mind. the manager went to Roger first thing the next morning. it shows the employee you really understand their effort. Be specific The manager went to Roger first thing. I want to personally thank you for such an outstanding effort. That worked well on the playground but not in business. Praise them right away In this case. One. you're doing them and your business an injustice.Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback . It turned out to be a memory leak. Later the manager published an interoffice memo to all staff describing what Roger had done to further thank him for the effort. than the hollow acknowledgement "Good job…. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 57 . and you even sacrificed your own time to help them. Yeah. this is a matter of the employees' perception. it reinforces a specific behavior (initiative and customer service in this case) the employee use again and again. You went above and beyond what anyone would have expected.". Go to the next page to find out more.. As a manager you need to be comfortable providing your employees with negative feedback. It's important to be as specific as possible when praising the employee. If not. You took the initiative to identify the problem with their system and to design a technical solution. I got a call from Gerald Greybar. Rather. Also. Manager Roger. And. I understand you helped them with a big problem they had yesterday evening. owner of Big Bux consulting.

anxious employee who develops a stomach ulcer and feels like they're walking on eggshells every time you're around. Let the employee look in the microscope 4. Focus on performance . be a model for receiving negative feedback by pressing your staff for feedback on your performance. be ready to back it up with specifics details and examples.not the person 5. Done properly people will be far less uncomfortable giving or receiving negative feedback. Let them expect feedback as part of the coaching and improvement cycle. Use negative feedback anytime you need to address mistakes an employee has made or an interpersonal problem at work.Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback . Take it graciously. In fact. self analysis. Gather all the facts 2. Done improperly and you're left with a demoralized. Expect and allow some defense 7. STEP 1: Gather all the facts If you're going to confront an employee about his/her performance make sure you have all the facts. Make feedback. Instead they spend more time trying to cover up mistakes rather than fixing the cause! When giving negative feedback use the following seven step process: 1. Once you're sure you understand the problem. Negative feedback otherwise known as constructive criticism is a bit more difficult. Communicate your commitment to giving feedback Tell your employees publicly that they will get feedback from you on a regular basis. Be specific 6. Tell them immediately 3. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 58 . There are always two sides to a story.Negative Feedback Negative Feedback Now let’s discuss those situations where you need to confront an employee about his/her performance or to handle other uncomfortable situations where you're giving someone negative feedback. Offer help Let’s look at these steps in more detail. Companies lose a tremendous amount of time. and a constant critique of your management style and staff part of your culture. money and productivity because employees (and managers) are reluctant to discuss problems.

brought it to their manager's attention. your work stinks. Most times employees will know when they're having a problem and will feel relieved that you want to help. etc." If you think giving vague positive feedback can de-motivate an employee. If you're uncomfortable giving negative feedback acknowledge that first. you avoid making assumptions. This reduces the chances that your employee will think you are picking on them personally. when discussing a problem. It is important that you stick to the facts. "Bill. They find out that six months ago they messed up on a project and should have communicated better.. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 59 . documented the problems. ask the employee for his/her opinion on what's going on. . it dulls the negative impact of the manager delivering the same bad news. By focusing your attention on what the person actually did as compared to the standard process that he or she was supposed to follow. Reaffirm that you value the person as an employee and that they're important to your company. It will also communicate that performance problems are not acceptable and that you are paying attention to each employee’s performance. try giving them vague negative feedback! Cite specific examples so the employee clearly understands the behavior they must improve. That way all the details and circumstances are fresh in everyone’s mind. Also. Neither party enjoys that situation. STEP 4: Focus on performance . Why didn't they know this six months ago? The best time to address the problem is as close to the time when the problem occurred. By waiting.not the person Managers avoid giving negative feedback because they think the employee will take it as a personal attack.Negative Feedback continued STEP 2: Tell Them Immediately It's not unusual for an employee to get broadsided in their annual performance review. and not on the reasons why you think they did not follow the correct steps. you also run the risk of the employee making the same mistakes again and this will have a negative impact on your departments performance. Unless you deal with your own discomfort you won't be able to use goal setting and feedback effectively. You better shape up. STEP 5: Be specific What if John called Bill into his office and said. What the person actually did or did not do.Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback . but in this instance their performance needs improvement. STEP 3: Let the employee look in the microscope In other words.

There are always two sides to a story. was standing behind the counter watching as Ralph the bus boy ran from table to table trying to cleanup. the hostess. What should Paul have done? 1. In extreme cases you may ask the employee to come back after he/she has had some time to think about the situation. You found out about the incident the next day. cooks etc. Encourage their feedback and ideas on where they think they need assistance. don't get caught in a long drawn out battle. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 60 .but listened. be ready to back it up with specifics. Most of the week it's that way. Saturday. "That's his job. waitresses. One section of the restaurant was backed up. Also get them to agree to change the way they will handle this type of situation in the future. Paraphrase their explanation so you clearly understand it and let them know you've not only heard them . Listen to them. If you have to. Scenario: You own a family restaurant that's known for its home-style meals. waiters. Does the employee need training? Do they need daily feedback to change behavior? Set a goal for improvement. STEP 7: Offer help You can't tell them to improve their performance without offering a plan to do so. Later that evening Ralph and Maureen got into an argument in front of patrons. Gather all the facts If you're going to confront an employee about his/her performance make sure you have all the facts. "Don't you think you should help him?" another waitress said to Maureen.Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback .Negative Feedback continued STEP 6: Expect and allow some defense In most cases. That will only undermine your attempt to help them. Saturday evening was busy as usual. Get them to focus on the specific behavior. It's a nice problem to have. You preach "teamwork" to every person. When it's busy everyone is expected to pitch in. If you're completely sure their performance is still at issue. Paul. dishwashers. admitted he pitched in to help bus the tables but he hadn't addressed the problem with Maureen. you'll bus tables just to keep the customers from waiting longer than they have to. The waitress for the section." Maureen replied. Every Friday. but it makes it a challenge to provide the individual service to each party that your restaurant is known for. The manager on duty. Maureen. an employee receiving negative feedback is going to defend their actions. and Sunday it's standing room only. Once you're sure you understand the problem. Now let’s look at an example of giving negative feedback.

If an employee is having difficulty they'll usually tell you because they want the help.Negative Feedback continued 2... Wouldn't you? That's why it's important to focus on the behavior not the person.e. The worst thing you can do is provide negative feedback in vague terms. Tell them immediately When Paul realized the back up was because Maureen refused to help Ralph clear the tables he should have counseled her immediately." 5. This is why you want to have all the facts before you confront an employee. "Maureen . You better shape up". Offer to walk them through the job. Maureen not helping Ralph caused a back up in their section. Paul could have said: "Maureen. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 61 . 6. especially when it gets busy..Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback . 7. Don't just leave them on their own. 4. offer training material and pair them up with a more senior employee. In that case. Offer help Especially in a situation where an employee doesn't know how to do a job. be sure you offer help."Ralph was too slow. All the waitresses and waiters help the bus boys when things get backed up. If they're new or it appears they don't know how to do the job ask them how they think they're doing. but in private. If you reprimand them without the facts and without reference to specific incidents you're wasting your time. I did help Ralph. Ask the employee if they realize the impact of their behavior. customers had to wait and an argument broke out. i. Expect and allow some defense Anytime someone is reprimanded they'll naturally want to defend themselves. The sooner you address the problem the more likely it will be the employee has no difficulty relating to the experience. Be specific Refer specifically to the incident or the mistake the employee made. Waiting too long to address a problem is like giving you're approval. This makes it much easier to discuss the problem openly.. In this case. we have to work as a team. Not publicly. "You're doing a lousy job. "I was busy prepping dinners…. If it appears they don't want to do the job reinforce the importance of the job and why it's their responsibility. Focus on performance . Paul should have reminded Maureen that this was a team environment." As opposed to saying. 3.not the person.you're not a team player. In this case. you're now part of the problem. Let the employee look in the microscope First determine if the employee has done something wrong because they don't know how to do the job or they don't want to do the job. Anytime you deliver a reprimand or negative feedback expect the recipient to take it personally. In this case. Did he expect me to do his job?" Then you've lost credibility and an opportunity to coach the employee. It's likely the employee will put forth some explanation -. Have them tell you what the problem is. That means helping each other when we're backed up. Merely telling them specifically what they did wrong may not be enough.

every improvement effort. every project is intended to accomplish some goal. She has the ability so it's likely you would not have to offer formal help. Maureen didn't want to do the job. Did you ever stop to think about all the levels to which you can apply goal setting in your business? Every action. Read this extensive case study based on real events to find out how a lack of goal setting can sabotage your business! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 62 .Negative Feedback continued In this case.Goal Setting and Feedback Providing Effective Feedback .

About four months ago John's department showed a prototype of the system to upper management who immediately endorsed the idea and set an implementation date.ultimately he was wrong. John is the manager of a software development team for a medium sized manufacturing company. John was encouraged by management's enthusiasm but knew their expected timeframe was extremely aggressive. Some of the problems were technical bugs. Bertha has been with the company longer than anyone can remember.. In preparation for his next meeting with management John began to make some notes as he reviewed the last four months privately. To help you answer that question we've provided an anonymous case study based on real events. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 63 .. effective goals. They'd met their target date but John and his team didn't consider the rollout a success. His department is made up of eight employees... By the time the implementation date had arrived his staff had volunteered many hours and weekends in an attempt to meet that date. A large chunk of the complaints were corrected by additional one-on-one coaching and training from John's team. others were caused because the system didn't quite support the real business process. Susan is the newest member of the team. The same dynamics apply regardless of your size or type of business.Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study Below is an extensive case study of goal setting and feedback at multiple levels in an organization. and to demonstrate improvement. and having the discipline to monitor them. several are still angry. customer support and soliciting feedback from customers to design and improve the systems. His team is responsible for building. There was resistance to use the system as some questioned the objective of RTS since it appeared to be in conflict with other initiatives. Goal setting and feedback are routinely taken for granted as management skills. Illusions of any relief by making their target date quickly disappeared as user complaints and inquiries came pouring in. Jack is the team's lead developer. and using goal setting to augment training and personal development. Their burnout and frustration was starting to show. He decided to commit to the date anyway knowing his staff would welcome the challenge. Bob assists with some development but is primarily responsible for developing training materials to support the new systems. implementing and supporting the various Management Information Systems used to manage the company. It was designed to eliminate the need to track resource demographics in each department and to serve as a demographic repository that other systems could draw from. The other team members assist with administrative responsibilities and additional software development. Initially he was right . She's responsible for testing new applications.. Jack has the most experience developing applications and probably the broadest technical background. The size of the company does not matter. Ask yourself this: "How much time and money do you and your organization waste because goals and priorities are unclear?" At first that may be tough to answer. But if the responsibility of a manager is to lead change. In fact. defining specific measurable goals for a project. She can develop applications very quickly and has tremendous motivation but tends to make mistakes. Recently John's team implemented a new Resource Tracking System across the company. The RTS keeps demographic information on all employees and serves as the front end to several other systems and processes. It looks at goal setting from several perspectives: communicating among levels in the organization. that can only be accomplished by setting clear. They are so simple in concept that we dismiss them off-handedly.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 64 . Though minor. Suddenly John found himself in meeting after meeting trying to sort out the objective of RTS versus other projects. This would have enabled the team to work on today's goals (short term) but still focus on the deliverable (long term). In retrospect he realized those casual meetings didn't provide a short and long term focus.today.or a lack of effective goal setting and feedback.a written statement of the measurable impact (goals) RTS was expected to have on operations. Instead. Some goals would be contingent on others. That scope document should have been reviewed and endorsed at the appropriate executive level so redundancy among initiatives could be avoided. He should have facilitated the development of a scope document . He assumed there was consensus regarding the purpose of RTS but in retrospect he realized there weren't any defined operational. HR was building a system to record the demographics for new hires so to support both systems managers would need to enter demographic information in two places. They should have had a clearly defined sequence of goals in a project plan.Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study continued Factors that impacted the successful implementation of RTS Upper management had differing expectations of RTS Lack of a defined project implementation plan for RTS Timeframe was unrealistic Inadequate user training Inadequate testing Programming errors John realized the common theme among these factors was goal setting and feedback . Bob started developing the training program before the design was complete and wound up rewriting his material.tomorrow. the conflicts required rework for his team to retrofit the RTS with those other efforts. Upper management had differing expectations of RTS John was particularly frustrated to find out that RTS was in conflict with several other development efforts within the company. This caused unnecessary rework as portions of the project were delivered out of sequence. they worked on today's problems . service and financial indicators. For instance. Instead of testing the application in parallel with development they waited until the end and had to reprogram major portions of it. Lack of a defined project implementation plan for RTS John thought getting together everyday for a quick meeting would be enough to keep the group on track. For instance. financial or service goals. They worried about tomorrow's problems .

With better attention to the dynamics of goal setting let's look at what John could have done in each of these scenarios. a project plan with a clear sequence of tasks/goals would have illustrated that the date was unrealistic. It wasn't a surprise they were getting all these phone calls now. Now he had to coach her without further damaging her confidence." The aggressive timeframe made the goal unrealistic to begin with. Programming errors Of the problems where the root cause was determined to be a programming error about 80% were Susan's mistakes.it was more like a high overview. They should have broken the training into defined skills (goals) that a user would need to master to use RTS. Based on inquiries from users and a close examination of the training material. His team helped develop the material but they were probably too familiar with the process to represent general users.Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study continued Timeframe was unrealistic John should have been more assertive in assisting upper management with a realistic timeframe for implementation. To his credit John didn't blame her . Upper management had differing expectations of RTS John (and upper management) assumed everyone understood the purpose of RTS and why it was being implemented. He should have monitored and coached Susan's performance early on to eliminate some of her programming errors. By emphasizing the implementation date John inadvertently deemphasized the goal of implementing a quality application. Inadequate user training John's team worked with the training department to provide users with an orientation to RTS. In general the system worked fine but there were some details they missed during testing. John realized the training really didn't target the skills a user would need to use the system . Here again.he blamed himself. "You can bleed to death from 10. They should have had clearly defined scenarios (goals) for testing the RTS in order to simulate the user environment. John reviewed the executive communication: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 65 . Susan was a good developer but wasn't ready to be let loose on her own with so little oversight. Like the old saying goes. The aggressive timeframe forced his team to cut corners. Inadequate testing John's team tested the new application but given the time pressure they were under didn't do as thorough a job as they should have.000 paper cuts. Even seemingly little corners added up.

RTS will serve as a demographic repository to locate employees and will allow managers to request employee access to Email. RTS is designed and programmed using Lotus Notes technology.00 savings annually). It sounded more like a mission statement than a set of defined goals describing what RTS was supposed to accomplish. Security Cards. John found some relief in that there were no real goals for RTS. Please be sure that all staff in your area have requested and installed a Lotus Notes ID on their PC. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 66 .Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study continued Resource Tracking System Our Information Technologies Department will be implementing the Resource Tracking System in all departments on 11/03/97. Result will be a 25% reduction in necessary time/resources for Management Reporting ($55. From the "C. RTS will eliminate the need for multiple and redundant reporting systems by centralizing that function. The above represents the results of a hypothetical cost benefit analysis Lack of a defined project implementation plan for RTS There is an art to planning and managing a project. Some people follow such strict methodologies they make Rain Man look spontaneous. Basically. Others are less disciplined but follow a general sequence of predefined phases. LAN Access.00 cost savings annually). he should have defined some measurable objectives: RTS will reduce the amount of time/resources required to request and gain systems access by 35% ($185.000. mainframe applications and other corporate systems from a central menu." perspective. However. Calling it a flop would be difficult.00 cost savings annually). To request a Lotus Notes ID contact Systems Administration at 555-9898 A member of the Information Technologies Department will be in contact with you shortly to assist in your department's conversion to the new system. Others just wing it and hope for the best. John failed (as many of us do) because he focused on the end product at the expense of planning the project. RTS will also provide management with reports on how many employee/contractor resources are being used in our operations and support divisions. planning a project should be a sequence of specific.000. Please make every effort to assist them in this worthwhile effort.A.Y. RTS will eliminate the need for departments to track resources in multiple systems thus cutting administrative time/resources by 30% ($60.000. tangible goals.

secure executive endorsement Develop RTS Project Implementation Plan Document RTS Business Process Develop RTS Technical Design Document Develop RTS System (phase 1) Test RTS .signoff Testing Document (phase 1) Develop RTS System (phase 2) Test RTS . Pickens S. The fact that the date was a challenge was initially a motivator.signoff Testing Document (phase 2) Develop Training materials Present RTS Training Implementation of RTS Start Date 08/12/08 08/13/08 08/15/08 09/01/08 09/16/08 09/23/08 09/23/08 10/01/08 10/01/08 10/16/08 Due Date 08/12/08 08/16/08 08/30/08 09/15/08 09/30/08 10/07/08 10/07/08 10/15/08 10/15/08 11/01/08 11/01/08 Owner John Warren John Warren Mary Clark Jack Thomas Jack Thomas Bertha Higgins Jack Thomas Bertha Higgins Bob Austin Bob Austin John Warren Support R.Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study continued Below is a generic project implementation plan for our example. Training must have definite goals. Item Present RTS Scope document to executive mgt. tangible outcome Timeframe was unrealistic Upon receiving the executive endorsement for RTS John should have offered to draft a project implementation plan for RTS that would to help determine a realistic implementation date. Likewise the module on Effective Interviewing describes how to conduct a Job Analysis to identify skill requirements. Both could be used to assist in designing skills oriented training. IT Department The key to an effective Project Plan is to ensure that each step has a measurable. Jones D. Jones D. Jones S. Jones HR Dept. Pickens S. Here's a hypothetical sample for our RTS example: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 67 . Quickly that date frustrated his team and their efforts to deliver a quality application. The module on Orientation Programs describes a Skills Checklist that you can design to orient new employees. Inadequate user training Training should have been based on some defined skills rather than a broad overview of RTS. Baxter IT Department J. Warren S.

This would have provided specific goals for testing. Add a new resource to RTS .all fields and lookups on demographic form should be functional.changes should be sent to appropriate system's areas. Delete a resource from RTS .request should be sent to all systems. Assign a resource to a project using RTS .pull mock reports on sample data and verify accuracy. John's team should have used a standard testing matrix. users should have been able to demonstrate these skills during training as evidence that the training was successful Inadequate testing The timeframe for implementing RTS may have contributed to the lack of thorough testing.should send a request to appropriate systems area(s) to gain user access.notification should be sent to requestor mailbox . Verify data integrity of RTS Reports .all fields and lookups should be functional. Request specific systems access using RTS .record should be removed for RTS . Functional? Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 68 . For example: RTS Test Item Check Main Menu to ensure it provides direct access to appropriate information.Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study continued Skill Description User understands content of RTS Main Menu and how to locate information in the system User is able to add a new resource to RTS User is able to request specific systems access using RTS User is able to resubmit a request that has been returned due to error User is able to change the demographics for a resource User is able to delete a resource from RTS User is able to assign a resource to a project using RTS User understands how RTS interfaces with existing systems in HR User knows how to request a resource report from RTS Accomplished? Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Assuming these are the specific steps in using RTS.all fields and lookups in demographic record should be functional . Resubmit a request that has been returned due to error .should result in a demographic record being added to RTS . But in addition.correction by user should return request to appropriate system's area. Change demographics for a resource .

phone calls.just about any communication in your company takes place because someone expects or needs action from someone else. email. conversations.hard part is getting them to share those ideas! The next page provides an illustration of how you can get objective feedback from employees on how to increase productivity to how you can improve your management skills. 3. As his staff developed each piece of the RTS application the piece should have been tested. It sounds incredibly obvious but how often do we really do it? Things would have been different had John: 1. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 69 . meetings.Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Case Study continued Programming errors Here's where John should have spent some time coaching his staff. Performance management. Take some time to assess goal setting in your organization. and implementation. training. 4. The results of the testing could have gone to John . sticky notes . How well those actions are defined and executed will determine the success of your company. Let's assume that he started with a defined project implementation plan (specific sequence of goals). Well if giving feedback is a trick .where he could review the results with the appropriate staff and coach them.imagine getting feedback from your employees! Your employees know more ways to improve your business than you could ever dream of . Included staff in developing a project implementation plan (goals) for RTS Set a realistic but challenging implementation date Drafted specific goals for RTS to accomplish Documented and monitored the goals during design. Strategic Plans. 2. Summary This case study was selected because it illustrates the use of goal setting at several levels in an organization.

employee turnover. I'd like to go through some specific questions. if that's what's necessary. If the employee seems really uncomfortable or uninterested. sloppy inventory control. Here's to Your Health had opened eight new stores and hired or promoted about a dozen supervisors and managers. I'd really like to talk about ways we can make Here's to Your Health a better place to work – better for both our customers and employees. If it's OK with you. We can reschedule a time to meet or you can jot some thoughts down on paper if you'd rather. problems – whatever's on their mind. and get your thoughts. If the employee seems to want to continue participating. getting them to open up can be tricky. comments. etc. While that growth was rewarding Tom had concerns about the impact all that rapid change had on his small company culture. watched his company grow four-fold in just three years. and I'm not going to get angry or retaliate for any criticism you might make. and I don't want you to feel uncomfortable giving criticism. you could then go through a list of questions or topics and ask the employee to comment about them. He made a series of visits with each of the stores and while there scheduled visits with individual employees. Check out these simple techniques for encouraging open communication and trust.Goal Setting and Feedback Getting Employee Feedback Okay. trying asking employees for their feedback on management and their work place! Employees can give you lot's of ideas and suggestions on how to improve. If you'd rather not do this now. Example of Asking for Employee Feedback Scenario: Tom Martin. This is really a team process and we're on the same side. There were indications some of the stores were having problems. Listen to some of the ways Tom encouraged employees to share their opinions and feedback: Thanks for making the time to talk with me. owner of Here's to Your Health. Here are some topics that might get your discussion going: • • • • • • • • • • the good and bad habits of supervisors and coworkers the employee's future at the company and how he or she feels about it the employee's workload and the distribution of work in general the employee's working conditions and how he or she feels they could be improved the employee's feelings about the importance of the work he or she does how employees get along with each other the condition of the equipment with which the employee must work the pay and benefits the employee receives and how they compare with other companies the consistency and fairness of the way employees are treated and disciplined whether the employee feels that supervisors and coworkers tell the employee what the employee needs to know Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 70 . Of course. suggestions. you might conclude the session now. let me know. if you think giving an employee negative feedback is difficult.. This isn't a trap. I'm talking to as many employees as I can to gather ideas. a chain of exercise equipment stores. What ideas. Higher customer complaints. or concerns do you have? I want you to know that I'm really interested in what you have to say. Tom decided it was time to ask some questions.

sum up by saying: Thanks very much for taking the time to let me know how you feel. or additional comments. Next we will provide a short summary and then you will have an opportunity to try these techniques out with a great exercise.Goal Setting and Feedback Getting Employee Feedback continued • • • • • the potential for growth/advancement the employee's experiences with and feelings about coaching and feedback the usefulness and appropriateness of instructions and training received the effectiveness of communication among coworkers and between workers and supervisors the attitude of the managers/owners toward the employees You might ask the employee to respond to each of these topics. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 71 . After the discussion. suggestions. I hope to have some information back to you within two weeks that will tell you where we'll go from here. Be sure to take good notes. I appreciate your honesty. and I hope you'll feel free to come and talk to me if you have questions. I'm going to look at this information and try to figure out ways that we can change things to make your job even more fulfilling and rewarding. Let the employee know what to expect: After I conduct some more meetings with other employees. Thanks again.

Combine the two and you'll be able to move your employees along the "personal autonomy" continuum. Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. You will see a remarkable improvement in the performance of your employees. (this exercise consists of 3 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 72 .Goal Setting and Feedback In Summary Goal Setting and Feedback probably seems so obvious that we often take it for granted. you'll be eliminating more work in the long run. These are found on the following three pages. We assume employees will know exactly what they're doing wrong and how to fix their own problems. It is simply your choice to use them. and initially it is.these techniques are the most important tools at your disposal. If you manage staff directly . Learning Exercises . This may sound like a lot of work. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. how to provide feedback and where to apply these techniques you'll see an immediate improvement in your staffs' performance and motivation. However. Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. Below is a short description of each exercise. with a little extra attention and awareness to effective goal setting. Follow these approaches to setting goals and giving your employees feedback. However. Please print out each of these exercises. Exercise 1: Goal Setting and Feedback Exercise This exercise enables you to apply the techniques covered in this course with your staff. Think back to the course on Adaptive Leadership and you will no doubt see the connection to goal setting and feedback. We have provided one exercise and an action plan to help you apply what you have learned in this course. by managing performance through effective goal setting and feedback.

Why is this goal important? How will their progress be measured or monitored? What will be documented? What support will you provide? Write a statement below of how you will present this goal to the employee. Consider one of your employees for whom you can set a specific goal. For example. Be sure to cover the following . Next. do they need to improve their productivity (improve what by how much)? Maybe you want them to manage a project. Y and Z by 9/1/99)? Below write a brief measurable statement for the goal.comments: 2. Goal Setting 1.e.Goal Setting and Feedback Goal Setting and Feedback Exercise (3 pages) This exercise will help apply the techniques for effective goal setting and feedback with your employees. comments: 3. . share the goal with the employee. But before doing so write a statement describing how you will present the goal. What's the measurable result (goal) of the project (i. Develop an employee training program that covers X. Do you think this is a challenging goal for the employee? Why or why not? comments: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 73 .

impressed. You can set a goal related to work or a personal goal . Consider an employee who deserves positive feedback for something he/she has accomplished (Note: Be sure it's a legitimate accomplishment!). manage your personal finances better etc. Before you approach him/her write a statement describing what you will say.4. Be sure to include what specifically they did. Now apply the same approach using a goal that you'll set for yourself.). What was the employee’s reaction to the above? What specifically did he/she do or say that gave you this impression? comments: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 74 . thank you. And of course. comments: 6.e. comments: Positive Feedback 5. confident in their ability etc. to get in shape. Why was it important? How did it make you feel (proud.i.

Most managers have a difficult time giving employees' negative feedback.e. What can you do to make it easier for you to provide employees with negative feedback in a timely and productive manner? comments: Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan. comments: Negative Feedback 8. they need to improve the quality or quantity of their work (Note: Be sure it's really a problem area!). Consider an employee to whom you must provide negative feedback . (One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 75 . Be sure to include what specifically needs improvement. Before you approach him/her write a statement describing what you will say. it is likely managers will actually create more problems.comments: 9. As the course on Goal Setting and Feedback illustrates. by avoiding to give timely feedback.i. What can you do to make sure that providing positive feedback to your employees is a regular part of your management style? Note: This will have a tremendously productive impact on your staff. Why was it important? How will you present this so the employee does not take it personally? How will you make sure they walk away feeling motivated rather than demoralized? . 7..

in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course. THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 76 .Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. stop and continue doing immediately. identify what you will start.

Empowerment and Motivation .

some people are more intrinsically motivated than others. provides a description of specific initiatives a company/manager can use to motivate employees. any practicality for today's manager will be lost in theory and watered down buzzwords. De-motivated employees will have a devastating effect on the quality of your product or service. illustrates the impact low motivation can have on an employee's performance and what it can cost your business. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 77 . and no answer has been more elusive. There is an important distinction between empowerment and motivation. The best way to determine what motivates your employees is to ask them! • • • • • • GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 explains the impact of motivation on an employee's performance. provides a sample survey for assessing morale in your organization. Here are a few well-grounded assumptions we'll abide by: • Each individual has a level of motivation that he/she brings to a job (and life). It would be easy to cite decades of research and debate regarding the dynamics of motivation and what impact managers can have on an employee's willingness to extend that extra effort. "What is the meaning of life?" and "Where's the beef?" no question has been more perplexing to humanity (at least management). Overall though. There are some specific things a manager can do to create an environment where an employee feels more motivated. Unfortunately. but the two are closely related. That level will fluctuate. Let's keep this simple.Empowerment and Motivation It's the universal management question . describes some of the factors under a manager's control that can influence an employee's motivation. "What" motivates an individual differs from person to person. It's much. provides a case study of how one organization implemented a program designed to improve motivation/morale. describes actions/behaviors that typically motivate/de-motivate employees."How do I motivate my employees to do more?" Except for. provides a simple model for motivating your employees. much easier to de-motivate someone than it is to motivate him or her.

These are the employees who require little supervision. Employee motivation can have a dramatic impact (positive and negative) on the quality of the service they provide. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 78 .Why is this important? An employee who comes to work each day motivated to do the best job he/she can is an invaluable asset. In fact. an employee with low motivation requires extra supervision and is prone to mistakes and poor service. On the other hand. who look for ways to satisfy your customers and opportunities to improve your business. The secret to motivating employees is one of the most elusive management charms there is. By acknowledging motivational issues you can develop employees willing to give 110% and you'll keep those employees longer. some say forget about motivating employees just learn what not to do to de-motivate them! But with some careful consideration you'll become more sensitive to the dynamics of employee motivation. The key for managers is the ability to assess motivational levels and to understand what he/she can do to motivate–or at least avoid de-motivating an employee.

But face it. some say forget about motivating employees just learn what not to do to de-motivate them! But with some careful consideration you'll become more sensitive to the dynamics of employee motivation. and is more likely to show their lack of motivation in their non-verbal behavior–i. avoid eye contact when speaking.Empowerment and Motivation The Impact of Low Motivation Increased tardiness and sick time – Unmotivated employees tend to have a higher incidence of tardiness and sick time. less likely to drop what he/she is doing to help a customer. They're break even at best – In other words. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 79 . In fact. they come in and basically do their job without making too many mistakes and offending too many customers. lethargic voice. In general they display little interest in the customer's needs. it's only a matter of time until they really mess up. Hopefully. talk to customers while walking away. That means constantly covering for that employee. More errors and mistakes – Employees with low motivation for their job tend to make more errors and mistakes because quality is unimportant.. Poor customer service – The unmotivated employee is less likely to return a customer's phone call. The secret to motivating employees is one of the most elusive management charms there is.e. an unmotivated employee will do nothing to improve your business. The best you can hope for is to break even.

if you've got an unmotivated employee. On average. Ask them what their favorite job has been and why. Do their interests match the job? – Find out what kind of work they enjoy most. then one of two things has happened: you either hired an unmotivated employee. Here's how you can make that "gut feeling" more objective. Do they like work where they can exercise some creativity like setting up store displays. Ask why they want this job – Some job candidates. especially overqualified ones. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 80 . Provide a motivating environment Analyze yourself As with many personnel issues the best place to start is by analyzing yourself. Be sure you know the characteristics of the job before you interview candidates. 4. Now. They'll likely bring little motivation to the job. what has a manager done that motivated or demotivated you? These questions are critical. 3. may consider your job temporary or just a stepping stone. 2. Do they prefer working with customers directly? Do they like opportunities to solve problems and make suggestions. or an employee has lost his motivation. Let's look at both scenarios. Select motivated employees 3. If you can apply these to yourself you'll have a much better appreciation for the factors affecting the motivation of your employees. in terms of motivation consider the following: 1. For instance. Look for candidates that view your job as a career opportunity or at least an advancement. what level of motivation do you bring to work? What specific actions or behaviors illustrate your level of motivation? What situations or job responsibilities motivate you the most? Which tend to demotivate you? In this job or another.Empowerment and Motivation What Can a Manager or Supervisor Do? 1. Analyze yourself 2. Select motivated employees When interviewing new employees do you assess their level of motivation? Maybe not directly but most supervisors or managers get a "gut feeling" about candidates. A manager or supervisor that has spent some time thinking about the factors impacting their own performance is likely to assess others more accurately.

employees will notice. In either case. slow spiral into a problem employee. make it clear to them you want to know because their motivation is important to you. seek new responsibilities. However. Provide rewards – Rewards come in many forms. Let's face it–we all lose our motivation once in awhile. If you expect employees to follow certain rules but managers don't have to. that loss of motivation may be an indication of a long.Nothing will de-motivate your employees faster than unfair treatment in the workplace. it will be obvious. These items are taken from research and independent surveys. If you give out raises but they're not linked clearly to actual work performance. Here are some items that tend to motivate employees. Motivators Getting feedback from my manager To be involved in decision making Challenging goals To be involved in problem solving Receive increased responsibilities Public/peer recognition Manager displayed confidence in me Social/fun initiatives at work Promotional opportunities Money Understanding the "big picture" Demotivators Unfair/1nequitable management practices Promises from management not kept Boring/unchallenging job Not able to make improvement suggestions Ideas not listened to/no follow up by manager No feedback from manager No career advancement Dirty/disorganized work environment Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 81 . Either way there are some general things a manager can do to provide a motivating environment for employees: Maintain equity . That alone will motivate them. For example.Empowerment and Motivation What Can a Manager or Supervisor Do? continued Pay attention to non verbals – Do they emit energy in the interview? Are they asking questions? Were they eager to schedule an interview? Do they look professional? Provide a motivating environment You may also have an employee that was motivated but for some reason lost their motivation. Others like public acknowledgement such as a certificate or being selected as Employee of the Month. That loss of motivation may be temporary. The key is to find out what rewards motivate your employees. suggest ways to improve the business. Understand individual differences – Make an effort to find out what type of work motivates each of your employees. if you tend to favor one employee over others by giving him/her perks or special attention. When that happens we may migrate back to the responsibilities that motivate us or we seek to create new ones – i. For some employees a simple pat on the back for a job well done is motivating. You can ask them directly or administer a simple survey. Still others are motivated by a monetary reward or gifts.e. employees will notice. volunteer for a new task etc.

Empowerment and Motivation What Can a Manager or Supervisor Do?
continued
As you can see, many of the items described as motivators and demotivators actually cost little to no money. Good thing, since in reality not every company can just hand out more and more money–nor would that be motivating. Much of an employee's motivation can be influenced by actions taken by a manager or supervisor. Let's look at a few scenarios: Here are three situational examples which illustrate how a manager's actions can motivate or de-motivate employees.

Scenario 1: Manager takes credit for employee's work
Rick Berg was the manager for a software development team. His team had been challenged by the company's president to redesign one of their key products and get it tested and to market in two months. The task was going to be very difficult since the team had estimated it would take five months under normal circumstances. The president took Rick and his team to lunch to explain the urgency. This would put their company in front of competitors and allow them to capitalize on two major contracts – a strong foothold going forward. The team was pumped up especially after meeting with the president who they'd rarely seen much less spoken to. At first the team made tremendous progress. They worked long hours sometimes grabbing dinner together then returning to work. They organized themselves into mini teams to work more efficiently. They worked weekends and pitched in wherever help was needed. They were excited that after the first two weeks they believed they could deliver the new product in the remaining time. Then Rick sent a status report to the president. In the status report Rick made statements such as: "I suggest we modify the product design by…", "I have reorganized the development team by…", "I believe I can have the product ready for shipment by…", "I will direct the team to…." A member of the team saw the status report while retrieving papers from the printer. It was clear their manager was taking credit for their work and their suggestions. Their motivation was gone. Summary: This was unfair of the manager. Employees need to get credit for their ideas and hard work even if it's simply acknowledged in a status report. While acknowledging the contributions of employees in a status report may not be tremendously motivating–taking the credit has a disastrous effect.

Scenario 2: Employee receives a challenging assignment
Beth had worked at Pamela's Bridal Boutique for about two years. In that time she'd learned a lot of the business and helped with almost all aspects. She became good friends with "Pam" the owner and had no complaints about their working relationship. However, over the past six months Beth found the environment less and less rewarding.

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Empowerment and Motivation What Can a Manager or Supervisor Do?
continued
Sure they were busy but it seemed like the same thing day in and day out. Her job had grown stale. She continued doing the best she could but it was getting difficult. Then one day she commented to Pam on something she'd noticed. "You know, we send out so many of our dresses and gowns for special fitting and tailoring – it's too bad we can't do it right in our store. We'd save a lot of time and money.". After kicking it around casually Pam agreed. They could reduce the time it took to deliver the fitted dresses. They could reduce the administrative paperwork required to send it out for fitting. And, they could increase their own profits since they had to pay the fitting company. Beth told Pam she'd be interested in getting trained. It might take several months but they would need to set up equipment in their shop anyway. Pam asked Beth to arrange for training and the company would pay for it. Pam also asked Beth to find out what equipment was needed and to recommend how she'd like the area set up. They set a goal to have the new function in place later that year. Beth's motivation skyrocketed. Summary: Anytime an employee is allowed to make a suggestion and to have a hand in implementing their idea, they're going to feel more motivated. Additionally, challenging goals can have a very motivational impact on the employee. It's a chance for them to step out of their tired old job and exercise new skills and creativity. It also illustrates management's confidence in the employee by saying "I believe in you."

Scenario 3: Employee receives recognition – and is de-motivated!
Terry worked at the service center for a utility company. The company had a quarterly reward and recognition program where managers could nominate their staff for a special plaque and luncheon certificate. Everyone gathered in a large auditorium. The award was to go to employees for outstanding efforts. A secretary for Human Resources ran the program since the manager for HR was too busy. It was her job to make sure the managers for each department nominated employees each quarter. Over the past year participation and nominations slowed to a trickle. Since recipients were named in the company newsletter it would look bad if no one was in there. Terry's manager was called for a nominee. Two people in Terry's department had already received the reward so were ineligible. The other ones definitely didn't deserve it. Terry's work had been average so the manager figured at least he didn't – not deserve the award. At the ceremony Terry's manager took the podium and read the nomination. "This employee comes to work day in and day out and does his job. He can always be counted on. He's been with our company for five years now." Terry was mortified when he heard his name announced for the lackluster nomination. He took the plaque and quickly returned to his seat. Summary: Empty praise or rewards with no clear tie to performance can de-motivate both the recipient (in this case Terry) and other employees. For instance, some companies avoid the hassle of determining merit increases by simply giving all employees the same raise–i.e. everyone gets 4%. What does that say? It says it doesn't matter how good you are–you still get 4%. It doesn't matter how many times you screwed up–you still get 4%. So what does your effort matter?

If you master the ability to motivate staff you may have run out of challenges as a manager. As the examples above reveal, de-motivating is easy. But to motivate staff is difficult because individuals have different needs. Still you can build an environment that provides motivators for your staff. Go to the next page to find out how.

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Empowerment and Motivation A Model for Motivating Employees
Here's a simple model for motivating your employees:

1. Establish a baseline for employee motivation/morale in your company 2. Ask your employees what motivates them most 3. Which motivators does your work environment lack? 4. Fill in the gaps 5. Communicate an overall plan and purpose to staff 6. Reassess staff motivation and the work environment periodically

Simple, yes - easy, not necessarily. But if you devote the time and approach the effort systematically you can increase the motivation of your employees and improve morale. To help you understand how to use this model we shall present (on the following 6 pages) its application through an extensive and true case study of one organization's (Organization X) endeavor to implement the above model. The organization is a regional operating unit for a paper manufacturer with about 300 employees. This same process can be applied in much smaller companies. In fact, it's easier.

The first step is to gather information on the level of motivation in your department or company. That's the only way to determine if you're improving or not. Go to the next page to find out how.

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Empowerment and Motivation Establishing a Motivational Baseline
If you want to improve motivation/morale in your company, you'll first have to determine "How good or bad is it?" Below is a sample of the survey questions that Organization X administered to its staff. You will also find a link below so you can download a sample of this survey including the rating scale that was used. You can use the same one for assessing motivation/morale in your company. The rating scale for these first ten questions was a six point scale ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. I receive adequate recognition for my efforts There are ample opportunities to grow and develop in this company. The work environment here offers a satisfying level of social interaction. The compensation and benefits here are adequate. Decisions here are fair and equitable. Individuals here are treated with respect. I am satisfied with the job security here. My job is satisfying and rewarding. Overall I have a good level of motivation to perform my job as best I can. Overall most employees here have a good level of motivation to perform their jobs as best they can. Select the statement which applies best. I have no interest in working elsewhere I am actively looking for another job I plan on leaving this company 12. Rank the following items in terms of how rewarding / satisfying you find them: (8= Most rewarding/satisfying, 7= next most rewarding/satisfying, 6= next most rewarding/satisfying etc.) Challenging work Compensation & Benefits Increased responsibilities To be involved in problem solving Social interaction Fair equitable treatment Respect towards all employees Career growth

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Empowerment and Motivation Establishing a Motivational Baseline
continued

Before using the Empowerment and Motivation Survey to assess your work environment please do the following: 1. Explain to employees why you're doing this and what they can expect as a result. Remember - asking employees about their morale and motivation then doing nothing with their feedback is worse than not asking. Ensure employee confidentiality. Make sure employees can share their feedback anonymously. Review the modules on Empowerment and Motivation to assist you in determining ways to use employee feedback. Consider conducting the survey twice a year. That will allow your management team time to react to feedback and make improvements. Consider including staff in follow up initiatives. That alone will improve empowerment and motivation.

2. 3.

4.

5.

Whenever you collect survey data be sure to summarize the data and provide respondents with high level results and your plans for follow up.

What's the best way to find out what motivates your employees? We wish it were more complex. We wish it required some fancy management intervention but the truth is...ask them!

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we reviewed each survey and highlighted common themes (motivators/de-motivators). Some motivators are intangible. all responses were summarized as follows: Total respondents = 178 Motivators Getting feedback from my manager To be involved in decision making Challenging goals To be involved in problem solving Receive increased responsibilities Public/peer recognition Manager displayed confidence in me Social/fun initiatives at work Promotional opportunities Money Understanding the "big picture" # 58 48 46 34 33 20 18 16 11 8 4 De-motivators Unfair/inequitable management practices Promises from management not kept Boring/unchallenging job Not able to make improvement suggestions Ideas not listened to/followed up on No feedback from manager No career advancement Dirty/disorganized work environment # 60 33 27 27 19 18 11 3 Note: Total responses do not equal total respondents since some respondents noted more than one motivator or de-motivator. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 87 .are they what you expected? How do they compare to what motivates or de-motivates you? Once you find out what motivates your employees the next step is to examine your environment to see if those motivators exist. After reviewing the surveys.Choose a situation where you were especially de-motivated by your work (current or former employer) and describe specifically what your manager did (if anything) that influenced your level of motivation. The questions are mirror opposites and as you might expect so were the responses. . Review the next page for more details. It's tougher than you think. If we offered a checklist we felt we'd be assuming we knew what motivated or de-motivated staff.Empowerment and Motivation What Motivates Your Employees? We administered a simple survey to all staff asking the following two questions: Choose a situation where you were especially motivated by your work (current or former employer) and describe specifically what your manager did (if anything) that influenced your level of motivation. Review these . Upon return. We intentionally left this a "free text" response.

now figure out how to deliver them! The next page will give you some ideas on doing just that.reward programs. You may have some initiatives in place . Review them to make sure they're having the intended effect.Empowerment and Motivation What Motivators Does Your Environment Lack? Organization X acknowledged that it provided some of the motivators staff were interested in but they were inconsistent. Organization X's Strategy We categorized the motivators identified by staff as follows: Management Skills Getting feedback from my manager Manager displayed confidence in me To be involved in decision making To be involved in problem solving Challenging goals Reward and Recognition Public/peer recognition Promotional opportunities Money Quality/Employee Involvement To be involved in decision making To be involved in problem solving Receive increased responsibilities Human Resources Getting feedback from my manager Understanding the "big picture" Promotional opportunities You've identified your motivational deficiencies . Ask employees if they're worth continuing or if they should be modified. etc. employee involvement teams. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 88 . Examine your work environment.

Empowerment and Motivation Fill The Gaps
Note: Even if you own or manage a small company you can still apply the same concepts. The size of a company only impacts the amount of time and resources necessary to implement these motivators. Small companies will actually find it easier to supply employees with these motivators. Category - Management Skills

Organization X developed an in-house Management Training Program made up of 10 weekly workshops for managers. The management program covered specific management skills including some of the specific motivators mentioned by staff: Goal Setting and Feedback, Participative Management, and Respect/Integrity. In addition, Organization X instituted a Management Assessment Program that allowed employees to rate their manager on his/her management skills. The assessment was conducted twice a year and gave managers feedback on where to concentrate their personal improvement. Finally, new managers were hired and promoted based on their ability to demonstrate these management skills. A third management initiative was the publication of Organization X's "Management Commitment." This commitment outlined a number of pledges regarding the work environment management would create for employees:

9 9 9 9

To treat all employees with respect and maintain the utmost integrity; To develop employees to the greatest of their abilities by acting as coach and mentor; To create an environment where employees can participate in continuously improving our business; To recognize that our employees are the foundation of Organization X's long term growth and success.

This "Management Commitment" was printed on certificates and given to all staff to post in cubicles and offices. Motivators Addressed Getting feedback from my manager Manager displayed confidence in me To be involved in decision making To be involved in problem solving Challenging goals

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Empowerment and Motivation Fill The Gaps
continued

Category - Reward and Recognition Organization X instituted several Reward and Recognition Programs targeted at different levels of employees and different motivators. For public/peer recognition, award certificates were made available for staff to nominate each other for outstanding efforts. Once a month the nominees were treated to a company sponsored breakfast with the vice president. Promotional opportunities represented a bit of a challenge since Organization X, like many companies, had few positions for employees to "move up" to. Since "vertical" opportunities were limited, they looked at "horizontal" opportunities. That is, if an employee had an idea for an improvement, or if they demonstrated the ability to take on a special project, they could be given extra responsibility without a formal title change. That extra effort was then acknowledged in their performance evaluation (i.e. a salary increase or minibonus). Similarly, with regards to monetary recognition Organization X had to be prudent in how bonuses/merit increases were distributed. As part of the performance evaluation process, Organization X added to their criteria Quality Improvement contributions by employees. A portion of every individual's performance evaluation was dedicated to QI contributions. A person could score extra points for their ideas but could not be penalized if he/she didn't offer any. Motivators Addressed Public/peer recognition Promotional opportunities Money .

Category - Quality/Employee Involvement To promote involvement in decision making and problem solving and to offer employees increased responsibilities, Organization X implemented an Employee Improvement program. Employees and managers met regularly to identify problems and ways to improve them. For example, they reviewed customer feedback from surveys to determine the top five complaints of customers. Employees were encouraged to come up with creative recommendations and had a part in implementing their ideas. No matter what size your company is - three people to three hundred thousand employee involvement has long been proven a valuable way to improve companies. Ask for their ideas and suggestions!!! They'll be motivated and your company will see dramatic improvement. Motivators Addressed To be involved in decision making To be involved in problem solving Receive increased responsibilities

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Empowerment and Motivation Fill The Gaps
continued

Category - Human Resources To encourage feedback from managers and to promote effective goal setting for employees, Organization X put all managers through performance evaluation training. Each employee's performance was reviewed annually, though managers were expected to provide employees with regular informal feedback. Organization X, like many companies, was committed to the idea of "pay for performance." Each manager was allotted a pool of money based on an average merit increase of 4% for his/her staff. The manager could distribute the pool as he/she sees fit based on objective criteria and QI contributions. Also added to the performance evaluation was a section for assigning "Special Projects" in lieu of promotional opportunities. Finally, the remaining motivator, "understanding the big picture" had to be addressed. Organization X instituted quarterly all-staff meetings where the vice president would discuss the strategic objectives of the company as well as market performance. Motivators Addressed Getting feedback from my manager Understanding the "big picture" Promotional opportunities

Don't keep the plan for motivating and empowering staff to yourself - share it! Just the fact that employees see you taking a sincere interest in them will motivate them! Up next, communicating your plan.

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Empowerment and Motivation Communicate Your Plan to Your Staff
Most of the initiatives that Organization X implemented are not unique. What is unique is the way the company integrated these initiatives into an overall plan based on the specific motivators identified by staff. Often times, efforts to impact the motivational levels of staff are short lived because the initiatives occur in isolation or as a "program of the month." There appears to be no logic or game plan for management's efforts. By starting with staff input and working backwards, an easy to communicate "game plan" can be developed.

Once you've done all this work you can't rest on your heels. Be sure to reevaluate the environment periodically to see if you're still providing the motivators your employees need.

Evaluate Staff and Environment Periodically
Organization X used a number of methods to determine how well its motivational program was working. The Management Assessment Tool provided feedback in six areas: Goal Setting and Feedback, Communication Skills, Change Management, Respect and Integrity, Team Building and Empowerment and Motivation. An employee survey was also administered twice a year asking staff for input regarding the work environment in general. Finally a number of measurable indicators were observed such as turnover; the number of special projects assigned, the number of Quality Improvement Suggestions submitted by staff, and the number of grievances submitted to Human Resources. Simply identifying motivators for your staff and linking management initiatives to those motivators, will heighten everyone's attention to your effort. That alone can have a positive effect on staff morale. And if you suspect you have a morale problem, it may not be as bad as you think. Studies show that individuals commonly rate others as less motivated than themselves. In other words: "We've got a problem - but I'm OK." Another note...of course the economy ebbs and flows. Currently there's a shortage of qualified workers. In order to keep your best ones you have to be creative and committed to motivating and challenging your employees. If you think you're busy now, imagine the problems that low morale and employee turnover will create for you! This program was an ambitious, but a worthwhile undertaking for Organization X. If you are considering a similar initiative, or implementing portions of it, devote the necessary time to secure management commitment to the effort.

Now it’s time to do an exercise. Go to the next page.

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Empowerment and Motivation
Learning Exercises
.
We have provided one exercise and an action plan to help you apply what you have learned in this course. These are found on the following three pages. Please print out each of these exercises. Below is a short description of the exercise.

Exercise 1: Empowerment and Motivation Exercise
Try these techniques to empower and motivate your staff!

Personal Action Plan
Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this.

Be the kind of manager that creates an environment where employees strive for excellence.
Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. (this exercise consists of 2 pages)

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1. what could your manager do to empower and motivate you more? 3. Choose a situation where you were especially motivated OR de-motivated at work. 2. did your manager have on your level of motivation? Describe the situation and your manager's role. In your present position. Think of a situation where you noticed one of your employees or colleagues especially motivated by their work. What impact. if any. What was it specifically that motivated them? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 94 . in detail.Empowerment and Motivation Empowerment and Motivation Exercise (2 pages) Try these techniques to motivate and empower your staff.

(One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 95 . What do you think are motivators for your staff / employees? 5.4. How can you verify your assumptions? Please be specific. Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan. 6. What new motivators could you offer your staff/employees? Please be specific.

THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 96 . in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course. stop and continue doing immediately. identify what you will start.Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course.

Coaching .

It should come as no surprise that excellent managers and supervisors are also excellent coaches. One of your critical roles is to develop the capabilities of every employee in your department. GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 9 describes what it means to “coach” your employees discusses how to become an effective coach identifies what an effective coach does describes a structured process to increase the effectiveness of your coaching activities discusses coaching and goal setting provides a process for assessing and tracking performance improvement Why this is important. you will no doubt agree that this individual had a positive impact on your performance. you are only as effective as the least capable person on your team. For any of you fortunate enough to have or have had a great coach at some point.Coaching From the sports arena to the shop floor or office cubicle. Read on to find out more. As a manager. by far one of the most essential skills that a leader can have is the ability to coach others. They ensure that each individual’s development is aligned with the Organization and the department/team vision and goals. Let’s first explore what coaching is and what the benefits to this critical management practice are. The most effective way to do this is by employing highly effective and structure coaching practices. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 97 .

The coach’s job is to provide: • • • • • • guidance advice strategy feedback support opportunities for development Coaching helps employees analyze their performance so that they gradually assume more responsibility for evaluating their own abilities. When you act as a coach. you are giving your employees your time and attention and. rather than imposing a solution.Coaching What is Coaching and why should you do it? The short definition is: Coaching is providing guidance.reduces costly mistakes and problems . you are helping them master their work and grow their own knowledge and skills. more importantly. helping them to learn. When you hold a coaching session with an employee.increases relationships with employees/team members c) for the Company as a whole . and opportunities for growth. but is also much more satisfying to both the employee and the supervisor. stronger motivation to succeed . Coaching is helping your employees discover the answers themselves.provides growth opportunities leading to retention of high performers . What are the Pay-offs? The pay-offs to coaching are significant and impact on the entire Organization. Coaching is not telling your employees what to do or providing simple answers to their questions. It is unlocking an employee's potential to maximize their own performance. employees have individual strengths and weaknesses. Like professional athletes. you guide them through a thinking process. You are also showing respect for their individual capabilities and providing the opportunity for self-development. a) for the employee b) for the coach . helping them to discover the answers to their own questions.increased productivity and quality of work Next let’s take a brief look at old management practices versus new. Coaching is much more time-consuming than giving orders. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 98 .increased job satisfaction. feedback.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 99 . So enough rhetoric. It’s no surprise that plenty of people find this approach demotivating. When it comes down to it. Okay. providing perspective and encouragement while setting high standards and expectations. when to do it and even how it should be done. and fixes all the problems. independent thinking and opportunities to contribute. When people feel as though they have no say and are given no opportunity to contribute outside of their work tasks. It’s about supporting people to learn instead of telling them what the answers are. They are excellent listeners and communicators. The mindset of the coach is to create an environment that fosters learning. and that workplaces with a commandcontrol style are rated as pretty unsatisfying. the role of a coach can be described as: • • achieving results and excellence through others rather than personally taking care of things. The manager is in charge.Coaching The Old Way – Command and Control Although workplaces and management styles have come a long way in the last decade. Now let’s what you need to do to become an effective coach. Coaching helps people unlock their potential and enhance their own performance. none of us really enjoys being told exactly what to do. This approach basically means that employees are told exactly what to do. In a work environment. Coaches are a role model for others. then they switch off and become “disengaged”. and focusing on developing employees in order to achieve business results rather than micro-managing their every move. the command and control style of management remains common practice in many companies. has all the answers.

And they feel more connected and loyal to you for supporting them. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 100 . Listen. Realign your thinking Stop thinking about your team members as people that need to be controlled or managed and give them the latitude to take actions and make decisions. Truly listening is one of the greatest skills to develop. Listen. 1. Realign your thinking 2. listen. or you have the right people but you haven’t trained them sufficiently. Stop providing solutions 6. Trust is a vital component of this equation. Create a participatory environment Follow these seven steps and you will become a highly effective coach. then you either have the wrong people in the jobs. Identify each person’s development needs and commit to following through on them. Focus on development Focus on developing the strengths of each team member. listen. but you just can’t let go. Listen 3. or perhaps your initial reaction made the person think twice about bringing the problem to you. Listen. It’s likely you weren’t listening (or didn’t want to listen).Coaching How to Become a Coach Based on our extensive research of highly effective coaches here's what these experts suggest you will need to do to become an effective coach 1. you can guarantee that at some stage they’ve tried to tell you what the problem is. 3. Listen Listen. A third option is that the people are properly skilled. Focus on development 4. Endorse effort/growth 5. their enthusiasm and effectiveness is greater. When people are growing and improving. If you can’t trust people to do their jobs well. 2. Listen. Stop making all decisions 7. If there are unhappy or disgruntled people in your team.

and then treat them the way you would want to be treated. productivity. the coach sees them as learning opportunities and uses them to develop their employees. When you coach your staff. If you catch yourself about to provide the answer. The true success of managers/supervisors can be measured by the success of the people that work for them. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 101 . Create a participatory environment Create an environment where people want to work with you.Coaching How to Become a Coach continued 4. Supervisors often achieve their positions after being technical specialists. The more you can find opportunities for people to contribute to the decisionmaking process and encourage people to have their say. Involvement breeds ownership and motivation. which filters through to the quality of the end product and the success of the Company. motivation and satisfaction of your employees increases. As individuals. the more your employees will feel connected and satisfied with their jobs. Instead of pointing out errors. and feel valued and respected. we all know how seldom we are given positive feedback. 5. Read on to find out. take a deep breath and ask a question like: “What would you do in this situation?” 6. The mindset is that it's usually faster to tell someone what to do. or do it yourself. than give your employees an opportunity to figure it out. The focus is on making sure the same mistake doesn’t happen again by fixing the source of the problem. You don't have all the answers all of the time. Include your team. but how often we are reminded of our “mistakes”. and so will have an opinion or view on how to "fix" situations or problems. Stop providing solutions Stop providing solutions. Make it clear to your employees what they are responsible for. Stop making all decisions Stop making all the decisions. 7. Endorse effort/growth Endorse effort and growth instead of pointing out failures or errors. So what do effective coaches do? Next we will present a proven step-by-step process followed by seasoned coaches.

I’m glad to see such a good example of teamwork. Immediately following the meeting the coach provides feedback based on specific behaviors that were observed during the meeting. Brief “Catch them doing something right” sessions 2. I also liked the way you worked together to figure out how to avoid these kind of delays in the future. Focused coaching is a one-on-one discussion with an employee where feedback is given to the employee on a specific situation that recently occurred–not on performance in general. Formal structured coaching sessions The duration of the session can range from a few minutes to a more lengthy. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 102 . “I understand your frustration.Coaching Focused Coaching Successful managers and supervisors routinely incorporate a highly structured approach for coaching employees to improve their performance. For example: An employee has been observed directly by the coach during a team problem-solving meeting which was led by the employee. Focused coaching comes in two basic formats: 1. I thought you handled the situation really well. It is a participative. You were very professional when you said.” In this exchange two key elements of good feedback are evident. The employee’s specific behavior was described and the situation is tied to the department’s goals of improving teamwork. What can I do to help?” He responded very well and seemed to understand that the delays were unavoidable. A brief focused coaching exchange might go like this: “John. problem-solving process in which you and an employee meet to discuss performance needs and agree to solutions. You have every right to be upset. He seemed pretty upset about the time it took to get the support material you had to get to him. as such. formal discussion. Brief sessions should take place as soon as possible following the activity or event being discussed. The primary goal of focused coaching is to help the employee achieve developmental and performance goals and. should be approached in a positive and constructive manner. I overheard how you dealt with Bill regarding the ABC situation.

OBSERVATION Review Assessment and Plan Prior to conducting your coaching session you need to have a clear picture of the employee’s current performance.PRE. You can maximize your effectiveness at these sessions by using the process illustrated in the graphic below. what they are doing now. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 103 . The Focused Coaching Process STEP 1 .Coaching Focused Coaching continued Focused Coaching. you need to be able to articulate their current behavior. With these two factors clearly described. You can now develop a coaching plan for this employee and begin the coaching process.Formal Sessions These coaching sessions are developmental and longer term. In other words. You also need to be able to describe or demonstrate what they need to be doing in the future. you can formulate a developmental plan.

Realistic. Measurable. Consider your tone and remember your objective is to help this individual to perform more effectively. Observe Performance With the goals for the coaching session agreed upon you can observe the performance and then move to the next step. The coaching process is a two-way street and you need to involve the employee in determining which skills you will be coaching. Be careful not to insert any of your opinions into your summary. By setting a time and ensuring you keep to it. Ask them to identify what went well and what could be improved. Discuss Observed Performance Discuss in specific behavioral terms what you observed. Sit beside the person rather than across a desk. In other words explain exactly what it is you would like to see the person accomplish. determine the starting point. If you don’t have enough information to know where to start you may need to formally observe the person in action and then. Remember to define your expectations in behavioral terms. based on your observations. Set Time People tend to keep appointments. you are communicating the importance of the session and your desire to help the person to succeed. particularly if this is the first of these types of discussions. Focus on what you saw the employee do. Time Sensitive and within the employees Span of Control. Specify the Purpose Re-state clearly why you are getting together and the specific outcomes you hope will arise from the session. Ask for Self-Assessment Then ask the employee to give you their own personal assessment. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 104 .Coaching Focused Coaching continued Set Goals Developmental goals should be Specific.POST OBSERVATION Create Atmosphere Establishing the right atmosphere for the session will reduce the tension the employee is undoubtedly feeling. STEP 2 . Achievable.

It is important that you speak in terms of behavior. Also set the time for your next coaching session. Then describe the things you would have preferred to have seen done differently. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 105 . Discuss these options and determine what the person will do in the future. Based on what the employee says. Remember it is not a question of right and wrong. It is a matter of learning how to do things better. As you can see. giving feedback and interacting with your staff using the most appropriate leadership style. Let’s discuss the types of goals you need to set as a goal. what the person did or said. and what you would prefer the person do or say.Coaching Focused Coaching continued Compare and Acknowledge Compare performance to standards and goals and acknowledge good performance. In other words. search for other ways the person can approach the areas requiring development. focused coaching also requires that you become very efficient at goal setting. Contract for Further Action Then get agreement from the employee and a commitment to try the new approaches. you can now compare what you saw to what is expected. These two steps often occur simultaneously. Generate Alternative Solutions Working together. Acknowledge the things that the person did well.

please review the courses Goal setting and Giving Feedback and well as Adaptive Leadership. To do this we need a thorough understanding of what needs to be done. and what will challenge them and what will turn them off. If you have not already done so. commentary that the employee being coached actually exhibited. In the column headed “Behavior” identify the key actions. You will need these skills to be an effective coach. When we use the term “behavior” we are referring to the key actions. Focused Coaching involves setting two types of goals: 1. They know their own capabilities and what they want to achieve. You will need to monitor and track your employees’ progress. clearly you need to identify and then look for specific performance relative to the employee’s performance during your coaching session. Coaching Observation Checklist To help you. Productivity goals are focused on outcomes. People feel confident when they create goals for themselves. the current skill level and limitations of our employees. set personal goals and objectives that are too low. steps. It is essential that you focus on what the person does not why you think they might have done it a certain way. standards or procedures that you want the employee to be able to know and do.Coaching Coaching and Goal Setting People respond well to goals for a number of reasons. establishing time limits. tend to stay too long in their comfort zones and. we have provided a Coaching Observation Checklist form that you can use in your coaching sessions. A printable copy of the Coaching Observation Checklist form is provided in the Exercises section of this course. This simple checklist will help you to organize and document the coaching session. Most people. Goals increase performance by providing a focus for activity. however. so that you can give tangible and specific feedback. Tracking Performance In the observation stage of the Focused Coaching process. Read on to find out more. Record the goals of the coaching session. Productivity goals Developmental goals are focused on building knowledge and skill. Developing goals becomes a little more complicated when we do it for others. Coaching is on ongoing process. You can then compare these to the established processes. These behaviors must be observable. steps or behaviors that you would like to see the employee demonstrate. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 106 . Developmental goals 2. and by appealing to the competitive instincts in all of us to do something well or better than others. for example . So let's review a quick summary of the key points covered in this course. as a result.production results and internal service delivery. There is room provided for you to record examples of actual behavior observed.

This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. and again. Successful coaches routinely incorporate a highly structured approach for coaching employees to improve their performance. Select an employee and follow the process recommended in this course. feedback and opportunities for growth. The next step is up to you. 10. 12. The payoffs to becoming a coach are significant. Then modify your approach and do again. 11. 2. It is a matter of learning how to do things better. Achievable. should be approached in a positive and constructive manner. Learning Exercises . It is important that you speak in terms of behavior. and again. Prior to conducting your coaching session you need to have a clear picture of the employee’s current performance. Measurable. as such. 8. Track the progress of your employees and ensure your feedback focuses on specific behavior and ensure you have examples when describing what you observed. 4. Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. Set Goals. Coaching Observation Checklist: This will help you with this activity. Time sensitive and within the employees Span of Control. Learning activity The only way to learn how to coach is to become one.. Realistic.not on performance in general. Focused coaching is a one-on-one discussion with an employee where feedback is given to the employee on a specific situation that recently occurred .you get the point. 13..Coaching In Summary 1. Analyze what worked well and what you would do differently next time. These goals need to be Specific. Please go to the next page to view and print the Coaching Checklist (this consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 107 . Developmental goals are focused on knowledge and skill. Remember it is not a question of right and wrong. Expect a lot and create a positive and supportive climate and you will likely see performance beyond your expectations. Productivity goals are focused on outcomes. The primary goal of focused coaching is to help the employee achieve developmental and performance goals and. 9. Be aware that your expectations significantly influence your employees’ performance. 5. 6. 7. Coaching is providing guidance. Coaching team members includes helping them learn from past mistakes. Set a specific time and place for the coaching session. 3.

Coaching Observation Checklist Coaching Observation Checklist Employee’s Name: Date: Goals of Session Behavior Yes No √ x Examples Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 108 .

Behavior Yes No √ x Examples COMMENTS GOAL OF NEXT SESSION: DATE OF NEXT SESSION: TIME: OBSERVER’S NAME: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 109 .

THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 110 . in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course. stop and continue doing immediately.Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. identify what you will start.

Listen Up! .How to Really Listen .

" Bob answers as he continues pecking away at his keyboard. I think if we break apart the database we won't have to dump as much information from the demographic form to the registration form. Can you change the enrollee file like we discussed?" "How are we going to cut down on the amount of information?" he asks as he sifts through the clutter on his desk for his notes. We should be able to shave some time off that. I pop into Bob's office at 3:15 PM for a quick informal meeting. They didn't meet the service standard last month. Listening on the other hand is very different. Bob was not communicating in a way appropriate for his listener Bob's an idiot Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 111 ." "Uh huh.. "The changes." I say again." he responds without looking away from his terminal." I say. You don't choose whether or not to hear.. Bob then starts in with a barrage of MIS terms that sound like some kind of alien talk. Can you change the enrollee file like we discussed?" I repeat. "Yeah." Here are some of the things that standout from our conversation: • • • • • Bob was not giving me his full attention Bob's questions demonstrated clearly that he wasn't listening Bob was not acknowledging the purpose or intent of my message As speaker. distractions other priorities and devote our mental ability to the message at hand.Listen Up . "We need to redesign the application for Customer Service to improve the response time.. We have to consciously make an effort to listen. Bob is our MIS manager and like most MIS managers is always busy fixing some systems problem. We're going to split the database apart. I'm starting to get annoyed now. If you've got children how many times have you used the phrase: "You're not listening!" Though it's half the equation in effective communication we routinely devote our attention to what we're going to say (let them listen). "So we're going to shorten the registration form?" "No we're not shortening it .. It's an average of 25 seconds.we just won't be passing as much info back and forth. We have to put aside opinions. I know I'm tuning him out. "I just told you.How to Really Listen What's the difference between hearing and listening? Barring any physical impediments you can't avoid hearing. My attention is being replaced with frustration. I know. Now neither of us is listening. "Any thoughts on where to start?" "Their QI Team suggested the look up function in the registration process is taking too long. "Just put it in layman's terms. Here's a hypothetical conversation between two managers that illustrates an interaction where listening skills fail and what can happen as a result. "Twenty five seconds doesn't sound like a lot?" he says with surprise. That's what slows down the process for them.

Have you ever really thought about the rules for speaking and listening? If you're like most anyone .GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 describes the basic rules for listening and speaking so it's easy for others to listen explains some of the barriers to effective listening so you can avoid them describes the different types of listening styles and how they impact our interpretation of what we hear gives you a proven technique for handling situations when you haven't got time to listen tells you how to handle situations where it seems the other person isn't listening (Or is it you?) Why is this important? Effective communication is crucial to the success of any business. If not exercised properly you severely hamper your ability to communicate effectively with coworkers and others.it never crossed your mind! The next section provides some insights on speaking and listening. But listening is a choice. Listening is often the forgotten communication skill. Check it out! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 112 . It's assumed that if we can hear – we can listen.

telling them to do something. Just as when preparing a presentation be sure you let the listener know what you expect of them. Explain that you know this is a controversial topic but that you're committed to coming up with a solution that best supports the organization. asking for help. "Here's a tip .How to Really Listen Speaking and Listening – The Rules In any conversation there are duties for both the speaker and listener.Trains. there are a lot of obstacles to really listening effectively. Being aware of them will help keep you focused on the message.when you're telling your little stories .i. When you've finished speaking the listener should know if you're supporting a position.remain objective Ask for clarification if necessary Be attentive both psychologically and physically Ask for clarification when needed so you fully understand the message We'll cover the duties of the listener in more detail. Speak loudly enough Speak clearly and concisely Be aware of your non verbals Are you making eye contact? Is there a reasonable distance between you .whatever. It makes it so much more interesting for the listener!" (Steve Martin to John Candy .not so close as to be confrontational.e. asking a question. you need a solution to a systems problem.how can it be difficult?! Of course. etc.Listen Up . As the conversation continues those duties flip flop back and forth. Before we do here are some barriers to effective listening: Listening seems so natural . What is your intended outcome? Deliberately phrase your comment so the listener knows how to respond. asking a question.have a point.. depending on your audience Use appropriate language and terminology Know the interest of your audience Have a point. you need to address an interpersonal issue that's impacting work. That sounds obvious but how many times have you listened to someone ramble on and you don't know if they're sharing an opinion. asking for your opinion . Here's an outline of them: Speaker Diffuse emotion FIRST! If you know that a conversation is going to be heated or that there is a strong difference of opinion deal with the emotions first. Do you expect action immediately? Are you asking for their opinion? Are you asking them to troubleshoot a problem or provide a solution? Listener Do not be judgmental .not too far to be antisocial . Planes and Automobiles). you need to balance the budget. In situations like this be sure you've clearly identified the objective of the discussion . (why should they listen). Read on! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 113 .

Everyone has their own preferred style of listening. You'll be too busy forming your response to listen. Being judgmental/biased .better idea) or it may be about the person. you have a different . If you allow or attend to interruptions . While they're talking. Speaking/Listening rate . Interruptions . The judgment may be about the message (i. That style acts as a filter to your conversations. Most people speak at a rate of 100-200 words per minute.How to Really Listen Barriers To Effective Listening Fear of public speaking .Perhaps one of the biggest obstacles to effective listening is that you may have an opinion that conflicts with the speaker's message. thinking about your response or just drifting in and out of attentiveness? If someone does that to you recognize that this type of listener needs you to get directly to the point (what do you expect of them). If you're concerned about how you'll respond or the attention your response may receive by others . but fear of speaking will interfere with your listening. Not verifying intent of message .As listener you have the obligation to verify that you've understood the speaker's message and their intent. That leaves a lot of idle time for the brain while you're supposed to be listening.e. Did you ever notice yourself finishing someone else's sentences.Interruptions can be anything from typing or working on something when you're supposed to be listening to actual interruptions from your telephone or other staff. you're preparing a rebuttal rather than remaining objective enough to evaluate their idea.you can't be listening.you won't be listening to the best of your abilities. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 114 .Listen Up .It may sound odd. Knowing your predominant style can keep your filter from clogging your communication! Read on to learn why.Psychologists have shown that humans can hear and understand language at a rate of several hundred words per minute (500-900).

your ears are open and the sound vibrations are hitting the tympanic membrane of your ear . "Not a chance" This person appears to be listening but their mind is really made up. Technical listener These individuals are very fact oriented. Emotive listener As the name suggests the emotive listener will be attuned to the emotional state of the speaker.you probably have a predominant listening style but occasionally use other ones: Lazy listener These people tend to hear what pleases or interests them. These listeners often sacrifice a real understanding of the speaker's message. Once they're sure they understand the speakers intent. They also look for instructions that involve them. presentation skills. they relax and absorb the details. Now what? Review the next section to find out. They are not open and objective enough to appreciate the real intent of the speaker.aka you're listening . Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 115 .Listen Up . Grammar. Did your ears ever "perk up" while you were otherwise detached from a conversation because you heard a certain word or phrase? Some individuals will not actively listen unless the topic is significant to them. and even clothing can catch their eye. non verbals. As with most personality traits .or at least hearing. They're speaking. Stylistic listener The stylistic listener pays attention to the medium and mannerisms of the speaker. Ideolic listener An ideolic listener listens for the core idea first.How to Really Listen Listening Styles To improve your own listening skills you must first recognize several different styles of listening. L I S T E N Someone has your attention. They listen for data and specific concrete statements about cause and effect.

You can usually tell at the start of a conversation if you're both at the same technical level. then reassess yours. or they pop into your office while you're working. like the back of his hand. But how do you tactfully tell them that? Read on for some tips. Don't attend to anything else while they speak. Give them your full attention. but it will encourage the person to be open. If you're far below the speaker tell them immediately to keep it in layman's terms. you could go to a mortgage broker who knows balloon loans. Here are a few things to keep in mind: • • • • • • Lean towards the person to appear genuinely interested in their idea. Be sure it's accurate.. conventional loans. "What's on your mind?" "You look like you want to respond?" Show interest verbally and non verbally Ask open questions Use paraphrasing . State specifically what you believe the speaker wants from you. We guarantee that if you practice this it will be noticed and respected by your peers and coworkers.remain objective For you to respond effectively and in the best interest of your company you need to set aside your opinions when listening to others. But if he can't communicate them to you in terms that you understand would you be comfortable giving him your business? Be attentive both psychologically and physically We've talked about some of the psychological aspects of listening.How to Really Listen So I’m Listening – Now What? Let's now review the duties of an effective listener. Paraphrase what you've heard and present your interpretation of it. Take notes when appropriate. Assist the speaker Here are some things you can do to encourage the speaker: • • • • • • Use openers. Okay. What's the common denominator? You haven't got time to listen. Ask for clarification if necessary Don't assume you've understood the speaker's message. Understand their position first. buy downs.. but how about the physical? "Looking" as if you're listening isn't going to help you understand and interpret the speaker.Listen Up . This type of objectivity is crucial in an environment where you want to endorse employee participation and innovation. For instance. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 116 . Maintain appropriate posture. they call you when you're busy.restate what you've heard to make sure you understand the point Don't be afraid of silence! Silence will encourage the speaker to continue Fight the urge to interrupt More often than not someone catches you on the way to a meeting. adjustable. Don't be judgmental . Don't slouch or appear bored as they speak. Maintain eye contact. Nod and respond with reinforcements (Uh huh.). FHA loans etc. I see.

If you're consistent and if you always follow up.you're about to start a conference call whatever the case.Listen Up . Offer follow up Explain that their idea is important to you and offer a time that they can stop by or when you can call on them. people will respect your style of communicating. Assess if it's an urgent matter. What do you do when it seems someone isn't listening to you? First. The listener's non-verbals make it obvious they're not listening and everyone's time is wasted. Remember as a speaker you have some responsibility to help them listen. A coworker wants to run an idea by you so you "fake" an interest in what they're saying all the while edging away towards your meeting and not really absorbing their message. This sounds very obvious but most people fail at the first step. Try this the next time someone stops you or walks into your office at a bad time: Be genuine Listen quickly (ideolic style) for the core of their message. You're stopped in the hall on the way to a meeting. Be straight with them Explain that you've only got three minutes to get to your meeting .How to Really Listen When You Know You Can’t Listen It happens to all of us and we've all done it to others. What? Check out the next section for some tips. it's extremely easy for someone to know when you are and aren't listening. If you can't listen. but you offer the speaker a justifiable reason. If it's not don't let them go any further. you tried to "fake" listening so that wouldn't happen. Ironically. they usually won't be offended. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 117 . Be assertive. Keep in mind. Chances are you've offended them. don't jump to the conclusion it's all them. When they've determined the speaker's issue isn't immediately urgent they let them continue.a half hour to finish this report .

who.. see if it's applicable and contact the provider as soon as possible?" "Noel. we've got to discuss the divisional budget. I'm bringing this to your attention because you're the materials manager.. I've got to get the brakes on the delivery truck fixed before the next shipment comes in. Can you come down immediately and see if it's hazardous?" "Mary. Can you review the denial code." "Kay. Who Why are you asking or speaking to this person? If they don't assume some ownership or accountability for your message they may just dismiss it as gossip or useless banter. I've got to get the brakes on the delivery truck fixed before the next shipment comes in. We've got a spill in Area C that may pose a health risk to some of the workers.Listen Up .How to Really Listen But You’re Not Listening How many times have you been in conversation with someone and you say or think "You're not listening!" Could be a bit of both. If we don't have this done by afternoon we'll miss the deadline. I understand you're responsible for processing rejected claims?" "Noel. "John. They might not be listening and/or you might not be communicating clearly. "John. I was told you could help me locate the nearest service center." Why If the listener doesn't perceive some urgency or importance to your message they may dismiss it as casual conversation or unimportant. There's not enough to cover your department and mine without some adjustments." "Mary. Be sure to tell them why your message demands their attention. Is it an impasse? As you're speaking clarify the. If you expect them to understand and react to your message they have to recognize that they have some accountability for the issue." "Mary." What Though it sounds obvious. Only you can represent your area. why and what of your message. if one person is identifying problems while the other assumes it's time to identify solutions you'll be spinning your wheels. I'm bringing this to your attention because you're the materials manager. Can you pull up the directory and see which service center is closest to route 23A?" Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 118 . For example. This applies to business conversations or important interpersonal issues. I'm bringing this to your attention because you're the materials manager. It's for a network practitioner and the doctor is really upset. Only you can represent your area.." "Noel. I was told you could help me locate the nearest service center." "Kay. I understand you're responsible for processing rejected claims? This claim was rejected. There's not enough to cover your department and mine without some adjustments. It's for a network practitioner and the doctor is really upset. we've got to discuss the divisional budget. Casual conversation obviously does not have to be so structured. I understand you're responsible for processing rejected claims? This claim was rejected. "John. We've got a spill in Area C that may pose a health risk to some of the workers. I was told you could help me locate the nearest service center. the listener has to understand what you expect of him or her.

Can you suggest any ways we could improve the system response time? " Here you've stated why you're asking Bob (who) . Listening is a difficult skill to improve because we so often take it for granted. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 119 . imagine you're about to ask "Bob" your MIS manager about a systems problem: "Bob I need some help with a problem we're having in Customer Service. For instance.Listen Up . Test your own understanding of the person's message FIRST. Listening plays a bigger role in effective communication than most people expect. If we don't have this done by afternoon we'll miss the deadline. Can we grab a conference room at 2:00pm today and get this settled?" Finally. Try our listening assessment and see if you identify any areas for improvement.you've emphasized why it's important and as an ending you've clarified what you expect of Bob. When you and a coworker or a group of coworkers are in conversation try to start with a definite statement about the purpose of your conversation. As in the module Managing Difficult Employees . we've got to discuss the divisional budget.How to Really Listen But You’re Not Listening continued "Kay. Critique yourself and others to make you more attuned to effective listening. Only you can represent your area.you need to assess your own contribution to problems or difficult situations before you can rectify them! Improving Your Listening Skills Feedback from others is one of the best ways to improve listening or any management skill. There's not enough to cover your department and mine without some adjustments. It's taking too long for our phone reps to complete the registration process and it's affecting our performance standard. You'll find one at the end of this course. Go to the next section. This is very similar to the Objective Statement required for problem solving teams. Here's a quick assessment that you can ask coworkers to complete: Since you can't always get immediate feedback from others consider conducting a self assessment periodically. if you're frustrated by ineffective communication be sure you're listening. Make a sincere effort to pay attention to your style of listening and that of others. Like many skills in this system we've included a self assessment to get you thinking about this skill.

We have provided three exercises to help you apply what you have learned in this course. Listening is risky. Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course.Listen Up . Learn to Listen up. Exercise 2: Effective Listening Self-Assessment formUse this form to circulate to others if you want you get real feedback on how well you listen. (this exercise consists of 3 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 120 . Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. Please print out each of these exercises. These exercises are found on the following pages.How to Really Listen Learning Exercises . Below is a short description of each exercise. Exercise 1: Effective Listening Exercise Try this exercise to rate how well you listen. To be a good listener you have to be willing to change your point of view.

Listen Up Effective Listening Exercise (3 pages) Listening should be considered the lost art of communication. Extra credit: Print a copy of the Effective Listening Self Assessment and ask a coworker or friend to critique your listening skills. Review the results and complete the Personal Action Plan to identify what you want to improve to become a better listener. The rating scale for this assessment is as follows: 5 = exceptional effort to this detail 4 = consistent effort. better than average 3 = average 2 = adequate but can be improved 1 = needs major improvement Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 121 ." Rather the most common complaint when it comes to communication is "He/she doesn't listen!" The problem is – listening takes work – a lot of it! It's hard to remain objective and to really try and understand someone's opinion especially when it contradicts yours. As with most personal development skills the first step towards improvement is awareness! Try this self-assessment to critique your own listening skills. Instructions: Complete the following Effective Listening Self-Assessment Exercise. Most people have no problem "talking. Other times the person talking isn't talking fast enough and your mind is darting between the conversation and some other mental task.

Effective Listening Self-Assessment Below is an Effective Listening self-assessment you can use to critique your listening skills. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 122 . A more effective way to use this survey is complete this survey yourself and have your coworkers to fill out an Effective Listening Feedback Form anonymously for you. 5 = exceptional effort to this detail 4 = consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 5 When there is silence I often fill it with some comment rather than waste time. Use it periodically as a refresher or to raise your awareness of the importance of listening as a communication skill. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 4 I wait until the speaker finishes before responding rather than interrupt or finish his/her sentences. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 3 If I don't understand the speaker’s intent I verify/clarify the message with him/her. better than average 3 = average 2 = adequate but can be improved 1 = needs major improvement Name: Please check the most appropriate response: 1 Date: I stay focused on a conversation versus drifting in and out of attention. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 2 I devote my full attention to the individual speaking. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort.

better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 7 I remain open and objective towards the speaker's idea before responding. no major improvement needed 49-56 Good Listening skills. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. need improvement and consistency 35-41 Below Average. significant improvement needed Below 35 Poor listening skills . paraphrasing. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 8 My non verbals convey that I am interested and attentive to the speaker. (Consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 123 .6 When someone is speaking I wait for them to finish rather than focusing on. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 9 I demonstrate that I've listened to the speaker (i. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) Add up the points from each response and enter the total below. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 12 I give the same degree of attention to all levels of staff when they're speaking to me. asking questions)? ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 11 When speaking to me individuals often have to repeat themselves.significant improvement needed Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 2. minimal improvement 42-48 Average Listening skills. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 10 I ask for clarification on technical issues or language unfamiliar to me. Total points: 57-65 Excellent.e. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. and forming my response.

____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. A more effective way to use this survey is complete this survey yourself and have your coworkers to fill out an Effective Listening Feedback Form anonymously for you Name: Please check the most appropriate response: 1 Date: I stay focused on a conversation versus drifting in and out of attention. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 124 . better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 3 If I don't understand the speaker’s intent I verify/clarify the message with him/her. and forming my response. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 2 I devote my full attention to the individual speaking. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 6 When someone is speaking I wait for them to finish rather than focusing on. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 5 When there is silence I often fill it with some comment rather than waste time. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 4 I wait until the speaker finishes before responding rather than interrupt or finish his/her sentences.Effective Listening Self-Assessment Below is an Effective Listening self-assessment you can use to critique your listening skills. Use it periodically as a refresher or to raise your awareness of the importance of listening as a communication skill. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort.

better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 12 I give the same degree of attention to all levels of staff when they're speaking to me. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 10 I ask for clarification on technical issues or language unfamiliar to me. asking questions)? ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 8 My non verbals convey that I am interested and attentive to the speaker.e. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. Total points: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 125 . better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) Add up the points from each response and enter the total below. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 9 I demonstrate that I've listened to the speaker (i. better than average (4 pts) ____ Exceptional effort to this detail (5 pts) ____ Cannot Evaluate / Not observed (0 pts) 11 When speaking to me individuals often have to repeat themselves. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort. paraphrasing.7 I remain open and objective towards the speaker's idea before responding. ____ Needs major improvement (1 pt) ____ Adequate but can be improved (2pts) ____ Average (3 pts) ____ Consistent effort.

Skill or Competency:

Personal Action Plan
Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course, identify what you will start, stop and continue doing immediately, in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course.

THINGS I WILL START DOING

THINGS I WILL STOP DOING

THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING

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Straight Talk
- Making Your Point

Straight Talk: Making Your Point
Have you ever been in a conversation with someone at work and they're trying to explain a problem to you but they're all over the board and you can't tell what the heck they're saying? Are they telling you something? Asking you something? What?

Here's a hypothetical example of a conversation between an employee and his manager who oversees the Technology department: John "We've got a problem. That software isn't triggering the scheduled jobs like it's suppose to."

Jennifer "What software are you referring to?" John "That software by IBEX. It's suppose to kick off a program that sends work requests to all the units but it's not working."

Jennifer "What's it doing?" John "It runs through the cycle and then it checks the requests - but first it opens that directory and if it can't, it shuts off. But even if it does, the requests are checked and sent but not all of them."

Jennifer "Wait a minute, which directory?" John "The DBA directory."

Jennifer Then it checks some of the requests, but not others, or does it check all requests, but only sends certain ones?" John "Sometimes it'll shut off completely."

Jennifer "I thought you said it sends some of the requests?" John "If it runs. But then the requests might be sent or they might not."

Jennifer "What have you done to pinpoint the problem?" John "Well, we tried calling the work units to see what they received but we weren't sure if their requests were even scheduled so they wouldn't know if they were suppose to get them. We tried forcing the program - no, first we tried all the directories to see which ones weren't working then we called the work units but they hadn't received their requests, except for two."

Jennifer "Do you mean two work units hadn't received requests or two requests went through...." (In frustration) Yada, yada, yada. We've all been in these conversations. They're frustrating, confusing and often lead to unnecessary work or missed opportunities. And, let's admit it. We've also been the one that couldn't get the message straight to begin with. This type of communication goes on in every business, everyday. If you're effective at communicating and making your point you'll get far more accomplished and people will be more likely to listen.

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GETTING STARTED
This course:

9 9 9 9 9

provides a description of three critical steps in providing straight talk. present the 3W's and why they're critical to your message. offers helpful tips to keep in mind when conveying information to another person. provides a worksheet for outlining your approach next time you have to convey important information to someone. includes an exercise for evaluating your ability to make your point effectively.

Why is this important? Is there a more important business or interpersonal skill than being able to convey information in a manner people will listen to and understand? The more effectively you communicate the faster you can raise problems, learn new procedures, offer suggestions, help customers - the list goes on and on. Master this skill and it will make a significant difference in your performance and the performance of your employees.

Let's review the critical elements for Straight Talk. These are important if you intend to make your point and have people understand and take action.

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Straight Talk: Making Your Point The Three Critical Elements
There are three critical elements to straight talk. These are:

1. Getting and keeping attention 2. Know where you're headed before you start 3. Confirm understanding
Let's look at these in more detail.

1. Getting and keeping attention The first thing you need to do is get the person or audience to listen. In the module on Presentation Skills one of the key elements to an effective presentation is letting the audience know why they should listen to you. That point is just as important in impromptu conversations. There are three ways to get that attention. The first is somewhat obvious, explain why the issue is important to the listener, for example: "We have a problem with the Martin Engineering order you wanted delivered today. Do you have a minute?" "I found an error in the reports today. You might want to look at it before you make your presentation." "Our department is changing the way we code our software before we send it to you guy's for implementation. Can we review that so your team isn't caught off guard." The second way to encourage people to listen is to check their current understanding of an issue or problem and then start from there. For instance; "Tom, I wanted to run an idea past you. How familiar are you with the problem we've been having with the machine calibration on our X400 units?" This does two things. First, it gets Tom actively engaged in the conversation. Second, if you start at a level that's too far below or above Tom's understanding of a situation or problem he'll have a hard time listening and will probably tune out. If they're familiar with the issue just provide new information, if they're not - start with the basics. A third way to get their attention is to alter your speech. Have you noticed your ears perk up when someone speaks slower than normal? Focus on a clear message they can understand.

2. Know where you're headed before you start The second important element when conveying information is to have a logical way to present your message and to start with your ending. Why? When you are speaking with someone, unless it's just chit-chat and storytelling you should have an expectation of them.

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"Mary. Here are some easy ways to check for understanding. 3.. then telling them the message. Confirm understanding The third important step is to verify that the listener heard what you intended them to hear. If they can't offer a logical opinion repeat the message. Sounds redundant doesn't it? It means starting with an overview. One way you've probably used when giving someone directions is to ask them to repeat back to you what they heard. If you're presenting multiple options list the pros of one approach versus the pros of the other. Many people are "hectic" when describing a situation or problem because they start a message then recall bits and pieces as they go..." Do you want them to be aware of something? i. NOTE: Logical doesn't mean they have to agree with you. If you're describing a problem start with the origin. These examples will also demonstrate another important aspect of "Making your point" It's called the 3W's.. then recapping. Are you seeking their opinion? i. Now let's look at some examples of messages that draw upon these three elements. then the cons of both. Another way to confirm they heard your message is to ask them for their opinion on the matter.e. you have experience with sales distribution. I'd like your opinion on something. the impact. then second and so on... "Bill.. Then tell them what you just told them. The sooner you do that during the conversation the less time you'll spend re-explaining yourself and frustrating everyone. If you're explaining a task ask them to demonstrate the task.e... A common teaching and presenting method is to tell the person "What" you're going to tell them.Straight Talk: Making Your Point The Three Critical Elements continued For instance.e. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 130 .... We're changing over the database tonight in case your department wanted to use it. can you come to the conference room for a minute. It just means that they understood your position clearly enough to offer a position that isn't at least a reasonable alternative. this is just a heads up. "Jane.. Depending on your message here are some logical ways to present information: If you're describing a process do so in a sequential manner starting with the first step. If they understood you message they'll be able to do it." Once you let them know up front what you expect of them they won't be mentally dissecting your message looking for that clarification." Are you expecting them to take action? i. action taken so far then the current status. Then tell them. we need your help on.

we've got to discuss the divisional budget." What Though it sounds obvious. I'm bringing this to your attention because you're the materials manager. Casual conversation obviously does not have to be so structured. Only you can represent your area. If we don't have this done by afternoon we'll miss the deadline. Can you come down immediately and see if it's hazardous. why and what of your message. I was told you could help me locate the nearest service center. we've got to discuss the divisional budget. I was told you could help me locate the nearest service center. It's for a network practitioner and the doctor is really upset.Straight Talk: Making Your Point Is Your Message Clear? How many times have you been in conversation with someone and you say or think "You're not listening!". Only you can represent your area. I'm bringing this to your attention because you're the materials manager. I've got to get the brakes on the delivery truck fixed before the next shipment comes in. Who Why are you asking or speaking to this person? If they don't assume some ownership or accountability for your message they may just dismiss it as gossip or useless banter.. the listener has to understand what you expect of him or her. Could be a bit of both. If you expect them to understand and react to your message they have to recognize that they have some accountability for the issue. This applies to business conversations or important interpersonal issues. We've got a spill in Area C that may pose a health risk to some of the workers. Is it an impasse? As you're speaking clarify the who. There's not enough to cover your department and mine without some adjustments. We've got a spill in Area C that may pose a health risk to some of the workers. If one person is identifying problems while the other assumes it's time to identify solutions you'll be spinning your wheels. I'm bringing this to your attention because you're the materials manager." "Noel." Why If the listener doesn't perceive some urgency or importance to your message they may dismiss it as casual conversation or unimportant. Be sure to tell them why your message demands their attention. It's called the 3W's.. They might not be listening and/or you might not be communicating clearly. "John.." "Kay. "John. "John. There's not enough to cover your department and mine without some adjustments. I understand you're responsible for processing rejected claims?" "Noel. I understand you're responsible for processing rejected claims? This claim was rejected." Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 131 ." "Mary." "Mary." "Kay.

" "Noel. I was told you could help me locate the nearest service center." The next section just provides some general tips on "Making your point" more effectively. Can you pull up the directory and see which service center is closest to route 23A. Keep them in mind. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 132 . Can we grab a conference room at 2:00pm today and get this settled. It's for a network practitioner and the doctor is really upset. I understand you're responsible for processing rejected claims? This claim was rejected.. see if it's applicable and contact the provider as soon as possible. I've got to get the brakes on the delivery truck fixed before the next shipment comes in.Straight Talk: Making Your Point Is Your Message Clear? continued What "Mary. There's not enough to cover your department and mine without some adjustments." "Kay. Can you review the denial code. we've got to discuss the divisional budget... Only you can represent your area. If we don't have this done by afternoon we'll miss the deadline.

Some of these we already covered but here's a recap: Always verify that you have the person's attention. Be sensitive to the amount of detail you share. it only clouds your message.. employee or coworker. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 133 . Is it relevant? If not. Otherwise they'll be waiting for it and ignoring the rest of your message. Avoid jargon and technical terms unless the audience is as expert as you. "I'm going to explain this in chronological order of how it occurred.i.. Then use a logical process for presenting your point." Think of a problem or issue you need to present to your boss. If you're dealing with an audience cater to the lowest common denominator if that person's opinion and involvement is critical. Verify the listener understood your message as you intended. Know what you expect of the listener before you start. and encouraged. It's okay.Straight Talk: Making Your Point Making Your Point: General Tips Communication experts offer the following advice to keep in mind to get your point across quickly and accurately. to tell the listener what process you're going to use . Speak at a rate that matches the speaking rate of the listener.e. Given what you've learned so far how will you present it? The next section provides a worksheet for planning that conversation. another task at hand or other interruptions wait for a better time. If you're still struggling to get their attention speak slower at first. Point out the benefit to the listener or why it's important at the beginning. Always check for the individual's current level of understanding.. If you're competing with the phone.

Confirm understanding We have provided a printable worksheet on the following 2 pages which will help you to apply this process. an issue. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 134 . Answer the first three questions based on the conversation you plan to have. problem or suggestion? 3. Then use points 4. What is the issue. What do you need from them? What do you expect them to do as a result of your message? How will you apply each of the following three critical elements for conveying information (You can also script what you're actually going to say): 4. Then take a few minutes to complete it before continuing. etc. an employee or a coworker. Who will you be talking to? 2. a suggestion.Straight Talk: Making Your Point Making Your Point: Next Time The following process will help you to plan a conversation you intend to have or should have with your boss. Know where you're headed before you start 6. 5 and 6 to plan how you will apply the three critical elements for conveying information. 1. Getting and keeping attention 5. Pick an important problem.

etc that you need to discuss with your manager or coworkers. problem or suggestion? 3. a suggestion. 1.Straight Talk: Making Your Point Making Your Point Worksheet (2 pages) This worksheet is designed to help you apply what you learned in the Straight Talk: Making Your Point module. Who will you be talking to? 2. Complete the worksheet below to help to layout that conversation using the points from Straight Talk: Making Your Point. an issue. What do you need from them? What do you expect them to do as a result of your message? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 135 . What is the issue. Instructions: Think of a problem.

continue to the next page and complete the exercises provided. Getting and keeping attention 5. Confirm understanding Once you have finished working on this worksheet. Know where you're headed before you start 6. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 136 . Go to the next page to find out more.Straight Talk: Making Your Point How will you apply the three critical elements for conveying information (You can also script what you're actually going to say): 4.

Exercise 1: Straight Talk Self-Assessment Exercise Try this exercise to see if you provide straight-talk! Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. Please print out each of these exercises. We have provided one exercise and an action plan to help you apply what you have learned in this course. Try it! Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1..Straight Talk: Making Your Point In Summary Conveying information in a concise.if you'd focused on your ability to convey information effectively you might sound like that last sentence! Learning Exercises . (this exercise consists of 1 page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 137 . Below is a short description of each exercise. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this.. These are found on the following pages. if you're presenting information. logical manner that focuses on the purpose you're conveying to the listener and the needs you have for making your point is important. The payoff is enormous. This is a remarkably easy habit to get accustomed to with a little practice and attention. See..

Respond to each question by ticking the most appropriate rating. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) 4 I rarely have to repeat myself or explain myself further ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) 5 People usually take the action I expected after I present my ideas and suggestions ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Add up the points from each response and enter the total below. concise manner. You can then compare your total to the breakdown provided. 1 People usually seem to pay attention when I try to explain something. Outstanding communication skills . Then add up the points for your ratings and place the total in the space provided below. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) 3 I rarely have trouble presenting my ideas and opinions in a logical. Total points: 5-12 13-22 23-30 Focus on using the Making your point: Worksheet until you are more effective at conveying information.Straight Talk Self-Assessment (1 page) This survey instrument will help you assess how well you convey information.but be sure others agree! Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan. Average communication skill for conveying information. Use the Making your point: Worksheet as a refresher periodically. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) 2 I am confident people understand fully what I say. (One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 138 .

stop and continue doing immediately. identify what you will start. in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course.Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 139 .

Try it! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 140 . The payoff is enormous.Notes: Straight Talk is a remarkably easy habit to get accustomed to with a little practice and attention.

Managing Difficult Situations .

You need to approach the situation with a logical way of diagnosing the problem and coming up with a plan to change an individual or group's behavior. The result is a knee jerk style of management. Some days seem like one long string of difficult situations all running together! Unfortunately that's exactly how some managers perceive their job and when doing so become insensitive to the real root cause of the problems. as well as your own problems. service and customers. Let's face it–if your company only employed one person–you. Managers avoid dealing with these situations for a variety of reasons. a group of employees who are fighting due to personality differences? The list goes on. When those challenging situations arise.Managing Difficult Situations As a manager or supervisor you are going to run into countless scenarios where you have to pull some magic out of your hat (or at least be good with smoke and mirrors). Not an easy task. right? But that's not the case. you can't react haphazardly. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 141 . Sometimes they go away. more often they just get worse. You've got to deal with individual problems. GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 9 describes typical difficult situations explains why people are usually reluctant to address difficult situations illustrates the impact problem situations can have if not dealt with quickly and effectively describes a method for managers and supervisors to use when dealing with employee or workplace problems describes 15 common employee problems with recommendation on how a manager should respond provides and exercise and action plan for how you can deal with your own difficult situations Why is this important? How much time have you wasted dealing with an employee who's constantly tardy. Go to the next page to find out more. then there would never be any problems. The first step is recognizing a difficult situation. mass mutinies. It may not be obvious but those little problems are costing you money. an employee who makes the same mistakes over and over.

three things most people are uncomfortable doing. one person leads the others against an individual 14. Truth is . Employee is constantly tardy 11. have you done to address these problems? Note: We will be examining each of these difficult situations in this course.Managing Difficult Situations What Are Some Typical Difficult Situations? Unfortunately coming up with a list of these isn't hard–just the solution. if anything. Employee is unhappy about new assignment and complaining openly about it 6. Employee is publicly refusing work you've assigned them 4. Entire department is unmotivated and "burned out" 7. Employee is criticizing you and undermining your authority 5. Think about your workplace. Responding means confronting employee's. Employee is not following new procedure properly 13. Employee talks too much and is interfering with work 2. This certainly isn't an exhaustive list: 1. it means managing conflict and it means sharing negative feedback . Defensive employee who takes constructive criticism personally 12. Employee isn't using his/her time productively 9. Here are some examples. Possible wrongful accusations by one employee about another 3. Whole group is resisting new procedure These are just a few. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 142 .many managers are uncomfortable confronting difficult situations. What situations have you run into? Do you run into the same ones over and over? What. A rift occurs among the staff. But understanding why managers have difficulty is the first step towards taking action. Employee's work performance has steadily declined 8. Employee is not performing his/her most important job for some reason 10.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 143 . It's not significant – John. costs. Managers and employees are certainly no different. Click the Read on to review some simple illustrations. He's not doing his share…He and so and so don't get along…He's so negative all the time…blah. satisfy your boss and put out day-to-day fires now you have to counsel employees? The irony is that most of your work is multiplied by or impacted by these common problems. You can bet that if a manager is aware of a problem situation then employees have been tolerating it for longer. go away or can be swept under the rug. blah. It's true employee differences are better addressed among peers but when that fails management has to intervene. The hope is the problem will correct itself. comes to you and says Ron is creating problems for the team. Often times the messenger is labeled the complainer or the manager assumes employees should fix their own problems. Avoiding Confrontation – Most people will avoid or prefer to avoid negative confrontations with other people. On the surface these problems seem insignificant compared to the manager's problems but behind the scenes these situations are impacting morale.Managing Difficult Situations Why Do We Avoid Difficult Situations? Managers and supervisors have a tendency to avoid intervening on these situations for a number of reasons: No Time – It's hard enough to find time to do your job. What's the impact of these difficult situations? Usually the impact the manager sees is just the tip of the iceberg. Usually not. and the quality of your service. blah. correct mistakes.

You tried to address the situation indirectly by emphasizing the reasons for your decisions in staff meetings and offering an "open door" policy. her coworkers notice everyday when she's late. is supposed to be in by 8:30am. One of your junior agents. type of inquiry. That should correct it." You announced changes in scheduling because your department received new responsibilities and he was adamantly against it. Then you wonder why their output has slacked off lately. phone.Managing Difficult Situations What’s The Impact? Because the impact of these problems isn't always obvious they're best illustrated with some simple scenarios: Scenario 1: Manager is losing credibility with staff George just seems like one of those people who always has a complaint. Instead. You call Bill and tell him to "be more careful. Bill thinks the more request forms he fills out the better so he's grabbing every phone call he can. she's late. The rest of the department gets here on time and since the call volume is relatively low they can cover it usually.. his handwriting is illegible. Bill. on a customer request form and passing that on to a senior agent who will meet with the customer. You changed procedures in your department and he thought they were "stupid. Now you're short staffed and customers are hanging up because they can't get through to anybody.e. In the next section we provide a step-by-step approach. etc. current coverage. On occasions employees came to you in confidence because George was criticizing you and your management. productivity in your department was dropping. The problem continues. request forms that aren't filled out correctly. fixing his mistakes. It's 9:10am and once again. They decide to start coming in late. address. Lately. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 144 . They resent the fact that you haven't done anything and wonder why she's privileged. On occasions you notice from your call reports she logged into her phone late again so you call her and remind her of the policy. Scenario 3: Employee makes a lot of mistakes that are costing money You manage an insurance agency that sells a full range of insurance products.. He gives them wrong information. Now you have senior agents who you pay three times the salary of Bill." But you don't tell him specifically what he's doing wrong or how you'll follow up with him to see if he's improved. You tried to address it but you're usually tied up in meetings. name. Better yet what can managers do to respond to these situations? Like any management skill dealing with difficult situations it takes some forethought. Little did you know employees were splitting into factions–those that supported you and those that enjoyed listening to George. has the responsibility for documenting customer demographics–i. You've gotten some complaints from the senior agents that Bill's work is sloppy. etc. Scenario 2: Employee is constantly tardy Heather. So what can a manager do to react to these situations. one of your customer service reps. When you hired a new team member George complained he was unqualified when he made mistakes.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 145 . pull some resources from another area . what it is that's interfering with the quality of their work.things start to improve (for the short term). Do you have a high incidence of tardiness? Is motivation or morale low? All these can be indicators of employee problems. Step 2: Define the problem in behavioral terms Next. Don't dismiss the issue as just another complaint. Let's review a basic framework to do that: Step 1: Put your antennas out Step 2: Define the problem in behavioral terms Step 3: Determine what could be the cause Step 4: Ask yourself "Could I be contributing"? Step 5: Determine ." You've got to define. Another mistake is to define employee problems in terms of personality. For most people the decision to go to their manager with a complaint is a difficult one. examine your work environment for rework and constant mistakes. but your quick fixes didn't alleviate your problem. in specific behavioral terms. so employees don't usually make these complaints haphazardly. In that case. "He's just a negative person by nature.How should I react? Step 1: Put your antennas out Often times staff will bring these problems to your attention. all you need to do is listen objectively. employees are improperly trained or lack motivation. figure out what the problem is. Perhaps it's a problem in the workflow. For instance. By the time they've mustered enough courage to come to you the problem is usually pretty well entrenched so you need to react. Look for points where work is piling up. This sounds obvious. Not all problems are brought to your attention by employees. ask for overtime. For instance. but many managers make the mistake of trying to deal with "symptoms" and not the root cause.Managing Difficult Situations What Can a Manager Do? As a manager or supervisor you must have a logical way of diagnosing and responding to these problems. if you've got a productivity problem in your department you may cancel employee meetings. If you know how to look and listen many of them you can "nip in the bud" before they become major. Two months later you're in the hole again." "She's not a team player.

You'll have a chance to validate these later. Review them so the next time you're facing one you can respond not react! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 146 . sharing the documentation with the employee or group commits you to a sort of social contract. The manager who looks critically at his or her own behavior with an eye for self improvement can then work with others to improve their performance. Also. A manager must be able to do an honest appraisal of how he or she may have contributed to a particular problem. Step 5: How should I react? Outline a specific sequence of actions you can take to alleviate the problem.Managing Difficult Situations What Can a Manager Do? continued Step 3: What could be the cause? Usually there's not just one root cause for performance or group problems. The next section provides 15 common work place situations and walks them through the Difficult Situation framework. Document your decision so you can refer to it and critique yourself.some may be environmental (constant changes in procedures or policies) or individual (employee lacks certain skills and/or training). Documentation is critical if disciplinary action is involved. Brainstorm factors you think are involved . the employee will do the same. be sure your company has a documented disciplinary process for dealing with employees whose performance or work habits are unacceptable. Present it to the employee in a way that addresses the behavior. Step 4: Could I be contributing? This is one of the most important characteristics of effective managers and leaders. but rather an interaction of several. Consider the following questions: What employee related problems have you had in your work environment? (make a list) How did the problem get resolved–or did it? What could you have done to better address the situation? How could you have contributed to the problem? Let's look at this framework in action. not their personality. If a manager is contributing to the problem and he/she makes an effort to change. Finally. Your response should address the specific behavioral problem you identified in your original problem statement.

Defensive employee who takes constructive criticism personally 13. For each scenario we have gone through the 5 step process of diagnosis and resolution. Employee is constantly tardy 12. Employee's unhappy about new assignment and talking publicly about it 7. Possible wrongful accusations by one employee about another 4. Employee's work performance has steadily declined 9. one person leads the others against an individual 15. Employee is not following new procedure properly 14. Employee is publicly refusing to comply with your expectations 5. Employee talks too much and is interfering with work 3. Whole group is resisting new procedure Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 147 . Employee isn't using his/her time productively 10. Entire department is unmotivated and "burned out" 8. Employee is criticizing you and undermining your authority 6. Employee is making waves over some change you're making 2. Employee is not performing his/her most important task for unknown reason 11.Managing Difficult Situations Difficult Employee Situation Case Studies The following are 15 common types of employee or group problems a manager may face. CASE STUDIES 1. A rift occurs among the staff. You may certainly consider other alternatives.

reinforce that he is an important asset to the department and his opinions are valued when they are shared constructively. As usual. Reinforce the reason for the change. And as usual. once again. tossing out new reasons why it won't work. Draw out other members and ask their opinions. What could be the cause? • • • • Employee(s) not involved in identifying or implementing the change . If you believe it. you should be able to defend your stance in the meeting.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #1 You have just presented a new procedure to be used in the Customer Service department. 2. Give him a specific example of how you'd like him to share his ideas and suggestions going forward. Roger has strong objections saying that the new procedure is going to make their life difficult. Explain that there is a proper way to provide feedback regarding changes and ideas. Consult with Roger after the meeting.no ownership Employee(s) lack confidence in management decisions Roger could just be overly skeptical by nature or have problems with authority Change may actually add work for employees 3. Even after explaining your justification for the procedure Roger is still adamant. • • Case Study 2 on the next page. He needs to realize his approach is destructive to the department. What should you do? 1. If later you find out the change is detrimental you can revisit your decision. Be strong in your conviction. he's trying to speak for the entire department. How should I react? • First. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 148 . Be sure the group understands why it's necessary. Could I be contributing? • • • • • How involved were employees in identifying this change? Have you allowed this employee to question your decisions (non constructively) in the past? Are you sure this process is not adding an unreasonable amount of work for the department? Do staff have a chance to add their opinions/recommendations on changes? Do you feel threatened or intimidated by Roger? 4. you've stood up initially for your decision but demonstrate that you're willing to listen and reconsider your position. That way. The rest of the group appears uneasy as. Roger has challenged your direction. Define the problem in behavioral terms • You have an outspoken employee who is resistant to change.

You do not have to share names of fellow employees. What should you do? 1. It's no wonder her coworkers can't keep up with her. Set a goal for her . Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 149 . The only problem is she's constantly talking and distracting others in the department.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #2 Millie has always been one of your most consistent Data Entry Specialists. Define the problem in behavioral terms • You have a talkative employee whose socializing is interfering with work in the department. Consider including her on a project / QI Team if she is rewarded by social interaction • Case Study 3 on the next page. How should I react? • Counsel the employee immediately.i. Some have complained about it in the past but you've just recently realized how loud and aggravating she really is. Monitor her closely.e. Her work is accurate. no complaints or observations of her disrupting others for three months. Define what is an acceptable level of socializing. she follows procedures well and really has a good understanding of the department's workflow. Could I be contributing? • • • • Have you counseled the employee regarding her disruptive behavior? Have you unintentionally reinforced it by allowing her to engage in excessive conversations with you or others? Have you kept the employee challenged and motivated by her job? Are there other constructive avenues for this employee to gain social interaction? 4. Provide regular feedback. Use specific examples of how her constant talking has bothered others. 2. Determine if the employee is challenged / motivated by her job. If she can maintain her expected productivity and take on more stimulating work ask her what she would be interested in. What could be the cause? • • • • Employee has never been counseled on disruptive behavior Employee is not challenged by her job or is overqualified Employee seeks social interaction/recognition Employee is unaware her behavior is bothering other employees 3.

has adapted very well. Explain how detrimental it is to teamwork in the department to falsely accuse another person's work. Most have had difficulty managing the new task since it increases their talk time. a few have not. Bertha. one of your claims representatives. • • Case Study 4 on the next page. in particular. Be sure she understands the process and monitor her closely for a short time to see that she complies. Could I be contributing? • • • Are you sure the information the employee has provided is false? Have you shown any favoritism towards Bertha in the past? Do you provide regular feedback and reinforcement for all employees? 4. Identify ways to streamline the process. identify what it is that allows Bertha to maintain her productivity and see if the rest of the department can be trained in those skills. Define the problem in behavioral terms • You have an employee who may be wrongfully accusing another of lying/poor work performance 2.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #3 Russell. It may be that staff cannot maintain expected productivity (at least initially) given the new task. What do you say to Russell? 1. Consider how it is you evaluate employee performance and what you reward and recognize. Find out if Russell is concerned about his own performance or if he needs assistance. just yesterday you made a point of praising Bertha for maintaining such a high call volume. If Bertha is practicing the process effectively . review your productivity requirements. Also. However. That's why she's able to maintain her call volume. Also. steps into your office to discuss a new procedure in the department in which representatives are asked to verify the providers address according to the one listed in the your computer system. How should I react? • The first thing you need to do is verify Bertha's performance. In fact.you need to counsel Russell. secondhand information from another source Employee is anxious/threatened by other employees' performance Employee is trying to divert attention from their own performance Only individual performance is recognized and reinforced creating competition Employee is interpreting your praise of the other individual as favoritism 3. If she is not practicing the new process counsel her immediately. What could be the cause? • • • • • Employee is presenting inaccurate. You may need to add more team oriented goals that lessen the emphasis on individual achievement and competition. You're fairly sure Bertha is verifying the address because you've heard her using your call monitoring process and her documentation is clean of problems. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 150 . Russell has just told you that he heard Bertha is not verifying the provider address.

Anytime your authority is challenged you must react quickly and unemotionally if you are to maintain credibility in front of your staff. What should you do? 1. one of your Data Entry people has just reacted to a new task that you've asked your department to do. professional way. • • Case Study 5 on the next page. How should I react? • Confront Janice immediately (preferably in the meeting). Janice. Could I be contributing? • • • • • Have you reinforced ways for employees to constructively voice concerns/ideas? Have you allowed this employee to challenge you (non constructively) in the past? Are you completely confident your change is the most efficient way to enact this process? Have you prepared your staff to deal with change effectively? Have you asked your staff to clean up problems for others instead of fixing the root cause? 4. Include her in drafting an outline to help them minimize mistakes.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #4 You're in a staff meeting when. Educate your staff as to the importance of change and your process for implementing it. Entertain other options as long as they're presented in a constructive. This way when changes occur employees will know they can respond constructively rather than immediately being defensive. Explain the purpose of the change and why it's important. Those sheets have to be reentered because the engineers didn't fill them out correctly. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 151 . I'm not doing it. If what Janice is saying is true. 2." With that she folded her arms defensively. Give Janice an example of how she could have presented her opinion. This is a more extreme example of case study #1. If there has been a history of this type of behavior you may consider formal disciplinary action. "I don't care. What could be the cause? • • • • • History of antagonism between the manager and this employee Employee does not react to change very well Employee fears additional work will interfere with productivity expectations Employee has been allowed to challenge you (non constructively) in the past Change will genuinely add undue work to the unit and should be reconsidered 3. Define the problem in behavioral terms • You have an employee who is publicly refusing to comply with your expectations. Encourage open communication and input regarding changes. address the errors made by engineers as a training issue.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 152 . She's stupid. When you do speak with her explain. Staff may not have a regular opportunity to discuss issues in a controlled environment/constructive way. What should you do? 1. How are we suppose to work when she keeps changing procedures. Describe how she should have constructively voiced her concerns. Reexamine the ways that you encourage employee input and communication. • • • Case Study 6 on the next page. "It's stupid. Constant change and/or inefficiency in department has employee(s) anxious/stressed 3. "She has no idea what's going on in this department. If you feel you are going to respond emotionally rather than rationally . Zelda. that her behavior was inappropriate. What could be the cause? • • • • There may be a personality conflict between you and this employee. in no uncertain terms.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #5 You have just overheard one of your employees. Define the problem in behavioral terms • An employee is openly criticizing you in public and undermining your authority." she told them. Employee feels s/he cannot speak openly to manager regarding problems within the department. How should I react? • Call Zelda into your office immediately. 2.explain that you overheard her comments and will speak with her later. Could I be contributing? • • • • • • • Have you encouraged open. criticize you in front of several coworkers. Reinforce publicly examples where employees effectively communicate concerns or share constructive criticism/feedback. unprofessional and detrimental to the department. Educate your staff to accept change more readily and to expect change. honest communication with your employees? Do you have personal biases toward this employee? Have other employees expressed concern about the way the department is functioning? Do you listen to and act upon your employee recommendations? Have you provided the necessary support for them to do their jobs? How well have you managed changes in your department? Have you allowed employees to speak disparagingly/unprofessionally towards others? 4. Lack of trust and communication.

Define the problem in behavioral terms • Employee is unhappy with new assignment he agreed to and is complaining openly about it. Why do some of them insist on constantly whining behind your back? What should you do? 1. If not. • • • • Case Study 7 on the next page. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 153 . Ask if he perceived the opportunity as a choice or not. Give him an example of what he could have said. Could I be contributing? • • • • Did you present the task as an option? Did the employee really have a chance to voice concerns about it? Personal preference toward employee--do you consistently give more work to a particular individual? Did you ensure that the employee has the skills and support necessary for the new work? Is there some type of reward that's meaningful for the employee? 4. The assignment means some additional clerical work on his end but you're sure he can handle it. Encourage him to come to you in the future if he has concerns. what was it about the way you presented it that mislead him? Does he still want the assignment? Determine if he is confident he has the skills / ability to perform the job. How should I react? • Talk with the employee. Explain publicly that you will be offering special assignments as growth opportunities for staff and that staff should not always feel obligated. You've tried to be open with your employees. Reaffirm why you offered it to him and what's in it for him. At least that's what he said when you discussed it with him.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #6 You overhear one of your technicians complaining about a new assignment you've given him. You even asked if he thought he had too much on his plate to handle it now. Explain what you overheard and why you're concerned. 2. If it is mandatory you will explain so. What could be the cause? • • • • Employee really didn't think he had the opportunity to turn down the project Employee was afraid turning down the work was a sign of weakness/inability Employee is concerned he needs more direction or support for the new assignment The new assignment will genuinely interfere with his workload 3.

but barely. First determine immediate needs. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 154 . You need to find a way to energize your staff and get them motivated again (or for the first time).Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #7 You just can't seem to figure it out. Draw a clear connection between their responsibilities and those of the organization to emphasize the importance of their jobs. Link their efforts to rewards and recognition. They're completely sapped. What could be the cause? • • • • • • Employees have unrealistic workload Employees don't understand connection between their product and the goal of organization Lack of recognition for efforts Job is not challenging No reward or recognition for their effort No teamwork or team oriented goals 3. Encourage employee involvement in improving the department. Everyone seems demoralized. unhappy. Your department's performance just remains mediocre. 2. Review how you reinforce their efforts. 1. and just plain sapped. • • • • Case Study 8 on the next page. Are all staff trained and capable to perform their jobs? Set some challenging goals for the department to achieve (team and individual). How should I react? • You're faced with a problem that most every manager deals with from time to time. When you try to make improvements they just don't seem to comply with the changes. Their work meets the minimum required . burned out. They just don't seem to care. Examine your Quality Improvement initiatives to determine if they really are effective. None of them seem to have any suggestions on how to improve things even though you've asked. Could I be contributing? • • • • • • What steps have you taken to motivate your employees? How often do you provide your staff with feedback? How do you make their jobs challenging? How do you involve them in improving the efficiency of your department? Have they been subjected to numerous changes? What rewards and incentives exist? 4. Define the problem in behavioral terms • Your department is unmotivated and barely meeting the minimum expected.

If the problem is strictly a performance issue (work related) explain the trend you've seen in their performance (use data). Set a specific time to meet again to discuss progress and in the meantime monitor the employees performance. In fact. What should you do? 1. How should I react? • • Since the employee's performance has declined. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 155 . Is it training/skills related? Have there been changes you're not aware of? Is the employee lacking motivation? Set an improvement goal with the employee. Could I be contributing? • • • • Did you address the performance problem as soon as you became aware of it? Are you aware of changes that may have effected this employee? What have you done to keep this employee motivated? Has this employee gotten the necessary support/training necessary for their job? 4. Remember. First determine if it's personal in nature or work specific since you'll respond differently. the customer orders being sent from the service reps are all screwed up again. Ask them what they need in terms of support to get their productivity back up. personal problems or not they still have an obligation to their job. Offer your personal services if you are qualified or offer your EAP (if available). • • • Case Study 9 on the next page. Apparently. They're mixed together and the paperwork is incomplete. Document the goal and meet regularly to review progress. her personality in general has changed. Define the problem in behavioral terms • An employee's work performance has steadily declined. Lulu. What could be the cause? • • • • Employee has personal problems interfering with work Employee is not motivated/challenged by their work Employee is not held accountable for poor performance Recent changes may have added work for the employee 3. Ask them what they see as the problem. This is the third time in three weeks that someone has brought this problem to your attention. If the problem is "personal" explain that it is interfering with the employee's work and that you want to help.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #8 Two of your Account Executives have just complained to you. 2. The fact that you're discussing it will relieve them of some anxiety. one of your service reps is responsible. Explain that you will provide any work related support you can until the employee addresses their problem. it's assumed that something "changed" to cause that decline. To this point her work has always been "average" but recently you've noticed a steady decline in her performance.

how have you prioritized her responsibilities? Once you've gone through this analysis ask Heather what she thinks are her responsibilities and how they're prioritized. 2. what can be added? Next. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 156 . Ask her to submit a brief status report each week on her accomplishments. Case Study 10 on the next page. job description and priorities? Have you done an effective job analysis on Heather's position? Is this person and job a good match? Have you allowed this behavior to occur? Have you been involved enough? Is it possible that you over or underestimated Heather's qualifications? 4." You have to turn away as you feel yourself making a fist." Manager: "Well do you think you could ask them and see? And if they don't have anything there's always the monthly report package that can be run.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #9 This is the second time in an hour that you've walked by your Administrative Assistant and seen her scrolling through the latest download of "Dilbert" on her computer.unclear responsibilities." Manager: "Do you think Max or Betty need any help?" Heather: "I don't know. When you've reached agreement. Heather needs better training/orientation Lack of priorities set by supervisor Heather lacks challenge Heather is lazy 3. do you want me to ask them?" Manager: "Yes . document her duties so she can keep them posted. not really. don't you have anything to do?" Heather: "No. What could be the cause? • • • • • • • • Not enough direction/specified job responsibilities Heather lacks initiative/motivation Poor communication between Heather and manager Position has inadequate or incomplete job description . Does she really have enough to keep her busy? If not." Heather: "Okay. If you didn't lead her by the hand she'd probably just sit there all day. What should you do? 1.that would be good. Make it a personal goal for Heather to remain busy and take the responsibility to find work when it's lacking. She needs to develop some self management skills. It also sounds as if you expect more self direction from Heather. Could I be contributing? • • • • • • Did you effectively communicate (verbally and/or in writing) duties. Define the problem in behavioral terms • Your employee is not using her time productively. Review it with her each week to verify progress. Manager: "Heather. She needs to be constantly monitored to make the best use of her time. Look for differences. How should I react? • • • • • • Start with a full review of Heather's job responsibilities.

Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #10 Ziggy's complaining again. Explain your observation to Ziggy. changes in responsibilities. What could be the cause? • • • • • • • Ziggy may have used this position as a "foot in the door" .thinking it was just a stepping stone Ziggy is bored with. He offered to shred papers for another department when he should have been making new records. Ask Ziggy how he prioritizes his responsibilities. What should you do? 1. several times.he may be overqualified There is a lack of direction/supervision from manager Lack of efficiency in department Lack of motivation and/or an atmosphere to encourage motivation Ziggy lacks an understanding of how his role affects others Ziggy lacks self management skills 3. This has caused a problem with getting records to nurses in a timely manner. Examine the department workflows to see if efficiencies can be gained. Other times he'll prioritize his work so he can do the few things he likes. when he was hired you explained the requirements of the job very clearly. If you don't have data you'll need to establish appropriate measurement systems. On top of that. You've found him. Define the problem in behavioral terms • Your employee is not performing his/her most essential tasks and not meeting the requirements of his/her position. Why did you think he was right for the job? Have you clearly explained the impact his responsibilities have on other departments? Have you clearly set priorities? Did you provide enough training? Does he have the tools he needs? What have you done to make his job personally rewarding? Have you investigated ways to streamline his work so the volume is more manageable? 4. the volume of work in the department is incredibly high. If it has declined then you have to identify the precipitating factor (de-motivated. He feels the work that he does in the Medical Records Department is just too boring and monotonous. personal issue. He seemed a good fit since he had some administrative experience in record keeping. How should I react? • Has Ziggy's performance declined or always been poor/mediocre? If it's always been poor / mediocre identify Ziggy's training needs and your style of management to support him. Are they consistent with your expectations? Review the standards for measuring his productivity. creating work for himself to avoid his regular responsibilities. Could I be contributing? • • • • • • • Review your initial assessment of Ziggy. Often times he seems overwhelmed. At the time he said he really wanted the job. and unchallenged by his position . 2. But. His attitude in general has gotten progressively worse. It's obvious he doesn't like the work he's doing. • • • Case Study 11 on the next page. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 157 . Ask him how he thinks he's doing.

Could I be contributing? • • Have you inadvertently reinforced her behavior by not addressing it or addressing it inconsistently? Have you effectively communicated your expectations about work hours? Are you setting a good example by being to work on time? 4. not work related. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 158 . What are you going to do? 1. the dog ate her car keys. She's not there and it's already twenty minutes past the hour. 2. 3. She has not been disciplined. one of your telemarketing operators. Explain that her personal problem cannot continue to affect her work and that you want to help her.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #11 You walk past Olga's desk. What could be the cause? • • • • It's a personal problem. document that you spoke with her about her tardiness. Just poor time management . nor reprimanded so she does not see this as a problem. Explain how her tardiness is detrimental to the department and unfair to coworkers. If it is a personal problem offer support or your EAP (if available). In any event. She didn't ask for any time off so you can only assume one thing--Olga's late again. Rule out any personal problem as the basis. All your other reps are conscientious about getting here on time. Touch base with your HR department just to be sure you're following appropriate procedures.i. Set a specific goal for Olga . • • Case Study 12 on the next page.e.: no tardiness over the next three months. Initiate disciplinary action process if appropriate. Work hours not clearly communicated. locusts swarmed her car". Make sure you have a reliable means to ensure her timeliness (consider phone messages from her work phone if they are time/date stamped). Provide regular feedback on her progress. Sure enough here she comes rushing in. This has got to stop. Define the problem in behavioral terms • Your employee is constantly tardy. If there is no personal problem start by stating your expectation regarding work hours. offering some half-baked excuse about "black ice. etc. How should I react? • Meet with Olga immediately.

isn't that enough?" Here you go again. Are policies and procedures well documented? Make sure employees have resources to help them. Reassure her that your intent is to help her. What could be the cause? • • • • • Tootsie lacks the skills necessary to do her job Tootsie does not recognize inefficiencies. It seems like every time you bring a performance issue to Tootsie's attention she gets defensive. Case Study 13 on the next page. Tootsie tends to be over-emotional or places unduly high expectations on her work Lack of positive feedback in the past Tootsie was treated unfairly in the past 3. but I feel like you're always criticizing my work. I don't know why you're always picking on me. Define the problem in behavioral terms • You've got a defensive employee who takes "constructive criticism" personally 2. Do you balance positive and negative feedback? Explain to Tootsie your observations about how she receives feedback. Could I be contributing? • • • • • Have you provided the necessary support for Tootsie to do her job? Do others in the department react the same as Tootsie? Do you provide constructive feedback or just negative feedback? Have you been objective with regards to Tootsie's work? Are your requests or work assignments clear? 4. Assess the level of direction and support you're providing Tootsie.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #12 "I'm doing my best. What should you do? 1. You really are concerned and are trying to help. Does she have the self direction skills to monitor and improve her work? Each time you assign a task or goal with an employee confirm that they understand it clearly. How should I react? • • • • Examine your own style of providing feedback. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 159 . Even mere suggestions are taken as personal attacks. I delivered what you asked for .

You've emphasized how important this procedure is . • • Case Study 14 on the next page. 2. include those responsibilities for improvement. What should you do? 1. Define the problem in behavioral terms • You have one employee not following a new procedure properly. Determine if Gilbert's has a problem with the quality of his other work also. If so. The procedure is a bit complicated but will alleviate many problems that could occur later on. How should I react? • Since everyone else in the department has been handling the new process efficiently. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 160 . you have narrowed it down to an individual issue. Could I be contributing? • • • • • Have you assumed he knew the procedure without offering additional training? Has Gilbert asked for assistance? Have you emphasized the importance of this process? Have you monitored his performance? Have you tolerated Gilbert's carelessness in the past? 4. He does not understand how his mistakes will impact customer service He has a tendency to be careless He may be distracted by personal issues Equipment malfunction 3. Explain the performance problem to Gilbert using data. Document your actions and the solution you've come up with. He may just need clarification of the new procedure. What could be the cause? • • • • • Gilbert lacks an understanding of the procedure -.you're surprised to see this.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #13 You've just taught your data entry staff a new procedure for entering customer orders when there is a discrepancy with the customer account number. Consider whether or not this is a formal disciplinary step. one of your Data Entry people. This would depend upon your past actions with the employee and the magnitude of the problem. Set a goal to improve his performance. if possible. is responsible for almost all of the errors.perhaps absent for training. Ask him if he was aware of this problem and what he thinks may be the cause. Monitor him closely and provide regular feedback. While doing an audit on returned orders you notice that Gilbert.

Three of Clyde's buddies were agreeing with him. If there is a performance issue with Ernie address it as in case studies 8 & 10. One person has become an informal leader in a campaign against another one. It's starting to interfere with their work and that of the department. Documentation is critical if the problem flares up.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #14 An employee has brought to your attention that Ernie. • • • • Case Study 15 on the next page. Document what is said in that meeting and later review it with the two of them. You should state your position as manager . he needs to come to you. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 161 . You are the manager and you are responsible for any performance issues. one of your line workers got into a pretty nasty fight with some coworkers in the lunchroom. should you always be the mediator? Typically it's best if employees try first. Could I be contributing? • • • • • • Have you allowed this feud to go on? If there is a performance issue with Ernie have you not addressed it? Are you uncomfortable confronting Ernie and/or Clyde? What have you done to promote teamwork among your staff? Have you treated all individuals in your department fairly? Have you created an environment where employees are comfortable coming to you with issues? 4. You were aware of some differences between them but always assumed they'd work it out. Apparently. using goal setting and feedback. Ernie's explanation seemed justified. While most managers would find it uncomfortable have a meeting between the three of you. Clyde has inappropriately taken this personal issue and made it a departmental one. he and Clyde were at it again. Explain to him that his behavior has been inappropriate and will not be tolerated. What could be the cause? • • • Antagonistic relationship/personality conflict between them One individual is reacting (inappropriately) to a real performance issue involving another There is a lack of teamwork/cohesiveness in the department 3. Now what? 1. Clyde accused Ernie of not doing his job and making more work for everyone else. Document the conversation and explain that you expect no further arguments. It's more likely that issues will be presented accurately and it's better for others in the department to "see" the problem being addressed. Now you have to address Clyde. If he has a concern about Ernie's performance or anyone else. is there a performance issue with Ernie? Second. Now Clyde had made it four on one.Do you want your employees to attempt to work out their problems completely amongst themselves or. Everyone knows there was some kind of personal issue between the two of them. that's what you need to do. How should I react? • There are two separate issues that need to be addressed. First. 2. Now you have to repair the damage between Clyde and Ernie. Define the problem in behavioral terms • A rift has occurred among your staff. They don't have to be friends but they have to be coworkers and teammates.

you may get it down to four or three minutes. Assign this as a team project but set a measurable goal. You're presenting a new form to be used in the Administration Department and your employees hate it.". "It's too confusing. upon implementation it may take an extra five minutes to complete the form. What could be the cause? • • • • • Lack of employee input in determining the change Group doesn't understand the importance of the data requirements General lack of flexibility among team members Employees concerned that this will interfere with other work Group has been inundated with change 3... What should you do? 1.Managing Difficult Situations Case Study #15 This is turning into a nightmare. this data is valuable in communicating productivity issues to your manager.. Continued on the next page.. Perhaps the layout of the form can be streamlined or even automated. This will take us forever.. By the time you get your employees to stop complaining the quarter will probably be over. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 162 . For example. Define the problem in behavioral terms • Your whole group is resisting a new procedure. We never had to fill out that stuff before. 2.. The new form is necessary to gather data for the quarterly report and your manager made it clear to start using it as soon as possible. After implementing their recommendations. Also. Could I be contributing? • • • • • • Have you stressed the importance of gathering this information? Did you ask their input in designing the form? Have you managed past change in the department effectively? What have you done to lessen their anxiety? Are you expecting too much from your employees? Are you firm enough with your employees? 4.. are some of the complaints.. solicit their feedback on how the process can be improved. How should I react? • Clearly communicate why the form is important and that it is necessary and non negotiable. However.

identify the problem(s). Make sure you're prepared next time. These are found on the following pages. Below is a short description of each exercise. Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1.Managing Difficult Situations In Summary The solutions to the preceding case studies are simply suggestions that have had positive results in the past. assess possible causes. Please print out each of these exercises. assess your responsibility. (this exercise consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 163 . is the same: Keep your eyes and ears open. however. The process. Learning Exercises . It's more likely you will find yourself dealing with a combination of situations. We have provided one exercise and an action plan to help you apply what you have learned in this course. Take action which is based on careful analysis and focus on the kind of performance you want and expect. Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. Do this exercise. Your situation may not fit any of these exactly. and determine a response. Exercise 1: Dealing with Difficult Situations Exercise They happen all the time. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this.

If not. The difficulty could be something minor such as excessive socializing. If so. Identify possible causes or contributing factors Possible cause(s): Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 164 . The course may contain a similar scenario. feel free to use the recommendations.Managing Difficult Situations Dealing with Difficult Situations Exercise (2 pages) This exercise will help you diagnose and address situations where you are having difficulty with an employee. When you're confronted with a problem situation review it in terms of the steps described in the Managing Difficult Situations course. or minor mistakes to something severe such as gross errors or fighting with other staff. use the framework from the course to diagnose the problem and take appropriate action 1. Write a Statement of the problem in behavioral terms Statement: 2.

Your response should include specific goals for the employee . should improve X by Y% by Z (date): Response: Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan.be as specific as possible. Determine your response to alleviate the problem .e.could you be contributing to this problem in anyway? Comments: 4.3.i. Conduct a self assessment . (One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 165 .

Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course. identify what you will start. THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 166 . stop and continue doing immediately.

Managing Conflict .

The impact conflict can have on productivity. Rather. because it's so common. morale and turnover is staggering. but personal conflict. In fact. When customer service goes sour or productivity drops don't be surprised if conflict is bubbling near the surface.conflict isn't necessarily bad . Largely. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 167 . counterproductive dynamic in the workplace is conflict. It's often behind those hour and a half lunch breaks and tardy arrivals. But if left unattended it will likely spread like a weed.just personal conflict. What do we mean by that? Check out the next section for some examples. the most damaging. conflict doesn't necessarily have to mean actual physical abuse. Of course. You just can't put groups of people together and expect them to always play nice. that type of conflict in the workplace is quite rare. Not just any conflict. There's a fine line between functional conflict that's good for your organization and personal conflict that can spread like a disease.Managing Conflict Without a doubt. smoldering ways. It's behind those factions of employees who can never seem to work together. You'll hear this over and over . At some point you'll find yourself involved in a disagreement. Do you know how to use conflict to improve your work environment versus destroy it? GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 defines two types of workplace conflict describes situations with the potential for conflict explains techniques for addressing conflict provides mini case studies that illustrate conflict in the workplace Why is this important? A little conflict can be a productive catalyst for some groups to take action or to reexamine decisions and their work environment. the most common type of personal conflict manifests itself in more subtle.

. We'll talk more about this later. He finally mentioned something to her too which she got defensive and stated "I think you're really blowing this out of proportion".. One way to deal with conflict is to recognize the likely situations when it will occur. They simply have a difference of opinion as to the best course of action. This is an example of Personal Conflict.. If handled appropriately this disagreement can lead to a better decision and can actually bring the group closer together! The key here is "if the conflict is handled appropriately…". or if its members are afraid to challenge one another it can easily make a bad decision. It's due Monday. Claudia is backed up putting a cost estimate together for a proposal their company is sending out. Their company is losing out on an opportunity and no one knows it! CASE IN POINT. CASE IN POINT. This can be a good thing. This is why personal conflict needs to be recognized and addressed as soon as possible. Often times conflicting parties recruit coworkers into the fray and before you know it factions have developed. It's Friday.. Functional Conflict The difference between personal and functional conflict is illustrated in the brief case studies below. neither party has any energy to rectify the relationship. Mary and Doug have not made this disagreement a personal one. Roger is trying to decide if he should stay late tonight. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 168 . not a work-related issue. Personal Conflict Personal conflict has roots in a personality clash among individuals or groups of individuals. if the relationship between Roger and Claudia continues to fester it's likely both parties will become totally entrenched in their opinions of one another and there will be no working relationship between them. Finally he decides to let her flounder on her own. Roger bases his decision on nothing more than a perception he has about Claudia. Doug wants to implement the system in the third quarter because he thinks it will take much longer due to the necessary hardware upgrades and training the system requires. During a management meeting Mary and Doug are having a heated disagreement over the implementation date for a new Human Resource software system their company is installing. Rarely is personal conflict productive except in the event it's noticed by management and funneled into constructive channels. In the first case study. In fact. In this example..Managing Conflict Personal vs. This is perhaps the most costly type of conflict because it goes undetected. Functional Conflict. Claudia will take credit for the work. If left unattended it grows. Right or wrong he's elected not to assist her. Mary wants to wait until fourth quarter when things tend to slow down. This is an example of Functional Conflict. If a group gets too comfortable. He could help her but the last few times he did that she took full credit for the work. That way you can take action to avoid the situation all together. in the example above. He packs up and goes home. Because personal conflict is based on emotion and perception. 5:30pm.. Want some indicators? Check out the situations in the next section. The rest of the group is sitting by as each states their case.

suppose you have two employees with very driven. A minute of downtime can literally cost thousands of dollars in trades and customer confidence. So we don't usually use them. Later we'll review a list of phrases / words to avoid. Knowing that.Managing Conflict Situations With The Potential For Conflict There are some situations where conflict is likely to occur. you can be on your guard. Suddenly you think he's lazy and he thinks you're a pain in the backside. overly negative individuals. then you have to make a presentation to their consultant team. promote employees or determine fair compensation it's likely some individuals will perceive inequity in the decision. "I work in the technology division for a large investment firm. Conflicting organizational priorities In one of our workshops on conflict management a participant shared the following story. You've called six times to find out when he can help you. For example. The person you're asking help of is busy on something for his boss so he'll get to it when he can. For instance. Then they get all bent out of shape or have this I told you so attitude if something goes wrong. you make a request for assistance because you've got priorities and deadlines. signoff on funding the consultant internally etc. On a more micro-scale this occurs often between individuals. Deadlines / Stressful periods If individuals or groups have any predisposition to conflict it will certainly manifest itself when tight deadlines or problems occur. They just don't have the same urgency about making these enhancements as we do so we're constantly fighting." This is very common especially in larger organizations. It's likely these two will eventually find themselves at odds as they try to assert their opinions. send it to their review committee. overly opinionated individuals and individuals who seek to assign blame to name a few. Other personality types likely to spark conflict include those with prejudices/stereotypes towards other groups.then what? Next we'll offer some techniques for handling conflict constructively. They expect you to fill out a consulting request. etc. they assign a consultant. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 169 . Whenever a manager must assign rewards. It's really hectic. Pressure puts a magnifying glass on perceptions and differences of opinion. Non Collaborative Language It's amazing how quickly a functional disagreement can deteriorate to a personal one simply by using the wrong language. domineering personalities in your department. Here are some things to watch out for: Conflicting Personalities Some individuals are destined to argue. But what if you find yourself in the middle of conflict . They usually offer some good advice but the administrative process they put you through is ridiculous. The last section described likely situations where conflict could occur so you could avoid it. We're constantly implementing enhancements to our computer systems and our Internet applications. Decisions regarding Rewards / Promotions / Compensation In every organization employees must be recognized for their accomplishments if that organization expects to keep its' top performers and to encourage an environment of pay-for-performance. By then the customer's left for another investment service. We have a technical consulting group in the division that's suppose to assist the departments in keeping up with the latest and greatest in technology. Departmental priorities conflict with one another and friction occurs.

The closer a problem is taken care of to the point of origin the healthier it is for the organization. By maintaining a focus on the relevant. Finally – as you assess your role in the conflict – if you're wrong – Say so! The longer the conflict is perpetuated the more damage it will do. work related issue at hand you de-personalize the conflict. If your motive is personal be willing to refocus on a constructive solution to the conflict..Managing Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict Self Assessment Are you contributing? As the course on Dealing with Difficult Situations suggests when assessing a work place problem take a moment to determine how you may be contributing to it. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 170 . Avoid unnecessary escalation Put the brakes on!!! This is a common culprit behind those small issues that suddenly mushroom... In the case of conflict it's tougher than it sounds because you need to be willing to put yourself under the microscope. If you're involved in a conflict or disagreement with someone and things are getting worse – not better! CASE IN POINT. Consider the following questions Do I consider the other person(s) incompetent or untrustworthy? Do I respect the other person(s) opinion? Do I avoid or dislike the other person(s)? Would I react the same way to this situation if it were someone other than this person involved? Do I want to "win" this disagreement? If you answer "Yes" to any of these questions consider carefully whether or not your motive behind this conflict is personal or functional. Potential conflicts are nipped in the bud. Problems are corrected faster and people trust one another more. The negativity you bring to a personal conflict only encourages the other person to "fight fire with fire". Refocus on Functional Conflict If you find yourself in a personal conflict you can still salvage the situation by redirecting your attention to the functional basis of the conflict.

then goes to the supervisor and goes up one side of him and down the other. The employee's question was addressed in a document Charles distributed separately." Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 171 . Randal's manager goes to the manager of the supervisor and explains the problem and the impact on Randal's assignment. Your feedback is appreciated. Charles responds with another email.. "We discussed this issue in a document distributed previously. We intend to address the fixed pricing issue by….. "If you bothered to read the report I sent out earlier in the month you'd realize I've already made accommodations for the fixed pricing structure we received previously. A simple phone call from Randal to the supervisor would have saved time and a working relationship. For Example: Joan manages a mortgage unit for a large bank." or. Joan says to the supervisor of the administrative unit. Is there anything we can do to help?" For Example: Charles gets an email and question from another employee about changes to the purchasing contract their company has with an outside vendor. Now the supervisor is angry at Randal for getting him in hot water. Since rates are low everyone seems to be refinancing. Randal works in the Human Resource function of a company that manufactures modular homes. I discussed that issue I the document I distributed earlier this month. "Your department seems to be having difficulty with the volume of requests." A less antagonistic response would have been.. assuming this a big deal or why would the HR manager be involved. Consider the following examples. Perhaps it wasn't clear. Randal tells his manager he can't complete his assignment of loading employee demographics to the HR system because of the missing and incomplete data. "You bring up a good point. A less combative comment would have been. "You never seem to have the paperwork ready on time". That manager.Managing Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict continued CASE IN POINT. Use Collaborative Language Language alone can turn a functional disagreement into an all out grudge match.. Please take a look at that and if you still have concerns please let me know as soon as possible. Her closing counselors are getting delayed by the administrative unit because paperwork is not ready when needed. One of the supervisors in the assembly division has completed about half the employee profiles for his area and of those many are missing information.

e. "you should have…". "Wasn't it obvious…. Here are some signs/phrases to watch out for. Comments that place blame i." Demeaning comments i. "you shouldn't have…. Here is a list of things to avoid (when possible) because they may be interpreted as combative/negative: Phrases that are sarcastic / patronizing "Obviously you should…" "You understand of course…. Recognize when you or another person is reacting differently to some person simply because you/they don't like the person." "You must…" This is a little extra work but in the long run it will make for more productive working relationships..Managing Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict continued Some language and phrases aren't meant to instigate a fight or bad feelings but they can be interpreted the wrong way." Phrases that assume carelessness on another person's part "You neglected to…" "You failed to…. Prevent Personal Conflict Whether you're a participant in a conflict or an observer don't allow yourself or another person to turn a disagreement personal.e. "I don't know how you could have…" Changes in personal / behavior. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 172 ." Phrases that seem to question someone's competence "How could you have…" "What were you thinking?" "I can not see how…" Phrases that pressure or coerce someone into action "You better. This is especially true when used in writing.". When this occurs it's your duty to step in and redirect the focus of the conflict to something constructive. "How could you do that?"." "If and when you have the time…..

This excerpt comes from a note sent to a team of managers from the manager of their company's Finance Division. If we could just condition ourselves to set aside our opinion for a moment and really attempt to understand the other side we'd be far more effective at resolving conflict. Below is an actual excerpt from an email described in one of our communication workshops. When two people were at odds over some issue he asked one of them to stand at the board and write down the pros / cons of the other person's argument as that person presented it. If no one responds I will assume our proposed policy is agreed to. "I've sent several emails now asking for input on restructuring our Travel and Expense policy. CASE IN POINT. formulating our next response or mentally dissecting the other person's statement to look for holes in their logic. As a result rumors escalated and suddenly everyone thought the company's management team was treating itself like royalty when just the opposite was true! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 173 . Watch those Emails! Today email allows us to communicate faster than ever.. CASE IN POINT... Under that new policy lavish dinners and expensive hotels will no longer be tolerated.. If anything it ensured each got to state their opinion while the other listened and understood it.. However." The last line was meant in jest.. A manager at a managed healthcare company used a simple technique to encourage objective listening.Managing Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict continued Practice Objective Listening Everyone does it. We get into an argument or some debate and while it appears we're listening we're really either waiting for our turn to talk. if you're willing to understand opinions other than your own by listening and asking questions – others will do the same. Now thanks to the Internet we can communicate from any place in the world. The difficulty with email is people often apply their own assumptions about the emotions behind it. Likewise. Consider the following example. Then he switched the individuals. I've got copies of that proposal at my desk. there was no clear indication of that in the email. Model constructive conflict If you practice constructive (functional) conflict it will send a powerful message to the rest of your peers.

Here are some suggested guidelines: Immediate escalation Legal or ethical issues If another employee is engaged in behaviors considered illegal or unethical you should approach your manager. Collaborative language is often broken into positive and negative components (positive supports collaboration while negative language undermines collaboration). Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 174 . maybe you should pause for a moment before you go storming into your manager's office. You may be acting prematurely. Positive: • • • • Negative: • • • • Tends to include words like "can't". When To Go to Your Manager When is it time to go to your manager regarding a conflict or disagreement? That's a tough decision. When you present data to justify your position your audience cannot conclude that your opinion is based on some personal motive. Provide detailed facts as well as your understanding of why the behavior is illegal or unethical. Not just because it frees them of the chore but because it builds healthier relationships among employees. Any manager will tell you they'd much prefer that employees work out problems amongst themselves.Managing Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict continued Emails (or any written correspondence) can sound combative or non-collaborative. But there are situations where employees should involve their manager immediately. "must" Focuses on negative implications Suggests blame or appoints ownership of the problem Tells the recipient what can not be done Is supportive and helpful rather than sterile and bureaucratic Focuses on positive outcomes and actions (rather than negative consequences) Offers alternatives and choices Tells the recipient what can be done Justify your opinions with data Nothing de-personalizes an argument like data. your personality or any other quirk. If it's not. "won't". "insist".

no one wants to be discredited at work or have another employee attack their work or reputation. NOTE: CHECK WITH YOUR MANAGER AND COMPANY POLICY RE: DISCRIMINATION AND HARASSMENT. If the behavior continues bring it to your manager's attention. CHECK WITH YOUR MANAGER AND COMPANY POLICY. Personal credibility If you feel a situation imperils your personal credibility or recognition you may decide to approach your manager after the first incident. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 175 . This is a grey area.Managing Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict When to go to your Manager continued Safety concerns If you see another employee engaged in behavior that is dangerous to him/herself or others you should tell them immediately. NOTE: In some industries safety violations require you to immediately notify your manager. Sometimes managers may not realize the real impact of the problem so illustrate the impact the problem is having on you. If you feel another employee is. Persistent Problems If you've tried to address a particular problem with an employee but it continues bring it to your manager's attention. That's a judgment call. If you observe or experience discrimination or harassment in the work place see that it is addressed immediately. Be sure to explain exactly what the problem is and be prepared to provide examples. That Tricky Situation There will be times when you want to go to your manager because someone "wronged" you. Certainly. your department or your customers. Discrimination or Harassment Discrimination and harassment are real issues in the work place. Explain what steps you or others have taken to try to address the problem.

Managing Conflict Techniques For Dealing With Conflict That Tricky Situation continued CASE IN POINT.. Since the manager is going to ask you. • • • The next section provides valuable case studies that describe a conflict situation .. Did he demean your work and performance when the two of you met or did he yell it across the office so everyone could hear about it? Describe the impact the problem has had.. This is an extremely important point. If you have not discussed this with the employee. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 176 .e. how? Provide specific examples when describing the situation... If you discussed this with the employee what was said and what was the outcome. If you do go to your manager be sure to provide the following: CASE IN POINT. Offer a suggestion. why not? Provide some magnitude of the problem or incident . If you can't get to the real underlying cause of conflict it's likely you'll never eliminate it. Did the employee take a box of paper clips off your desk or did they take all your supplies. you might as well be prepared.. • • • A specific statement about what the employee did or said that you want to see addressed.i. "How can I help you in this situation?" anyway. This is a gray area and really depends on your comfort level in approaching your manager. Is it interfering with your work? If so.the type of conflict and what's at the root of it. • • • • • discrediting your performance impeding your performance taking credit for your accomplishments or work intentionally lying about issues pertaining to you or your performance disrupting your working relationship with others You may decide to approach your manager immediately.

That's when Reggie's work really went down hill. Howard responded. If another employee makes a mistake Reggie is the first to complain. Reggie on the other hand is displaying a common conflict technique used by employees. For instance. Reggie has always been a handful.". Howard dismissed his reasoning saying – "If I allowed you to change your hours everyone would want theirs changed. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 177 . As Howard puts it.". If another employee offered the same argument Howard would probably be more receptive. That means addressing Reggie's negative. His work was always pretty good he just has a lot of opinions and is generally pessimistic." About three months ago Reggie had his performance review and was stunned to find out he got a below average rating. This situation will only deteriorate further. Howard objected because he has a personal problem with Reggie. when Howard changed work hours and required someone to be in at 7:30am Reggie complained. He was tardy. He'll passively resist his manager. Reggie has been tardy and the quality of his work has steadily declined over the past six months. He ignored paperwork and customer callbacks. When Reggie asked him why he required employees in so early it was a legitimate functional conflict. His work turned sloppy. resistant behavior immediately by providing specific examples of his resistance and how he could more constructively assert his opinion. As expected he objected to the rating and felt it was not reflective the work he did. the manager of a rental company that specializes in industrial equipment has a problem with one of his employees. Howard stuck to his evaluation and suggested Reggie focus on being more cooperative and supportive of his coworkers. Every time Howard makes a change to procedures Reggie is questions the reason. Reggie countered. This way Reggie would not have been surprised by his evaluation. Things don't get busy until about 9:30am." There's no functional basis for that reasoning. When Howard brought it to his attention he would improve temporarily then revert back to half an effort. "But." "It may not be many but shouldn't we be there for the ones that call. Even Reggie's coworkers noticed they had to pick up the slack for him. "Why do I need to be in that early? We don't even get that many customers. What's the conflict? Howard made a classic mistake that signals a personal conflict rather than a functional conflict. Howard should have done a better job of performance management. He can't "win" the argument with his manager by confronting him directly so he'll do the next best thing. "Well if I let you change your hours then everyone else will want their hours changed.Managing Conflict Conflict Case Studies Case Study #1 Scenario: Passive Aggressive Conflict Howard. I doubt we get enough to even cover the cost of having people in.

" Tempers really flared up one Saturday evening when the emergency room was especially backed up. "We're really getting backed up here. "What are you guys doing?". When conflict among employees breaks out it's often due to frustration with a broken process. deliver and maintain all the medical records for the emergency and outpatient units. A more appropriate (collaborative) response from Belinda would have been to take Eric aside and say. First she personalized the conflict by saying "What are you guys doing?" Second. Take a stressful. What's the conflict? You didn't exactly need a crystal ball to see this one coming. change procedures and provide inadequate training and you have a recipe for disaster. she attacked Eric publicly. To that the Intake staff claims. The Intake staff for both units have complained to the record clerks about the time it takes to deliver the records and that many times when they're received they're the wrong records. The clerks have told the Intake staff they could help by keeping the records in order and by dropping them off in the designated bins rather than leaving them in examination rooms. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 178 . Belinda was guilty of three offenses that only fueled the conflict and frustration. Is there anything we can do to help turn the records around quicker?" Eric's supervisor should have interceded and told staff from both units that they need to work as a team and that personal and/or public attacks will not be tolerated. The department has to prep. Patients watched as Belinda an Intake Nurse started yelling at Eric one of the record clerks. That's clearly the case here. high paced environment like an emergency room. Let's do a quick summary of what we have discussed and give to a chance to complete a learning exercise. she growled. "Can't you see we've got patients waiting?" Eric went to his supervisor to complain about the incident but she was so busy prepping records for patients she told him she'd deal with it later. A manager familiar with conflict and change management could have taken measures to avert this conflict. Routine patients were waiting over three hours because paperwork in Intake was so behind. Third. The department is understaffed and recently matters were made worse by the introduction of a new computer system that no one was really trained on. her sarcastic remark enraged Eric even more – "Can't you see we've got patients waiting?". "That's not our job.Managing Conflict Determining continued Case Study #2 Scenario: Interdepartmental Conflict The medical record department of Chadbury Regional Hospital is very busy. work short staffed.

A lot of company time and money is wasted on "he said – she said" spats that never seem to do anything but detract people from the most important objective – their jobs! Learning Exercises . Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. Exercise 1: The Good versus the Bad and Ugly This exercise will help you understand the important difference between constructive and destructive conflict. Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. Below is a short description of each exercise.Managing Conflict In Summary It's impossible to believe that over the course of your career you won't find yourself in conflict with your coworkers or a manager. Exercise 2: Steamwork This exercise will help you understand your typical reaction to conflict at work and how to better handle disagreements. These exercises are found on the following pages. (this exercise consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 179 . We have provided three exercises to help you apply what you have learned in this course. Managers especially appreciate the employee who can solve problems and address conflict without having to escalate it to management's attention. If you stay focused on keeping the conflict constructive you'll be respected by all involved. If you're able to handle problems among coworkers in a constructive manner you'll gain the recognition of your peers and management. Please print out each of these exercises.

They're in a meeting with the executive committee when the issue comes up. Martha is encouraging the upgrade while Bill is convinced the upgrade is too much for the stores system to support. 2.e. What's it based on? You haven't done any capacity studies. They're responsible for managing the groups that maintain the register and inventory systems in all 130 stores. Martha and Bill have had heated disagreements about a possible upgrade to the system. "You can't prove that. if we upgrade the system I can just about guarantee that we're going to have outages. Good conflict? Yes there's such a thing. Here's an example: Scenario: Martha and Bill both work in the technology department of a department store. "I'm not going to discuss it here. Review the instructions for the Good versus Bad & Ugly exercise with your manager Complete the exercise and review it with your manager Set a goal with your manager that you will identify at least one example of constructive and one example of destructive conflict at work by a certain date. benefit outweighs the cost) Upgrade should take no more than six months to complete Then Bill and Martha present the pros and cons of the system upgrade and post them on a whiteboard for all to see. Destructive: Bill starts in immediately. For the hypothetical scenario below write a response that describes constructive conflict and one that suggests destructive conflict. "I don't like it because it doesn't make sense. Then recommend a response to the situations involving destructive conflict. Both agree they're open to whatever is in the best interest of the company. You just don't want to go with the upgrade because your department didn't recommend it. The key is to recognize the flashpoints that cause a conflict to move from constructive to destructive.e. "I don't know what you're thinking.Managing Conflict Exercise 1: The Good versus the Bad and Ugly (2 pages) Q: I recognize when conflict or disagreements are constructive versus destructive and know how to react. 3. • • • Upgrade should not cause any down time / negative impact on store operations Upgrade should be cost justified (i. To start they make a list of the important factors that should be considered if an upgrade is attempted – i." Martha snipes back. Once the pros and cons are on the wall the executive committee can help them evaluate the options against the important factors. They ask if the executive committee is willing to spend some time during the meeting to help them arrive at a decision. How do Martha and Bill handle the situation? Constructive: Martha and Bill acknowledge openly that they have differing opinions on what to do about the system upgrade." Martha replies. Instructions: 1." Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 180 . We can talk about this off line." Bill loads up another volley. To top it off my department gets stuck with the work for a reckless idea.

Afterwards. using the word "You" assumes blame and typically aggravates conflict. in that example the group used a set of common criteria for evaluating differing opinions.Note: Just some key points about these examples. their manager sensing some tension in the department. (Consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 181 . it seemed like a lot of the staff had aligned themselves with one or the other. John and Egbert got into an argument in the lunch room about a month ago because John thought Egbert's idea for a new call script was way off target. How do John and Egbert react? Constructive: Destructive: Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 2. They handle incoming calls from customers and process on line orders. That helps to achieve small agreements that build towards a larger consensus. Likewise. Scenario: John and Egbert both work in the customer service department of an online internet store. That increased the tension as coworkers who had gotten along fine suddenly found themselves labeled as "the other side". asked the group what was going on during a staff meeting. About a week after. If you'll notice in the destructive example there was a lot of personalization i.e. The constructive example illustrates a clear willingness to communicate and to commit to a common goal (best interest of the company). The two traded barbs while their coworkers watched.

The result is. Most people will avoid direct conflict at work. You find yourself avoiding any work that brings you into contact with the person(s) you're in conflict with. though conflict can be a good thing (i. So what can you do? The first thing to do is recognize when you're avoiding conflict. Also. we don't learn to disagree constructively. Recall a situation when you were in conflict (at work. Set a personal goal for rectifying a difficult situation at work.Managing Conflict Exercise 2: Steamwork (2 pages) Q: I am comfortable confronting another employee when I sense tension or conflict between us so we can work things out. Exercise: SteamWork Instructions: • Complete the following exercise. mention the word conflict and it immediately conjures up negative connotations. • Develop a personal response plan for handling conflict on your job. healthy expression of differing opinions that helps a group or individuals arrive at the best decision) no one promotes it.e. What was the cause of the conflict? What did you do or not do that prolonged the conflict? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 182 . In fact. If you're avoiding the conflict chances are the effects of it are seeping into other aspects of your work i.e. school etc) and you didn't really handle the situation as well as you should have. home. That's because the boundaries of constructive and destructive conflict are often blurred. Your motivation begins to wane because of the stress the conflict produces. You spend more and more time talking with friends about so and so.

(One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 183 . home. What was the cause of the conflict? What did you do to address the cause of the conflict? What was the outcome? Personal Conflict Plan Based on your negative and positive experiences.How should you have handled the conflict? Now recall a situation when you were in conflict (at work. school etc) and you handled it effectively. what specific actions will you take next time you're in conflict with another employee (or person outside work)? Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan.

Skill or Competency:

Personal Action Plan
Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course, identify what you will start, stop and continue doing immediately, in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course.

THINGS I WILL START DOING

THINGS I WILL STOP DOING

THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING

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Managing Change

Managing Change
Look at the business section in today's newspaper and you're likely to read about a few of the ways companies are "positioning themselves in their competitive market:" Down-sizing, mergers, restructuring, making incredible leaps with technology - whatever the motive or means what it all boils down to is change. Cut throat competition, cautious investors, finicky consumers all converge to place incredible, often unrealistic, demands on companies. They're expected to do something different and something better with fewer people. But, not to worry - management has authored a roadmap - even put together a thick binder of fancy charts and graphics (maybe in color) explaining the entire change process. Soon they find out the "real" challenge is in cascading that plan down to the employee level - "where the swatter meets the fly." Unfortunately, implementing a seemingly rationale change can have irrational results. Start dates get bumped one after another. Management is frustrated, employees are anxious, and the workflow seems suspended between the old and new...what happened? A natural human reaction occurred...resistance to change. To understand what you as a manager or supervisor can do to manage lead change effectively, you must first understand two important facets of change - dynamics and mechanics. Dynamics of change deals with the human reaction to change. The mechanics of change focus on designing processes that ensure changes occur effectively within an organization.

GETTING STARTED
This course:

9 9 9

describes common reasons why employees resist changes. provides a process for planning, communicating, and implementing changes. provides a case study of one company's process and tool for communicating changes that impact other departments, computer systems, policies & procedures.

Why is this important? No matter what size or type of company you manage at some point you will be managing change. It may be small, almost imperceptible or it may be a complete overhaul of your business. Obviously the larger the company and the larger the change the more complicated the process becomes for managing the change effectively. But in either case, you will waste significant time and money as well as jeopardize the quality of your products and services if you don't address resistance to change.

Of all our online courses, people find this one - Managing Change - the easiest to relate to. Everyone can recall a time when someone was reluctant to adopt your idea and change their way of thinking. Other times you were the hesitant one. To deal effectively with resistance in others - and yourself - you first have to understand the complex dynamics behind that resistance. Continue to learn more.

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Managing Change Dynamics – What Causes Resistance to Change
Fear and Uncertainty Those being impacted by change often wonder "What's the reason for this? Is this really going to work? What's it going to mean for me?" This describes the typical "victim" of change. Change is something that happens to these individuals. Often their opinion wasn't asked or the reason for the change isn't communicated by management. In any event they see themselves as a victim of the change. Inconvenience Implementing change means a transition in workflow. For a period (sometimes short, sometimes an eternity) it means more work because individuals have to do their job and learn new policies or procedures. It also means shedding established, comfortable practices. Pride of Authorship Imagine someone outside your department or team proposes a change that will impact your work? Your (or anyone's) gut reaction is probably one of resistance. Individuals are more likely to listen objectively and openly to suggestions if the idea comes from someone within their group. If you're an "outsider" proposing a change that will impact another area you'll have to work extra hard on dismantling the dynamics of resistance. Your change may make all the sense in the world but if those impacted haven't bought in - forget it. Loss of Security or Status Change often redefines the necessary skills and experience an individual needs for his or her job. At stake is the individual's hard earned security and status. Imagine scrapping an information system for a new one - or introducing any new technology. Individuals whose claim to fame was their knowledge of the old system suddenly face losing their value as a resource. Cognitive Dissonance This is just a fancy way of saying that people have a tendency to rationalize what they're doing so that it "fits" with their perception of themselves. No one wants to do something wrong, but by changing what they do, you are effectively saying what they were doing was wrong. They will begin to give you a variety of reasons why it was, in fact, the right way of doing things. This might seem like they are just against change altogether, but it's really a psychological reaction to the uncomfortable realization that what they had done - and probably well - was somehow inefficient. As long as you convince them that they'll play an important role in determining the success of this new change - they eventually welcome the change.

Okay - now that you have an idea of where this resistance comes from what can you do to minimize the resistance? Forced change will only be moderately successful as those impacted find ways (blatant or subtle) to resist, drag their feet and in general stir up negativity. Don't be quick to blame them! It's your job to introduce the change in a manner that employees can understand, accept and support. The next section explains how.

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Managing Change Managing Change and Reducing Resistance
Below is an easy model to follow when implementing a change in your work environment. Small changes usually don't require this much attention, but big ones do. Use this as a roadmap for leading change: 1. State your case. Why is change necessary? 2. Tell them what the result will look like 3. Tap their skills and knowledge 4. Tell 'em like it is 5. Listen to concerns! 6. Give them ownership 7. Hand out the gold stars

STEP 1: State your case - why is change necessary? It's like going to the doctor. You have to experience the pain before you seek a remedy. If your staff thinks everything is fine, why would they go through the hassle of change? Is it the competition? Operational performance? Need to demonstrate continuous improvement? Customer driven? Tell them why the current state needs to change. Tell them what's in it for them.

STEP 2: Tell them what the result will look like Thanks to overpaid consultants it's not uncommon for companies to undergo re-engineering, transformation, operational metamorphosis (that's a doozy) or some other "change insinuating" effort. Management sounds the alarm that change is necessary for survival. Newsletters are drafted to keep pace with the latest changes, All-Staff meetings are called, key initiatives are identified - but employees can't tell if or when the change is complete. It just seems to go on and on with no clear objective or destination. Link the change to measurable evidence in service and productivity. Describe how the jobs of your staff will be impacted. Paint a picture of what your customers will see after you've changed even if it is not 100%. It is better to provide some clarity (even if it changes) as to the final outcome than to ask staff to leap blindly into the abyss.

STEP 3: Tap their skills and knowledge There are some obvious reasons for including staff in designing and implementing the final outcome. First, your staff has a perspective of their work that you can't appreciate. They really know the nuts and bolts and if given the chance can challenge constructively your plan. Second, given the opportunity to participate in the change, they're not a victim. They become the aggressors. Without having to sell the idea has already been decided upon, they've bought in.

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If you are to successfully persuade a hesitant staff. you must spend the energy to reassure them "change is good". This is also an effective way to work out any kinks that may be arising or have arisen as a result of the on-coming change. As described in the Empowerment/Motivation course. The next section explains how. Dedicate meetings to discuss specifically their concerns . If you downplay the difficulty. Listen to their concerns and explain specifically what it means for them. once the change is in place. If the change will be rough. Don't be quick to blame them! It's your job to introduce the change in a manner that employees can understand. reinforce compliance. drag their feet and in general stir up negativity. Provide adequate training to relieve anxiety. most staff welcome new challenges and responsibilities. The point is. Your staff will appreciate the feedback. Now that you have an idea of where this resistance comes from what can you do to minimize the resistance? Forced change will only be moderately successful as those impacted find ways (blatant or subtle) to resist. STEP 7: Hand out the gold stars Not really. You may be faced with relaxing productivity requirements while the transition occurs. It worked in second grade but probably not here.don't just hear them. accept and support. Finally these opportunities are perfect for helping your staff become more self directed and as rewards.when they're voiced -listen to them . as manager. Recognize outstanding work and efforts. Also in terms of reinforcement be sure policies and procedures are formally updated as well as job descriptions and performance evaluations if the change means new responsibilities. make the ultimate decision as to what changes will occur don't sugarcoat them.Managing Change Managing Change and Reducing Resistance continued STEP 4: Tell 'em like it is Once you. STEP 6: Give them ownership Assign responsibilities to your staff for implementing the change. STEP 5: Listen to concerns! Your staff will be anxious. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 188 . be honest. you will lose credibility and something else: your staff is robbed of the tremendous self-confidence they would have gained by succeeding as a team.

Change Doesn't Have to be a Complete Overhaul Sometimes you just have to make small improvements in what you're doing rather than reinvent a whole new process. Reward the Risk Takers Recognize those that suggest better ways of doing things. Your motive will be clear: You will support and reward those who can adapt to change. The next section provides specific examples and a method for managing changes. The Empowerment and Motivation course discusses ways to encourage innovation. Cite the responsibility for reasonable "Risk Taking" in your job descriptions. the change is less disruptive. don't wait until you're in the midst of a re-organization or re-engineering effort to justify "why. orientation material. But what about the process? Do you really need a process to make changes? Absolutely!! Don't get us wrong .change is good.. don't measure change simply by your workflow or a new Organization Chart. When a Group or Department has Successfully Changed a Process or Workflow Communicate the Effort to all Staff Don't just communicate the result of a successful change. But it needs to be managed carefully so existing work processes are not disrupted. is just plain bad or just isn't pursued recognize those who constantly suggest changes. describe the event in terms of the 7-step model for Managing Effective Change and Reducing Resistance. and maintaining it requires less time and resources.When Change Is "Not" Occurring In other words. performance evaluations . Also. In other words. Those things mean very little if the underlying management style and practices haven't changed. training is easier. Emphasize a behavioral change on the part of managers also. Even if an idea fails.recognize it in your reward and recognition program.Managing Change General Points About Managing Change Communicate the Importance of Change. What did the participants do to reduce resistance to change? How did they prepare those impacted by the change? How did they maintain the change? Get management and the remainder of your company's staff thinking at this level. Small. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 189 . incremental changes can be more effective because consensus is reachable. stress to your staff that your organization must be flexible.the human resistance to it. adaptable and thrive on change.. You learned how to deal with the soft side of change ." When things are calm. but how it was done. Make it part of your culture.

Without considering all interfaces and ramifications changes are likely to have an unintentional rippling effect. Later the heating and ventilation contractors can't fit the necessary ductwork in place. That'll save insulation cost. The CEO demanded a process that would reduce the likelihood of a similar mistake ever happening again. What's needed is a process for managing the mechanics of change. In another area of the bank an application team plans on installing a new application design the same evening. These changes can be proactive as in when a quality improvement team designs and implements a new process or reactive as when fixing some problem. Regardless of size. which draws data from their system fails because of the change and their application is down for sixteen hours while the problem's investigated. policies. Since no one is likely to be using applications on the server at that time they provide no notification. a company should have a process where management considers the impact and risk of any change. Installation of a new network router while a backlog of reports were being downloaded had caused an overload on the network. That improves the response time and is heralded as a big success. Once installed they planned to convert the data and have the application production ready before morning.Managing Change Mechanics of Change Management Sub-optimization??? Because processes often cut across organizational functions and departments it's not unusual to see a change improve one step only to sacrifice efficiency later on. both large and small. manufacturing or service . an investigation found the problem could have been avoided. Result: the application is unavailable (to 1200+ users) for an entire business day. To make matters worse.have to carefully plan changes to their technology. Consider this example: At an investment and brokerage firm the CEO was appalled to find out that seven minutes of systems downtime at a peak trading period had translated into 4. Here are some examples: Example 1: Systems Design An application team changes the data design in their system so that the screens will refresh faster. Example 2: Construction Framers for a building company decide to shorten the crawl space between floors in a new house design. The two never should have been done simultaneously. procedures or organization structure. Organizations. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 190 . They start the application upgrade and the network management team takes down the server. Now let’s look at a detailed case study. Then another application. Edward Deming referred to this tendency in organizations as "sub-optimization" – basically improving a piece of the process while degrading overall efficiency. Example 3: Computer Hardware At a large bank the network management team decides to upgrade a production server after hours. Clients were incensed that orders placed on commodities were delayed and in many cases that delay cost them thousands of dollars.2 million dollars of missed opportunity for brokers. Get the point? While Change Management processes are more common in large companies smaller ones can no doubt learn from their example.

). The Change Owner was required to close out the Change Request in the Change Management System as either: . sequence conflicting changes or postpone changes that appeared to pose undue risk to the customer. That person was known as the Change Owner. Accountability sounds obvious but similar to the dynamics of decision paradox . moving LAN connections. etc. Change Enablers were responsible for a particular deliverable. The purpose of the meeting was to assist Change Owners in reviewing changes planned for upcoming dates (windowing) as well as high impact and high risk changes. That would be done by breaking a Change Request into specific deliverables (Change Deliverables). The Process… The process required that someone be accountable for any changes to applications. coordinating and approving changes to the production environment. The Change Owner would complete a Change Request that described the expected outcome of the change (a new server install. installation of a new time recording application (Change Request) may require a new server to be installed. backout plan).where ownership of a decision spread across multiple individuals leads to undue risk taking . The Planned Change Date was the date the entire change could be made assuming completion of each Change Deliverable. Each Change Deliverable was owned by a Change Enabler – the person actually responsible for making the physical change. The intent was to create a standard process for planning. confirmation plan.the same happens when ownership for changes is spread across many people. The team also provided the specifications for building an application to automate that process. On a weekly basis the Change Management Team would hold a CHAIR meeting (Change Assessment for Impact and Risk).Complete – no problem(s) . Once a Change was approved the Change Management System would send email notifications to any areas impacted by the change.Managing Change Change Management Process / System Management formed a Change Management Team to own the process of reviewing and coordinating critical changes to the technical infrastructure. If needed the group could assign additional resources. To implement the change the enablers were expected to follow the implementation plan. a new release of software. existing data to be converted etc (all Change Deliverables). Based on the requirements for each Change Deliverable the Change Owner also determined an overall Planned Change Date. Then the Change Owner would assign specific tasks to accomplish the change. systems or the technical infrastructure of the firm. For example. enhancement or upgrade that could have an impact on customers. The Change Owner was to define exactly what needed to be done to ensure a successful and smooth change. A change was defined as any modification. the Change Owner was accountable for managing the entire change (Change Request). The Change Owner then worked with the Change Enablers to ensure that proper testing and planning was prepared (implementation plan. The Change Owner would execute the confirmation plan. software to be installed.Complete – with problem(s) or .Cancelled Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 191 . This was simply verification with the customer(s) that the change was successful and to follow up on any problems.

For instance.Managing Change Change Management Process / System continued Finally. Impact was a measure of how many customers could be effected by a negative change (problematic). The Change Analyst would look for trends among changes in particular those completed with problems or cancelled. Here's what we have so far: Now let's look a few other things to consider when designing a change management process. In either case the Change Analyst worked with the Change Owner to document lessons learned and recommendations for future changes. Assessing Impact / Risk The most critical aspect of any change management process is determining the potential ramifications of making (and not making) a change. are they allowed a small. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 192 . To do this the Change Management Team would assist Change Owners in assessing the impact and risk for making changes. a Change Analyst conducted a post implementation assessment. Risk was a measure of how likely it was that problems could occur. All these would suggest the change is high risk. does it involve a new technology that they have little experience with. is this a new change the enablers have never managed before. aggressive window to make the change.

in organization structure and terminology. However.in policies and procedures. If you decide to implement a similar process keep in mind the following: Sponsorship A Change Management Process requires appropriate executive sponsorship. the policy change is never communicated to the Claims Processing department. Case managers certify treatment for physicians in their network but the Claims Processing Department later denies the treatment. An expensive mistake when a contractor is making over a hundred dollars an hour. Change Enablers and Change Analysts. You can probably think of occasions where some change in your organization caused similar disruptions. Provide some examples or criteria for establishing impact and risk. Example 2: Chemical Manufacturer At a large chemical manufacturer the responsibility for setting up new employees and contractors with necessary systems access and PC's is no longer handled by Human Resources. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 193 . Be sure management is behind the process in words and in action. You should also consider a committee to plan and coordinate the changes along with assessing impact and risk. Only problem is. We described Change Owners. Suddenly managers have new employees and contractors arriving who can't get started on their work for over a week while the mix up is addressed. Impact and Risk Try to make this somewhat objective. All these areas need effective change management. This is the person or team responsible for seeing that the process is communicated and executed on a regular basis. Consider the following: Example 1: Managed Care A managed care company changes the definition of "medical necessity" to include previously denied preventative testing procedures. Perhaps because of the physical processes (hardware/software) a change management process seems an obvious requirement. That's ok – they're paid for their expertise.Managing Change Designing a Change Management Process Most organizations have some change management process in place for their technical environment. Instituting a Change Management Process would be a good proactive step towards eliminating some of those problems. to exercise the process with consistency and to learn from successful and unsuccessful changes impact and risk need to have some established criteria. However. However. Process Owner Someone or some group needs to "own" the Change Management Process. Convince executive management that fixing mistakes is costlier than avoiding them. changes occur all over your organization . Often you'll be counting on the subjective opinions of change owners and enablers. no one told the hiring managers. Roles Be sure everyone knows their role in the process. There will be resistance to the process by those who think it will "slow things down".

Managing Change Designing a Change Management Process continued Notification Process A Change Management Process doesn't do much good if no one knows about the changes. They even included pager software so when emergency changes with high impact or risk were entered the change management team was notified automatically. How do you deal with resistance to change? Find out on the next page. The investment firm which built a Change Management System integrated the system with its email platform so when changes were posted impacted parties were notified. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 194 .

Exercise 1: Managing Change Do you know how to deal with resistance and implement changes effectively? Try this exercise. Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. Below is a short description of each exercise/activity.Managing Change In Summary Whatever your business you need to give careful consideration when making changes. All changes will have some ramifications on your products or service (otherwise why make them). Embrace it and manage the process so everyone wins. (this exercise consists of 2 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 195 . Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. Change is inevitable. We have provided one exercise and an action plan to help you apply what you have learned in this course. These are found on the following pages. Learning Exercises . Please print out each of these exercises. By managing the mechanics effectively you can reduce or eliminate unintentional problems. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this.

e. The system is implemented on the planned date. How successful was the change you took part in? Comments Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 196 .: a reorganization. staff was inadequately trained. data from the previous was converted incorrectly and an interface to the billing system is not working properly. major change in work procedures or work environment. suppose your company is implementing a new inventory management system. However. 1.not exactly a success. Describe a work experience where a significant change occurred. etc Comments 2. How effectively was the change presented to you? Consider the following: How was the change justified by management? How was the impact to you described? Did you have input or participation in implementing the change? Comments 3. Preferably a change that you did not control .i. For example. The result is more work for staff as problems and training needs are addressed .Managing Change Managing Change Exercise (2 pages) This exercise will help you understand the dynamics of "Change" by evaluating a major change that you were part of using the principles of effective Change Management. Staff is very comfortable with the current system and questions the reason for the change. How successful was the change overall? What specifically went well and what did not.

Is there a change you plan to make in your work environment? If so. (One page) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 197 . What specific actions can you take to reduce anxiety and resistance from your employees when you make a significant change? Comments 5. describe the steps you'll follow to see that it's implemented correctly. Consider the model outlined in the Managing Change module.4. Comments Please go to the next page to view and print Your Personal Action Plan.

THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 198 . stop and continue doing immediately. identify what you will start.Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course.

Team Building .

But. All right. or a fortune 100 multinational conglomerate. Our outfield cradled pop ups like a baby in a mother's arms. I'm embellishing. We may not always call them teams . task forces. Our infield snapped up grounders like frogs snatching flies. "Individuals" are blurred into one well coordinated. Whether you work at a small business. we went on to stomp the Mustangs 5-2 in the championship and celebrated like all other little league champs . teamwork will improve your efficiency. GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 describes what constitutes a team describes the stages a team's development explains what a manager or supervisor can specifically do to escort a group through each stage of team development describes different "roles" team members may play and why they're important describes what can cause teams to become dysfunctional discusses team reward and recognition provides a case study which illustrates a highly successful team provides a team assessment tool so a manager or supervisor can assess strengths and weaknesses of their team Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 199 . but when you're on one .little league baseball.Team Building The "Team" approach has long been recognized as an excellent way to improve the efficiency and performance of companies. They're made up of individuals that recognize each other's talents and complement their weaknesses. Not the Detroit Lions of football . target groups.with soft ice cream at Dairy Queen and taunting the losers. While individuals lose some of their own identity. cohesive group. What was the most effective team you were ever on? For me it was the 1974 Lions. come-to-think-of-it unaccomplished youth it's this: truly effective teams are rare. but we were good. sports or hobby related. They strive constantly to improve their performance. all pretty much mean the same thing . you've been on some type of team whether it was work. We had strength at every position. We were confident. Our bats were like thunderbolts from Zeus himself. they recognize and address destructive team behaviors that interfere with their progress. No doubt. to be effective. Tommy had a fast ball clocked at a smokin' 35 mph. And. as a team they share a unique one. We'll show you how and why in a minute. About the only weak spot according to some teammates was that I "threw like a sissy". there's far more to them than just a bunch of people getting together.. They have a common goal important to all members.committees. etc.a group of people working (or not) together. They have a way to measure their progress and critique themselves. talking and handing out assignments. Anyway. councils.you know it. If there's a point to me reliving my. They're hard to describe.

You can have a team of all stars that can't play better than average .or you can have a team of "nobodies" that together are champions. There are certain dynamics that make teams successful and there are certain reasons why they flounder. If you as a manager or supervisor know how to anticipate and react to those dynamics you can increase your employees’ productivity while decreasing money and time lost on interpersonal problems.it's not always obvious! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 200 . Believe it or not . The best example of that is to look at professional sports. What makes a great team? What's the difference between a team and a group of people working together? This next section asks some basic questions to help you make the distinction.Why is this important? No doubt you're part of a group or manage a group that must work closely to succeed that's the nature of work.

number of inquiries completed etc. For example. What did the team members do differently? Think of times when there was conflict on the team. These are goals that require everyone's effort. The wrong response can stagnate or even split your team so be careful! Read on to find out more. For example. Recognition may be something as informal as a group presentation to management. a customer service operator may be measured by his/her call volume. the unit may want to reduce its abandoned call rate to less than 2%. a customer service unit may have a goal of reducing average talk time per call .. Group has no common goal or objective it is trying to accomplish. bonuses. Only measures are for individuals. Answer the following questions with respect to that team: Think about it. awards. Constantly customer service operators who handle phone calls can interacting with peers. For instance.. What was a great team that you were on? It could have been a sports team. The key to developing and managing teams is to understand the cycles that teams churn through. Employees share a common goal.to 175 seconds. an academic club. Or.for all operators . Contrast this team with another team or group of people you worked with. merit increases. talk time. Usually solve problems on their own or with some assistance from manager. Refer to one another for assistance with problems. Rely on other individuals to get work done. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 201 .. Recognized and rewarded for working together as a Only recognition (i.. Each stage requires a different set of management responses and techniques. What was the common goal your team shared? How did you know the team was successful? Who was the leader of the team? What did he/she do specifically that made the team function so well? Describe the role of each person on the team..any group that worked together towards a common objective.Team Building Great Teams As with many management techniques the best way to learn them is to think about them in terms of your own experiences. How was it handled? Now. etc.) is for individual contribution. Individuals meet together regularly to identify problems and solve them. spend the majority of their day on the phone with little interaction among peers.. team. "Do I have a team or not?" If you manage a group of employees they may be working more as individuals or more as a team. Did everyone have a chance to contribute towards the teams' success? Recall an instance where the team had to band together to accomplish a particularly challenging assignment/goal. Team may get special bonus or award. What specifically was different? Do I Have a Team or Not? You might be wondering.. a work team .. Sound confusing? Here are some factors that will help you determine the degree to which your employee's are working as a team: Individuals Team Can come to work and accomplish majority of their job without interacting with anyone else.e.

Now other employees who used to turn to those veteran staff find they're the informal leaders of the department. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 202 . Therefore they look for direction from the team leader or their manager. It's a time when the entire group needs to go through the dynamics of forming. Because members may not know each other very well. Norming 4. how to reward them etc. The new staff have to be trained.working hours. they could be employees from one department or they could be all the employees in a small company. As a group they need to understand their objective (business goals). They need extra attention and coaching to do their jobs. They could be working on a temporary project. informal leadership within teams. who to turn to for help. Status in the group is temporarily equated to each member's title or seniority. what the "rules" are for the team. And. Stage 1: Forming Overview: During the Forming stage members are not yet sure of the teams objective or what's expected of them. Think of a sports team where everyone has gathered for opening practice or tryouts. Storming 3. or their roles. No ones' quite sure of the role each person will play. leave the company. breaks. The social relationships within the department have been disrupted and new ones may be formed. They need to understand how each person contributes to that common objective.Team Building Stages of Team Development There has been an incredible amount of psychometric research done on the dynamics of teams. the best way to structure teams. During this dependent stage team members are similar in many respects to the PA1 or PA2 employees described in the Adaptive Leadership Course. or retire. Forming 2. where to get information. what's expected of them etc. Researchers have studied group dynamics. who the leaders are. everyone tends to be friendly and obedient. Performing Note: For our purposes. We're going to start with a simple review of the stages all teams (Tuckman 1965) appear to cycle through: 1. they'll need to go through the social rituals of meeting new people. "team" refers to any group of employees who work together on a common goal or objective that binds them together. They need to understand "how things work" . Your existing employees may take on the responsibilities of those that left so they too need training. In business terms you see the same dynamics when a new project team is formed or when you have several new employees starting at once. Suddenly a department that used to function almost on its own is faced with a real challenge. Scenario: A new line up (story from one of our Team Building workshops) Several new employees join the credit application department of a bank after a number of veteran employees are promoted out of the department. etc.

etc. As a manager you should clearly explain the responsibilities of each person . how to report time. Without common measures your team becomes just a group of individuals who happen to work together. This is one reason an effective orientation is important for new employees. You may measure your team's success: • • • by the total trips booked per month by total revenue per month by customer satisfaction measures . Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 203 . This is especially important to new employees since their immediate concern is holding their own. the service quality based on customer feedback.to spend money (up to a thousand dollars in some cases!) to rectify a customer complaint . Simple things like when meetings are held. Be sure team members know the chain of command as well as what decisions they can make and when they need your sign off. This will encourage staff to meet and work together. hang ups.you need to know the rules. Explain the responsibilities of team members As your team is formed each member will be trying to understand the objective and the responsibilities of each person.. the number of phone calls answered vs. pair new staff and existing staff on a project or task. Lay ground rules for team meetings / meeting format If you're learning a new sport or game . Be sure team members know how to escalate issues and what types of problems to escalate. For example. That way.without management approval. where to get help. etc. etc. Allow time for employees to meet one another Plan some situations where employees get to meet one another.Team Building Stages of Team Development Forming continued As team leader or manager here's what you can do to help your group move quickly through this stage: Clearly define the team's purpose Does everyone understand the team's objective? For example. when you're not around they know who to turn to for help. quickly putting the chore of introductions and social acceptance behind them.not just to each person but to the entire group. have lunch brought in for the department. For instance. if you manage a customer service unit your unit may be measured on the average response time per call. some companies are so dedicated to customer service they allow an employee .any employee . Each team member must know how the group's performance is evaluated.how do they keep score? Let's say you manage a small travel agency.or some combination of all these The important point is you must have some kind of "scoring" or report card by which the team as a whole can gauge their performance. put team members at ease. pair new employees with existing staff for their orientation training. It's like a sports team .

If you constantly use the feedback to berate employees they'll be reluctant to share concerns if it means making waves for their coworkers.maybe a five minute huddle when things are slow. the last option is the best. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 204 . By discussing the issue as a group you reinforce customer service as a team objective. What do you do? You could: • • • • • ask who it is so you can reprimand those employees shrug it off keep your eyes open for the same problem post a memo in the break room reminding employees how important customer service is discuss as a group the importance of customer service and that the customer is the priority Of course. Encourage employee input but react to it carefully. It doesn't need to be anything fancy . Some groups seem to argue every time they get together. Talk as a group! It's the best way to reinforce expectations for the team. That's best done in private when needed.Team Building Stages of Team Development Forming continued Encourage team members to express concerns about the team's objective and/or their responsibilities Get your employees thinking as a team. The employee brings it to your attention because the customers are obviously annoyed by the lack of attention. That will encourage others to do the same when they see a problem in the environment. You should publicly thank the person who brought the issue to your attention. For instance. suppose you manage a retail store. One of your employees notices that some employees will work on stocking shelves or paperwork while customers need assistance. You don't need to address the individuals at fault. Hopefully that conflict will be a catalyst for a new and creative direction. Some managers make the mistake of only listening to employee concerns one-on-one or when an employee approaches them. Other times groups don't fight enough! Read on to learn more. The more you encourage them to question and improve the way the team works together the quicker you'll move them out of the forming stage. Usually it's because of differing opinions.

Our manager would complain in our staff meeting. They question the team's ability to handle the task. safe issues but not make any real progress towards its' goal. this can be more frustrating than conflict. They were very passive aggressive about it." Scenario: Are we at war? (story from Team Building workshop) "It was one of the most frustrating projects I've ever been on.Storming isn't necessarily bad. This is an excellent way to avoid one of the biggest pitfalls of teams . individuals will be more inclined to speak their opinions and those opinions will differ. If the team spins its wheels in the storming stage for too long it may dissolve since their lack of progress will undermine management support. In an attempt to maintain apparent harmony and agreement members won't voice their concerns. At the other end of the spectrum some teams never reach the storming stage. This can be even more frustrating than conflict. They plod along day after day at a mediocre level. The problem was they wouldn't really disagree face-to-face. our manager and the manager of the other department met along with a few staff to figure out how the systems should be integrated. Once the team has settled in the "honeymoon" will be over.a first step towards policing itself. Storming is especially common as individuals jockey for their respective places in the team hierarchy. but not make any real progress toward its goal. Very quickly it became obvious the managers disagreed. At the other end of the spectrum some teams never reach the storming stage. Another department developed a system to manage customer invoicing. and resources playing this ridiculous game. But when those disagreements persist the team must learn how to overcome conflict and gain consensus. Our department developed a computer application for managing customer product requests. The only way to change this is for management or someone on the team to step in and prompt "constructive conflict" . The other manager did the same in his. If progress is slow or performance is poor members are quick to blame others or outside factors. Again. Factions will form within the team each with a different view on how the team should function. By order of our manager. Eventually.so that's what management proposed. silently or directly. It demonstrates that the team is capable of questioning its' own actions and decisions . The only way to change this is for management or someone on the team to step in and prompt "constructive conflict. If progress is slow or performance is poor members are quick to blame others or outside factors." Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 205 . That is. They may question the team's ability to handle the task. Factions will form within the team each with a different view on how the team should function.to question the teams' purpose and objectives. money. It made sense to link the two applications since information was taken from one and manually entered into the other . Despite the name of this stage . Instead of integrating the two systems we sat by and watched as our two managers wasted the company's time.that's the next stage. To start. The team will just deal with superficial. A team that has struggled through heated arguments and worked to arrive at a consensus will feel a tremendous cohesiveness afterwards . conflict is healthy for employee teams as long as it is used in a positive manner. We all got fed up. silently or directly.Decision Paradox. safe issues. disagreement can be very beneficial because it signals a healthy exploration of options. In fact. we spent the next two months playing "CYA" and documenting every issue and mistake made by the other department.Team Building Stages of Team Development Stage 2: Storming Overview: Now the team has rolled up its sleeves and realizes the magnitude of its task. In an attempt to maintain apparent harmony and agreement members won't voice their concerns. The team will just deal with superficial.

May be it's only imaginary. conflict means there are factions within your team. Have you ever been involved in a group argument or disagreement? The group settles on a compromise. but keep their statements objective and rational This is perhaps the key to moving beyond the storming stage. storyboarding. As a result they'll defend their idea vigorously. Even though it appears there is total disagreement and confusion on how to get there at least the team agrees on the objective. The key is to confront conflict head on. This is another reason you should focus on short term goals when your team is floundering. Team members become so entrenched in their opinions work never gets started." Let members vent. . An air of stability falls over the group like a capsizing boat has been righted. Revisit the team's goal to galvanize the group.Team Building Stages of Team Development Stage 2: Storming continued As team leader or manager you should: Keep the group focused on the objective of the team Review the objective of the team and why it's a priority.. Provide positive feedback (genuine) where you can. Right now they're questioning the ability of the team to accomplish its goal and resorting to self preservation (every man for himself). Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 206 .000 miles begins with the first foot step. But that cohesion may be temporary. Ask for examples. Use positive reinforcement and feedback (appropriately) to buoy confidence This is a time when individuals and the group need to remember what they've done right. "A journey of 10. Remember the saying. Identify a smaller short goal (baby step) that will rebuild cohesion among the team but continue to work on your long term plan. From there they should have managed a very objective review of their options. Question opinions. Those factions may have deep roots so it's critical you get the team to consent to the best option Get the team to focus on smaller short term goals Anxiety and disagreement may erupt over how the team will reach its long term objective. Whenever possible use data to quantify and substantiate opinions. In the scenario above both managers should have pulled the teams together and acknowledged there was a difference of opinions. As a team leader or manager you can do two things: keep the discussion objective and keep it from getting personal. Encourage real consensus on problems and issues Remember. Rather than wasting time on that get the team to share a small success. Focus on facts. When disagreement ensues. and group voting to prioritize group issues. That won't necessarily clear up your problems but it's a starting point for team consensus. The dust settles. Huh? Read on to learn more.. This is an excellent way to encourage participation from all members and to gain agreement on problems and solutions. Keep participants focused on the options not the personalities involved. Instigate "constructive conflict" if the team is hesitant to confront one another on significant issues Use structured techniques like brainstorming. some personality types are less willing to admit another idea is better than theirs.

The status (or totem pole) of members may get re-shuffled as roles are redefined. I think it sent a strong message to our manager and the other one because suddenly they both seemed more willing to work together. I swear we were more productive in those three days than in the whole two months beforehand. This can be a motivating stage. that the team has made it over a big hurdle. What really impressed me was that the project manager also met with the staff from both departments without our managers! He asked for our ideas and suddenly it was like we were one team instead of two departments. Now is the time to reinforce the teams focus and commitment. There's no disagreement. In less than a week we had a project plan for integrating our systems. Scenario: The cease fire. No need to regress all the way to forming. Make sure the team shows immediate progress. Then for each one ask "Why won't this option work?" Ask team members to critique each option. suppose your team is currently at the performing stage. Use structured techniques to objectively examine options and decisions . Address the smaller objectives first so the team can enjoy some success. You don't necessarily have to go through storming to get to norming. Make sure everyone has an assigned task to work on An important part of getting a team refocused and stable is making sure each person knows his/her role. But the truth is. open or silent. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 207 . They work very well together and are able to manage most of their own day-to-day issues.Team Building Stages of Team Development Stage 3: Norming Overview: A team will only progress beyond storming when its members have reached real consensus on priorities and a course of action. Get results as fast as possible from the group. They've produced a tangible result from all their conflict . Members will have a new appreciation for the roles of one another. There will be acknowledgment. etc. assigned roles. They suddenly feel like someone tossed them life jackets. Your team may take the responsibilities of the member that leaves and divide them up. prioritized problems." As a team leader you should: Be mindful that your team may be reluctant to disagree and challenge one another since they've just gone through a stormy period Ask team members to challenge their own decisions and encourage everyone's input. (Continued from the story on the previous page) "Upper management must have caught wind of the problems between our departments because one day they announced a new project manager would oversee the project for both departments.an action plan that galvanizes the team (a project plan. For instance. Sure you've agreed on a course of action but your work has just started. The team settles at norming until they successfully absorb their new responsibilities and are performing again. I think they let their egos get in the way. our managers should have been able to do the same thing.list and prioritize possible options.).

Team Building Stages of Team Development Stage 3: Norming continued Be sure all members are acknowledged for their efforts thus far The team just survived a rough period. Use it as justification for your challenge. Afterwards review the results and choose a solution with them.most recommended to least recommended. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 208 . It's like dog racing. An excellent way to do this is to give your team members a problem to solve. and how they prioritized their recommendations. It's when a group of people have finally reached a level of interaction and productivity where every person contributes. Help them learn from the experience. Theory has it that if a greyhound actually catches the mechanical rabbit they'll never run their best again. Even if it's nothing more than a pat on the back be sure to acknowledge their hard work. Remember the dynamics of Goal Setting and Motivation. "Raise the bar" by challenging members to take risks and to confront conflict Draw attention to the successful transition from storming to norming. how they dealt with disagreements. But how does a team get to that point and will it stay there? Continue on and find out. This is a rare stage. Individuals and groups are motivated by challenging goals. Keep the carrot out in front. BUT . They've achieved the goal and motivation is lost. It polices itself. The team supports one another.also ask them how they generated ideas. Ask them to meet (without a manager) and generate as many possible options to the problem as possible. Ask them to prioritize the options .

Members are comfortable offering ideas and can challenge each other constructively. When one guy diagnosed a tough engine problem the others congratulated him. What causes a team to cycle through these team stages? Are there indicators? Yes! As a manager you should watch out for them. Read on. When I was in college I worked at a full service gas station near campus. He bought us all lunch then he held a contest. tire rotations . There is a structured. Even today I think of that job when I try to motivate my employees to work as a team. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 209 . All members are committed to the objective of the team and know what's expected of them to get there. Rather than recycle through the stressful and energy consuming storming stage. These teams also openly acknowledge its' own process and dynamics. That can impact the member's motivation and knock your high performers (PA4's) down (PA3's). They constantly sought one another's opinion on problems. Be sure to provide recognition when appropriate. I wasn't even close but it was fun anyway. productive approach to problem solving. There were five mechanics and one shop supervisor. Provide feedback and recognition so efforts don't appear unappreciated Similar to the PA4 individual (as discussed in the Adaptive Leadership course) a high performing team can be taken for granted. Even though I wasn't a mechanic they always made me feel like part of the team.even more than the big name franchises .and those places had more employees. Usually the supervisor would set goals to see how many customers we could service in a day .basic stuff. Whoever did the fastest oil change could go home for the day. looked at the day's log and couldn't believe how many customers had been handled. Find new challenges for the team and its members. I remember one time the supervisor came in around lunchtime.and the mechanics would raise it! If one mechanic was having difficulty everyone pitched in. The trick here is to keep the team challenged. Scenario: Now that's Teamwork!! (story from one of our Team Building workshops) "I'm a senior manager at a multinational marketing firm and believe it or not the best team I ever worked on was when I was nineteen. In all the time I was there I don't remember one customer complaint.Team Building Stages of Team Development Stage 4: Performing Overview: The team has finally gelled. Members are better at addressing interpersonal issues themselves. Customers would rave about how good they were. That way you can anticipate the team's reaction and respond accordingly. While it doesn't seem like there's much for the team leader to worry about there are still some responsibilities to be mindful of. and new challenges! There is always the danger that when a team truly performs to its potential it becomes comfortable and adverse to change. it wants to keep an even keel. They even trained me to do oil changes. That place was incredible. new structure. teams that performed very well on a particular task often have difficulty accepting new members. the convenience counter and helped with some of the housekeeping tasks in the maintenance bay. Members can challenge each other constructively. I wasn't very mechanical so I ran the pumps. It did the highest volume of service in the city ." As Team leader or manager you should: Help your team avoid complacency by identifying new more aggressive challenges Ironically.

teams constantly cycle through these stages. There is no clear consensus on a solution or plan of action.Forming. For your personal development compare the two modules and see if you can identify the close relationship between them. Factions are developing. They need to manage the process for documenting and ensuring Y2K compliance of their company's computer systems and power generation equipment. Tom. That means his business will have a chance to venture into several new type of service. The key is to be aware of flags that signal particular stages. It should be easy to determine which stage they're in. Three new office staff have been added to the four existing employees. a regional manager. "I wish we'd get some agreement on this and move on. and Performing. Below are examples of teams in various stages. On the other hand. The criticality of their assignment is obvious. One problem is that 40 people are way too many to act as a team. Scenario 1 Cal and Bernadette are members of the Y2K (Year 2000 computer glich) team at their company. and the four team stages . The region is experiencing a growth spurt and numerous new developments and shopping centers are under construction. A smaller team should be formed to identify the administrative ground rules. Studies suggest 6-12 is the best size range. Storming. Robert disagrees saying that since computer platforms are different they need different documentation requirements. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 210 . Coaching. They work for a small regional utility company. to arrange an orientation and luncheon for the new comers. if it flounders at this stage for too long it may never recover. Some of them are willing to take a side. It's a busy time and he's adding staff. Supporting. This isn't necessarily bad. Summary Obviously this team is in the storming stage. his senior most employee. is on his soapbox again saying that every group needs to follow the same documentation process. Cal says to Bernadette. They're in the third meeting this week. Here are a few triggers: • • • The team is given a new responsibility or challenge Team membership changes significantly A new team leader is appointed If you've reviewed the course on Adaptive Leadership then you'll probably recognize parallels between the four styles of management .Team Building Cycling Through Team Stages As mentioned earlier. If a team leader steps in and assists the team in arriving at a consensus this can be a galvanizing moment .one that bolsters the teams' confidence.". Bob asked Shirley.Modeling. We're wasting time. Scenario 2 Bob manages a small construction supply company specializing in plumbing and underground water excavation equipment. If they fail there will be a lot of unhappy customers around midnight on 12/31/99. Norming. There are about 40 people in the conference room. and Delegating. The rest are either undecided or uninterested since this debate has been raging for two weeks now with no end in sight. Shirley's going to pair each new employee up with an existing employee so they can learn the ropes.

Scenario 3 Rudy is meeting with the other members of his project team. timely delivery of excavation equipment. Last week it got pretty heated until the president of the dealership stepped in and got the group to commit to a business plan. who has been a salesperson for 28 years doesn't know why the company wants to expand its sales to used cars or the internet. They're handing out assignments. Now there's a common objective and a common reward . No doubt. Team members will want to understand the roles and responsibilities for each person. For the past three months there has been a lot of friction among team members. The group needs to be wary that it's not committing to a plan of action just to avoid conflict. Summary Anytime a group comes off a particularly heated meeting or period where a problem was solved or some level of consensus reached then for sure they're in the norming stage.e. How it makes that choice or decision is critical. The car dealership they work for will be expanding into the used car arena and will be conducting sales directly over the internet. She feels its too much change for the dealership that enjoys a comfortable advantage over less established competitors in the region. The early interactions of the team will seem more social than work related. service should be prompt and personal. It's like the sun finally breaks through after a thunderstorm.i. Scenario 4 Claude manages a store that sells nutritional supplements. Bob. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 211 .Team Building Cycling Through Team Stages continued Summary Anytime you're adding new staff or changing your basic objectives it's likely your team will temporarily recycle starting at the forming stage. interaction will be friendly and informal. For instance. If Claude promotes a team member to store manager then he should prepare for a change in the teams' stage of development. Conflict will often erupt when a team is faced with making a choice or decision. A performing team is a manager's dream because it allows him/her to focus on those "other" priorities they can never get to. Janice. equipment is functional and reliable so customer work is uninterrupted.important ingredients to function as a team. There are some dangers however. They've been tasked with planning a business expansion. If they can. Also. They place product orders and self manage all customer inquiries and problems. Since Claude has to provide such little oversight of the daily operations he's been able to focus on opening two new stores. His employee team has taken responsibility for scheduling shifts and for several administrative functions. the manager of the construction company should clearly explain to employees what success looks like . everyone will get a bonus. Claude's thinking of promoting one of his employees to store manager so he can dedicate himself full time as regional manager and to other stores. There still seems to be some underlying anxiety but the team remains focused. The goal here is to define the common objectives the team will work towards and to get the roles and responsibilities of each person clarified. there's an interesting issue in this example. Summary Obviously a performing team. Bob sets a goal to increase revenue by 30% over the next six months. Anytime there's a change in leadership or in the roles of team members a team will temporarily be knocked back to the forming and/or norming stages. Now the team has reconvened.

3.Team Building Cycling Through Team Stages Determining the Stages of Team Development It's not always obvious what stage a team is in. A fairly significant change may knock the team down to forming or norming depending on where they started.i. agree just to agree and avoid conflict. Storming . 2. what if you add new team members (forming) to a team that's already in conflict (storming). Depends on the impact of the change. Team is in disagreement Roles or responsibilities clash Team member leaves Employee roles and responsibilities change Team gets new task or responsibility Team gains consensus on tough Norming .Team may stay in Storming for some period or move to Norming. If the person leaving leaves a void in leadership the group may regress to forming as it looks for new direction. A fairly significant change may knock the team down to forming or norming depending on where they started. Same as above. Danger of False consensus . issue Team consistently meets objectives Team can manage day-to-day operations Performing .Need to make sure all employees have clear roles and assignments or those w/o will likely drift away from team. A non disruptive change may have no effect. Performing . A non disruptive change may have no effect. If there is disagreement the team could wind up storming. the impact an indicator or flag will depend on the stage the team is at when the "incident" occurs.Existing team members acclimate new member to team goal. if multiple indicators or flags exist the manager should assume the team is at the lowest (least mature) stage in the cycle. What stage are you in? What if you change the policies or procedures for a team that's performing effectively. Specific indicators or flags for each stage include: Specific Indicator or Flag Add new employee(s) Stage of Team Development Forming . First. Same as above.Team members may get burned out or complacent if new challenge not introduced. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 212 .e. Second. Storming .Team may resettle at norming if there is no friction over reassignment of responsibilities. be mindful of the specific indicators or flags for each of the four stages.can regress to Storming if consensus and focus not maintained. Norming . procedures and group norms. Depends on the impact of the change. For instance.Manager should consider promoting team member to management or challenging team with new goals. Where does the team wind up? From a management standpoint there are a few rules to follow: 1. Third.

but you also just introduced a new work procedure and you have employees fighting over new assignments. Sometimes they may play multiple roles. Next. if you don't have enough of the right roles. See if you recognize any. Finally address the storming faction. In this case you have flags for Forming. The next section describes some of those roles. from the lowest (least mature) level. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 213 . And. explain the new procedure to everyone. you add a new employee. like a vitamin deficiency.Team Building Cycling Through Team Stages Determining the Stages of Team Development continued Multiple flags or indicators Suppose your team displays several of the indicators at once . Work your way from the bottom up that is. Make sure everyone understands how to do it and why it's important.what do you do? For instance. Make sure the new employee is acclimated and his/her immediate needs are met. the health of your team will suffer. Each person plays some role on a team. Always attend to the foundation first. Address the Forming needs first. Norming and Storming.

As a team leader you should make a mental note of the role each member brings with them to see if the team is missing a crucial element. but this role is very important since it forces a group to examine its decisions. This person has the sunny disposition. Teams require a mix of skill sets and certain group roles. Ask yourself: "What role is this person playing?" Devil's Advocate Member frequently questions the group's decision and challenges members acting as the proverbial "Devil's Advocate. if not plain stupid. you can probably get along. These are the ones that can get your team to rethink its assumptions and come up with creative solutions. some always ask for data. They may inject humor or levity to the situation when things get tense. This is the person that sometimes comes out of left field with his/her ideas. If you're missing some. One of the most important aspects of an effective team is that it can be self critical. He/she makes it a point to compliment team members on their efforts. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 214 . This role is especially important when a team is storming because they want to justify options with concrete proof rather than emotion.logically or empirically later.Team Building Roles of Team Members As you might expect you can take a collection of individual superstars and form a group that functions lousy as a team. seem improbable. Missing one. May react emotionally first . some just offer positive encouragement all the time. recruit new members or model the role yourself. They're aware of interpersonal problems and personalities that clash. There are some common pitfalls teams face and fortunately some specific action managers can take to get them back on track. They offer constant encouragement and support to team members. They can alert you to potential problems. some talk about the group's process. or model it yourself. "This is going to require a lot of extra hours. As a manager here's your chance to address that underlying sentiment. The skeptic will usually challenge those with suggestions or ideas based solely on opinion or emotion. A gut reaction is like the canary in a mineshaft.eventually it'll cost you.but no one else." "What about our current responsibilities?" "We put a lot of hours into this already and now we have to change it again?" Can emotion be productive in business? Yes. Their ideas at first pass. This is often the person who goes to the manager when a team is in a rut. solves problems and deals with conflict. But they are the risk takers. An emotional statement can sometimes signal the tip of an iceberg. and to remain objective. encourage them to. Gut Checker Risk Taker Skeptic Cheerleader Conductor Each of these roles is important. the ones to step out of the box and often open eyes of the team to new possibilities and creative solutions. etc. Don't be surprised if they take on the missing role themselves. Will often voice the underlying sentiment of the group. but too many is like a vitamin deficiency ." Sometimes viewed as a nay-sayer. Suppose a team is frustrated and burned out by their workload or environment. Do you have any data on that? How can we verify that? How can it be measured? "Show me an example. Someone has to promote these new ideas or your team will be good at doing the same ol' thing. Draws attention to the personal effect of the project or goal. This person is especially attentive to the process or dynamics of the team. Some members question everything.. But what does a manager do if his/her team isn't working? Take heart. Imagine forming a team of all supervisors but no one to do the hands on work. The next section walks you through some of these step-by-step. They also pay particular attention to the motivation of the group. If no one plays this role. He/she frequently draws attention to what the group has accomplished rather than what it faces. Don't be afraid to talk to the members about your observations. As team leader or manager be aware of these roles.. The person that needs to see it to believe it. Imagine having the nine best pitchers in the league on your baseball team . This is often the team leader of the group but can be any member who questions the way the team makes decisions." These are all statements of the skeptic. This person can sometimes be at odds with someone like the gut checker since emotional arguments won't satisfy them.

Often times a project or objective rolls down from executive management with little explanation as to why it's a priority.. Group does not think the objective is important This is common the larger an organization becomes. Team is unable to make a decision 1. Team is in conflict 3. the team may continue to stagnate. They have no clear idea where to start or how to get organized. In this situation time should be devoted to breaking the task into logical chunks so the team can accomplish small goals to get started. For instance. Once the team started working with departments to implement the system they realized it didn't meet the real needs of those departments. The team needs a jump start. Unmotivated team/stagnant team 2. Motivation of the team dwindled as more and more time was spent trying to convince departments to use a system even the team didn't believe in. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 215 . As a manager there are three common issues you're likely to encounter: 1.. It's also common for that objective to conflict with existing work efforts. The objective of the team has to make sense and the team must understand why it's a priority. Group has no plan or no idea on how to accomplish its objective The group may be overwhelmed by the complexity of the task. at a large bank a team was tasked with implementing a new time tracking and project management system by the request of an executive manager. Unless a strong leader steps forward and helps. Unmotivated or Stagnated Teams An unmotivated or stagnant team will exhibit some very obvious signs such as: • • • • • • • dwindling attendance and participation in meetings (unmotivated) conversation often goes off on tangents or topics unrelated to the cause at hand (unmotivated) lack of volunteering and follow up on assignments (unmotivated) team members rush to decisions just to adjourn meetings (unmotivated) non verbals convey little energy and enthusiasm (unmotivated) members discuss same topics or problems over and over (stagnant) members cannot verbalize a common plan for accomplishing their objective or solving problems (stagnant) Possible causes. That objective is the glue that binds the team together and the fuel that keeps it going.Team Building When Your Team’s Not Working Based on what we've covered so far you may recognize some recurrent themes when it comes to team problems.

In other words... If a team suffers from constant bickering or infighting it will make little progress towards its objective. 2.".Team Building When Your Team’s Not Working continued There may be no clear reward or incentive for the group Some companies demonstrate little connection between the work employees do and the compensation or reward they receive." If a company is poor at rewarding performance the team's objective may just seem like more work. Interpersonal problems within the group If a team suffers from constant bickering or infighting it will make little progress towards its objective. Conflict within the team will likely split the group into factions that spend more time and energy defending their position than on the common objective of the team.. Little patience for the ideas of team members Poor participation in team meetings and team assignments Team members spend excessive time trying to gain credit for work and accomplishments Possible causes. If members were in conflict simply because their egos interfered with their rational judgment then that conflict would be counterproductive. Conflicting members of the group are really committed to the cause A team may experience conflict because several members differ on how to accomplish its objective..those members are likely to clash at times. "You always.".. so what if we succeed or fail . "So what if I work on this team. aggressive personalities .it won't matter to me. etc. Conflict in business manifests itself in other ways: • • • • • Constant disagreement with suggestions or unreasonable opposition to change Disagreements become more personal ."You don't understand. Team is in Conflict Conflict in business doesn't necessarily mean employees have one another in a headlock and are swinging at one another.nerves will become frayed.". or if they're asked to do a huge task with few resources or little time . There is genuine conflict between personalities in the group If a group has several members with dominant. As long as the conflict is constructive that's okay. Conflict within the team will likely split the group into factions that spend more time and energy defending their position than on the common objective of the team. If it starts to interfere with team progress someone needs to step in. This is "healthy" conflict since it is tied directly to the team's goal. The group faces a tremendously challenging task Obviously if a team is constantly buried with an unrealistic volume of work... "You never.. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 216 .

The survey can be used for diagnosing problems and/or to educate your team on important aspects of team building that you want to reinforce. This can often be a point of miscommunication among levels in business. you as team leader or manager need to diagnose the problem and come up with a plan of action. conflict and the inability to make and act on decision. Teams need to know which decisions they can make and which need to be deferred to another level. But suppose your team is floundering or suffers from constant conflict or a lack of motivation . Many problems can be avoided by applying the manager behaviors described for each of the team stages. If your employees are incented for only their individual contributions then you're encouraging a group of individuals . Team is Unable to Make a Decision Some obvious signs that a team cannot make effective decisions include: • • • • team makes rapid decisions or compromises team member discussion is either lost in details or at such a high level no one really understands the issues team members are slow to act on the decision or endorse it team constantly looks to the manager. Read on to learn more. If a team assumes it's making a recommendation then it also assumes someone else (upper management) will make the decision. Other Ideas for Handling Dysfunctional Teams So what can you do about these problems? If your team is seeing little progress toward its objectives. or vaguely defining those limits. . The group lacks necessary information to make a decision If a team lacks important data. knowledge or information they will certainly have difficulty committing to a decision. common symptoms include an unmotivated or stagnant team.what do you do? Structured problem solving One method is to start with the symptom of the team's problem (effect) and work your way backward to the causes. Teams need a logical approach to prioritizing solutions and the ability to facilitate an objective conversation of alternatives. Again. Team doesn't know if it can make a decision There's a difference between making a recommendation and making a decision. Management is often guilty of not defining. Team lacks a structured problem solving approach A team may have several ideas on how to solve a problem but selecting the right one becomes the problem. Team Survey At the end of this course we have provided a survey you can administer to team members asking for feedback on the team process.Team Building When Your Team’s Not Working continued 3... Many businesses reward only the individual then wonder why employees don't work as a team. team leader or informal leader for their opinion and approval Possible causes. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 217 .not a team of individuals.

team problem solving. That way members can move about the team wherever help is needed. Within teams vertical strength isn't as important as horizontal strength . They lack a focus on team behaviors Performance evaluations and training are notorious for this. etc. Training should be provided that describes team stages. here are some common mistakes companies make when managing teams: They recognize individual efforts If each employee just does his job then the rest will fall into place. If you're serious about making teams work in your work environment examine your HR policies and tools carefully. Success at your job moves you up the ladder.Team Building Rewarding Teams and Team Behavior It's amazing. The next section provides a case study of a highly productive team. Again. They should share a common theme that emphasizes team dynamics and team member responsibilities.that is.. and decision making. The most effective teams are ones where members are encouraged to broaden their skill set and to be cross trained on multiple roles. If you only measure individual performance you only emphasize the individual.. Often times there is little beyond lip service and buzzwords regarding team behaviors. job descriptions. To truly perform as a team. Set individual goals and team goals. yet few have altered their structure to reward and support teams. Who rewards the team? For example. teams need complementary skill sets and a broad knowledge base.on a common objective. suppose a team is made up of all supervisors or all employees with one specific skill set. It looks at what made that team unique and how it compares to some other successful teams. Check it out! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 218 . They emphasize vertical movement Most compensation systems are based on grades or levels. Typically performance evaluations. to tap into the dynamics that make teams so productive you need to set goals for the team. group dynamics. The team needs to be evaluated as a team . rewards programs and training are geared toward the individual. the merit system.so many companies have embraced the move toward teams. right? Not with teams. Chances are that group won't be very productive. Performance evaluations should recognize and reward individuals who work well with others and who assist team members.

What was happening? The HR manager started by talking with the manager of the team to learn more about his management style and philosophy. This experience later became the basis for a company wide management training program he instituted in the same company. At an auto parts manufacturing plant an HR manager noticed that one assembly team was consistently recognized for its productivity." Afterwards the HR manager interviewed members of the team to find out what they thought. For some it's developmental assignments. Bill is the technical wiz. To be honest. They tend to correct problems themselves now…. That's who nominated us for the internal awards…" "We've set our own training quota for the team. I hope they've learned a lot from that. it had received honorable mention in the state's Excelsior Quality Award (similar to the Malcolm Baldrige Award). They dedicated their own time to apply for the external quality awards. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 219 . At first. The case study describes some of the factors (from a management and a team member perspective) that made the team especially productive. The factors or themes are necessary for any effective team. I figure if they're doing the job – let them be. for others it's promotions in responsibility…" "The group wanted to be recognized as a team. This case study was provided by a college who served as HR manager at an automotive parts plant. Below are excerpts from his notes: Manager "A team has to have clear goals and targets. We didn't at first. They also spent a lot of time with internal customers. an unwillingness to listen or to include certain members – things like that. proposed and implemented an internal customer quality program. It took awhile to get there. I spent a lot more time managing them…. Nadine can test and develop test scripts better than anyone.Team Building Effective Team Building Case Study Below is a detailed case study of one highly successful team. Each person is expected to devote six hours per month either through classes here at the plant or in self study…" "I try not to micromanage the team. In other words." "We had some interpersonal problems early on between two or three of the team members. Over the course of three years the team was nominated for eight internal awards." "Each team member has to have a certain strength. six members of this team were promoted to either supervisory positions or positions of more responsibility on other teams. Though the team was only comprised of nine people including the manager. We addressed the problems right away. We decided early on that we wanted to have the best productivity and rework ratios in the plant. it was a bit unprofessional. quality and innovation. Tom's the number cruncher. He can pinpoint production problems just by looking through batch data…" "I try to provide individual incentives for the team members. Digging a little further the HR manager found that afterwards productivity in four of those teams had also improved. In addition. Intolerance to opinions. the team had produced six promotions in a little over two years. six of which it won. They need to be the expert at something. Several team members were active participants in volunteer committees and had themselves.

While they had individual assignments they all contributed to a common objective. It's great." "I can approach anyone on this team for help when I need it. When the situation called for a particular knowledge the appropriate person stepped forward. But our manager has been pretty tolerant. Individual Expertise – team members had complementary skills. Self Correcting – any team member could and did address problems and mistakes. did not have to fester until they required management attention. Individuals were expected to continuously improve their skill. It's not that we're being critical – it's just that we continuously look for ways to improve. the whole team analyzes what went wrong so we can learn from it…" "I've had opportunities to present our quality program to executive management and to other companies. Interpersonal differences were respected.Team Building Effective Team Building Case Study Team Members "Seems like we're never satisfied with our work. Empowered Environment – team members had the latitude to work directly with one another as needed. Not only did each person have the necessary skills to be effective. You know exactly what's expected." "We spend a lot of time working together. Rather than focusing on just themselves team members took pride in their collective accomplishment. They also set new goals and higher standards so the team didn't stagnate. He has complete confidence in us. Each person knows what they have to do to make us successful…" "We've definitely made our share of mistakes. Everyone is willing to pitch in when there's a problem. Makes the work more challenging. Pride in Accomplishment – the team members were proud of what they had accomplished. Our team was selected to pilot production of the two newest product lines…" "Our manager lets us do our jobs. Each person played a specific role on the team. they had guidelines to work by. Genuine Respect – no job was anymore important than another. No one is an island…" "Our manager has set very challenging goals for us. I get recognition as an individual and as a team member…" "I'm proud of what we've accomplished. Problems. Individual and Group Recognition – members received individual recognition for their efforts while the team also received recognition collectively. We made some improvements and then the enthusiasm for more became contagious…" The HR manager then took the team's feedback and identified the following common themes: Goal Oriented – the team shared a common goal. Process Discipline – there were clear procedures and assignments for the team. It makes me feel a lot more responsible for the team's success…" "I like the fact that we have clearly defined procedures. He's spent a lot of time and energy increasing our responsibility too. production or interpersonal. I didn't think we'd come this far as quickly as we did. They could act self directed or pool their abilities as needed. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 220 . If a batch has an unacceptable level of defects.

Goal Oriented – Sports teams aspire to some championship or demonstration of their ability . Joe Montana was a great quarterback. Do the same themes apply to effective teams? Think about it…. Again. Self Correcting – Team leaders will constantly coach and reprimand their fellow players. but how good would the San Francisco 49ers have been if all eleven guys on offense were a Joe Montana. World Series. ask team members to rate the team. Athletes need to make decisions and act quickly based on their judgment. offensive alignments.the Super Bowl. There's 1.Team Building Effective Team Building Case Study continued None of these observations should have been a surprise – it was just a surprise to see a collection of individuals truly working this way. Process Discipline – Consider all the practice a sports team must go through to become the best. individuals win MVP awards and lucrative contracts. The objective for these teams is to win. Pride in Accomplishment – Did you ever watch a 330 pound defensive tackle cry after winning a championship – or losing one? Empowered Environment – A coach can only take the team so far. Down to the last timeout. The word "Team" is most often associated with sports. After interviewing other teams he found that the less productive ones were lacking these traits. defensive schemes. Imagine what watching a pro baseball game would be like if no one kept score. They practice plays. Did you ever see Dan Marino yelling at a receiver after running a bad route or Michael Jordan letting into a teammate after the player commits an untimely foul. Not overly scientific – but it did suggest some universal themes for exceptional teams. They went 3-13 for the season. The local pro football team became the laughing stock of the NFL after the quarterback offended fellow players verbally and with his off the field antics. the coach isn't always there – and shouldn't have to be. There is an excellent comparison to be made.4 seconds left in the game. Commit to initiatives that foster these qualities and you'll quickly see improvement. Once the game starts each person is expected to exercise his or her athletic ability and skill. If a cornerback commits to a blitz the safety picks up his receiver. Genuine Respect – How many times have you seen teams with internal strife just fall apart? If it goes unaddressed the team disintegrates into individuals all playing for self preservation. Teams have scripted plays specifically designed so each person knows what they need to do to win. It's everyone's responsibility to look out for the well being of the team Summary Take a moment to consider how your team would rate on these common themes. etc. A guard breaks open and sinks a 20 foot shot at the buzzer. Now it’s time to evaluate your team’s effectiveness? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 221 . Stanley Cup. Individual and Group Recognition – While teams win championships. Individual Expertise – Clearly in sports each person has a specific skill and role on the team. How many times have you seen it in basketball. Better yet. He's gone and so is the coach. The team members further confirmed the observations of the HR manager.

Would you rather win the Super Bowl or be the MVP of a losing team? The trick is to get all these employees to focus on the same objective and to find the right mix of reinforcements. You may find it to be quite revealing. Below is a short description of each exercise. Use the approaches described in this course to strengthen the effectiveness of your team. We have provided one exercise. These are found on the following pages. Please print out each of these exercises. or one very assertive employee that's always bossing others.i. Please go to the next page to view and print Exercise 1. There will be those employees that understand the priorities set by management and those that don't. two or more very assertive employees constantly at odds.Team Building In Summary Many companies have turned to "Teams" in hopes of increasing productivity and profitability. If you put the right people together they'll work as a team with little prodding by management. Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. Employees are at different skill levels and certain personalities will clash . But the likelihood of putting all the right people together is slim. Learning Exercises . a survey tool and an action plan to help you apply what you have learned in this course. Exercise 1: Team Effectiveness Survey Exercise This assessment will help you to assess the effectiveness of your team Survey Tool Print and copy this survey tool and distribute it to your team.e. Then analyze the results. (this exercise consists of 3 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 222 . This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. Some strive for individual recognition while others enjoy team recognition.

and productivity. Our manager provides clear measurable goals for us to ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) achieve. Please consider each question carefully in terms of your experience with this team. Your feedback will be summarized with that of your team members. Comments: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 223 . Team Name: Please check the most appropriate response: 1 The objectives and goals of the team are clear and Consider the following: supported by all team members. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Do some team members dominate the conversation? Do some team members avoid speaking or making suggestions? Is everyone encouraged to have input or do one or two people tell the rest what to do? Comments: 3 Members listen objectively to one another. We know how well our team is performing in terms of service. ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Date: Each person knows exactly what he or she must do to support the team. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: If someone disagrees with the group are they allowed to speak their mind? Are members encouraged to offer creative ideas and novel solutions to problems? All participants are given a chance to present their opinions without interference from others. Comments: 2 When our team meets there is open discussion and participation by everyone.Team Building Team Effectiveness Survey Exercise (3 pages) This survey instrument is designed to assist teams of employees in identifying ways to work and communicate more effectively.

4 There is constructive conflict and disagreement among members i. Comments: 7 When there are personality conflicts or interpersonal problems among team members the team is able to address them in a productive manner. Decisions are based on consensus. If someone disagrees with a decision they're allowed to do so without pressure or interference from the team. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Is everyone equally busy and supportive of the same goals? Can everyone perform their job in a satisfactory manner? For the team there is little confusion. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Do team members constantly complain about one another? Do team members require management to solve interpersonal disputes? Are there mini factions or cliques within the team? Do certain team members avoid interaction with one another? Comments: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 224 . There is healthy conflict. Comments: 6 Members are clear on their roles and job assignments. The team is not afraid to disagree and challenge one another. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: There is no pride of authorship . and mistakes. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Are decisions made or do issues drag on and on without closure? When the team makes a decision there is commitment and action afterwards.e. Team members encourage a thorough exploration of dissenting ideas.individuals who defend their own opinions without listening/understanding others Disagreements are never personal. After a decision is made members do not question or belittle the decision privately. a healthy challenging of opinions and ideas. miscommunication. Comments: 5 The team can arrive at decisions effectively.

and effective at. Total points: Compare your score to the rating scale below: 50-60 Excellent team work 40-49 Good team work but room for improvement 30-39 Team needs manager support and intervention to work more effectively Below 30 Very poor teamwork .regularly Consider the following: meets objectives. takes on more and more responsibilities for managing itself The team regularly meets or exceeds the levels of performance etc.8 There is a healthy diversity of members and most or all group roles (hats) are accounted for (Note: Refer to the Team Building module for a description of group roles. Team members work to define procedures and work standards that all are expected to comply with.) ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Do you have an adequate mix of skills and experience for the team to perform effectively? Do one or more members exercise the following roles: creative thinker. expected of them. Comments: Add up the points from each response and enter the total below. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Team members can be critical of the team's performance without offending team members. leader. If there is a problem within the team. team members address it quickly.major improvement needed Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 225 . steps up to challenges. Comments: 10 The team works effectively together . analytical-data oriented type. Comments: 9 The team is comfortable with. devil's advocate. emotional -gut reaction type. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) There are few interpersonal problems and disputes within the team. team cheerleader-support. The team can manage itself with little supervision from management. critically examining its own dynamics and group processes.

____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Do some team members dominate the conversation? Do some team members avoid speaking or making suggestions? Is everyone encouraged to have input or do one or two people tell the rest what to do? Comments: 3 Members listen objectively to one another.Team Effectiveness Survey This survey instrument is designed to assist teams of employees in identifying ways to work and communicate more effectively. Our manager provides clear measurable goals for us to ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) achieve. Comments: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 226 . ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: If someone disagrees with the group are they allowed to speak their mind? Are members encouraged to offer creative ideas and novel solutions to problems? All participants are given a chance to present their opinions without interference from others. Your feedback will be summarized with that of your team members. Comments: 2 When our team meets there is open discussion and participation by everyone. and productivity. ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Date: Each person knows exactly what he or she must do to support the team. Team Name: Please check the most appropriate response: 1 The objectives and goals of the team are clear and Consider the following: supported by all team members. Please consider each question carefully in terms of your experience with this team. We know how well our team is performing in terms of service.

a healthy challenging of opinions and ideas. After a decision is made members do not question or belittle the decision privately. and mistakes. The team is not afraid to disagree and challenge one another. Decisions are based on consensus. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Do team members constantly complain about one another? Do team members require management to solve interpersonal disputes? Are there mini factions or cliques within the team? Do certain team members avoid interaction with one another? Comments: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 227 .e. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: There is no pride of authorship . Comments: 7 When there are personality conflicts or interpersonal problems among team members the team is able to address them in a productive manner.individuals who defend their own opinions without listening/understanding others Disagreements are never personal. miscommunication. There is healthy conflict. Comments: 6 Members are clear on their roles and job assignments. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Are decisions made or do issues drag on and on without closure? When the team makes a decision there is commitment and action afterwards. If someone disagrees with a decision they're allowed to do so without pressure or interference from the team. Comments: 5 The team can arrive at decisions effectively.4 There is constructive conflict and disagreement among members i. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Is everyone equally busy and supportive of the same goals? Can everyone perform their job in a satisfactory manner? For the team there is little confusion. Team members encourage a thorough exploration of dissenting ideas.

and effective at.) ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Do you have an adequate mix of skills and experience for the team to perform effectively? Do one or more members exercise the following roles: creative thinker. Team members work to define procedures and work standards that all are expected to comply with. steps up to challenges. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) There are few interpersonal problems and disputes within the team. critically examining its own dynamics and group processes.8 There is a healthy diversity of members and most or all group roles (hats) are accounted for (Note: Refer to the Team Building module for a description of group roles. ____ Strongly Disagree (1 pt) ____ Disagree (2 pts) ____ Somewhat Disagree (3 pts) ____ Somewhat Agree (4 pts) ____ Agree (5 pts) ____ Strongly Agree (6 pts) Consider the following: Team members can be critical of the team's performance without offending team members. team cheerleader-support. team members address it quickly. takes on more and more responsibilities for managing itself The team regularly meets or exceeds the levels of performance etc. Comments: 9 The team is comfortable with. emotional -gut reaction type. analytical-data oriented type. Comments: Add up the points from each response and enter the total below. Total points: Thank you for your valuable feedback! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 228 . leader. The team can manage itself with little supervision from management. If there is a problem within the team. devil's advocate. expected of them. Comments: 10 The team works effectively together .regularly Consider the following: meets objectives.

stop and continue doing immediately.Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course. identify what you will start. THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 229 .

Notes: Use the approaches described in this course to strengthen the effectiveness of your team. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 230 .

Conducting Performance Evaluations .

Lack of training to conduct evaluations .Conducting Performance Evaluations In some organizations. When strategic objectives change . We wouldn't recommend these if you're documenting your employees' performance! "Since my last report. it seems that it is only to change feet." "I would not allow this employee to breed. and the sooner he starts. Constant change and restructuring makes evaluation difficult because reporting relationships and responsibilities change 3." "This employee is depriving a village somewhere of an idiot. but lacks the plastic thing to hold it all together. Manager does not take into consideration special projects or extra efforts What the managers say.." Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 231 ." "Works well when under constant supervision and cornered like a rat in a trap. Inconsistency among managers in the way employees are evaluated 10. the better.they're quite humorous. Below are some alleged quotes from performance reviews collected and posted on the Internet. but more of a definite won't-be.individual objectives should change." "His men would follow him anywhere. Process is too time consuming and paper intensive 5.both inter-personally and with regards to the tool used 6." "This young lady has delusions of adequacy. Here are some of the most common complaints: 1." "This employee should go far." "He would be out of his depth in a parking lot puddle. the performance evaluation process has become a oncea-year administrative hoop that everyone has to jump through. Evaluating employees is difficult because job descriptions are so outdated 2. but only out of morbid curiosity." "This employee is really not so much of a has-been. Feedback is usually non-specific or comes too late 8. Whether or not they're true . Employees perceive the process as unfair and loaded with biases/favoritism 7. Lack of objective criteria to differentiate between employee's performance 4." "Got a full 6-pack." "When she opens her mouth. In other companies the process is non existent.. A survey conducted by a national Human Resource consulting firm found that of 224 (small to large) companies only 34% received high marks from a sampling of their employees on their performance evaluation tool and process." "He sets low personal standards and then consistently fails to achieve them. this employee has reached rock bottom and has started to dig. but usually don't 9.

" "A prime candidate for natural de-selection." "The wheel is turning. or should be an integral part of your goal setting with employees." "He brings a lot of joy whenever he leaves the room." GETTING STARTED This course: 9 9 9 9 9 9 describes the concepts of performance management vs. but the hamster is dead. you can hear the oceans. you'd get change. performance evaluations describes the purpose and benefits of conducting performance evaluations provides a sample performance evaluation tool provides a guideline to prepare for." "When his IQ reaches 50." "Some drank from the fountain of knowledge. but the train isn't coming." "He certainly takes a long time to make his pointless." "He's been working with glue too much. and follow-up on performance evaluations provides two performance evaluation case scenarios describes some of the common mistakes managers make when evaluating employee performance Why is this important? The performance evaluation process is." "Takes him 2 hours to watch 60 minutes. he should sell." "If you stand close enough to him. the lights are flashing. Continue your study on the next page." "He has a knack for making strangers immediately." "If you give him a penny for his thoughts. he only gargled."A gross ignoramus . conduct." "Donated his brain to science before he was done using it." "One neuron short of a synapse. but he's a carrier.144 times worse than an ordinary ignoramus. In addition it provides a justification for your employees' salary increase." "He doesn't have ulcers. Likewise. If you don't conduct performance reviews with your staff you're missing a critical piece of the performance management process." "Gates are down. he's the other one." "I would like to go hunting with him sometime." "Has two brains cells: one is lost and the other is out looking for it" "If he were any more stupid. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 232 . if you conduct performance evaluations but they're inaccurate or unfair you'll have a debilitating effect on the employee's motivation and morale! Do you know the difference between performance management and performance evaluation? This simple distinction is crucial to effectively managing employee performance." "He has a photographic memory with the lens cap glued on." "He would argue with a signpost." "If you see two people talking and one looks bored. he'd have to be watered twice a week.

Conducting Performance Evaluations Performance Management versus Performance Evaluation Performance Management Performance management is simply a collection of management techniques geared towards improving the "work" of your employees. Clearly identify the requirements of the job Review the job requirements with the employee to be sure they understand them Identify areas where the employee can improve Assist the employee in improving Reinforce their improvement All these represent an area where an employee may improve their overall job performance and that's the objective of performance management.what are they doing in your dishwashing area? To help your kitchen staff improve you first have to make sure their job is defined correctly. specific skills . Below is a brief illustration of the steps involved in Performance Management as well as a hypothetical situation where it is applied. A Performance Evaluation is the formal process of reviewing and documenting that performance. It's the day-to-day responsibility of a manager or supervisor to constantly improve the performance of his/her employees. interpersonal skills . Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 233 . This is a rather simple example but it illustrates the basic steps in performance management (see left).e. "Work" may refer to a number of areas related to a person's job. stocking supplies? Once you're sure the job is defined correctly.i.e. Performance Management . Customers complain about waiting too long. Let's walk through an example.e.i. This process is informal.i.in detail 1.i.e. bus tables when customers are waiting rather than mop the kitchen floor? Is another employee constantly late or taking extended breaks. attentive to quality. professional in appearance and mannerisms Steps involved in Performance Management 1. Does one employee need help organizing his work area to wash dishes faster? Does another employee need to understand the priorities as they relate to customers .e. how the employee works with other people 3. and they're still having trouble then you need to assess their individual needs . You're fortunate in that you're always busy but it seems you're also always backed up in your kitchen. Suppose you manage a restaurant.i. dishes and silverware are in short supply . selling a product or operating machinery 2. 2. 3.i. Is it possible they're working on things they shouldn't be . adding to the back up? For each employee you need to identify where they can improve then coach them to better performance. are you sure they understand the job requirements? If so. Waiters and waitresses complain because the tables aren't cleared promptly. is the employee punctual.e. 5. Performance Evaluation Now let's illustrate the difference between Performance Management and Performance Evaluations by continuing the example above. 4. work ethic .

If you wind up in court over personnel decisions a sound performance evaluation process/tool is critical to your defense. The employee and manager will meet in his office for about an hour and review the employee's progress. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 234 . The manager has documented the employee's strengths and opportunities for improvement. he tells the employee what his salary increase will be. He gives each of them a performance evaluation form ahead of time and asks them to review their own performance. You may be thinking.. Now it's time to meet with each employee and formally review his or her progress. where as a performance evaluation is the tool for documenting that performance.Typically managers of small businesses spend little time on performance management. they're arguably more important to small companies because. 4. When they meet. They demonstrate your commitment to the employee .in detail 1. He tells each employee well beforehand when his or her evaluation is going to be.Conducting Performance Evaluations Performance Management versus Performance Evaluation continued Performance Evaluation .In smaller companies a non productive employee can have a more negative impact. "My company is too small to worry about performance evaluations.. Think of performance management as the process of coaching and improving the employee's performance. Finally.High employee turnover in small businesses can be very damaging. review the employee's performance (usually annual) Based on documented job requirements and performance of the employee (formal) Employee should be given opportunity to prepare for the performance evaluation Manager identifies improvement goals or opportunities that will enhance performance Manager may tie performance evaluation to annual salary increase. They force managers to commit to performance management . 5. Preplanned / scheduled meeting between employee and manager where the purpose is to 2. The performance evaluation process / tool demonstrates your commitment to improving their skills and keeping them." No company is too small!! In fact. That way when they meet with the manager they've already given it some thought. True.. training needs or career development The restaurant manager has been coaching his kitchen help using performance management for about six months. They formalize personnel decisions . the manager shares his opinion of the employee's work. They help improve performance . while performance evaluations are a must for any company. He shares with the employee a list of goals or improvement opportunities. 3. These are some of the characteristics of a performance evaluation. At first glance it may seem the performance evaluation is just a way to justify a merit increase for an employee (or a lack of one). The next section describes some of the interrelationships between the performance evaluation and other Human Resource issues/processes. that's one purpose but there's more to a performance evaluation than a link to the employee's paycheck. if any.. A big difference between the two is that performance management can be done daily where as performance evaluations are typically once or twice a year.

"It doesn't matter if you're good or bad . The emphasis is less on "What did you do over the past year?" . Linking Individual Goals to the Business Strategy The performance evaluation should serve as the primary vehicle for linking your employees to your strategic plan (if you have one). While employees should use the opportunity to explore their own interests. They never will either. Done properly strategic plans can cascade down through the ranks so that each individual is contributing towards the common goal. That is. the process is both objective and subjective. Unless everyone is working towards team oriented goals (rather than individual) this can have a disastrously de-motivating effect.e. Even though the performance evaluation and career discussion may take place in the same sitting the two have distinctly different purposes. Essentially it says.Conducting Performance Evaluations Performance Evaluations: What’s The Purpose? As part of the performance management cycle the evaluation process plays an important role. everyone gets 3%.e. That's why small businesses tend to be more nimble and responsive. Employees who need to develop critical supervisory/management skills could do so by identifying special projects and assignments when setting goals and objectives. Linking Performance to Compensation Some organizations that grant merit increases do so in an across the board manner . Effective teamwork is a must. promotions or terminations. Identifying Training Needs Some companies have tailored their evaluation tool to be more of a development tool. However. In doing so. The truth is.so why bother?" If yours is one of the organizations that makes an admirable effort to link pay to performance. individual contributions to Quality Improvement or Suggestion Programs can be recognized in the performance evaluation. Offering an Opportunity for Career Planning The performance evaluation offers a natural opportunity to discuss an employee's interest around career development.and more on: "What do you need to do a better job next year?" Reinforcing Quality Improvement and Teamwork Companies that want to reinforce employee innovation and teamwork can do so through their performance evaluation process. One of the most critical purposes for a performance evaluation is to justify management decisions related to merit increases. Some companies have dedicated sections in their evaluation tool to just that purpose. Be sure to checkout the next section.i.coming up with an objective rating to tie to a percentage increase. managers should also use it to groom promotable employees. Some companies will dedicate a percentage of the employee's rating towards their contributions to Quality Improvement. By identifying team-oriented goals i. the performance evaluation is key. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 235 . Given constant business changes perfect alignment is impossible. Also. The following are some other effects companies strive for. during the review the manager will help develop a plan that assists the individual in improving skills and abilities. managers are faced with a terrific challenge . No one has come up with a foolproof approach to making it completely objective. This is important because employees can see how they contribute to the big picture. the companies that react to changes quickly and get their employees realigned to those changes will succeed. "The department will identify ways to improve turnaround time by 20%" whole groups of employees are evaluated together.

More important. the burden of establishing that connection falls to the company. In the event that a lawsuit is lodged. feedback is untimely and inaccurate. hopes for promotion and growth are dashed. That is. however. For those that do.e. it can be a costly battle. are the informal charges that occur internally. they're not seeing fair reward for their work. If your staff and managers view the performance evaluation process as unfair. Now let's look at the elements of an effective performance evaluation tool. a company may be required to: • • • present evidence showing its performance evaluation tool/process is valid and reliable. demonstrate that the criteria by which employees are evaluated are actual indicators of effective job performance demonstrate that the company has taken measures (i. inaccurate and/or biased it will have a tremendous impact on motivation. You're not recognizing individual's efforts.Conducting Performance Evaluations Performance Evaluations and Legal Issues If past performance is to be used as a predictor of future performance and promotability. In the long run that's a lot more costly. it is accurately measuring performance factors crucial to the job and it's measuring them consistently. training) to ensure that managers are not biased or prejudiced in their ratings Most companies will never have to formally defend their performance evaluation process in court. Be sure to check any HR related legal issues that govern the region where you operate your business. How do you design a performance evaluation? What's the best way to rate an employee's performance? How do you account for different priorities? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 236 .

(2) Exceeds expectations. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 237 . 2. 8.so what are your responsibilities with regard to the performance evaluation? Let's review step-by-step how to prepare.e. (3) Significantly exceeds expectations. 4. Each evaluation should include key demographic information such as the Employee Name. (1) Meets expectations. 6. Performance on this item has: (D) Decreased. Opportunities for improvement should be noted for each responsibility. Supervisor and Evaluation Period. Employees should receive some objective rating on each responsibility . (SI) Significantly improved. There should be a general narrative section for each responsibility where the manager can provide some detail and specific examples supporting his/her evaluation. we suggest that you include these key components: 1. Next Review Date. Overall rating . Time in the position. If you elect to design your own. 5. (I) Improved. Employees should receive a trend rating for each responsibility i. (3) Significantly exceeds expectations. The evaluation should include a listing of the specific job responsibilities against which the employee is being evaluated.Conducting Performance Evaluations The Performance Evaluation: Key Components Below we describe the key components that should be included on a performance evaluation form. (0) Does not meet expectations. (0) Does not meet expectations.provides one summary rating for the employees performance i. conduct and follow up on a performance evaluation. (2) Exceeds expectations. (NC) No change. Title. Okay . 3. If you'd like to use this format to conduct your own performance evaluations print a copy of the sample evaluation form provided in the exercise section of this course.i.e. 7. (1) Meets expectations.e. A Performance Evaluation Template. We have also provided a printable sample of the form if you wish to use it for your company. Both the manager and employee should sign off on the evaluation.

The easiest way to remember your responsibilities as manager/supervisor conducting an evaluation is to break down the process as follows: 1.e. List the specific responsibilities of the employee. unclear goals. Has their performance stayed about the same or declined? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 238 . If an employee is having difficulty it's likely he/she will recognize it. Pre-Performance Evaluation (Manager reviews employee performance / employee conducts selfassessment) 2.Conducting Performance Evaluations The Performance Evaluation Process The performance evaluation process is not really a once a year event. Determine if they are aware of this responsibility. nothing comes as a surprise during the formal evaluation. etc. Give them time to prepare. Have you really explained it to them or have you assumed they realize it? 3. communicate often with employees regarding their performance. Be critical and honest. Take a minute to evaluate your own performance. Conducting the Performance Evaluation (Discussing strengths and areas for improvement) 3. 4. but consistent improvement in their performance? Has their performance been sporadic . changing priorities. Why? Because you'll appreciate situational factors that affect your own performance and in turn others . sometimes they don't. You may recall we discussed this in the courses on Goal Setting and Feedback and Adaptive Leadership get into the specifics of day-to-day performance management. depending on others.sometimes they meet each responsibility. That way. What can you see them doing? 2. performance feedback needs to happen on a regular basis. What exactly are they expected to do? If you're having difficulty making a list think of their job in observable terms. To do so review the job description for the position the employee holds. to be effective. Is it still accurate or does it need to be updated? If you don't have a job description WRITE ONE!! In lieu of a job description try the following: 1. Let the employees know well in advance when their evaluation will be done. Have them update their goals and objectives and give themselves a rating. This will help you objectively review others. Follow up to the Performance Evaluation (Coaching and feedback all over again) STEP 1: Pre-Performance Evaluation Job Description As mentioned frequently in this and other modules. Have they adequately met each responsibility? Especially important is the trend of their performance. Have you seen a gradual.i. What level of performance should you expect from this employee? Are they new or seasoned? You can't penalize a new employee for not being as effective as your veterans. need for training. Once a year the form may be completed for Human Resource purposes but. Now take some time to review the employee's performance before you meet with him/her.

by asking peers for input it's less likely the employee will feel an evaluation is merely the unfair opinion of the manager. Be sure your "ducks are in a row" to make the experience productive and most importantly . Also. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 239 . Now it's time to sit down and tell the employee what he or she did well and what they can improve upon. Read on to learn more. Provide some objectivity by rating them on each responsibility . Peer feedback provides a different level of feedback since a manager may spend less time interacting with the employee.Conducting Performance Evaluations The Performance Evaluation Process continued 5. Performance on this item has: 0 = Declined 1 = Stayed the same 2 = Improved slightly 3 = Improved significantly Peer Feedback A great way to ensure an objective review of the employee's performance is to ask his or her peers for feedback. An example of a Peer Feedback Survey is provided on the Exercises page at the end of this course.e.i.equitable in the employee's view.

Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 240 . comfortable atmosphere conducive to communication. The performance evaluation can be a launching pad for personal development if used properly. Start with ones where you are in close agreement. Offer Career Development suggestions (If requested by the employee) Offer the opportunity to discuss the employee's career interests. an added twist. Set improvement goals During the evaluation you're likely to identify behaviors that the employee can improve upon. On occasions an employee may object to your evaluation. stick to your guns. Assuming you've also completed a pre-evaluation of the employee . Use specific examples to support your observations. Tell them when you'd like to follow up to evaluate their progress in accomplishing this goal.go through each item and compare your rating to the employee's. Apply the same principles discussed in the Goal Setting and Feedback course. Read on for more details. non judgmental atmosphere It is essential that you create an easy. If your employee walks out of their evaluation without at least one personal goal to improve on. ask the employee what skills they think they can improve upon. During the evaluation identify stretch goals that will broaden the employees' skill set and move them towards more self directedness. you blew it. Offer training if needed. But remember. Some companies allow for grievances to be filed with Human Resources. There is. Every individual can improve existing skills or develop new ones. They may lobby effectively to have a particular rating increased. Be sure you're ready to follow up on any commitments you made to the employee during the performance evaluation.e. Review each responsibility If you've given the employee a list of his/her responsibilities and asked them to complete a self-evaluation beforehand this will be easier. Be willing to reconsider your evaluation if their explanation is valid. The employee rates him/herself very effective but you rate them ineffective) for last. Save items where you've disagreed (i. To start. If you've done your homework and are sure your evaluation is fair and accurate. Check with your company's policies and procedures beforehand. Offer support As described in the course on Goal Setting and Feedback you can't just set a goal for the employee and then walk away. of course. In both situations someone is being judged and evaluated. Since your evaluation may be linked to the employee's merit increase (your company's choice) you have to be hyper-sure your feedback is accurate and fair. Their objection can be documented in the performance evaluation. If they need some direct coaching (from you or another employee) arrange it. You're not done yet. Your goal should be to review past performance and lay a foundation for future development. The process must be perceived as fair. it is the employee's responsibility to drive that discussion. There's a fine line between providing constructive feedback and making someone defensive. Listen to the employee.Conducting Performance Evaluations Conducting the Performance Evaluation Create a safe.

From there. it's back to a regular cycle of performance management goal setting and feedback. 3. If the employee is receiving a salary increase as a result of their evaluation be sure to complete all paperwork as soon as possible. Update the employee's job description if you determine their responsibilities have changed Update the employee's performance evaluation to recognize new responsibilities and contributions Follow up on all commitments to provide support and training as the employee works toward their improvement goals 2.Conducting Performance Evaluations Follow Up on the Performance Evaluation Follow Up on the Performance Evaluation Be sure. How about some examples? The next section provides a sample of a completed evaluation form as well as a case study and sample for designing and implementing a standard performance evaluation process. 4. Both parties should have a chance to review and sign it. Employees should see reward for their accomplishments immediately if you want to reinforce their effort. that the performance evaluation tool is updated immediately. once your meeting is over. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 241 . Other items for follow up: 1.

adequate shelf stock and exterior presentation. you would have finished with better numbers. Any ideas on what you can do to improve that? Jerry: One thing. Sue. Jerry: I didn't realize it was that low. Our store appearance. I had Delores double check the numbers too. especially yours in that upscale area. hire and train staff. that's pretty low. That's important considering how tough it is to find new employees. It's hard to tell whether it's due to sloppy delivery. Did you bring your job description and notes? Jerry: Yeah. I can't say we were short staffed. That's an area where you have to concentrate. We had some problems getting short stocked in sales items a few times. Your store scored the third lowest among all stores on appearance. comparing your supplier bills to sales and inventory there's a 4. What do you think could have caused it? Jerry: Well. Jerry is the manager at one of the stores. well how do you think you've done over the past year? Jerry: Pretty good. We had a great year in terms of turnover. I think 4. I do know on the last site visit we were rated higher than the previous four or five reviews. She told him about a month ago that they would be meeting to review his performance. I've passed some of your suggestions on to the other store managers so they can better manage their suppliers. Sue: Okay. I staggered the shifts so we've got employees starting earlier and closing later. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 242 . Chambers.3%. Here's what I've seen as some areas for improvement. Scenario: Sue is about to provide Jerry with his annual performance review. Sue: Yeah. I'd say the delivery numbers are off. Regarding managing the daily operations I think I did pretty well. In preparation she gave him a copy of his job description and asked him to make some notes about his performance. manage suppliers and achieve financial targets.7% and that cut into your store's profitability. maybe a portion of it. Your profit margin was only 4. See if you can spot them. stock and cleanliness. Dalton Beverages and Wee Pay have kept us stocked and there have been no sales shortages over the past six months. especially with Chamber's bakery but we got the problem corrected. I'm surprised. As for suppliers the three we had problems with are now much better. breakage. As for my major responsibilities I used the same 4 areas you listed in the job description manage daily operations.3%. Sue: Hi Jerry. the manager. In fact. Are you sure? I thought we were doing better on our delivery paperwork. While doing some things right. is critical to our image. I handled all the interviewing and training. That loss ratio was at 4. Sue: You also had a problem with the store site visits. You're store has the lowest turnover for the year. I doubt it's theft. But 4.7% is high for theft and loss. The loss ratio for your store is the highest among all our units. She owns a small chain of convenience stores.7% is awful high. overbilling or actual theft. That way they can concentrate on prepping the store. We could have been overbilled. I've got it right here.Conducting Performance Evaluations Case Studies Case Study 1 Below is an abbreviated dialogue between a manager and employee during a hypothetical performance evaluation. Areas rated low were cleanliness of the food service area. only two people left. You've done a good job with staffing too. 4.7% difference. come on in. makes some mistakes in this case study. Counting the loss ratio. Have a seat. Sue: I agree the supplier problems have been improved significantly. She also asked him to update the job description and to bring it with him to the review.

How'd you do on the site visit? Jerry: We scored an 87. I think it's a little low. what does the 3. Sue combined managing daily operations and hiring and training staff. I agree you've done a good job with your problem suppliers and your store appearance has improved. She also added the category store appearance/stock. You just have a couple of problem areas that need to be addressed. a 3. sounds good. 5. That'll be a big improvement.5 refer to? Not very specific when suggesting Jerry should improve the loss ratio . 4. I rated you a 3 on managing daily operations. Jerry: So what's next? Sue: Let's review your performance next quarter to see how your doing on those two areas. It sounds as if job description is inaccurate. I also think your customer service is as good as any of our stores. Going forward. I think the staff change really helped. If Jerry were a new employee she could have talked casually about the job. 3. etc. He should have been counseled on that earlier. 6. What Sue did wrong 1. the weekend. Provided specific feedback on where Jerry could improve. Since this type of interaction can be stressful she should 2. Allowed Jerry to prepare for review ahead of time. let's work on that loss ratio and continue the good work you've done on the store site visits. Sue should have explained the rating .what is the goal? How will she help? Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 243 . you did. See if you can keep that up until mid year. why don't you draft a list of things you can do to improve on those two areas and send me a copy.5 on store appearance / stock. She apparently surprised Jerry with the news about the loss ratio. 2.no comparisons should ever be drawn between employees UNLESS you're using a positive behavior of that other employee as a specific example of how the employee being evaluated can improve. What Sue did right 1.that's average.5 out of a possible 5 . Sue: Great. In fact. But I lumped that under managing daily operations. family. Well.5 is not bad. Sue: Again. You're a valued employee Jerry and you're important to the long term success of this chain. At one point she alluded to the ratings of Jerry's peers .i. Jerry: I would have rated my performance a bit higher. Jerry. there's just room for improvement. this rating isn't bad.something light to put him at ease. Some of your peers have been rated lower.5 on achieving profitability and a 3. Stuck to her rating when Jerry questioned it. There's room for improvement in all of our work. I want you to know I really appreciate the work you've done. 3. . our best score yet.though performance evaluations don't necessarily have to be tied to salary. Jerry: What about staff hiring and training? I thought I've done an excellent job there? Sue: Yes. overall I rated your performance at 3. have taken a little time up front to discuss the purpose of the evaluation. I rated you lower on daily operations because of the loss ratio and that also impacted your profitability. Sue jumped right into the performance evaluation. a 3.e. Okay? Jerry: Okay. But.Conducting Performance Evaluations Case Studies Case Study 1 continued Sue: Good. No mention of a salary increase . a 4 on managing suppliers. More like a 4.

Conducting Performance Evaluations Case Studies Case Study 2 Case Study 2. Opportunities for improvement can be noted for each responsibility 6. Tom Martin. Goal Setting and Feedback and Adaptive Leadership courses. Overall rating . (0) Does not meet expectations. Improved. Tom decided to start by having formal job description drafted for each position in the company. Furthermore. Title. (3) Significantly Exceeds Expectations 4. (3) Significantly Exceeds Expectations 8.e. Each evaluation required key demographic information such as the Employee Name. Significantly Improved 5. 2. Stayed the same. He assumed all was okay until he heard grumblings that the process was inconsistent or non existent in some cases. Supervisor and Evaluation Period. (2) Exceeds Expectations. (1) Meets expectations. The job responsibilities were taken from the formal job descriptions put together for each position in the company.(0) Does not meet expectations. In discussing the problem with his managers he quickly found that the responsibilities of employees weren't really defined so evaluating performance was next to impossible. This case study and sample could be applied at any size/type of company. managers were expected to review the Performance Evaluation. 3. (2) Exceeds Expectations. Below is a sample of the Performance Evaluation tool drafted for Here's to Your Health. a small chain of exercise equipment stores was looking for ways to improve the performance evaluation process at the company. To avoid the process most staff just got a standard 4% raise . owner of Here's to Your Health. Time in the position. From the job description a standard performance evaluation tool was created. Next is a brief case study describing the performance evaluation process at a small company. Employees also received a trend rating for each responsibility i. To date.another complaint. Performance on this item has. Decreased. he'd left it up to the managers in each store. Some key points include: 1. Both the manager and employee are expected to sign off on the evaluation Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 244 .provides one summary rating for employee i. (1) Meets expectations.e. There is a general narrative section for each responsibility where the manager can provide some detail and specific examples supporting their evaluation 7. Next Review Date. Employees received an objective rating on each responsibility . One employee had even threatened to sue when she was let go by her manager citing there had been no real explanation of her job or feedback on problems until she was shown the door. figuring the company was too small to make the process a formal one. Also included is a sample of the Performance Evaluation tool used.

As always awareness is your greatest asset! Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 245 . Rating: Trend: Significantly Improved Improvement Opportunities Excellent feedback from clients on timeliness and quality of assembled products. professional manner. Keep better track of which suppliers are sending shortages/overages and defective products.4/08 Time in position: 1 yr 8 months Next Review: 9/08 Responsibility: Unload warehouse deliveries in a timely manner / shelve all equipment appropriately Rating: Meets expectations Trend: Stayed the same Improvement Opportunities Some mistakes with nutritional products / dietary supplements. Need to watch product types closer. Be aware of pitfalls before you conduct your performance evaluations. Responsibility: Assemble equipment for clients in a timely manner. If you have any problems be sure to contact Roger or myself. Keep up the good work! Exceeds expectations Comments: Very pleased with feedback from corporate clients (AxTel. Baxley Medical).need to double check home gym products to make sure all accessories are included. Process / return defective products or request spare parts as necessary Meets expectations Improved Overall Rating: Meets Expectations Manager: Overall Trend: Improved Employee: Salary Increase: 5. Double check quantities on deliveries . After those deliveries we will meet to review your progress.Conducting Performance Evaluations Case Studies Case Study 2 continued Employee Name: Ted Darby Supervisor: John Berry Title: Equipment Support Specialist Evaluation Period: 3/07 . Mobile Comm.several instances you accepted wrong weights (sizes) resulting in out of stock / rainchecks for customers. Equipment should be assembled according to manufacturer specifications and fully functional. You have an excellent customer orientation. Comments: Spend some time reviewing the product storage area .make sure you understand the breakdown by manufacturer and product types. Presents self in a positive.5% Date: Like any management technique it's a lot easier to make a mistake than it is to do it right. Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Improvement over last review . Consider whether or not you'd like to work towards a position in sales. Responsibility: Complete all invoicing / delivery paperwork in a timely and accurate manner Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Invoices need to be filed according to manufacturer and date. Below expectations Stayed the same Comments: Roger will assist you with the next two warehouse deliveries and monitor your paperwork.

race. gender. ethnicity or sexual orientation have no place in influencing a manager's opinion. a few questions to ask yourself to assess your performance evaluation skills. Again. Finally. Leniency and Severity A manager may have a general tendency to rate everyone either harshly or softly.Conducting Performance Evaluations Performance Evaluations: Common Mistakes Watch out for these! Several factors can influence the fairness." The best way to avoid this is to have specific meaningful criteria (objective. The best way to avoid the halo effect is distinguish specifically between performance indicators (goals and objectives) and to look at historical performance. measurable) and to constantly monitor and provide feedback to employees. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 246 . Proximity Effect When it comes time to conduct the performance evaluation managers find themselves in a rush to review their employees. There are many factors that influence this tendency. accuracy. the best way to combat this influence is to provide regular feedback on performance and to look at historical performance." Managers consider one or two especially positive or negative instances and those instances shape the employee's entire evaluation. Halo Effect Perhaps the most common bias is the "halo effect. What happens is that the manager only considers recent performance since that's what's fresh in their memory. For example (leniency): • • • • • The manager may think anyone rated unfavorably will reflect poorly on him/her as a manager The manager may place a high value on personal relationships and acceptance by employees The manager may be trying to earn promotions for employees There is a predominant cultural norm to approve rather than disapprove of performance The manager may not be assertive enough to share negative feedback Central Tendency Managers may not be comfortable that they have reliable criteria or knowledge to judge employee performance and therefore rate everyone about "average. and legality of the performance evaluation. Here are a few examples managers should be aware of: Personal Prejudices Obviously age. Review them before and/or after you conduct performance evaluations to guide your own development.

Please print out each of these forms. Did I make the employee feel comfortable and at ease? 3. Did I refer to examples of the employee's performance that supported my assessment? 6. These are found on the following pages. The process also forces the manager to step back and really think about areas where employees are strong or need improvement. Ask Yourself… After you've done a performance evaluation with an employee. Please go to the next page to view and print Evaluation Form. We have provided the sample forms referred to in this course. ask yourself the following questions to see how you fared: 1. Did I help the employee establish improvement goals? 12.Conducting Performance Evaluations In Summary While the process of formally reviewing and documenting your employee's performance probably seems like extra work. Did I offer negative feedback in a constructive manner? 5. accurate idea of the employee's objectives? 2. Did I have a clear. Was I comfortable providing negative or constructive feedback? 9. Sample Evaluation Form ( 3 pages) Sample Peer Review Form (2 pages) Personal Action Plan Now it is time to develop your own personal action plan for how you will master the skills and approaches suggested in this course. Did I offer assistance to help the employee improve? 11. Please also complete your personal action plan. Was I non judgmental in my assessment of the employee? Learning Exercises . Did I listen to the employee? 7. This action planning tool will help you accomplish this. Performance evaluations represent an extremely effective tool when used properly. It also highlights instances where the manager may have been lax in providing employees with clear goals and feedback. (this consists of 3 pages) Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 247 . Did I suggest ways the employee could improve his/her performance? 10. Did I focus exclusively on the performance evaluation and avoid outside interruptions? 4. Did I handle any resistance effectively? 8. performance evaluations are the cornerstone to improving the skills of your staff and maintaining equity in your personnel decisions.

.(0) Does not meet expectations. Refer to the module: Conducting Performance Evaluations for assistance. If you do not have Job Descriptions you should consider conducting a Job Analysis to formally document the responsibilities of the job. Rating . List all specific job responsibilities for this individual before meeting to conduct the performance evaluation. (D) Decreased. Overall rating . Note: Compare the responsibilities to those listed in the position Job Description. . . . Print as many sections as is needed to list all job responsibilities. .Sample Performance Evaluation Form Instructions: .provides one summary rating for the employees performance i. You may use it as is or you can modify it to fit your own terminology. . Trend . (2) Exceeds Expectations. (0) Does not meet expectations. Document your formal assessment of the individual's performance and have him/her sign the evaluation. Decide if you want to share that initial assessment beforehand. Enter your initial assessment of the individual's performance before meeting. Conduct the performance evaluation with the individual. (1) Meets expectations. (SI) Significantly Improved . . (3) Significantly Exceeds Expectations . (2) Exceeds Expectations. (3) Significantly Exceeds Expectations . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 248 . . . This evaluation form has been designed for any type/size company. (NC) No change. Keep a copy of the evaluation for your records and provide the individual with their own copy. Complete any necessary paperwork to adjust salary or job descriptions as a result of the evaluation. . (1) Meets expectations.Performance on this item has.e. This will give the individual a chance to review your assessment and prepare any comments or questions. (I) Improved.

(I) Improved. (SI) Significantly Improved Overall Rating . (3) Significantly Exceeds Expectations Overall Trend .provides one summary rating for the employees performance i.Performance on this item has. (2) Exceeds Expectations. (1) Meets expectations. (1) Meets expectations. (3) Significantly Exceeds Expectations Trend .Performance overall for this individual has. (NC) No change. (D) Decreased.e.Performance Evaluation Form Rating .(0) Does not meet expectations. (I) Improved. (D) Decreased. (0) Does not meet expectations. (SI) Significantly Improved Employee Name: Supervisor: Title: Evaluation Period: Time in position: Next Review: Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Comments: Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Comments: Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Comments: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 249 . (2) Exceeds Expectations. (NC) No change.

Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Comments: Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Comments: Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Comments: Responsibility: Rating: Trend: Improvement Opportunities Comments: Overall Rating: Manager: Overall Trend: Employee: Salary Increase: Date: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 250 .

2..1 (Not at all satisfied) to 10 (Far Exceeds).. 3.......10 ..10 .7 ... 1 Not at all Satisfied Date: 2 3 Basically satisfied 4 5 6 Fully satisfied NA NA NA NA 7 8 9 10 Far Exceeds . Your feedback will be used to assist the employee not as a basis for any type of disciplinary action.9 Comments: Performance feedback for: Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank Date: page 251 . This individual is generally available when I need his/her assistance...6..2 .. .4 . General impression of employee's work performance: 2. Your feedback is very important in assisting this individual in identifying ways to improve his/her performance. Several other peers and coworkers will be providing feedback for this individual also......1.. Performance feedback for: 1. .1.9 ..5.6.10 Exceeds expectations .8.3. This individual understands my job and how he/she impacts it........4 ...4 1.6..6.....5.. If an item does not apply or you cannot rate the person circle NA...8.10 .Peer Feedback Survey I would like your feedback on the performance of this employee.7 . Areas where improvement is needed (either knowledge..5.. ability.. This individual is friendly and attentive to customers........ Your feedback will be kept confidential and your identity will remain anonymous..2 .4 ........9 ..1.. Strongest characteristics: 3. 4..7 ...5..2 ... This individual takes ownership of problems and provides timely follow-up...9 ......1..3.8.7 . Thank you for your time and careful consideration..2 ..3...3..8.. Additional suggestions or comments: Directions Please complete the following form by circling a rating for each item .. or attitude) 4.

This individual will seek the help of others when needed rather NA than let problems go unaddressed....3. This individual does not interfere with the work environment by NA gossiping and disrupting others.5.7 ..1..4 ... This individual is supportive of coworkers by offering assistance and helping others in need.3...10 ...6.. 7..........9 .2 ..6.9 ..6..... This individual abides by all policies regarding safety......1..3..5..8.4 ..6......9 .5...9 .......2 .... sexual harassment and discrimination.3...... 11.....4 .10 .. NA Comments: Thank you for your input....6..2 .2 ....4 .8.....7 ..4 ... 8.8..........8.7 . This individual communicates with sincerity and in a professional manner.. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 252 .10 .9 ..9 .. This individual demonstrates thorough knowledge of policies and procedures.7 . 2 3 Basically satisfied 4 5 6 Fully satisfied NA NA 7 8 9 10 Far Exceeds .2 .....9 .... 12.8....2 ..1...5.3..5......10 .1 Not at all Satisfied 5.3...1.1...5.5.8...7 ...10 ..8..7 This individual listens well to instructions or problems... NA NA NA ...4 .4 .....3.2 ... 9.6...6......6...9 .4 .... 6.10 Exceeds expectations .....5.......10 10..2 ... This individual demonstrates commitment to quality customer service..1.3..8.7 ....7 .1.1....10 .

Skill or Competency: Personal Action Plan Based on what you learned as a result of completing this course. stop and continue doing immediately. identify what you will start. in order to master the skills and approaches discussed in the course. THINGS I WILL START DOING THINGS I WILL STOP DOING THINGS I WILL KEEP DOING Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 253 .

Notes: Performance evaluations represent an extremely effective tool when used properly. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 254 .

About the Authors .

develop strategies and tactical plans. Construction. self-study manuals and online courses which run the gamut from management and leadership to technical skill enhancement. In a consulting capacity. motivational and humorous. Drawing from his extensive business experience. design and deliver learning solutions. High Tech. Laura is also a gifted writer.About the Authors R ay Miller For the past 20 years Ray has worked with a wide range of organizations in the development and implementation of training solutions that get results. described as knowledgeable. The training provided is based on sound research and employs proven concepts and methodologies which are delivered in the most appropriate way to achieve the desired changes in mind-set and performance. been training practice leader for the consulting firm Stevenson Kellogg. both large and small on training initiatives in Financial Services. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 255 . She has designed and delivered hundreds of highly effective. and consulting. Ray helps his clients achieve improved performance by providing training solutions that are highly targeted and strategically linked to operational goals and objectives. training programs. He has worked with clients. design. the United states and abroad. his focus is on the practical rather than theoretical. workbooks. L aura Miller Laura is a Human Resource Development specialist and Master Training Designer with over 30 years’ experience in research. speaker and facilitator and has trained thousands of people Canada and the United States spanning all ranges from executive management to frontline employees. Healthcare and Hospitality industries in Canada. President of CanTrain Development Corporation and Managing Partner of The Training Bank. Laura has worked with numerous organizations and business units to define development needs. In his past experience Ray has headed the Sales and Service training group for one of Canada’s largest Banks. instruction. all of which are linked to corporate and operational objectives. He is a gifted writer and facilitator. Aviation. Manufacturing. and evaluate outcomes against objectives.

About The Training Bank The Training Bank is a full service training and development firm.com Telephone: (416) 698-8230 Address: 69 Beech Ave. We have the ability to provide training solutions in traditional classroom.. Our online learning systems and generic programs in service. we develop training solutions based on its clients’ specific goals and objectives which get results.com. Ontario Canada M4E 3H3 Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank or support@thatscustomerfocus.com www. Some of our on-site training programs include: • Foundations: Supervisory Excellence • The Five Dimensions of Coaching • Effective Delegation • Adaptive Leadership • Customer-Focused Leadership • Customers Forever • Customer-Focused Communication • The Wow Factor Other eBooks to look for: That’s Customer Focus The Customer Focus Companion Coming Soon Management Training By The Book – Part Two Customer Focus and QI Training By The Book Employee Training By The Book Other online programs and packages include: • Management Development System • Employee Development System • Management Training: Online • Canadian Safety Campus • OSHA Campus Contact particulars Email: cantrain@thetrainingbank. Ontario. web-based and blended formats. Toronto.thetrainingbank. While we have developed training in a broad range of subject matter. we have extensive expertise in the realm of management and leadership development.thatscustomerfocus. leadership.trainingbank.com Websites: www. You can find out more about us by visiting our web site at www. Operating since 1986. relationship selling and coaching are available is many international markets through our distribution network.com and page 256 . customer-focused leadership and customer service. Headquartered in Toronto. Canada.

This module explains important considerations in designing and evaluating yours. You only have 24 hours and don't forget your family and sleep. It's one of the most common complaints of employees and one of the factors that creates unnecessary administration and red tape.Coming Soon Management Training By The Book – Part Two Reward and Recognition Programs This course provides a model for developing effective reward and recognition programs. career development . Conducting Career Discussion Helps managers conduct realistic and effective career discussions with employees. interviewing. Covers how to conduct an effective job analysis to compare requirements to candidate qualifications. Facilitating Group Dynamics This course looks at techniques facilitators can use to guide teams/groups effectively by addressing the behavioral side of meetings. create a. Effective Interviewing Presents a model for effectively interviewing and selecting new hires.is the Job Analysis.. It also offers suggestions on how to avoid the problems that typically undermine reward programs. Find out if you're micro-managing your employees! Group Decision Making Explains the pitfalls of group decision making and why groups often reach "false consensus". Job Analysis A critical building block of your Human Resource practices . Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 257 . Get off my back! Are you a micro-manager? Too much management. Learn how to better manage your time.. Offers specific steps team leaders or meeting chair can take to help groups reach effective decisions. Should be used in conjunction with Structured QI Techniques. delegate. Presentation Skills Offers a model for developing and organizing your presentation for maximum impact. Orientation Programs Effective orientation programs help new employees get off on the right foot and reduces their anxiety. selection.recruitment. performance evaluation. Strategic Planning Offers a model (based on Malcolm Baldrige Quality framework) senior executives can use in developing their strategic plan. you could develop a business strategy. Learn how to implement and develop these teams. Offers suggestions on how to broaden employee careers when no promotion exists. Time Management If only you had 48 hours in a day rather than 24 you could get caught up on all your work. plan and much more.. Also offers techniques and suggestions for decreasing anxiety in front of groups. decease interruptions. Self Directed Work Teams Whether you like them or not you may need them. Learn how to accurately define the responsibilities of each job in your organization and how to integrate that information with your Human Resource practices.SNAP OUT OF IT!! Back to reality.. Meeting Management Explains specific techniques for structuring and facilitating your meetings to gain efficiency and productivity. As companies downsize and "flatten" more and more responsibilities are placed on employee teams.

Learn how to create one and the devastating effects of having the wrong one. Make sure every person in your company knows how to provide outstanding service over the telephone . and commitment to your customers in every part of the company and among every staff member. storyboarding. Creating a Customer Focus Describes how your organization can create an awareness of. Quality Improvement Teams / Department Manager's Role We've found that the department level manager . group prioritizing. training tips for your existing customer associates and more. Measuring Service and Operational Quality Do you have a report card for measuring how efficiently your business is operating? Here's how to create one! Organization wide Quality Management Offers a generic model that any organization can use to develop a results oriented Quality Management Program. more credible and more customer oriented! This course offers specific steps for providing exemplary customer service. Greeting a customer. pareto analysis.it may be their only chance! Interpreting Flowcharts We all use them. process mapping.you only get one chance to make a first impression. Benchmarking Explains how to use benchmarking to improve performance (strategic and operational). presenting yourself in a friendly manner.Customer Focus and Quality Improvement Training By The Book Basic Customer Service Skills These are the nuts and bolts for service employees . They're the first level of management responsible for operationalizing the Quality program from on high. Creating a Culture A culture just doesn't evolve.staff play a critical role in implementing Quality Improvement. Many organizations today lack a describable culture.they're the highs and lows of business. Here are some great tips on using flowcharts to improve the process . selecting new hires with a knack for service. Copyright ©2008 The Training Bank page 258 . Step by step instructions and tips for getting your benchmarking project off the ground. force field analysis and cause and effect diagramming) for problem solving and process analysis. brainstorming. Structured QI Techniques Learn how to use structured techniques (objective statements. resolving problems and more. cost benefit analysis. Don't take these for granted! Research shows that companies that consistently demonstrate these simple techniques are perceived as more professional. The employees are demanding support and recognition..not just document it. Great Service by Phone Remember. Know Your Customer Do you really know what your customers expect in terms of service and product quality? We'll show you how to use surveys and interview tools to gather their feedback and pinpoint areas for improvement! Learning from the Customer Critical Customer Incidents .the ABC's of customer service. But how many people really know how to use them to find improvement opportunities. Explains how to diagnose a problem and select the appropriate technique.the ones directly supervising line. winning back angry customers. transferring calls. The executives are demanding results. This course describes the unique and incredibly important responsibilities of the first line manager.. The manager is left walking a tightrope between today's productivity and fixing tomorrow's problems. Learn from your successes and avoid your mistakes with these simple techniques.