Chemistry SCORE A+ 2011
GUIDELINES ON ANSWERING QUESTIONS IN CHEMISTRY PAPER 2 AND PAPER 3
Do not give answers that are not related to the need of the question. Copper formed. 0 mark!] From electrical energy to chemical energy. Incorrect observation Correct observation Chlorine gas released.
. Example: State the conversion of energy that occurs during the electrolysis. touch. Effervescence/Gas bubbles released/ Light green gas given out. smell. Example 2 Write the formula for the product formed between sodium and oxygen. hear. taste]. Read the question carefully and underline/circle important information or keywords. [Answer incomplete. Answers must be PRECISE. General (a) As with other subjects. Example 1: State the observation(s). (d) Always look at the marks allotted for each question as a guide to how many points you should give. Answer: The energy conversion that occurs during electrolysis is from electrical energy to chemical energy. 2. Answer: Na + O2 Na2O Na2O or ? 4Na + O2 2Na2O Example 3 Write the ionic equation for the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodium hydroxide. you should read all questions carefully and circle all important key words. State what you experienced with your five senses only.GUIDELINES ON ANSWERING QUESTIONS IN CHEMISTRY PAPER 2
GUIDELINES ON ANSWERING STRUCTURED QUESTION 1. Need not write in complete sentence but your answer must be PRECISE. 3. To chemical energy. Answers must relate to the needs of the question. [see. (c) The space provided for your answer gives an indication as to ‘how long’ the answer should be. Na2O sodium oxide. Brown solid deposited. Answer: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O H+ + OH– H2O 2H+ + 2OH– 2H2O Example 4 Given equation of reaction: 4Na + O2 2Na2O Name the product formed. [Brown deposits] Deflection of the galvanometer Deflection of the galvanometer needle. (b) Answers can be short but they must be precise and complete.
The followings are some of the common inaccurate/incomplete answers given by students. Acidified potassium
Moist litmus paper turns from blue to red Acidified potassium manganate(VII) turns from purple to 3
. Must use the correct terminology. Stating correctly the CHANGES in observation or state. Rate of reaction is faster/slower. Answer: Hydrogen. No change 3. copper metal.
1 2 Moist litmus paper turns red. RAM or RMM. or zinc is more electropositive than copper 14. H+ ion increase. Intermolecular forces of attraction are weak. 11. Test with wooden splinter Hydrogen. You must state the change from the INITIAL colour/state to the FINAL colour/state. You must state how you would carry out the test using the reagent and what is the observation to verify the identity of the substance. 12. Soap anion consists of two parts. 5. Position of zinc is above copper. A ‘pop’ sound is heard verifying the gas is hydrogen. Mole ratio in the equation must be in simple ratio. Bromine ion. No reaction.C. Do not give the reagent only. Zinc atom donates two electrons 6. Reagent to verify iodine. Example: Name gas Y and describe a method to verify its identity. series. Place/ Put/Near a lighted wooden splinter into the test tube. it must be in capital letter. Step 1: Write the correct formula and symbol for the reactants and products. increases. H+ 8. Zinc donates two electrons. Rate of reaction is higher/lower 5. Soap consists of two parts. Step 2: Balance the equation. Describing chemical test: Description must have (1) correct reagent. Purple solution becomes colourless 2. . (2) procedure. 4. 10. Place a lighted splinter into the test tube.3. Electrons flow from zinc metal to Electrons flow from zinc metal to copper metal through 9. The following are some of the common mistakes made by students. the wire. Purple solution disappears. Use the correct terminology. and (3) expected observation. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 2Zn + 4HCl 2ZnCl2 + 2H2 6. starch Starch solution. If name of a person is used as unit or a chemical process. Colour of water is clear/white Colourless/no colour 4. Hydrogen. Do not use abbreviation such as E. Writing balanced chemical equation. Copper molecule Copper atom 7.S . Wrong Correct 1. Forces of attraction are weak. Bromide ion Concentration / Number of moles of hydrogen ion. Energy unit: j (joule) Unit joule : J Position of zinc is above copper in the electrochemical 13.
A two dimensional diagram should be drawn. Oxidation number changes from 0 to +2
7. Plotting the graph Both axes must be labelled with the correct variable and unit (if any) must be written.25
0. Below are some diagrams of the set up of apparatus for certain experiments. Set up of apparatus drawn must be functional. Draw the best straight line /curve. liquids and solutions must be shaded. Points plotted must be correct. Marks are also given for workings and hence they must be written clearly.manganate(VII) turns colourless 3 Oxidation number changes to +2
colourless. Materials and main apparatus must be labelled.25 x 32 = 8 g
Mass of oxygen gas = 0. Example: Wrong working and answer Correct working and answer
= 0.25 x 32 = 8 g
8. use the appropriate scale so that the graph drawn covers at least half of the page. Drawing the set up of apparatus. Areas representing solids. Writing clearly the working of the calculation. 9. you must show how this value is obtained. Can you identify the mistakes in each diagrams?
. Spaces provided is to be used for writing the workings/steps clearly and not to be used for rough calculation.25
Number of mole sodium=
= 0. If no scale is given. If value of the variable needs to be obtained form the graph. Unit must be correct.
solids must be shaded) You need to briefly explain how to set up the apparatus for the experiment. 5
4. 2. (solutions. Did not give the correct conditions of the experiment. If you are unable to do so. Do not write “being read. [The correct order of the steps will enable you to carry out the experiment successfully. 3. you can group all under one heading : “Apparatus and material” material Normally two marks are allotted 1st mark: The apparatus set up is functional. Apparatus and List all the apparatus and material separately. Observation / theory / explanation 5. SUGGESTED FORMAT TO USE WHEN ANSWERING PAPER 2 ESSAY QUESTION (ESSAY INVOLVING CARRYING OUT AN EXPERIMENT) Item 1.] Write: “Readings or/ and measurements are recorded”. etc” You must ensure that the chemical substances you choose are correct and will react accordingly to give the desired result–giving the correct products. This would enable you to stay focused and hopefully you will not write out of point! Just read the question and write a statement based on the need instruction of the question. General Read all questions carefully. Why students lose marks 1. This will an indication as to how many points/facts you need to answer. observed. 1. Include chemical equation / half equation or graph in your answer. Your table must have the correct headings and units. The readings normally need to be presented in a table. Always note the marks allotted for each part of the question. Wherever possible. If chemical formulae are used. powdered or pieces or ribbon.GUIDELINES ON ANSWERING PAPER 2 ESSAY QUESTION A. If certain facts are not asked. especially for experiment which include calculation. Did not give enough facts/points or incomplete facts. Chemical substances can be written in words or chemical formulae. Values of concentration and volume of the solution and/or other data must be stated. Wrong words or terms used. Answer according to the needs/instructions of the question.
2. The physical state of the chemical substances must also be stated. Set–up of apparatus diagram 2nd mark: All chemical substance and main apparatus are labelled. Answer according to the needs of the experiment. You must describe how you ‘measure and pour’ the chemical substances into appropriate containers. B. 3. Did not write chemical equation. they must be correct. Steps taken while carrying out the experiment must be written in the correct order. 4. Tabulation of data / result
. Example: solution or solid or gas. These will make your answer more easily understood. Procedure
4. Values must be given for the manipulated variable. 2. Marks are allotted for each instruction. acidified or neutral. etc. you can write briefly. substantiate your answer with labelled diagrams or equations. Title /Aim Description It would be good if you can write a title or aim of the experiment.
The mark ‘X’ is observed through the solution vertically and the time taken for the mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight is recorded. dilute hydrochloric acid 2 mol dm–3. 50.1 mol dm–3 is measured using a measuring cylinder. stopwatch. paper Procedure: 1. Bunsen burner. the other variables are fixed. 4. 5 conical flask of the same size. measuring cylinder 5 cm3. 30 60 Time (second) 0 t1 t2 Temperature ( C) 90 t3 120 t4
SAMPLE ANSWERS FOR PAPER 2 ESSAY QUESTION Sample 1 (a) Describe an experiment to investigate the effect temperature on rate of reaction. The flask is swirled and placed on a piece of paper with mark ‘X’ drawn. The acid is then poured into the flask and the stopwatch is started immediately. sodium thiosulphate 0. (b) All the materials are labelled] Apparatus and material: Measuring cylinder 50 cm3. match box. All steps must be clearly shown.Item
Description Symbols can be used for the responding variable. [12 marks] (b) With reference to the collision theory.
[Note: (a) The set up of apparatus drawn is functional. Step 1 to step 7 of the experiment is repeated using solutions of sodium thiosulphate heated to different temperatures as shown in the table. 6. The solution is heated as shown in the diagram 10. wire gauze. thermometer. The temperature of the solution is measured using the thermometer and the reading recorded. y or z in your calculations. explain how this affects the rate of reaction. The solution is then poured into a clean conical flask.1 mol dm–3. They are: (a) volume and concentration of sodium thiosulphate.0 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid 2 mol dm-3 is measured using another measuring cylinder. 8. cloth. [4 marks] Sample Answer (a) Effect of temperature on rate of reaction. A conclusion must be written based on the aim of the experiment. 9.0 cm3 of sodium thiosulphate 0. 3. 6
If real values are not given. Units must be written. you can use unknown such as x. water. For each of the experiment. 5. 7.
7. 2. 5.
(b) Graph of temperature against 1/time Tabulation of data Experiment Temp ( C) Time / (s) 1/time (s )
1 28 t1 a1
2 38 t2 a2
3 48 t3 a3
4 58 t4 a4
From graph (i). The increase in temperature also increases the percentage of ions with energy more than or equal to the activation energy. it is shown that the higher the temperature of sodium thiosulphate. the shorter the time for the mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight. the kinetic energy of S2O32. 4. (a) Graph of temperature against time.
. i. Therefore the frequency of effective collision between the particles will also increase. Subsequently the rate of reaction will increase. From graph (ii). To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of equation. When the temperature increases. 11. 3. (c) Size of the conical flask. (b) Collision theory 1. The reaction between sodium thiosulphate and dilute hydrochloric acid to form solid sulphur is represented by the following ionic equation: S2O32.ions and H+ ions will increase. Hence the frequency of collision between S2O32.+ 2H+ SO2+ H2O + S 2.(b) volume and concentration of dilute acid. two graphs are drawn. 5. Chemical equation Na2S2O3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O + SO2 + S(p) Conclusion When the temperature of the reactant (sodium thiosulphate) increases. 6. the rate of reaction given by 1/time increases. it is shown that as the temperature of sodium thiosulphate increases.e.ions and H+ ions increases and the ions moves faster. the rate of reaction increases.
Coagulation is caused by bacteria in the air which enter the latex.
2. Hence the repulsion between the negatively-charged particles prevents the rubber particles from coming close to each other.8
Sample 2 (a) Why latex does not coagulates when it is inside the rubber tree? [3 marks] (b) Explain how coagulation of latex occurs when it is exposed to air. 5. 3. The negative charges around the rubber particles cause repulsion between these particles to occur when they near each other. The growth and spread of the bacteria produce acid that causes the coagulation of the latex.
3. Each rubber particle is made up of many long-chain rubber molecules enclosed by a proteinlike membrane which is negatively charged. 7. Latex is a colloidal solution. Hence the repulsion between the negatively-charged particles prevents the rubber particles from coming close to each other. It consists of rubber particles dispersed in water. Hence latex could not coagulate. Each rubber particle is made up of many long-chain rubber molecules enclosed by a proteinlike membrane which is negatively charged. [7 marks] Sample answer (a) [Drawing of diagrams will help you and increases your chances to score higher marks] 1. 4. Acid contain hydrogen H+ ions which neutralize the negative charges on the protein membrane of the rubber particles. The negative charges around the rubber particles cause repulsion between these particles to occur when they are near each other. 5.
. 4. 6. 2.
(b) Sample answer 1. Coagulation of latex can occur when it is exposed to air for a few days.
The rubber molecules combine with one another and entangle and thus causing the latex to coagulate. Allocation of marks Score Description Excellent: Candidate gave the best response. Classifying KK502 3. the rubber particles can now come close together. Measuring and using numbers KK503 9
. With the absence of the repulsive negative charges. Observing KK501 2.
9. 1 0 Candidate gave no response or wrong response 3. 3 Satisfactory : Candidate gave an average response 2 Weak: Candidate gave an inaccurate response. Paper 3 Format Time Type of instrument Structure item Open response item Report item Number of question 2 or 3 Compulsory Construct Question 1 & 2 Evaluate Aspect of Scientific Process Skills Question 3 Evaluate Aspect of Experimenting Marks 33 17
2. Scientific skills (Assesed in structured question.
10. Total marks: 33) 1. This enables them to collide with one another resulting in the breakage of the protein membrane.9
GUIDELINE ON ANSWERING QUESTIONS IN CHEMISTRY PAPER 3
feel. You must give an inference that corresponds with the observation.0 cm3 Thermometer 0 – 110 0C 35.5 V Two decimal places. All the values written must be uniform and have the correct unit. 12. Predicting KK505 6.10
4. previous experiences or data that can be trusted) and hence make a forecast (prediction) according to the need of the question. The decimal 3 Pipette 25 cm place must end with 0 or 5. 20 cm3 Burette 50 cm3 decimal place must end with a 0 12. 25. 00 cm3 or 5. Making inference State the appropriate inference that explains the observation. Communicating KK506 7. Every column must have a correct heading and units MUST be written (if any) (b) Observing Write what you will see. The second 12. Predicting: You need to analyse all the information given (observations. Techniques on answering question (a) Classifying Draw a table with a ruler.5g 35.6 cm Electronic balance One decimal place 10.” Answer according to the need of the question. Defining operationally KK509 10. You must write the headings and not the question number or part question.0 cm3 One decimal place. Using space-time relationship KK507 8. Write the report according to the headings required in the question. Inferring KK504 5.0 0C Voltmeter 0 – 3V 2. hear. taste or smell.0 s Stop watch 26. Interpreting Data KK508 9. Hypothesizing KK511 4.5 s 3 Measuring cylinder 50 cm 25. 35 cm3
Question 3 [17 Marks] Involves “Planning on carrying out an experiment. Controlling variables KK510 11. Example of reading Apparatus Accuracy of reading and its unit Ruler One decimal place 9. Measuring and using numbers You must write the value of the measurement according to the accuracy of the apparatus used. Technique on answering question 3 (a) Aim of experiment Read the question carefully and the aim for the experiment is clearly stated in the question! 10
SAMPLE ESSAY FOR PAPER 3 Topic: Rate of reaction Marble (Calcium carbonate) reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to form calcium chloride. Need to state the ‘direction’ of change for both the variable.” Need to be accurate and complete... Different sizes of calcium carbonate will give different rate of reaction. The manipulated variable must be written in front of the statement and followed by the responding variable....”. (f) Procedure Volume and concentration must be written. (a) Aim of experiment (b) Problem statement (c) Hypothesis (d) Variables (e) Apparatus and materials (f) Procedure (g) Table of data Sample Answer (a) Aim of experiment To investigate the effect of total surface area of marble on the rate of reaction. water and carbon dioxide gas. (e) List of apparatus and materials State the name of all materials (including its concentration) and all apparatus. Your planning should include the following headings.. Do not write ‘about three gram”. The problem statement should use certain key word such as: “What . 11
. The steps in the procedure must be in order... Use passive sentences. Every column must have a heading and its unit (if any) Manipulated variable must be on the left side of the table and responding variable on the right side. State the quantity of the material used. (g) Tabulation of data Must draw table using a ruler. (b) Problem statement The problem statement must be a question ending with a question mark ‘?’. (the direction may be right or wrong) (d) All variables Manipulated variable: Materials that we use and change in the experiment. through observation or product of the reaction) that is recorded for each material that we change in the experiment. Responding variable: Measurement (using apparatus.11
The aim must be written accurately. Plan an experiment to investigate the effect of total surface area of calcium carbonate on the rate of reaction.. (c) Hypothesis The statement correlates the manipulated variable with the responding variable. A labelled diagram of the set-up of apparatus may complement the list. “How ..
[or until 50 cm3 of gas] 6.12
(b) Problem statement How does the total surface area of marble affect the rate of reaction? (c) Hypothesis The bigger the total surface area of marble. 3. (d) Variables (i) Manipulated variable: Total surface area (ii) Responding variable: Volume of carbon dioxide given off (iii) Fixed variable: Mass of marble. Using a measuring cylinder. temperature of reactants.2 mol dm–3. [The conical flask is stopped immediately ] 5.0 g small marble chips. Tabulation of data Time (s) Burette reading (cm3) Volume of CO2 evolved (cm3) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210
. concentration of hydrochloric acid. Step 1 to step 5 is repeated by using large marble to replace the small marble chips.0 g of small marble is weighted and added into the conical flask and the stopwatch is started immediately. Water is added into the burette and inverted as shown in the diagram. basin. volume of hydrochloric acid. The volume of carbon dioxide gas collected at intervals of 30 seconds is recorded until the reaction stopped. retort stand with clamp. 5. delivery tube with stopper. 50.
Procedure: 1.0 g large marble chips.0 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid 0. dilute hydrochloric acid 0. electronic balance. 4. water. measuring cylinder.2 mol dm–3 is measured and poured into a conical flask. the higher is the rate of reaction. 2. 5. The water level is adjusted to the 50 cm3 mark. The water used is saturated with carbon dioxide gas before the experiment. 50 cm3. conical flask. Apparatus: Burette 50 cm3. stopwatch Material: 5.