62 views

Uploaded by Femi Prince

pull-in voltage

- BFP450_datasheet
- EE review
- 4281-4292
- Series Compensation of Xmission Line
- FMR533
- High Ripple Current Loads
- Circuit Breaker Transient Recovery Voltage in Presence of Source Side Shunt Capacitor Bank
- A Report on Switchyard Equipment Testing (132
- KSC815
- Kew 1020R Digital Multimeter
- 212-scope-maintenance-manual.pdf
- Condensateurs Stylo Nichicon_906
- Types of Extraction
- Transmitter DAX5 DAX6
- 16.4
- Taller Fisica.txt
- Definiciones básicas de control
- zxcl330h5
- Answer-4217.pdf
- EVS-02-02e

You are on page 1of 2

In this tutorial, we cover the pull-in effect in electrostatic MEMS devices. Figure 1 shows the schematic of an electrostatic actuator that could be used for example as a tunable RF capacitor. When voltage is applied over the capacitance, electrostatic force will work to reduce the plate separation d x. At small voltages, the electrostatic voltage is countered by the spring force Fk = kx but as voltage is increased the plates will eventually snap together. Estimating this pull-in voltage UP and the plate travel distance xP before pull-in effect is required for the successful design of electrostatic actuators, switches, varactors, and sensors.

C =

Ael dx

Figure 1. Schematic of an electrostatic actuator. The plate is attached to a spring k. The capacitor capacitance C depends on the plate area Ael and gap d x. To derive the expression for pull-in, we start by writing the total potential energy in the system: E = 1 Ael 2 1 2 U + kx , 2 d x 2 (1)

where the rst term is the electrostatic potential of the deformable capacitor and of the voltage source and the second term is due to the mechanical energy stored in the spring. The force acting on the movable plate is obtained by deriving Equation (1): F = E 1 Ael = U 2 kx. x 2 (d x)2 (2)

At equilibrium, the electrostatic force and spring force cancels (F = 0) and Equation (2) gives: kx = 1 Ael U 2. 2 (d x)2 (3)

Equation (3) can be solved for the equilibrium plate position x as a function of applied voltage U as shown in Figure 2(a). Above the pull-in voltage VP , Equation (3) has no solutions. The solution above the pull-in displacement (green line) are shown to be unstable in the following. A simple expression for the pull-in point is obtained by deriving Equation (2) to obtain the stiffness of the system: F Ael = U 2 k. (4) x (d x)3 Substituting Equation (3) gives the stiffness around the equilibrium point: F 2kx = k. x (d x) Copyright Ville Kaajakari (ville@kaajakari.net) Homepage: http://www.kaajakari.net Tutorials: http://www.kaajakari.net/~ville/research/tutorials/tutorials.shtml (5)

0.7

0.7

5

5

5

5

0.7

0.6

0.6

4

4

4

4

0.6

Voltage [ kd 3 / Ael ]

0.5

Stiffness [k]

0.4

0.4

Stiffness [k]

Stiffness [k]

Stiffness [k]

0.4

Stiffness [k]

Stiffness [k]

0.5

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

0

0

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.6

x/d x/d

x/d

0.8 1 0.9

-1 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 -1 -1 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.40.6 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.9 1 0

x/d

x/d

x/d

0.7 0.81

-1 0.8 -1 0.9 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 -1 01 0.1 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 3 3 el 3 el

el

(b) The stiffness as a function of equilibrium point x. Positive stiffness indicates unstable equilibrium point.

Figure 2. Pull-in effect in plate capacitor. No equilibrium solutions are obtained above the pull-in voltage (red line). Above the pull-in displacement (green line), the actuator is unstable.

F With no applied voltage Equation (5) is simply x = k; a small positive movement x result in negative F restoring force x x = kx. Increasing the bias voltage U makes the stiffness less negative. The unstable F point is given by x = 0 giving 1 x = d. (6) 3 Beyond this point the stiffness becomes positive as shown in Figure 2(b) and the system is unstable: a small positive movement x result in positive force that increases x. Substituting Eq. (6) to Eq. (3) gives the pull-in voltage at which the system becomes unstable

UP = Exercise:

8 kd 3 . 27 Ael

(7)

Figure on the right shows a schematic of a MEMS device that has capacitors on both sides of the movable plate. Assume that equal voltage is applied over both plates. Note that the equilibrium point is always at x = 0. Derive the expression for the pull-in voltage. The correct answer is VP = kd 3 /2Ael .

C =

Ael d+x A C = el dx

1

VP = kd 3 2A

- BFP450_datasheetUploaded byRakesh Kumar D
- EE reviewUploaded byJason Agres
- 4281-4292Uploaded byJayaprakash Jayaraman
- Series Compensation of Xmission LineUploaded byBibliophobic Pawan
- FMR533Uploaded byyogitatanavade
- High Ripple Current LoadsUploaded byBiswajit Singh
- Circuit Breaker Transient Recovery Voltage in Presence of Source Side Shunt Capacitor BankUploaded byAlonso Martí Portella
- A Report on Switchyard Equipment Testing (132Uploaded byharsh_bihar
- KSC815Uploaded byArturo Navarro Medina
- Kew 1020R Digital MultimeterUploaded bywanna_ac
- 212-scope-maintenance-manual.pdfUploaded byDo Minh Nam
- Condensateurs Stylo Nichicon_906Uploaded byvimardfrancois
- Types of ExtractionUploaded bySameer Chaudhary
- Transmitter DAX5 DAX6Uploaded byLaura Torres
- 16.4Uploaded byCalvinNguyen
- Taller Fisica.txtUploaded byAnonymous 43Pa0k6
- Definiciones básicas de controlUploaded byGustavo Meza
- zxcl330h5Uploaded byJuan Carlos Mediavilla
- Answer-4217.pdfUploaded byyash9714
- EVS-02-02eUploaded bydkyatos
- EC105Uploaded byapi-3853441
- Solutution EX2Uploaded byJosué Ely Molina
- Paper-2q.b.feb Jun Oct Session 2003Uploaded byPritamjit Rout
- Capacitors Inductors Lc LectureUploaded byJoyce Anne Ricafort
- Cs51 Intelligent Digital__ Indicator InstructionUploaded byResul Demirelli
- 1408169364EE3115-AC BridgeUploaded byAsif Al Mahmud
- McGregor Us 2977519Uploaded byRamiro Cristobal
- 14. EEE -A Novel Bacterial - P.ramanjaneyuluUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- VeriUploaded bytondare
- sensors-02-00205Uploaded byalexbondua

- Errors and CalibrationUploaded byLee Chee Kheong
- Power Electronics: ApplicationsUploaded byFemi Prince
- Three Phase Controlled RectifierUploaded byFemi Prince
- Three Phase SemiconverterUploaded byFemi Prince
- Electrical Machines and Power SystemsUploaded byBHARGAV RAMI REDDY
- Inductance of 3 Phase LineUploaded byFemi Prince
- Fly BackUploaded byTran Duc Xuan
- Power TransistorUploaded byFemi Prince
- Power Eelectronic DrivesUploaded bykj_mekanikal
- Types of transducer and applicationUploaded bycocojithu
- LectureUploaded byFemi Prince
- Resonant InverterUploaded byFemi Prince
- power sysetmUploaded byFemi Prince
- Engineering MeasurementsUploaded byFemi Prince
- IlluminationUploaded byFemi Prince
- Per Unit System_power SystemUploaded byFemi Prince
- Chapter 1 Tutorial illuminationUploaded byFemi Prince
- DC Machine Example ProblemsUploaded byFemi Prince
- illuminationUploaded byFemi Prince
- Discharge LampsUploaded byFemi Prince
- SensorsUploaded byAmirtha swamy.n
- Lvdt and Capacitance strain guagesUploaded byJignesh P Korat
- Chapter 6 TransducersUploaded byutpal1959
- InstrumentationUploaded byFemi Prince
- Transducer and SensorUploaded byFemi Prince
- BmE_04Uploaded byFemi Prince
- TransducerUploaded byFemi Prince
- Lecture-1 on 27.03 [Compatibility Mode]Uploaded byFemi Prince

- Climate Revision KQ2 Notes2014 Sec4Uploaded byKailin Tan
- hydroxyapatie 2Uploaded byWilliam Bill Turnbull
- 9702_w08_ms_2Uploaded byStr33tRuler
- Heat Exchanger DesignUploaded bytfly12
- 12th Physics One Mark Questions EmUploaded byRanjit Kumar
- tmpD7B3Uploaded byFrontiers
- ELECTROCHEMISTRYUploaded byKumar Pathsala
- Unit 2 Netralisasi Asam BasaUploaded byMuhammad Tri Prasetia
- Hydrinos LENR in Harmony 2 (1)Uploaded byecatworld
- Experiment No 3b - Hydrometer Analysis of SoilUploaded byPaul Aaron Villabroza
- phase i assessment of the upper twelve mile creekUploaded byapi-372128705
- ResoNET 2012 Sample Test PaperUploaded byAnkita Jain
- DROP DialysisUploaded byshivaanik
- Ch2 3rdEd ExtendedUploaded byReza Sadeghi
- Elbow Tube Failure_slideshareUploaded byhafizal
- tracertechniqueUploaded bymnariaz_11
- Killed CS Resistant to HT SulfidationUploaded byundefined_emam
- Chemistry ProjectUploaded byPopSahil
- Force and Motion - RemindUploaded byMarilou Tagarino
- Glucono Lactone Dextrose MonohydrateUploaded bySilvia Melendez H
- Ammonia- Phenate MethodUploaded byAman Tiwari
- Analysis of Power Plant CycleUploaded byAritra Boss
- Convert Ammonia to MethanolUploaded bySuresh Ramakrishnan
- Basic principles of celestial navigation - James AllenUploaded byjosolaz
- Kiran Final Pjct Witout NumsUploaded byGuna Kowshikk
- Acetone ApplicationUploaded bychem_ta
- Barite Upgrading 199130101Uploaded byAba Emmanuel Oche
- 82172352 Classification Tests for Hydroxyl and Carbonyl Containing CompoundsUploaded byliapriela
- assignment_reg_2013_Tuesday1.docxUploaded byluthfi
- Problem Set 11 Key - Physical Chemistry for Engineers (Book Work)Uploaded bykrymxen