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You are on page 1of 183

and

Muhammad Zahid

and

Reza Kebriaei

Institute of Applied Mechanics

Spielmannstr. 11 38106 Braunschweig www.infam.tu-braunschweig.de

May 2010

Contents

1 Introduction and mathematical preliminaries 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Vectors and matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indicial Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules for matrices and vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 3 4 6 7

Scalar, vector and tensor elds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Divergence theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Summary of chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 Components of Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Stress on a normal plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Principal stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Stress invariants and special stress tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2.2

2.3

Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 Position vector and displacement vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Strain tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Linear theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Properties of the strain tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Compatibility equations for linear strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.4

2.5

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Material behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 54

The Stress Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Linear hyper-elasticity - Anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Viscoelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.4.1 3.4.2 Rheological Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Maxwell Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

3.5

Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 Phenomenological aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Basic theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Classical theory of plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

3.6

Hardening, softening and failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 3.6.1 3.6.2 Frequently used failure and yield criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Consistency condition for strain hardening materials II . . . . . . . . 76

79

Constitutive Modelling of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Mechanical Behaviour of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Linear Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Nonlinear Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Linear Perfectly Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

4.3

4.4

5.2

Mechanical Behaviour of Soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 The Nature of Soils and other Porous Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Common Soil Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Stress Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

5.3 5.4

Failure Criteria of Soils and Bulk Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Material Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5.4.1 5.4.2 Rate Dependent Model for cohesionless Soil and Bulk Solids . . . . 112 Theory of Porous Media, TPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 III

125

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Uniaxial Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Yield Criteria and Hardening of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.3.5 6.3.6 Tresca Maximum Shear Stress Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Von Mises Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Hardening Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Isotropic Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Kinematic Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Generalised Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

6.4

Ductility and Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Ductile Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Brittle fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Impact energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

6.5

Constitutive Model for the Plasticity of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Mechanisms on the Microscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Simulation of the Development of Dislocation Structures . . . . . . 141 Stochastic Constitutive Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

6.6

Fluid Flows and their Signicance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Solids and Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 Mass Conservation (Continuity Equation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Newtons Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

7.5

1.1 Vectors and matrices

A vector is a directed line segment. In a cartesian coordinate system it looks as it is depicted in gure 1.1, z az a y ez ey ex ax x ay P a3 a x2 e3 e2 e1 a1 x1 a2 x3 P

e.g., it can mean the location of a point P or a force. So a vector connects direction and norm of a quantity. For representation in a coordinate system unit basis vectors ex , ey and ez are used with |ex | = |ey | = |ez | = 1. | | denotes the norm, i. e., the length. Now the vector a is a = ax ex + ay ey + az ez 1 (1.1)

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES with the coordinates (ax , ay , az ) = values/length in the direction of the basis vectors/coordinate direction. In continuum mechanics, it is more common to denote the axis with e1 , e2 and e3 a = a1 e1 + a2 e2 + a3 e3 Following are the dierent representations of a vector: a1 a = a2 = (a1 , a2 , a3 ) a3 with the length/norm (Euclidian norm) |a| =

2 2 a2 1 + a2 + a3 .

(1.2)

(1.3)

(1.4)

A matrix is a collection of several numbers A11 A12 A13 A21 A22 A23 A= . . . Am1 Am2 Am3

(1.5)

with n columns and m rows, i.e., an (m n) matrix. In the following mostly quadratic(square) matrices, n m, are used. A vector is a one column matrix. The graphical representation, as for a vector, is not possible. However, a physical interpretation is often given, then tensors are introduced. Special cases: Zero vector or matrix: all elements are zero, e.g., a =

0 0 0

and A =

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Symmetric matrix A = AT with AT is the transposed matrix, i.e., all elements at the same place above and below the main diagonal are identical, e.g., A =

1 5 4 5 2 6 4 6 3

1.2

Indicial Notation

Indicial notation is a convenient notation in mechanics for vectors and matrices/tensors. Letter indices as subscripts are appended to the generic letter representing the tensor quantity of interest. Using a coordinate system with (e1 , e2 , e3 ) the components of a vector a are ai (eq. 1.7) and of a matrix A are Aij with i = 1, 2, . . . , m and j = 1, 2, . . . , n (eq. 1.6). When an index appears twice in a term, that index is understood to take on all the values of its range, and the resulting terms summed. In this so-called Einstein summation, repeated indices are often referred to as dummy indices, since their replacement by any other letter not appearing as a free index does not change the meaning of the term in which they occur. In ordinary physical space, the range of the indices is 1, 2, 3.

m

Aii =

i=1

(1.6)

and ai bi = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + . . . + am bm . (1.7)

However, it is not summed up in an addition or subtraction symbol, i.e., if ai + bi or ai bi . Aij bj =Ai1 b1 + Ai2 b2 + . . . + Aik bk (1.8)

free dummy

Further notation:

3

ai = a1 a2 a3

i=1

(1.9)

ai = ai,j xj or Aij Ai1 Ai2 = + + . . . = Aij,j xj x1 x2 This is sometimes called comma convention ! (1.11) with ai,i = a1 a2 + + ... x1 x2 (1.10)

1.3

Addition and subtraction AB=C component by component, vector similar. Multiplication Vector with vector Scalar (inner) product: c = a b = ai b i Cross (outer) product: a2 b3 a3 b2 e1 e2 e3 c = a b = a1 a2 a3 = a3 b1 a1 b3 a1 b2 a2 b1 b1 b2 b3 Cross product is not commutative. Using indical notation ci = ijk aj bk with permutations symbol / alternating tensor 1 i, j, k even permutation (e.g. 231) 1 i, j, k odd permutation (e.g. 321) ijk = . 0 i, j, k no permutation, i.e. two or more indices have the same value Dyadic product: C=ab Matrix with matrix Inner product: C = AB Cik = Aij Bjk (1.18) (1.19) (1.17) (1.13) Cij = Aij Bij (1.12)

(1.14)

(1.15)

(1.16)

Inner product of two matrices can be done with Falk scheme (g. 1.2(a)). To get one component Cij of C, you have to do a scalar product of two vectors ai

and bj , which are marked in gure 1.2 with a dotted line. It is also valid for the special case of onecolumn matrix (vector) (g. 1.2(b)) c = Ab ci = Aij bj . (1.20)

Bij

bj

Aij

Cij

Aij

ci

Figure 1.2: Falk scheme. [29] Remarks on special matrices: Permutation symbol (see 1.16) 1 ijk = (i j )(j k )(k i) 2 Kronecker delta

ij

(1.21)

1 if i = j = 0 if i = j

(1.22)

so ij

0 0 0 0 0 0

for i, j = 1, 2, 3

(1.23)

Symmetric, Hydrostatic

ij Djk = Dik

(1.24)

(orthogonal basis)

(1.25)

1 (Aij Aji ) 2

anti-symmetric/skrew symmetric, Shear

(1.26)

1.4

Coordinate transformation

Assumption: 2 coordinate systems in one origin rotated against each other (g. 1.3). x3 x3

x2 x2

x1 x1 Figure 1.3: Initial (x1 , x2 , x3 ) and rotated (x1 , x2 , x3 ) axes of transformed coordinate system. [29] The coordinates can be transformed x1 = 11 x1 + 12 x2 + 13 x3 = 1j xj x2 = 2j xj x3 = 3j xj xi = ij xj with the constant (only constant for cartesian system) coecients ij = cos(xi , xj ) =

direction cosine

xj = cos(ei , ej ) = ei ej . xi

(1.31)

rotation matrix

x.

(1.32) (1.33)

Rij = xi,j So the primed coordinates can be expressed as a function of the unprimed ones xi = xi (xi ) x = x (x).

(1.34)

1.5. TENSORS If J = |R| does not vanish this transformation possesses a unique inverse xi = xi (xi ) J is called the Jacobian of the transformation. x = x(x ).

(1.35)

1.5

Tensors

is a second order tensor. If we speak of a tensor we tacitly mean a second order tensor. If this is not the case it is explicitly said. A mapping A is called linear if it is compatible with the two linear structures, i.e.

a, b A(a) = a

, a

(1.37)

The set of all tensors on E will be denoted by . The product of two tensors is dened as the composition of two linear mappings:

A(B(a)) = (AB)(a)

A, B , a

(1.38)

From this follows the statement that the product does not commute, i.e. we have to consider: AB = BA. The following rules hold: comutative assosiative distributive A+B= B+ A (A)B = (A)B = (AB) A(B + C) = AB + AC A ,B , A, B A, B, C

To simplify notation, it will be assumed in the following that all tensors are element of , all vectors element of E and all scalars element of .

Further denitions Due to fact that complicated expressions include dierent levels of brackets we represent the linear mapping b = A(a) from now on by means of square brackets: b = A[a]. Transpose of a tensor Associated with an arbitrary tensor A there is a unique tensor AT , called the transpose of A, such that: 5a.(AT [b]) = b.(AT [a]) We now replace A by BT and exchange a and b: 5b.((BT )T [a]) = a.(BT [b]) Comparing with above it is immediately understood that: 5(BT )T = B with composition and comparison of above mapping we can nd: 5C = AB CT = BT AT Symmetric and skew-symmetric tensors A tensor A is said to be symmetric if 5A = AT holds. It is called skew-symmetric if it has the property (1.43) (1.42) (1.41) (1.40) (1.39)

1.5. TENSORS

5A = AT The identity 1 1 5A = (A + AT ) + (A AT ) 2 2

(1.44)

(1.45)

shows that each tensor can be split uniquely into symmetric (Asym ) and skew-symmetric (Askw ) parts. Spherical tensors A tensor A is said to be spherical if 5A = I is proportional to the identity tensor I. Inverse of a tensor If the linear mapping A is invertible (the inverse of the mapping is denoted by (A)1 we can state 5AA1 = A1 A = I The eect of a composition of two inverse mappings can be investigated as: 5(AB)1 = B1 A1 Dyadic product To an ordered pair of vectors (a; b) there corresponds a tensor, denoted by ab and called the dyadic product or tensor product of a and b which is dened through its action on an arbitrary vector c by 5(a b)[c] = (b c)a (1.49) (1.48) (1.47) =0 (1.46)

The notion tensor product can be easily confused with the notion product of two tensors so that we will here prefer the term dyadic product. with respekting to the main denition we will nd that: 5(a b)(c d) = (b c)a d (1.50)

10

It is now more easily understandable that the product of two tensors, i.e. the compositions of two linear mappings, is not commutative. In the form of index notation we can show the tensor A as: 5A = Aij ei ej Product of two tensor The product of two tensors C = AB is represented in index notation as: 5C = Aij ei ej = Bkl ek el = Aij Bkl jk ei el = Aij Bjl ei el

Cil

(1.52)

(1.53)

Thus we arrive in matrix notation at the relation: 5C = AB In index notation we will show the zero tensor and identity tensor as: 50 = 0ij ei ej 0ij = 0 (zerotensor) (1.55) (1.54)

(identitytesor)

(1.56)

The trace of a dyadic product is dened as the scalar product of the two vectors: 5tr(a b) = a.b (1.57)

If we represent a tensor as usual by means of nine dyadic products we obtain the following:

(1.58)

11

In many material models one dierentiates between the so-called deviatoric and the volumetric material response. Accordingly the stress tensor T is split into deviatoric Tdev and volumetric Tvol parts. This can be done in the following way: 1 1 5T = (T (trT)I) + (trT)I 3 3

Tdev Tvol

(1.59)

The volumetric part Tvol is a spherical tensor. If the deviatoric part of the stress tensor vanishes (which is for instance the case for many uids) we have a hydrostatic stress state. Tvol is often represented in terms of the pressure p:

5Tvol = pI

(1.60)

Thus the trace operation is e.g. needed to carry out the above described split. The trace of the deviatoric part vanishes. To show that we rst determine the trace of the identity tensor:

5trI = tr(ei ej ) = 3 The trace of Tdev is computed with: 1 1 5Tdev = tr(T (trT)I) = trT (trT) trI = 0 3 3

3

(1.61)

(1.62)

1.6

A tensor eld assigns a tensor T(x, t) to every pair (x, t) where the position vector x varies over a particular region of space and t varies over a particular interval of time. The tensor eld is said to be continuous (or dierentiable) if the components of T(x, t) are continuous (or dierentiable) functions of x and t. If the tensor T does not depend on time the tensor eld is said to be steady (T(x)).

12

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES 1. Scalar eld: 2. Vector eld: 3. Tensor eld: = (xi , t) vi = vi (xi , t) Tij = Tij (xi , t) = (x, t) v = v(x, t) T = T(x, t)

Introduction of the dierential operator : It is a vector called del or NablaOperator, dened by = ei xi and 2 =

Laplacian operator

==

. xi xi

(1.63)

grad =

= ,i ei

div v = v = vi,i curl v = v = ijk vk,j Similar rules are available for tensors/vectors. Gradient of a tensor eld

The gradient of the tensor eld T(x) is computed with: 5gradT(x) = Tij T(x) ei ej ek = xk x (1.67)

The gradient gradT is a third order tensor. As such its basis is represented by the dyadic product of three vectors. We also introduce the abbreviation 5gradT = Tij,k ei ej ek Divergence of a tensor eld To determine the divergence of a tensor eld we have the denition: 5div T(x) = Tji,j (x)ei Example The divergence of a tensor occurs for example in the balance of linear momentum (1.69) (1.68)

13

5div T(x) + f = 0

(1.70)

where T denotes the stress tensor and f a volume force. The derivation of the latter equation can be carried out as follows. Consider the innitesimal volume element plotted in Figure 1.4. The equilibrium conditions in x1 , x2 and x3 -direction read:

T11 dx1 dx2 dx3 + x1 T12 dx1 dx2 dx3 + x1 T13 dx1 dx2 dx3 + x1

T21 dx1 dx2 dx3 + x2 T22 dx1 dx2 dx3 + x2 T23 dx1 dx2 dx3 + x2

T31 dx1 dx2 dx3 + f1 dx1 dx2 dx3 = 0 x3 T32 dx1 dx2 dx3 + f2 dx1 dx2 dx3 = 0 x3 T33 dx1 dx2 dx3 + f3 dx1 dx2 dx3 = 0 x3

5Tji,j + fi = 0 Multiplying each equation with ei and summing them up yields the relation 1.67.

(1.74)

14

1.7

Divergence theorem

For a domain V with boundary A the following integral transformation holds for a rstorder tensor g

divgdV =

V V

gdV =

A

n gdA gi ni dA

A

(1.75) (1.76)

gi,i dV =

V

V A

ji nj dA ndA.

A

(1.77) (1.78)

div dV =

V V

dV =

1.8

Summary of chapter 1

Vectors

0 0 1 a1 a = a2 = a1 e1 + a2 e2 + a3 e3 = a1 0 + a2 1 + a3 0 1 0 0 a3 Magnitude of a: |a| =

2 2 a2 1 + a2 + a3

is the length of a

Vector addition: a1 b1 a1 + b 1 a2 + b 2 = a2 + b 2 a3 b3 a3 + b 3

15

Vector (outer, cross) product: a2 b3 a3 b2 e1 e3 e3 a1 a2 a1 a3 a2 a3 a b = a1 a2 a3 = e1 = a3 b1 a1 b3 + e3 e2 b1 b2 b1 b3 b2 b3 a1 b2 a2 b1 b1 b2 b3 Rules for the vector product: a b = (b a) (c a) b = a (c b) = c(a b) (a + b) c = a c + b c a (b c) = (a c) b (a b) c

Matrices

A11 A21 A= . . . A12 A22 . . . A13 A23 . . . ... A1n ... A2n = Aik . . .

Multiplication of a matrix with a scalar: A11 A12 A21 A22 c A11 c A12 c A21 c A22

c A = A c = c Aik

e.g.: c

16

Addition of two matrices: A + B = B + A = (Aik ) + (Bik ) = (Aik + Bik ) e.g.: A11 A12 A21 A22 + B11 B12 B21 B22 = A11 + B11 A12 + B12 A21 + B21 A22 + B22

l

j =1

e.g.: A11 A12 A21 A22 A11 B11 + A12 B12 A11 B12 + A12 B22 A21 B11 + A22 B21 A21 B12 + A22 B22

Rules for multiplication of two matrices: A(BC) = (AB)C = ABC AB = BA Distributive law: (A + B) C = A C + B C

Gradient of a scalar eld f (x, y, z ) f (x

1 ,x2 ,x3 )

1.8. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1 Divergence of a vector eld div v(X (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Y (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Z (x1 , x2 , x3 )) = Curl of a vector eld curl v(X (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Y (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Z (x1 , x2 , x3 )) =

Z x2 X x3 Y x1

17

X Y Z + + x1 x2 x3

Y x3 Z x1 X x2

f x3 x x1 x2 x3

x1

X x1

Y x2

Z x3

= div v

e2

x2

e3

x3

= curl v

Laplacian operator u = = div grad u = Indical Notation Summation convention A subscript appearing twice is summed from 1 to 3. e.g.:

3

2u 2u 2u + 2+ 2 x2 x2 x3 1

ai b i =

i=1

ai bi

18

Comma-subscript convention The partial derivative with respect to the variable xi is represented by the so-called comma-subscript convention e.g.: xi vi xi vi xj 2 vi xj xk = ,i = grad = vi,i = divv = vi,j = vi,jk

1.9

Exercises

f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 3x1 + x1 ex2 + x1 x2 ex3 (a) gradf (x1 , x2 , x3 ) =? (b) gradf (3, 1, 0) =?

2. given: scalar eld 3 2 f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x2 1 + x2 2 Find the derivative of f in point/position vector 3. given: vector eld x 1 + x2 2 V = ex1 x3 + sin x2 x1 x2 x3 (a) divV(X (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Y (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Z (x1 , x2 , x3 )) =? (b) divV(1, , 2) =?

5 2 8

in the direction of a

3 0 4

1.10. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1 4. given: vector eld x 1 + x2 V = ex1 +x2 + x3 x3 + sin x1 (a) curlV(x1 , x2 , x3 ) =? (b) curlV(0, 8, 1) =? 5. Expand and, if possible, simplify the expression Dij xi xj for (a) Dij = Dji (b) Dij = Dji . 6. Determine the component f2 for the given vector expressions (a) fi = ci,j bj cj,i bj (b) fi = Bij fj 7. If r2 = xi xi and f (r) is an arbitrary function of r, show that (a) (f (r)) =

f (r)x r 2f (r) , r

19

1.10

Vectors

Summary of chapter 1

a1 1 0 0 a = a2 = a1 e1 + a2 e2 + a3 e3 = a1 0 + a2 1 + a3 0 a3 0 0 1 Magnitude of a: |a| =

2 2 a2 1 + a2 + a3

is the length of a

20

Vector addition: a1 b1 a1 + b 1 a2 + b 2 = a2 + b 2 a3 b3 a3 + b 3 Multiplication with a scalar: a1 c a1 c a2 = c a2 a3 c a3 Scalar (inner, dot) product: a b = |a||b| cos = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3

Vector (outer, cross) product: a2 b 3 a3 b 2 e1 e3 e3 a1 a2 a1 a3 a2 a3 = a3 b 1 a1 b 3 + e3 e2 a b = a1 a2 a3 = e 1 b1 b2 b1 b 3 b2 b3 a1 b 2 a2 b 1 b1 b2 b3 Rules for the vector product: a b = (b a) (c a) b = a (c b) = c(a b) (a + b) c = a c + b c a (b c) = (a c) b (a b) c

Matrices

A11 A21 A= . . . A12 A22 . . . A13 A23 . . . ... A1n ... A2n = Aik . . . ... Amn

1.10. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1 Multiplication of a matrix with a scalar: A11 A12 A21 A22 c A11 c A12 c A21 c A22

21

c A = A c = c Aik

e.g.: c

Addition of two matrices: A + B = B + A = (Aik ) + (Bik ) = (Aik + Bik ) e.g.: A11 A12 A21 A22 + B11 B12 B21 B22 = A11 + B11 A12 + B12 A21 + B21 A22 + B22

l

j =1

Aij Bjk

i = 1, ..., m k = 1, ..., n

B12 B22

A11 B11 + A12 B12 A11 B12 + A12 B22 A21 B11 + A22 B21 A21 B12 + A22 B22

Rules for multiplication of two matrices: A(BC) = (AB)C = ABC AB = BA Distributive law: (A + B) C = A C + B C

22

Gradient of a scalar eld f (x, y, z ) f (x grad f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) =

1 ,x2 ,x3 ) x1 f (x1 ,x2 ,x3 ) x2 f (x1 ,x2 ,x3 ) x3

Derivative into a certain direction: a f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = grad f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) a |a| Divergence of a vector eld div v(X (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Y (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Z (x1 , x2 , x3 )) = X Y Z + + x1 x2 x3

Z x2 X x3 Y x1

Y x3 Z x1 X x2

x1 x2 x3

f x3 x

x1

X x1

Y x2

Z x3

= div v

e2

x2

e3

x3

= curl v

23

Indical Notation Summation convention A subscript appearing twice is summed from 1 to 3. e.g.:

3

ai b i =

i=1

ai bi

= a1 b 1 + a2 b 2 + a3 b 3 Djj = D11 + D22 + D33 Comma-subscript convention The partial derivative with respect to the variable xi is represented by the so-called comma-subscript convention e.g.: xi vi xi vi xj 2 vi xj xk = ,i = grad = vi,i = divv = vi,j = vi,jk

1.11

Exercises

f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 3x1 + x1 ex2 + x1 x2 ex3

24

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND MATHEMATICAL PRELIMINARIES (b) gradf (3, 1, 0) =? 2. given: scalar eld 3 2 f (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = x2 1 + x2 2 Find the derivative of f in point/position vector 3. given: vector eld x 1 + x2 2 V = ex1 x3 + sin x2 x1 x2 x3 (a) divV(X (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Y (x1 , x2 , x3 ), Z (x1 , x2 , x3 )) =? (b) divV(1, , 2) =? 4. given: vector eld x 1 + x2 V = ex1 +x2 + x3 x3 + sin x1 (a) curlV(x1 , x2 , x3 ) =? (b) curlV(0, 8, 1) =? 5. Expand and, if possible, simplify the expression Dij xi xj for (a) Dij = Dji (b) Dij = Dji . 6. Determine the component f2 for the given vector expressions (a) fi = ci,j bj cj,i bj (b) fi = Bij fj 7. If r2 = xi xi and f (r) is an arbitrary function of r, show that

5 2 8

in the direction of a

3 0 4

f (r)x r 2f (r) , r

25

2.1

2.1.1

Stress

Components of Stress

Assumption: Cartesian coordinate system with unit vectors ei innitesimal rectangular parallelepiped; ti are not parallel to ei whereas the surfaces are perpendicular to the ei , respectively (g. 2.1). So, all ei represents here the normal ni of the surfaces. t3

x3 e3 e1 x1 11 x2

13 12 t2

e2

t1

Figure 2.1: Tractions ti and their components ij on the rectangular parallelepiped surfaces of an innitesimal body. [29]

2.1. STRESS With these coecients ij a stress tensor can 11 12 = 21 22 31 32 with the following signconvention: be dened 13 23 = ij , 33

27

(2.3)

1. The rst subscript i refers to the normal ei which denotes the face on which ti acts. 2. The second subscript j corresponds to the direction ej in which the stress acts. 3. ii (no summation) are positive (negative) if they produce tension (compression). They are called normal components or normal stress ij (i = j ) are positive if coordinate direction xj and normal ei are both positive or negative. If both dier in sign, ij (i = j ) is negative. They are called shear components or shear stress.

2.1.2

Interest is in the normal and tangential component of tn (g. 2.2). n tn s dAn Figure 2.2: Normal and tangential component of tn . [29] Normalvector: n = ni e i Tangentialvector: s = si ei (two possibilities in 3-D) Normal component of stress tensor with respect to plane dAn : nn = tn n = ij ni ej nk ek = ij ni nk jk = ij nj ni Tangential component: ns = tn s = ij ni ej sk ek = ij ni sj (2.5) (2.4)

28

2.1.3

2.1.3.1

Principal stress

Maximum normal stress

Question: Is there a plane in any body at any particular point where no shear stress exists? Answer: Yes

For such a plane the stress tensor must have the form (1) 0 0 = 0 (2) 0 0 0 (3)

(2.6)

with three independent directions n(k) where the three principal stress components act. Each plane given by these principal axes n(k) is called principal plane. So, it can be dened a stress vector acting on each of these planes t = (k) n where the tangential stress vector vanishes. (2.7)

2.1.4

In general, the stress tensor at a distinct point dier for dierent coordinate systems. However, there are three values, combinations of ij , which are the same in every coordinate system. These are called stress invariants. They can be found as under |ij (k) ij | = ( (k) )3 I1 ( (k) )2 + I2 (k) I3 = 0 with I1 = ii = tr 1 I2 = (ii jj ij ij ) 2 I3 = |ij | = det (2.9) (2.10) (2.11)

!

(2.8)

2.1. STRESS and represented in principal stresses I1 = (1) + (2) + (3) I2 = ( (1) (2) + (2) (3) + (3) (1) ) I3 = (1) (2) (3) ,

29

the rst, second, and third stress invariant is given. The invariance is obvious because all indices are dummy indices and, therefore, the values are scalars independent of the coordinate system. The special case of a stress tensor, e.g., pressure in a uid, 1 0 0 = 0 0 1 0 ij = 0 ij 0 0 1

(2.15)

ii is called hydrostatic stress state. If one assumes 0 = 3 = m of a general stress state, where m is the mean normal stress state, the deviatoric stress state can be dened 11 m 12 13 S = m I = 12 (2.16) 22 m 23 . 13 23 33 m

(2.17)

where kk /3 are the components of the hydrostatic stress tensor and sij the components of the deviatoric stress tensor. The principal directions of the deviatoric stress tensor S are the same as those of the stress tensor because the hydrostatic stress tensor has no principal direction, i.e., any direction is a principal plane. The rst two invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor are J1 = sii = (11 m ) + (22 m ) + (33 m ) = 0 1 1 J2 = sij sij = [( (1) (2) )2 + ( (2) (3) )2 + ( (3) (1) )2 ], 2 6 where the latter is often used in plasticity. Remark: The elements on the main diagonal of the deviatoric stress tensor are mostly not zero, contrary to the trace of deviatoric stress S, which is per denition equal zero tr(S) = 0. (2.18) (2.19)

30

2.2

2.2.1

Equilibrium

Physical principles

x1 Figure 2.3: Body V under loading f with traction t acting normal to the boundary of the body. [29] In a 3-d body the following 2 axioms are given: 1. The principle of linear momentum is f dV +

V A

t dA =

V

d2 u dV dt2

(2.20)

with displacement vector u and density . 2. The principle of angular momentum (moment of momentum) (r f ) dV +

V A

(r t) dA =

V

) dV (r u

(2.21)

Considering the position vector r to point P (x) r = xj e j and further r f = ijk xj fk ei r t = ijk xj tk ei (2.23) (2.24) (2.22)

2.3. DEFORMATION The two principles, (2.20) and (2.21), are in indical notation fi dV +

V A

31

ji nj dA =

V

u i dV

V

(2.25)

ijk xj fk dV +

V A

ijk xj lk nl dA =

(2.26)

where the Cauchy theorem has been used. In the static case, the inertia terms on the right hand side, vanish.

2.3

2.3.1

Deformation

Position vector and displacement vector

Consider the undeformed and the deformed conguration of an elastic body at time t = 0 and t = t, respectively (g. 2.4). deformed undeformed x3 X 3 x2 X 2 x t=0 x1 X 1 Figure 2.4: Deformation of an elastic body. [29] It is convenient to designate two sets of Cartesian coordinates x and X, called material (initial) coordinates and spatial (nal) coordinates, respectively, that denote the undeformed and deformed position of the body. Now, the location of a point can be given in material coordinates (Lagrangian description) P = P(x, t) and in spatial coordinates (Eulerian description) p = p(X, t). (2.28) (2.27) X t=t P (x) u p ( X)

32

Mostly, in solid mechanics the material coordinates and in uid mechanics the spatial coordinates are used. In general, every point is given in both X = X(x, t) or x = x(X, t) where the mapping from one system to the other is given if the Jacobian J= exists. So, a distance dierential is dXi = Xi dx xj j (2.32) Xi = |Xi,j | xj (2.31) (2.30) (2.29)

where ( ) denotes a xed but free distance. From gure 3.1 it is obvious to dene the displacement vector by u=Xx u i = X i xi . (2.33)

Remark: The Lagrangian or material formulation describes the movement of a particle, where the Eulerian or spatial formulation describes the particle moving at a location.

2.3.2

Strain tensor

Consider two neighboring points p(X) and q (X) or P (x) and Q(x) (g. 2.5) in both congurations (undeformed/deformed) x3 X 3 x2 X 2 Q(x + dx) ds P (x) x1 X 1 Figure 2.5: Deformation of two neighboring points of a body. [29] u u + du q (X + dX) dS p(X)

2.3. DEFORMATION

33

which are separated by dierential distances ds and dS, respectively. The squared length of them is given by |ds|2 = dxi dxi (2.34) |dS|2 = dXi dXi . (2.35)

With the Jacobian of the mapping from one coordinate representation to the other these distances can be expressed by |ds|2 = dxi dxi = xi xi dXj dXk Xj Xk Xi Xi dxj dxk . xj xk (2.36) (2.37)

To dene the strain we want to express the relative change of the distance between the point P and Q in the undeformed and deformed body. From gure 2.5 it is obvious that ds + u + du dS u = 0 du = dS ds. Taking the squared distances in material coordinates yield to |dS|2 |ds|2 = Xi,j Xi,k dxj dxk dxi dxi = (Xi,j Xi,k jk ) dxj dxk

L =2jk

(2.38)

(2.39)

with the Green or Lagrangian strain tensor L jk , or in spatial coordinates |dS|2 |ds|2 = dXi dXi xi xi dXj dXk Xj Xk (2.40)

E =2jk

with the Euler or Almansi strain tensor E jk . Taking into account that ui Xi xi = = Xi,k ik xk xk xk or ui Xi xi = = ik xi,k Xk Xk Xk Xi,k = ui,k + ik (2.41)

xi,k = ik ui,k

(2.42)

1 L jk = [(ui,j + ij )(ui,k + ik ) jk ] 2 1 = [ui,j ui,k + ui,j ik + ij ui,k + jk jk ] 2 1 = [uk,j + uj,k + ui,j ui,k ] 2 ui with ui,j := Xj and the Almansi tensor is 1 E jk = [jk (ij ui,j )(ik ui,k )] 2 1 = [uk,j + uj,k ui,j ui,k ] 2 ui with ui,j := . xj

(2.43)

(2.44)

2.3.3

Linear theory

If small displacement gradients are assumed, i.e. ui,j uk,l ui,j (2.45)

the strain tensors of both congurations are equal. 1 E ij = L ij = ij = (ui,j + uj,i ) 2 (2.46)

ij is called linear or innitesimal strain tensor. This is equivalent to the assumption of small unit extensions 2 , yielding 2(e) = 2eT EL e = 2eT EE e . (2.47)

With both assumptions the linear theory is established and no distinction between the congurations respective coordinate system is necessary. The components on the main diagonal are called normal strain and all other are the shear strains. The shear strains here 1 1 ij = (ui,j + uj,i ) = ij (2.48) 2 2

2.3. DEFORMATION

35

are equal to onehalf of the familiar engineering shear strains ij . However, only with the denitions above the strain tensor 11 12 13 = 12 22 23 (2.49) 13 23 33 has tensor properties. By the denition of the strains the symmetry of the strain tensor is obvious.

2.3.4

2.3.4.1

Principal strain

Besides the general tensor properties (transformation rules) the strain tensor has as the stress tensor principal axes. The principal strains (k) are determined from the characteristic equation |ij (k) ij | = 0 k = 1, 2, 3 (2.50)

analogous to the stress. The three eigenvalues (k) are the principal strains. The corresponding eigenvectors designate the direction associated with each of the principal strains given by (ij (k) ij )ni

(k)

=0

(2.51)

These directions n(k) for each principal strain (k) are mutually perpendicular and, for isotropic elastic materials, coincide with the direction of the principal stresses.

2.3.4.2

It is sometimes convenient to separate the components of strain into those that cause changes in the volume and those that cause changes in the shape of a dierential element. Consider a volume element V (a b c) oriented with the principal directions (g. 2.6), then the principal strains are (1) = a a (2) = b b (3) = c c (2.52)

36

3 c

2 1 a b

Figure 2.6: Volume V oriented with the principal directions. [29] The volume change can be calculated by V + V = (a + a)(b + b)(c + c) = abc 1 + a b c + + a b c + O(2 ) (2.53)

= V + ((1) + (2) + (3) )V + O(2 ). With the assumptions of small changes , nally, V = (1) + (2) + (3) = ii V (2.54)

and is called Dilation. Obviously, from the calculation this is a simple volume change without any shear. It is valid for any coordinate system. The Dilation is also the rst invariant of the strain tensor, and also equal to the divergence of the displacement vector: u = ui,i = ii (2.55)

Analogous to the stress tensor, the strain tensor can be divided in a hydrostatic part M 0 0 ii (2.56) M = 0 M 0 M = 3 0 0 M and a deviatoric part 11 M 12 13 D = 12 22 M 23 . 13 23 33 M

(2.57)

The mean normal strain M corresponds to a state of equal elongation in all directions for an element at a given point. The element would remain similar to the original shape

2.3. DEFORMATION

37

but changes volume. The deviatoric strain characterizes a change in shape of an element with no change in volume. This can be seen by calculating the Dilation of D : trD = (11 M ) + (22 M ) + (33 M ) = 0 (2.58)

2.3.5

If the strain components ij are given explicitly as functions of the coordinates, the six independent equations (symmetry of ) 1 ij = (ui,j + uj,i ) 2 are six equations to determine the three displacement components ui . The system is overdetermined and will not, in general, possess a solution for an arbitrary choice of the strain components ij . Therefore, if the displacement components ui are singlevalued and continuous, some conditions must be imposed upon the strain components. The necessary and sucient conditions for such a displacement eld are expressed by the equations ij,km + km,ij ik,jm jm,ik = 0. These are 81 equations in all but only six are distinct 2 11 2 22 2 12 1. + =2 2 x2 x x x 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 22 33 23 2. + =2 2 2 x3 x2 x2 x3 2 2 2 33 11 31 3. + =2 2 2 x1 x3 x3 x1 23 31 12 2 11 4. + + = x1 x1 x2 x3 x2 x3 2 23 31 12 22 5. + = x2 x1 x2 x3 x3 x1 2 23 31 12 33 6. + = x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 The six equations written in symbolic form appear as E=0 (2.61) (2.59)

or x E = 0.

(2.60)

38

Even though we have the compatibility equations, the formulation is still incomplete in that there is no connection between the equilibrium equations (three equations in six unknowns ij ), and the kinematic equations (six equations in nine unknowns ij and ui ). We will seek the connection between equilibrium and kinematic equations in the laws of physics governing material behavior, considered in the next chapter. Remark on 2D: For plane strain parallel to the x1 x2 plane, the six equations reduce to the single equation 11,22 + 22,11 = 212,12 (2.62) or symbolic E = 0. (2.63)

For plane stress parallel to the x1 x2 plane, the same condition as in case of plain strain is used, however, this is only an approximative assumption.

2.4

2.4.1

Material behavior

Uniaxial behavior

Constitutive equations relate the strain to the stresses. The most elementary description is Hookes law, which refers to a onedimensional extension test 11 = E11 where E is called the modulus of elasticity, or Youngs modulus. Looking on an extension test with loading and unloading a dierent behavior is found (g. 2.7). There is the linear area governed by Hookes law. In yielding occure which must be governed by ow rules. is the unloading part where also in pressure yielding exist . Finally, a new loading path with linear behavior starts. The region given by this curve is known as hysteresis loop and is a measure of the energy dissipated through one loading and unloading circle. Nonlinear elastic theory is also possible. Then path is curved but in loading and unloading the same path is given. (2.64)

39

2.4.2

2.4.2.1

General anisotropic case

As a prerequisite to the postulation of a linear relationship between each component of stress and strain, it is necessary to establish the existence of a strain energy density W that is a homogeneous quadratic function of the strain components. The density function should have coecients such that W 0 in order to insure the stability of the body, with W (0) = 0 corresponding to a natural or zero energy state. For Hookes law it is 2W = Cijkm ij km . The constitutive equation, i.e., the stressstrain relation, is a obtained by ij = yielding the generalized Hookes law ij = Cijkm km . (2.67) W ij (2.66) (2.65)

There, Cijkm is the fourthorder material tensor with 81 coecients. These 81 coecients are reduced to 36 distinct elastic constants taking the symmetry of the stress and the strain tensor into account. Introducing the notation = (11 22 33 12 23 31 )T (2.68)

40 and

(2.69)

(2.70)

and K and M represent the respective double indices: 1= 11, 2 = 22, 3 = 33, 4 = 12, 5 = 23, 6 = 31. From the strain energy density the symmetry of the materialtensor Cijkm = Ckmij or CKM = CM K (2.71)

is obvious yielding only 21 distinct material constants in the general case. Such a material is called anisotropic.

2.4.2.2

Planes of symmetry

Most engineering materials possess properties about one or more axes, i.e., these axes can be reversed without changing the material. If, e.g., one plane of symmetry is the x2 x3 plane the x1 axis can be reversed (g. 2.8), x3 x3 x1 x2 x1

(a) Original coordinate system

x3 x1 x2

(b) Onesymmetry plane

x2

(c) Twosymmetry planes

2.4. MATERIAL BEHAVIOR With the transformation property of tensors ij = ik jl kl and ij = ik jl kl it is 11 11 11 11 22 22 22 22 33 33 33 33 = = C 2 = C 2 . 12 12 12 12 223 223 23 23 31 231 231 31 The above can be rewritten C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C22 C23 C24 C25 C33 C34 C35 = C44 C45 sym. C55

41

(2.73)

(2.74)

(2.75)

(2.76)

but, since the constants do not change with the transformation, C14 , C16 , C24 , C26 , C34 , ! C36 , C45 , C56 = 0 leaving 21 8 = 13 constants. Such a material is called monocline. The case of three symmetry planes yields an orthotropic material written explicitly as C11 C12 C13 0 0 0 C22 C23 0 0 0 C33 0 0 0 = (2.77) C 0 0 44 sym. C55 0 C66 with only 9 constants. Further simplications are achieved if directional independence, i.e., axes can be interchanged, and rotational independence is given. This reduces the numbers of constants to two, producing the familiar isotropic material. The number of constants for various types of materials may be listed as follows:

42

CHAPTER 2. FOUNDATION OF SOLID MECHANICS 21 constants for general anisotropic materials; 9 constants for orthotropic materials; 2 constants for isotropic materials.

We now summarize the elastic constant stiness coecient matrices for a few selected materials. Orthotropic: 9 constants C11 C12 C22 C13 C23 C33 0 0 0 C44 0 0 0 0 C55 0 0 0 0 0 C66

(2.78)

sym.

Isotropic: 2 constants C11 C12 C11 C12 C12 C11 0 0 0 1 (C11 C12 ) 2 0 0 0 0 1 (C11 C12 ) 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 (C11 C12 ) 2

(2.79)

sym.

A number of eective modulus theories are available to reduce an inhomogeneous multilayered composite material to a single homogeneous anisotropic layer for wave propagation and strength considerations. 2.4.2.3 Isotropic elastic constitutive law

(2.80)

2.4. MATERIAL BEHAVIOR or in indical notation using the stress and strain tensors ij = 2ij + ij kk or vice versa ij =

43

(2.81)

ij kk ij . 2 2(2 + 3)

(2.82)

Other choices of 2 constants are possible with the shear modulus = G= E , 2(1 + ) E , = (1 + )(1 2 ) (2 + 3) , + , 2( + )

(2.83)

(2.85)

3 + 2 E = . 3(1 2 ) 3

(2.86)

From equation (2.83) it is obvious 1 < < 0.5 if remains nite. This is, however, true only in isotropic elastic materials. With the denition of Poissons ratio = 22 33 = 11 11 (2.87)

a negative value produces a material which becomes thicker under tension. These materials can be produced in reality and are called auxetic materials. The other limit = 0.5 (isochoric ) can be discussed as: Taking the 1principal axes as (1) = then both other are (2) = (3) = (see equation (2.87)). This yields the volume change V = ii = (1 2 ) (2.88) V Now, = 0.5 gives a vanishing volume change and the material is said to be incompressible. Rubberlike materials exhibit this type of behavior.

44

Finally, using the compression/bulk modulus K and the shear modulus G and further the decomposition of the stress and strain tensor into deviatoric and hydrostatic part, Hookes law is a given (eij are the components of D ) kk = 3Kkk sij = 2Geij . (2.89)

2.5

2.5.1

Summary

Stress

Tractions

33

t3

32 31 13 23 12 21 22

ti = ij ej

11

t1

t2

2.5.1.1

Stress Tensor 11 12 13 = 21 22 23 31 32 33

Stress at a point ti = ji nj Transformation in another cartesian coordinate system ij = ik jl kl = ik kl lj with direction cosine: ij = cos (xi , xj )

2.5. SUMMARY Stress in a normal plane Normal component of stress tensor: Tangential component of stress tensor: nn = ij nj ni ns = ij ni sj =

45

2 ti ti nn

Equilibrium

ij = ji = T

Principal Stress

In the principal plane given by the principal axes n(k) no shear stress exists.

with

Determination of principal stresses (k) with: |ij (k) ij | = 0 11 (k) 12 13 21 22 (k) 23 31 32 33 (k) with the Kronecker delta : ij = 1 0 if i = j if i = j

! !

= 0

46

(k) (k)

(k)

12 n2 +

(k) (k)

(k)

13 n3 = 0 23 n3 = 0

(k) (k)

(k)

21 n1 +(22 (k) ) n2 + 31 n1 +

(k)

32 n2 + (33 (k) ) n3 = 0

Stress invariants

The rst, second, and third stress invariant is independent of the coordinate system: I1 = ii = tr = 11 + 22 + 33 I2 = 1 (ii jj ij ij ) 2 = 11 22 + 22 33 + 33 11 12 12 23 23 31 31

I3 = |ij | = det

A stress tensor ij can be split into two component tensors, the hydrostatic stress tensor 1 0 0 = M 0 1 0 0 0 1 kk 3

M ij = M ij

with M =

2.5. SUMMARY

47

2.5.2

Exercises

1. The state of stress at a point P in a structure is given by 11 = 20000 22 = 15000 33 = 3000 12 = 2000 23 = 2000 31 = 1000 . (a) Compute the scalar components t1 , t2 and t3 of the traction t on the plane passing through P whose outward normal vector n makes equal angles with the coordinate axes x1 , x2 and x3 . (b) Compute the normal and tangential components of stress on this plane. 2. Determine the body forces for which the following stress eld describes a state of equilibrium in the static case:

2 11 = 2x2 1 3x2 5x3

22 = 2x2 2+7 33 = 4x1 + x2 + 3x3 5 12 = x3 + 4x1 x2 6 13 = 3x1 + 2x2 + 1 23 = 0 3. The state of stress at a point is given with respect to the Cartesian axes x1 , x2 and x3 by 2 2 0 ij = 2 2 0 . 0 0 2 Determine the stress tensor ij for the rotated axes x1 , x2 and x3 related to the unprimed axes by the transformation tensor 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 1 ik = . 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

48

CHAPTER 2. FOUNDATION OF SOLID MECHANICS 4. In a continuum, the stress eld is given by the tensor 2 ) x 0 x (1 x x2 1 2 2 1 (x3 2 3x2 ) ij = (1 x2 ) x 0 . 2 1 3 0 0 2x2 3 Determine the principal stress values at the point P (a, 0, 2 a) and the corresponding principal directions. 5. Evaluate the invariants of the stress tensors ij and ij , given in example 3 of chapter 2. 6. Decompose the stress tensor 3 10 0 ij = 10 0 30 0 30 27 into its hydrostatic and deviator parts and determine the principal deviator stresses! 7. Determine the principal stress values for (a) 0 1 1 ij = 1 0 1 1 1 0 and (b) 2 1 1 ij = 1 2 1 1 1 2 and show that both have the same principal directions.

2.5.3

Deformations

1 (u1,2 2

49 + u2,1 )

1 (u1,3 2 1 (u2,3 2

1 2

12 22 1 2 32

1 2 1 2

13 23 33

Principal strain values (k) : |ij (k) ij | = 0 Principal strain directions n(k) : (ij (k) ij ) nj = 0 Hydrostatic and deviatoric strain tensors A stress tensor ij can be split into two component tensors, the hydrostatic stain tensor 1 0 0 = M 0 1 0 0 0 1 kk 3

(k) !

M ij = M ij

with M =

11,22 + 22,11 = 212,12 = 12,12 22,33 + 33,22 = 223,23 = 23,23 33,11 + 11,33 = 231,31 = 31,31 12,13 + 13,12 23,11 = 11,23 23,21 + 21,23 31,22 = 22,31 31,32 + 32,31 12,33 = 33,12

50

2.5.4

Exercises

1. The displacement eld of a continuum body is given by X 1 = x1 X2 = x2 + Ax3 X3 = x3 + Ax2 where A is a constant. Determine the displacement vector components in both the material and spatial form. 2. A continuum body undergoes the displacement 3x2 4x3 u = 2x1 x3 . 4x2 x1 Determine the displaced position of the vector joining particles A(1, 0, 3) and B (3, 6, 6).

2 3. A displacement eld is given by u1 = 3x1 x2 2 , u2 = 2x3 x1 and u3 = x3 x1 x2 . Determine the strain tensor ij and check whether or not the compatibility conditions are satised.

4. A rectangular loaded plate is clamped along the x1 - and x2 -axis (see g. 2.9). On 3 2 the basis of measurements, the approaches 11 = a(x2 1 x2 + x2 ); 22 = bx1 x2 are suggested. x2 , u2

x1 , u1

Figure 2.9: Rectangular plate. [29] (a) Check for compatibility! (b) Find the displacement eld and (c) compute shear strain 12 .

2.5. SUMMARY

51

2.5.5

Material behavior

with K, M = 1, 2, ..., 6 and K, M represent the respective double indices: 1=11, 2=22, 3=33, 4=12, 4=23, 6=31 11 C11 C12 22 C12 C22 33 C13 C23 = C 12 14 C24 23 C15 C25 31 C16 C26 Orthotropic material 11 C11 C12 C13 0 0 0 11 0 0 22 22 C12 C22 C23 0 33 33 C13 C23 C33 0 0 0 = 0 0 0 C44 0 0 12 12 23 0 0 0 0 C55 0 23 31 31 0 0 0 0 0 C66 Isotropic material 11 2 + 0 0 0 11 2 + 0 0 0 22 22 33 2 + 0 0 0 = 33 0 0 0 2 0 0 12 12 23 0 0 0 0 2 0 23 31 0 0 0 0 0 2 31

52

Relation between Lam e constants , and engineering constants: E 2(1 + ) (2 + 3) + E (1 + )(1 2 ) 2( + ) E 3(1 2 ) 3 + 2 3

ij = 2ij + kk ij ij (3 + 2)(T T0 )

2.5.6

Exercises

1. Determine the constitutive relations governing the material behavior of a point having the properties described below. Would the material be classied as anisotropic, orthotropic or isotropic? (a) state of stress: 11 = 10.8; 22 = 3.4; 33 = 3.0; 12 = 13 = 23 = 0 12 = 23 = 31 = 0 corresponding strain components: 11 = 10 104 ; 22 = 2 104 ; (b) state of stress: 11 = 10; 22 = 2; 33 = 2; 12 = 23 = 31 = 0 corresponding strains: 11 = 10 104 ; (c) state of stress: When subjected to a shearing stress 12 , 13 or 23 of 10, the material develops no strain except the corresponding shearing strain, with tensor component 12 , 13 or 23 , of 20 104 .

33 = 2 104 ;

22 = 33 = 12 = 23 = 31 = 0

2.5. SUMMARY

53

2. A linear elastic, isotropic cuboid is loaded by a homogeneous temperature change. Determine the stresses and strains of the cuboid, if (a) expansion in x1 and x2 -direction is prevented totally and if there is no prevention in x3 -direction. (b) only in x1 -direction, the expansion is prevented totally. 3. For steel E = 30 106 and G = 12 106 . this material are given by 0.004 = 0.001 0 The components of strain at a point within

3.1 The Stress Plane

An octahedral plane is dened as a plane where the normal to the plane makes equal angles to the three principal strain directions. Eight such planes exist and one example is shown in gure 3.1 where the axes 1, 2 and 3 refer to the principal strain directions. 11 Aquisektrix

33 p q

22 Figure 3.1: Deviatoric or Octahedral Plane ( plane): Hydrostatic Stress (pressure) p and Deviatoric Stress q. [5]

For the normal to the octahedral plane shown in the gure, we have n =

1 3

1 1 1

In the coordinate system collinear with the principal strain directions, the strain tensor 54

55

The vector q is dened by q = n. It then follows from gure 3.2 that the normal strain 0 and tensorial shear strain 0 /2 on the octahedral plane are given by 0 = nT q; 0 = 2

qT q 2 0,

Figure 3.2: The vector q = n and its components after direction m and n. [25] where 0 is called the octahedral normal strain and 0 is called the octahedral shear strain. The deviatoric or octhaedral plane shows the possible shear stresses at a specic hydrostatic pressure level. A typical shape of a yield function for i.e. soil can look like gure 3.4

3.2

Dilation

A specic quality of most bulk solids but also other materials as some kinds of articial ones show the eect of dilation. Dilation is characterised by a increase of volumetric extension during deforming with shear strain in case of soil and bulk solids or while stretching in case of auxetic materials.

56

Figure 3.3: Example: Single Surface Yield Function for Soil, 3D view of stress space.

Figure 3.4: Characteristic Single Surface Yield Function in deviatoric plane for Soil. [25] A state of uniform Dilation occurs, if the strain tensor is given by ij = bij , where b is an arbitrary scalar. The deviatoric strain tensor eij becomes zero and the strain state corresponds to a uniform Dilation, i.e. a volume change, where the extension-

3.2. DILATION

57

Figure 3.5: (left) Uniform dilation; (mid) Auxetic material behaviour, auxetic hexagon; (right) Dilating package of grains while shearing

Figure 3.6: Uniaxial strain. [25] or contraction-in any direction is the same and equal to the parameter b, cf. Fig.3.5. Uniaxial strain occurs if the displacement vector ui u1 (xi , t) [ui ] = 0 0 which implies that 11 = ui /xi and all other strain components being zero, Fig. 3.6. Plane strain or plane deformation occurs if the displacement vector ui is given by u1 (x1 , x2 , t) [ui ] = u2 (x1 , x2 , t) 0 is given by

58

which implies 11 12 0 [ij ] = 21 22 0 0 0 0 This strain state occurs often in practise when a long prismatic or cylindrical body is loaded by forces which are perpendicular to the longitudinal elements and which do not vary along the length. In this case, it can be assumed that all cross sections are in the same state and if, moreover, the body is restricted from moving in the length direction, a state of plane strain exists. An example is an internally pressurised tube with end sections conned between smooth and rigid walls, Fig.3.7.

Figure 3.7: An example of plane strain. Pressurised tube with end sections conned between smooth and rigid walls. [25] So-called generalised plane strain or generalised plane deformation occurs if u1 (x1 , x2 , t) [ui ] = u2 (x1 , x2 , t) u3 (x1 , x2 , t) which leads to 11 12 13 [ij ] = 21 22 23 31 32 0

59

3.3

A material is anisotropic, if it behaves dierently when loaded in the same manner in dierent directions. As an illustration, consider the piece of wood shown in Fig. 3.9. In Figure 3.9(a), we have uniaxial tension along the x1 axis and we may express the relation between 11 and 11 as 11 = Ea 11 , where Ea is some experimentally determined stiness parameter. Likewise, in Figure 3.9(b), we also have uniaxial tension along the x1 axis and the relation between 11 and 11 can now be given as 11 = Eb 11 , where Eb is some experimentally determined stiness parameter. Comparison of Figure 3.9(a) and 3.9(b) clearly shows that Ea = Eb . We are thereby led to the following general conclusion: Material anisotropy means that the constitutive relation takes dierent forms depending on the Cartesian coordinate system we use. Let us assume that the constitutive law between stresses and strains is linear and let us investigate the general properties of this relation for a hyper-elastic material. The most general linear relation must be of the form

ij = Dijkl kl ;

(3.1)

where Dijkl is the elastic stiness tensor. That Dijkl indeed is a tensor of fourth order follows from the quotient theorem and the fact that ij and ij are second order tensors. The formulation (3.1) covers both anisotropic and isotropic elastic materials.

60

Figure 3.9: Example of anisotropy. Piece of wood loaded by the same uniaxial tension in dierent directions. [25]

3.4

Viscoelasticity

In classic elasticity there is no time delay between the application of a force and the deformation that it causes. For many materials, however, there is additional time-dependent deformation that is recoverable. This is called viscoelastic or anelastic deformation. When a load is applied to a material, there is an instantaneous elastic response, but the deformation also increases with time. This viscoelasticity should not be confused with creep, which is time-dependent plastic deformation. Anelastic strains in metals and ceramics are usually so small that they are ignored. In many polymers, however, viscoelastic strains can be very signicant. Anelasticity is responsible for the damping of vibrations. A high damping capacity is desirable where vibrations might interfere with the precision of instruments or machinery and for controlling unwanted noise. A low damping capacity is desirable in materials used for frequency standards, in bells, and in many musical instruments. Viscoelastic strains are often undesirable. They cause sagging of wooden beams, denting of vinyl ooring by heavy furniture, and loss of dimensional stability in gauging equipment. The energy associated with damping is released as heat, which often causes an unwanted temperature increase. Study of damping peaks and how they are

61

3.4.1

Rheological Models

Anelastic behaviour can be modeled mathematically with structures constructed from idealised elements representing elastic and viscous behaviour, as shown in Figure 3.10. A spring models a perfectly elastic solid. The behaviour is described by e = Fe /Ke , (3.2)

where e is the change of length of the spring, Fe is the force on the spring, and Ke is the spring constant.

248

Spring

Dashpot

(15.2

where ev is the change in length of the dashpot, F v is the force on it, and K v is th A dashpot models a perfectly viscous material. Its behaviour is described by dashpot constant. Series combination of a spring and dashpot v = dv /dt = F v /K v,

(3.3)

The Maxwell model consists of a spring and dashpot in series, as shown in Figure 15. where v is the change in length ofthe the dashpot, Fv F is the force on it, will and refer Kv to is the the Here and in following, e and , without subscripts, overall elongatio dashpot constant. and the external force. Consider how this model behaves in two simple experiment First, let there be a sudden application of a force, F , at time t = 0, with the forc being maintained constant (Figure 15.3). The immediate response from the spring 3.4.2 Maxwell Model ee = F / K e . This is followed by a time-dependent response from the dashpot, ev Ft / K v . The overall response will be The Maxwell model consists of a spring and dashpot in series, as shown in Figure 3.11. (15.3 e = ee + ev = F / K e + Ft / K v , Here and in the following, and F , without subscripts, will refer to the overall elongation so the strain rate will be constant. The viscous strain will not be recovered on unloadin and the external force. Consider how this model behaves in two simple experiments. Now consider a second experiment. Assume that the material is forced to undergo sudden elongation, e, at time t = 0 and that this elongation is maintained for a period o time, as sketched in Figure 15.4. Initially the elongation must be accommodated entire by the spring (e = ee ), so that the force initially jumps to a level F o = K e e. This forc

F If :

62

Figure 3.12: Strain relaxation predicted by the series model. The strain increases linearly with time.

3.5. PLASTICITY

63

First, let there be a sudden application of a force, F , at time t = 0, with the force being maintained constant 3.12. The immediate response from the spring is e = F/Ke . This is followed by a time-dependent response from the dashpot, v = Ft /Kv . The overall response will be = e + v = F/Ke + ft /Kv , (3.4)

so the strain rate will be constant. The viscous strain will not be recovered on unloading. Now consider a second experiment. Assume that the material is forced to undergo a sudden elongation, e, at time t = 0 and that this elongation is maintained for a period of time, as sketched in 3.13. Initially the elongation must be accommodated entirely by the spring (e = e ), so that the force initially jumps to a level Fo = Ke e. This force

Figure 3.13: Stress relaxation predicted by the series model. The stress decays to zero. causes the dashpot to operate, gradually increasing the strain v . The force in the spring, F = Ke e = ( v )Ke , equals the force in the dashpot, F = Kv dv /dt, ( v )1 dv = (Ke /Kv )dt. Integrating, ln[( v )/e] = (Ke /kv )t. Substituting ( v ) = F/Ke , Ke e = Fo , and ln(F/Fo ) = t/(Kv /Ke ). Now dening a relaxation time, = Kv /Ke , F = Fo exp(t/ ). (3.5)

3.5

3.5.1

Plasticity

Phenomenological aspects

The uniaxial behaviour of materials shows that irreversible strain develops in a way which depends on the type of material. In the case of metals such as mild steel, the observed

64

behaviour in tension is schematised in 3.14(left), where it can be seen that the response is elastic and linear until a point A is reached, from which plastic or irreversible strain upon unloading appears. If the specimen is subjected to an increasing strain, the stress does not change until point E. Along the plateau ABDE, the material behaviour is known as perfectly plastic. If the specimen is unloaded, both loading and unloading follow the same path, without irreversible deformation. The level of stress at which plastic strains appears does not change, and the material does not harden. Once a certain level of strain has been reached (E), the stress again increases. If we unload at some point F and then reload again, the material is able to resist a higher load until new plastic strains develop (hardening). Finally, a maximum load is reached from which the stress decreases until the material fails. In the case of soft soils such as saturated clays, the stress-strain curve is dierent, as plastic strain are present from very early stages of the test

Figure 3.14: (left) Behaviour of mild steel; (right) Behaviour of soft clay. [32]

Finally, some geomaterials such as concrete present degradation due to damage caused by the loading process to the structure of the material (3.15). Loading and unloading shows clearly how the apparent elastic modulus of the material degrades as the test progresses. Full understanding of this behaviour needs to take into account this process of degradation, and theories such as Damage Mechanics provide a suitable framework. However, plastic models can be developed to reproduce the observed behaviour with an acceptable degree of accuracy.

3.5. PLASTICITY

65

3.5.2

Basic theory

If the response of the material does not depend on the velocity at which the stress varies the relationship between the increments of stress and strain can be written as d = (d ) where , is a function of the increment of the stress tensor d and variables describing the state (or history) of the material. This is a general relation embracing most nonlinear, rate-independent constitutive laws. An inverse form is d = (d) As the material response does not depend on time, d = (d ), (3.7) (3.6)

where + , is a positive scalar (Darve 1990). Consequently, is a homogeneous function of degree 1, which can be written = : d (d ) (3.8)

66

d = C : d where C=

d = D : d

(3.9)

(d )

is a fourth-order tensor, homogeneous, of degree zero in d . Before continuing, some basic properties of C will be described. We will consider a uniaxial loading-unloading-reloading test schematised in Figure 3.16, where the constitutive tensor C is a scalar, the inverse of the slope at the point considered. As can be seen, the slope depends on the stress level, being smaller at higher stresses. However, if we compare the slopes at points A1 , A2 andA3 , they are not the same, and C depends on past history (stresses, strains, modication of material microstructure, etc.) Taking a closer look at point C , it can be seen that, for a given point, dierent slopes are obtained in loading and unloading, which implies a dependence on the direction of stress increment. This dependence is only on the direction, as C is a homogeneous function of degree zero on d . Therefore, in this simple one-dimensional case, it is possible to write for loading dL = CL : d and for unloading dU = CU : d We observe that if we consider an innitesimal cycle with d followed by d , the total change of strain is not zero as d = dL + dU = (CL CU ) : d = 0. (3.11) (3.10)

This kind of constitutive law has been dened by Darve (1990) as incrementally nonlinear. There are several alternatives to introduce the dependence on the direction of the stress increment, among which it is worth mentioning the multilinear laws proposed by Darve and co-workers in Grenoble (Darve and Labanieh, 1982), or the hypoplastic laws of Dafalias (1986) or Kolymbas (1991). However, the simplest consists of dening in the

3.5. PLASTICITY

67

Figure 3.16: General stress-strain behaviour. [32] stress space a normalized direction n for any given state of stress a such that all possible increments of stress are separated into two classes, loading and unloading

dL = CL : d dV = CV : d

(3.12) (3.13)

(3.14)

3.5.3

Formulation as a particular case of generalised plasticity theory Classical Plasticity Theory can be considered as a particular case of the Generalised Theory described above by a suitable choice of the plastic modulus, directions n and ngL /U and the elastic constitutive tensor. A yield surface is rst introduced as

68

f (, ) = 0,

(3.15)

where we have assumed that there is a set of scalar internal variables accounting for the material state and characterising the size (and shape) of the yield surface. Sometimes, as will be discussed later, f depends also on the tensor variable a, as in the case of kinematic and anisotropic hardening models, for instance. Here we will restrict the discussion to the isotropic case stated above. In the interior of the yield surface, there is no plastic deformation, and, consequently, the plastic modulus is H = . The loading-unloading direction is given by the normal to the surface

f f | |

nL/U = where |

(3.16)

f f 1/2 f |=( : )

The direction of plastic ow is similarly derived from a plastic potential surface g ( ) = 0 passing through the stress point considered,

g g | |

ngL/U =

(3.17)

Both surfaces can coincide, and the ow rule is then said to be associative, or can be different in which case there is a non-associative ow rule. Therefore, the material behaviour predicted by Classical Plasticity models presents a sharp transition from the elastic to the elastoplastic regime, with a discontinuity in the derivative of stress-strain curves. The plastic modulus is obtained through application of the so called consistency condition, i.e., the requirement that during yield the stress point should always remain on the yield surface. A certain hardening law has to be introduced, relating d to either incremental plastic work or to the increment of plastic strain. Yield and failure surfaces Following experimental evidence, plasticity theories postulate that irreversible or plastic strain appears whenever the stress reaches a surface f (ij , ) = 0. For all stress states in

3.5. PLASTICITY

69

the interior of this surface, material behaviour is elastic and f (ij , ) < 0. If is constant, the material cannot sustain a higher stress and failure takes place. This is the reason why the yield surface is also known as the failure surface. Care should be taken, however, as in the case of materials with hardening, these surfaces can be dierent. The scalar K usually characterises the size of the surface. This is, of course, a simplication, and more complex descriptions are available, such as f (ij , ij , ) = 0 or f (ij , ij , 1 , 2 , 3 , ...) = 0 If the material is isotropic, the representation theorems of scalar functions of tensor variables allows a simpler expression for f f (I1 , J2 , J3 , ) = 0 or f (1 , 2 , 3 , ) = 0 which can be further simplied to f (I1 , J2 , J3 ) Y () = 0 or f (1 , 2 , 3 )Y () = 0 where Y () is generally some measure of strength. I1 is the rst invariant of the stress tensor, I1 = 1 + 2 + 3 = J2 and J3 the second and third invariants of the deviatoric stress tensor s, 1 s = I1 I 3 1 1 J2 = tr(s2 ) = sij sji 2 2 (3.19) (3.18)

(3.20)

70

(3.21)

At this stage it is convenient to dene also the Lodes angle (Figure 5.23) often used instead of J3 . 1 1 3 3 J3 = sin ( ) 3/2 3 2 J2 with = 30o 6 6

(3.22)

3.6

It is important to distinguish between the yield surface, inside which behaviour of the material is elastic, and the failure surface, where failure takes place. To illustrate this, consider the example given in Figure 3.17 where a specimen of soft clay is being loaded from an initial state P1 to failure at P3 .There, yield surfaces are the ellipses f () = 0. The parameter in this case is associated with the (negative) plastic volumetric strain, i.e. d = d

(3.23)

and in 3.17 we show the yield surface in the space of two stress invariants, the second or deviatoric invariant and the rst or mean, hydrostatic stress invariant. With each of these is associated an appropriate strain component n being the component in the direction of decreasing volumetric strain if plasticity is assumed associated. Thus the three stages of loading P1 , P2 and P3 correspond to increasing values of as shown in 3.17(b). It has to be noticed that plastic strain appears from the beginning of the test, as the initial stress is on the yield surface. If, for instance, we unload at P2 , there will exist a permanent deformation even when the stress has come back to the original state. The process of increasing the size of the yield surface in this case is known as hardening. Comparing the conditions at P1 and P2 , the elastic domain is bigger in the latter, and the

71

Figure 3.17: Typical hardening behaviour of clay. (a) Yield surfaces (b) Stress-strain curve showing permanent strain upon unloading. [32] material is harder in this sense. Notice that slopes of the stress-strain curves contradict this denition, as the incremental response of the material is harder in the rst case. Hardening is not a common feature of all materials. Indeed, in the case shown in Figure 3.18, the size did not change and failure takes place as soon as the yield surface is reached. In another loading case, the size of the yield surface may decrease, as shown in Figure 3.19, and softening behaviour occurs.

3.6.1

3.6.1.1

Pressure independent criteria

von Mises yield criterion assumes that plastic strain appears whenever the second invariant of the stress tensor reaches a critical value Y 2 , where Y () is generally the tensile strength. Alternative expressions are (i) In the principal stress space f = (1 2 )2 + (2 3 )2 + (1 3 )2 6Y 2 = 0. (ii) In general stress conditions

2 2 2 f = (xx yy )2 + (yy zz )2 + (zz xx )2 + 6xy + 6yz + 6zx 6Y 2 = 0. (3.25)

(3.24)

72

Figure 3.18: Ideal Plasticity ( = constant). (a) Stress path (b) Stress-strain curve. [32]

Figure 3.19: Softening behaviour. (a) Stress path (b) Stress-strain curve. [32] Taking into account that the condition J2 = constant, corresponds to stress states 1 , 2 , 3 such that the distance to the hydrostatic axis 1 = 2 = 3 is constant, von Mises criterion is represented in principal stress axes as a cylinder of radius 2J2 = 2Y which is schematised in Figure 3.20(a). In the same gure we show a plane perpendicular to the hydrostatic axis, which is referred to as the II plane. Its intersection with the von Mises cylinder is a circle, which is shown in Fig.3.20(b). A simple method of determining the constant Y is to perform a tension test 1 = 2 = 3 = 0 and to determine the instant at which plastic strain develops. If the value of limiting tensile stress is a y then we obtain

f = (Y 0)2 + (0 0)2 + (0 Y )2 6Y 2 = 0.

(3.26)

73

(3.27)

Figure 3.20: von Mises - Huber yield criterion. (a) In the principal stress space (b) Section by plane. [32] In plane stress conditions, 3 = 0, and the expression of the criterion in principal stress axes is f = (1 2 )2 + (2 )2 + (1 )2 6Y 2 = 0. (3.28)

which corresponds in the 1 , 2 axes to an ellipse with principal axes at 45 (Figure 3.21). Tresca criterion: The Tresca criterion, proposed in 1864, is based on the assumption that plastic straining of a material appears when the maximum shear strain reaches a critical value Y . This condition, expressed in terms of the principal stresses reads (max min ) = Y. (3.29)

Substituting now the maximum and minimum principal stresses by their values in terms of the invariants I1 , , J2 and Lodes angle 1 1 sin( + 23 ) I1 2 J2 2 = 1 + sin() 3 3 3 cos( + 43 ) 1

(3.30)

74

Figure 3.21: Von Mises criterion for plane stress conditions. [32] Noting that I1 2 J2 2 + sin( + ), = 3 3 3 2 J2 2 = I1 + cos( + ) 3 3

max

min

(3.31)

2 J2 cos = Y.

(3.32)

When plotted in the space of principal stresses, the Tresca yield criterion is a hexagonal prism, with its axis coincident with the hydrostatic axis 1 = 2 = 3 Figure 3.22(a). The section by the -plane is a regular hexagon as can be seen in Figure 3.22(b). Finally, the plane stress condition 2 = 0 is represented by

75

Figure 3.22: Tresca Yield criterion. (a) In principal stress axes (b) In the plane. [32] 3.6.1.2 Pressure dependent criteria

to describe the conditions under which failure takes place in soils. He assumed that failure occurs on a plane on which the shear stress , and the normal stress n (compression negative) full the above condition. Although it is not advisable to think of it as a yield surface, it has been used frequently in engineering practise, and most nite element codes include it. In terms of principal stresses or invariants, we will write = and n = 1 + 3 1 3 + sin . 2 2 (3.38) 1 3 cos . 2 (3.37)

which can be obtained from geometrical considerations (Figure 3.24). This results in

76

(3.39) (3.40)

From above, using the relationships between principal stresses and invariants, it is easy to obtain 1 I1 sin + 3 1 J2 {cos sin sin } c cos = 0. 3 (3.41)

Figure 3.23: Tresca criterion for plane stress conditions. [32] The Mohr-Coulomb criterion is represented in the space of principal stresses as a hexagonal pyramid, which has been depicted in Figure 3.25.

3.6.2

If we assume that the material hardening is of strain type, there will exist a law relating the increments of and

77

(3.42)

(3.43)

(3.44)

78

f f : d + : : dp = 0 p If, in the above expression, we substitute dp it gives f f 1 : d + : p : ngL ( n : d ) = 0 HL This expression can be further developed to ( f 1 f g 1 f : d ) + f g ( : ) ( : d ) = 0 : | |.| | p HL HL = : ( f

p

(3.45)

(3.46)

g )

f g | |.| |

(3.47)

f g | |.| |

(3.48)

Local failure conditions or continuing deformation at a constant stress state can happen whenever HL = 0, which corresponds to: g . =0 p for which either of the following conditions have to be fullled (a) or (b) g . = 0 with p = 0. p (3.51) = 0(saturation) p (3.50) (3.49)

4.1 Constitutive Modelling of Concrete

Computational approaches to the integrity assessment of structural masonry are currently conducted by variety of methodologies, ranging from highly simplied methods to complex nonlinear nite element analysis using plasticity based material models, including joint and interface elements to model planes of weaknesses. Most frameworks rely on the nonlinear continuum or homogenisation based techniques. In order to understand the material models used for the masonry modelling it is necessary to look inside the general picture of non-linear material models. In the current situation there is not properly determined material model for the masonry. However, the behaviour of masonry can be grouped in the behaviour of granular materials. When granular material is said, we consider the concrete simultaneously. Since almost one hundred years there are many researches done to determine the exact material behaviour of concrete. Consequently, as a result of many useful works we can simulate the concrete accurately. If we assume masonry behave similar as the concrete, then we can use concrete material models for the masonry. The nite element methodology that is used for masonry is mainly based on the behaviour of quasi-brittle materials. In most cases, these models are (closely) related to the constitutive models used for concrete or rock material. A mathematical description of the material behaviour, which yields the relation between the stress and strain tensor in a material point of the body, is necessary for this purpose. This mathematical description is commonly named a constitutive model. The approaches for dening the complicated stressstrain behaviour of concrete under various stress states can be divided in three main groups: 1 Linear Elasticity 79

80CHAPTER 4. LINEAR ELASTICITY AND FAILURE CRITERIA FOR CONCRETE 2 Non-linear Elasticity 3 Linear-perfect plasticity And all these constitutive groups has to contain simulation of concrete failure. Therefore we can show the failure criteria as a common group as below: Constitutive models Constitutive models Failure (cracking and crushing) Criteria One-parameter model Two-parameter model Linear-perfect plasticity Improved failure model

4.2

4.2.1

Linear Elasticity

Although it has many shortcomings, the linear elasticity theory is the one very commonly used material model for concrete. One of the most important characteristics of concrete is its low tensile strength, which result in tensile cracking at low stress compared with compressive stresses. The tensile cracking reduces the stiness of the concrete and is usually the major contributor to the non-linear behaviour of concrete structures. The accurate modelling of cracking behaviour of concrete is undoubtedly the most important factor, and linear elastic fracture models have been developed and used by many researchers to study the non-linear response of concrete. The sudden strain softening property of the elastic brittle-fracture behaviour of concrete is a tensile-stress eld induces the cracking and causes sudden changes in local stress levels.

4.2.2

Nonlinear Elasticity

The linear elastic models can be signicantly improved by assuming a non-linear elastic stress-strain relationship in secant-modulus form. The most used models of this class is the hyperplastic type of formulation which approximate a path independent reversible

81

process with no memory. The non-linear elastic assumption has better results than linearelastic because the it can at least simulate the compression part of the concrete stressstrain path smoothly. As we know the non-linear response of concrete under compression forces mainly depend on this path.

4.2.3

For the compressive failure, the material shows an elastic behaviour up to point A (Figure 4.1), after which the material is weakened by the internal micro cracks. The micro cracking procedure continues in the path of BC with becoming macro cracks. The nonlinear deformations are basically plastic, in other word upon unloading only the portion of elastic strain (Ee) can be recovered from the total strain (plastic strain+ elastic strain, Ep+ Ee)(Figure 4.1). The phenomenon in the region AB and region BC corresponds to behaviour of a work-hardening and softening solid.

Micro Cracking

Elastic

For the tensile failure, the behaviour is linearly elastic up to the failure load. At the tension failure zone, the maximum stresses coincide with the maximum strains, and no plastic strains occur at the failure moment.

4.3

Failure Criteria

The strength of concrete under multiaxial stresses is a function of the state of stress and cannot be predicted by limitation of simple tensile, compressive and shearing stresses independently of each other. For example, concrete with a uniaxial compressive strength of fc and pure shearing strength of 0.08fc would fail under compressive stress of 0.5fc with the increasing shear stress at 0.2fc . Therefore, strength of concrete elements can be properly determined only by considering the interaction of the various components of the state stresses. There are many failure criteria proposed in the past. Here only some of them will be explained. Although the failure behaviour of concrete is very complex the well known Coulomb criterion combined with tension cuto can be appropriate way to solve some problems. In addition to Coulomb one-parameter and two-parameter simple failure models can be also used. The more complicated models with four, ve, six etc. parameters can be convenient for high speed computer applications. The tomb of the rule the increasing complexity in the model increase the cost of calculation but reduce the inaccuracy.

4.3.1

OneParameter Model

The failure surface of concrete is the three coordinate axes of principal stress has a triangular cross section for small stresses and becomes increasingly more circular for higher mean compressive stresses. In addition, the failure modes of concrete in these two regions are dierent. Under tensile and small compressive type of stresses, concrete will fail by a brittle fracture with very little plastic ow before failure. Under high hydrostatic pressure, concrete can yield and ow like a ductile material on the failure. There are several simple one parameter failure criteria of fracture for brittle materials and of also for yielding of ductile materials.

4.3.1.1

Rankine Criterion

According to this criterion, brittle failure of concrete takes place when the maximum principal stress at a point inside the material reaches a value equal to the tensile strength of the material as found by the simple tension test without applying compression or shear forces. Similarly, the compression failure occurs if the applied compression force exceed the compression capacity of material, Figure 4.2.

83

Tension

Pressure

Figure 4.2: Rankine failure criteria, the failure takes place if any principal stress exceed the strength. [31] 4.3.1.2 Shearing-stress Criteria ( von Mises)

For granular materials (rock, concrete, masonry) hydrostatic pressure has a large eect on the shearing strength of the material. For concrete in the high pressure range, the eect of hydrostatic pressure on the yield value of material may be neglected. It follows that shearing stress must be the major cause of yielding of concrete at high pressure. In the below gure 4.3, two shearing stress criteria are shown, the dashed line is the maximum shear criteria which is proposed by Tresca. The other circular one is the von Misses shear criteria. Tresca model is more conservative than the von Misses criteria.

Figure 4.3: One-parameter shear failure criteria, the dashed line is the Tresca criteria and the outer ellipse line is the von Misses criteria. [31]

4.3.2

TwoParameter Model

In two-parameter criterias the yielding of concrete under hydrostatic pressure in compression zone and fracture property in tension zone are combined, or we can say also the von Misses yield criterion is extended by including the eect of hydrostatic pressure on the shearing resistance of the material.

4.3.2.1

Mohr-Coulomb Criterion

According to Mohrs criterion failure of material will occur for the all stress states for which the largest of Mohr circle is just tangent to the envelope (Figure 4.4). This means that the intermediate principal stresses have no inuence on the failure. The failure envelope has the formulas S = k + N tan() with: S = shear stress capacity k = cohesion N = compression positive, tension negative = internal friction angle of material This angle of repose is low when grains are smooth, coarse or rounded, and, it is high for sticky, sharp, or very ne particles. Typically, it is between 15o and 45o . Experiments suggest that this coecient of friction drops when motions begins, i.e., the kinetic friction coecient is less than the static coecient. However, no data exist for granular material, and the universal assumption is that the kinetic and static coecient of friction are more and less equal. (4.1)

4.3.2.2

DruckerPrager Criterion

DruckerPrager is a model which is modication of the MohrCoulomb by using von Misses yield criterion. The main dierence between MohrCoulomb and DruckerPrager is the shape of the failure surfaces, in MohrCoulomb it is hexagonal and in Drucker Prager it is more smooth similar to circle.

85

The tension failure of concrete is characterised by a gradual growth of cracks, which join together and nally disconnect larger parts of the structure. It is a usual assumption that forming cracks is a brittle process and the strength in the tension-loading direction abruptly goes to zero after big cracks or it can be simulated with gradually decreasing strength as shown in below gure 4.7. The cracked concrete material is generally modelled by a linear-elastic fracture relationship. Two fracture criteria are commonly used, the maximum principal stress and the maximum principal strain criterions. When a principal stress or strain exceeds its limiting value, a crack is assumed to occur in a plane normal to the direction of the principal stress or strain. Then this crack direction is xed in the next loading sequences. In the nite element analysis there are three type of crack models. 1 Smearedcrack model 2 Discretecrack model 3 Fracturecrack model If overall load deection behaviour is desired, without regard to completely realistic crack patterns and local stresses, the smearedcrack model is the best choice. If the detailed

Figure 4.5: Failure surface dierences of Druker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb plastic models. [31]

Figure 4.6: Failure surfaces of Drucker-Prager: (left) 3D stress space; (right) 2D stress plane (crosssection). [31] local behaviour is of interest, the discretecrack model can be used. For the special class of problems in which the fracture mechanisms is the tool, a specialised fracture model may be more useful. For most structural engineering applications, the smearedcrack model is chosen.

4.4

Reinforcement

The use of iron in order to reinforce concrete structures dates back to the end of the last century and marks the birth of reinforced concrete construction. In the beginning, there were several reinforcement systems, using dierent shapes and types of iron or steel. Common reinforcement types today are deformed steel bars of circular crosssection for

4.4. REINFORCEMENT

87

Figure 4.7: Strength of concrete under tension load: Abruptly loss of strength and gradually decreasing strength. [31]

passive reinforcement and steel bars, wires or sevenwire strands for prestressed reinforcement. The deformation capacity of structural concrete elements, an important aspect in the design of such structures, mainly depends on the ductility of the reinforcement, and structural concrete elements are generally designed such that failure will be governed by yielding of the reinforcement. Therefore, ductility of the reinforcement is as essential to structural concrete as its strength. Much research has been conducted over the past decades in the eld of nonmetallic reinforcement, including glass, carbon and aramid bres. Randomly distributed glass bres result in smaller crack widths and hence, better serviceability. If glass bres alone are used as reinforcement, very high quantities of bres are required in order to achieve desired resistances, and the work ability of the concrete-glass bre mix becomes troublesome. Glass bres are therefore mainly used for crack-control in prefabricated nonstructural elements; steel bres can also be applied for this purpose, but they are less suitable due to corrosion problems. Carbon and aramid bres have higher strengths than steel while their weight is considerably lower, and they do not corrode; such materials are potentially interesting for use in long-span structures, preferably as prestressing cables. However, such bres are brittle, i.e., their response in axial tension is almost perfectly linear elastic until rupture, and they are sensitive to lateral forces, which complicates their application. In addition, carbon and aramid bres are relatively expensive. A 50m carbon or aramid bre post-tensioning cable, including anchors, is 3. . . 10 times more expensive today than a steel cable of equal resistance, and 6. . . 25 times more than one of equal stiness [20].

4.4.1

Reinforcing Steel

Two basically dierent types of stress-strain characteristics of reinforcing steel can be distinguished. The response of a hot-rolled, low-carbon or micro-alloyed steel bar in tension, Figure 4.8 (a), exhibits an initial linear elastic portion, s = Es s , a yield plateau (i.e., a yield point at s = fsy beyond which the strain increases with little or no change in stress), and a strain-hardening range until rupture occurs at the tensile strength, s = fsu . Various steel grades are usually dened in terms of the yield strength fsy . The extension of the yield plateau depends on the steel grade; its length generally decreases with increasing strength. Cold-worked and high-carbon steels, Figure 4.8 (b), exhibit a smooth transition from the initial elastic phase to the strain-hardening branch, without a distinct yield point.

Figure 4.8: Stress-strain characteristics of reinforcement in uniaxial tension: (a) hotrolled, heat-treated, low-carbon or micro-alloyed steel; (b) cold-worked or high-carbon steel; (c) bilinear idealisation.[20] The yield stress of steels lacking a well-dened yield plateau is often dened as the stress at which a permanent strain of 0.2% remains after unloading, Figure 4.8 (b); alternatively, the yield strain sy can directly be specied. The modulus of elasticity, Es , is roughly equal to 205GP a for all types of steel, while yield stresses typically amount to 400...600M P a. Unloading at any point of the stress-strain diagram occurs with approximately the same stiness as initial loading. The elongation in the strain-hardening range occurs at constant volume (Poissons ratio = 0.5), resulting in a progressive reduction of the cross-sectional area. Steel stresses, in particular the tensile strength fsu , are usually based on the initial nominal cross-section; the actual stresses acting on the reduced area at the ultimate state may be considerably higher.

4.4. REINFORCEMENT

89

A bilinear idealisation of the stress-strain response of reinforcement will frequently be applied. Using the notation of Figure 4.8 (c), the strain- hardening modulus Es h is given by fsu fsy , su sy

Esh =

(4.2)

where sy = fsy /Es = yield strain and su= rupture strain of reinforcement. The rupture strain su and the ratio of tensile to yield strength, fsu /fsy , are measures of the ductility of the steel. Hot-rolled, low-carbon or micro-alloyed steel exhibiting a stress-strain characteristic as shown in Figure 4.8 (a) typically has higher ratios of fsu /fsy and considerably larger rupture strains su than cold-worked or high-carbon steel, Figure 4.8 (b).

4.4.2

4.4.2.1

Bond

If relative displacements of concrete and reinforcement occur, bond stresses develop at the steel-concrete interface. The relative displacement or slip is given by = us uc , where us and uc denote the displacements of reinforcement and concrete, respectively. The magnitude of the bond stresses depends on the slip as well as on several other factors, including bar roughness (size, shape and spacing of ribs), concrete strength, position and orientation of the bar during casting, concrete cover, boundary conditions, and state of stress in concrete and reinforcement. Bond stresses are essential to the anchorage of straight rebars, they inuence crack spacings and crack widths and are important if deformations of structural concrete members have to be assessed. A detailed investigation of bond and tension stiening, including prestressed reinforcement and deformations in the plastic range of the steel stresses, can be found in a recent report by [2]. Bond action is primarily due to interlocking of the ribs of proled reinforcing bars and the surrounding concrete; stresses caused by adherence (plain bars) are lower by an order of magnitude. Forces are primarily transferred to the surrounding concrete by inclined compressive forces radiating out from the bars. The radial components of these inclined compressive forces are balanced by circumferential tensile stresses in the concrete or by lateral conning stresses. If signicant forces have to be transmitted over a short embedment length by bond, splitting failures along the reinforcement will occur unless sucient concrete cover or adequate circumferential reinforcement is provided; this eect is called

Figure 4.9: Bond behaviour: (a) pull-out test; (b) bond shear stress-slip relationship; (c) dierential element.[20] tension splitting. In a simplied approach, the complex mechanism of force transfer between concrete and reinforcement is substituted by a nominal bond shear stress uniformly distributed over the nominal perimeter of the reinforcing bar. Bond shear stress-slip relationships, Figure 4.9 (b), are normally obtained from pull-out tests as shown in Figure 4.9 (a). The average bond shear stress along the embedment length lb can be determined from the pullout force as F , lb

b =

(4.3)

where = nominal diameter of reinforcing bar. In a pull-out test, bond shear stresses increase with the slip until the maximum bond shear stress bmax (bond strength) is reached, typically at a slip = 0.5, ...1mm if the slip is further increased, bond shear stresses decrease, Figure 4.9 (b). Equilibrium requires that for any section of a structural concrete element loaded in uniform tension, Figure 4.9 (c), N (1 ) = s + c , As

N = As s + Ac c ,

(4.4)

where = As /Ac geometrical reinforcement ratio, As cross-section area of reinforcement and Ac cross-section area of concrete. Formulating equilibrium of a dierential element of length dx, Figure 4.9 (c), one obtains the expression 4b ds = , dx dc 4b = dx (1 )

(4.5)

4.4. REINFORCEMENT

91

for the stresses transferred between concrete and reinforcement by bond. Furthermore, the kinematic condition d d = [us uc ] = s c dx dx

(4.6)

is obtained from Figure 4.9 (c) if plane sections are assumed to remain plane. Dierentiating Eq. 4.6 with respect to x, inserting Eq. 4.5 and substituting stress-strain relationships for steel and concrete, a second order dierential equation for the slip is obtained. Generally, the dierential equation has to be solved in an iterative numerical manner. For linear elastic behaviour, s = Es s and c = Ec c , one gets d2 4b n = (1 + ) 2 dx Es 1

(4.7)

where n = Es /Ec = modular ratio; Eq. 4.7 can be solved analytically for certain bond shear stress-slip relationships.

4.4.2.2

Tension Stiening

The eect of bond on the behaviour of structural concrete members loaded in tension is called tension stiening, since after cracking the overall response of a structural concrete tension chord is stier than that of a naked steel bar of equal resistance.

Figure 4.10: Tension stiening: (a) chord element; (b) qualitative distribution of bond shear stresses, steel and concrete stresses and strains, and bond slip.[20]

92CHAPTER 4. LINEAR ELASTICITY AND FAILURE CRITERIA FOR CONCRETE The behaviour of a structural concrete tension chord can be described by a chord element bounded by two consecutive cracks, Figure 4.10 (a). The distribution of stresses and strains within the chord element is shown in Figure 4.10 (b) for the symmetrical case, i.e., equal tensile forces N acting on both sides of the element. At the cracks, concrete stresses are zero and the entire tensile force is carried by the reinforcement, sr = N/As . Away from the cracks, tensile stresses are transferred from the reinforcement to the surrounding concrete by bond shear stresses according to 4.5. In the symmetrical case, bond shear stresses and slip vanish at the center between cracks; there, reinforcement stresses are minimal, and the concrete stresses reach their maximum value. For a given applied tensile force, the distribution of stresses and strains, Figure 4.10 (b), can be deter- mined for arbitrary bond shear stress-slip and stress-strain relationships from 4.5 and 4.6. Integration of the dierential equation corresponds to solving a boundary problem since certain conditions have to be satised at both ends of the integration interval. For equal tensile forces N acting on both sides of the element, integration may start at the centre between cracks, where the initial conditions us = uc = 0 are known for symmetry reasons; as a boundary condition, the concrete stresses at the cracks must vanish. Alternatively, integration starting at the crack is possible, exchanging the initial and boundary conditions mentioned above. If the tensile force varies along the chord element, the section at which us = uc = 0 is not known beforehand and the solution is more complicated; suitable algorithms and a detailed examination are given in a recent report by [2]. Apart from a general discussion of tension stiening eects in the web of concrete girders, only the symmetrical case with equal tensile forces N acting on both sides of the element will be applied here. Observing that the concrete tensile stresses cannot be greater than the concrete tensile strength fct , one obtains the requirement 4 (1 )

srmo /2

b dx fct

x=0

(4.8)

for the maximum crack spacing srmo in a fully developed crack pattern. The minimum crack spacing amounts to srmo /2 since a tensile stress equal to the concrete tensile strength must be transferred to the concrete in order to generate a new crack. Hence, the crack spacing srm in a fully developed crack pattern is limited by srmo srm srmo 2 or, equivalently, 0.5 1 , where (4.9)

4.4. REINFORCEMENT

93

srm srmo

(4.10)

For most applications, only the overall response of the chord element is needed, while the exact distribution of stresses and strains is not of primary interest. Simple stressstrain and bond shear stress-slip relationships can therefore be adopted, provided that the resulting steel stresses and overall strains of the chord element reect the governing inuences and match the experimental data.

Figure 4.11: Tension chord model: (a) stress-strain diagram for reinforcement; (b) bond shear stress-slip relationship; (c) chord element and distribution of bond shear, steel and concrete stresses, and steel strains.[20] For this purpose, [33] proposed to use a bilinear stress-strain characteristic for the reinforcement and a stepped, rigid-perfectly plastic bond shear stress-slip relationship, Figs. 4.11 (a) and (b). This idealisation has been called tension chord model. For the bond

94CHAPTER 4. LINEAR ELASTICITY AND FAILURE CRITERIA FOR CONCRETE shear stresses prior to and after the onset of yielding of the reinforcement,b0 = 2fct and b1 = 2fct is assumed, respectively, where fct = tensile strength of concrete.

5.1 Introduction

In its most general sense, soil refers to the un-aggregated or un-cemented granular material consisting of both mineral and organic particles. In many materials classied as soil, cementing between grains may exist to some slight degree and therefore may contribute to the mechanical characteristics. Soils are aggregates of mineral particles, and together with air and/or water in the void spaces, they form three-phase systems. A large portion of the earths surface is covered by soils, and they are widely used as construction and foundation materials. Soil mechanics is the branch of engineering that deals with the engineering properties of soils and their behaviour under stress.

5.1.1

Eective Stresses

It is obvious that ground movements and instabilities can be caused by changes of total stress due to loading of foundations or excavation of slopes. What is perhaps not so 95

96

obvious is that ground movements and instabilities can be caused by changes of pore pressure. For example, stable slopes can fail after rainstorms because the pore pressures rise due to inltration of rainwater into the slope while lowering of groundwater due to water extraction causes ground settlements. (Some people will tell you that landslides occur after rainfall because water lubricates soil; if they do, ask them to explain why damp sand in a sandcastle is stronger than dry sand.) If soil compression and strength can be changed by changes of total stress or by changes of pore pressure there is a possibility that soil behaviour is governed by some combination of and u. This combination should be called the eective stress because it is eective in determining soil behaviour. The relationship between total stress, eective stress and pore pressure was rst discovered by Terzaghi (1936). He dened the eective stress in this way: All measurable eects of a change of stress, such as compression, distortion and a change of shearing resistance, are due exclusively to changes of eective stress. The eective stress is related to the total stress and pore pressure u by = u

Figure 5.2: Mohr circles of total and eective stress [3] Figure 5.2 shows Mohr circles of total stress and eective stress plotted on the same axes. Since 1 = 1 u and 3 = 3 u the diameters of the circles are the same. The points T and E represent the total and eective stresses on the same plane and clearly total and eective shear stresses are equal. Therefore, eective stresses are

=u

(5.1)

97

(5.2)

5.1.2

Total Stress

The total stress is equal to the overburden pressure or stress, which is made up of the weight of soil vertically above the plane, together with any forces acting on the soil surface (e.g. the weight of a structure). Total stress increases with increasing depth in proportion to the density of the overlying soil.

5.2

Although the concept of eective stress in soils is accepted by all soil mechanicians, practical predictions and engineering calculations are traditionally based on total stress approaches. The application of numerical approaches (in the early 70th) to the eld of soil mechanics in general and to soil dynamics in particular, it became clear that a realistic prediction of the behaviour of soil masses could only be achieved if the total stress approaches were abandoned. The essential model should consider the coupled interaction of the soil skeleton and of the pore uid. Indeed, the phenomena of weakening and of liquefaction in soil when subjected to repeated loading such as that which occurs in earthquakes (Figure 5.3), can only be explained by considering this two-phase action and the quantitative analysis and prediction of real behaviour can only be achieved by sophisticated computation. The simple limit methods often applied in statics are no longer useful. The engineer designing such soil structures as embankments, dams, or building foundations should be able to predict the safety of these against collapse or excessive deformation under the various loading conditions which are deemed possible. On occasion he may have to apply his predictive knowledge to events in natural soil or rock outcrops, subject perhaps to new, man-made conditions. Typical of this is the disastrous collapse of the mountain (Mount Toc) bounding the Vajont reservoir which occurred on October 9th 1963 in Italy [32]. Figure 5.4 shows both a sketch indicating the extent of failure and a diagram indicating the cross-section of the encountered ground movement. In the above collapse, the evident cause and the straw that broke the camels back was the lling and the subsequent draw down of the reservoir. The phenomenon proceeded essentially in a static (or quasi-static) manner until the last moment when the moving mass

98

Figure 5.3: Niigata earthquake, Japan 1964. Liquefaction of sand and overturning of buildings.[32] of soil acquired the speed of an express train at which point it tumbled into the reservoir, displacing the water dynamically and causing an unprecedented death toll of some 4000 people from the neighbouring town of Longarone. Such static failures which occur, fortunately at a much smaller scale, in many embankments and cuttings are subjects of typical concern to practising engineers. However, dynamic eects such as those frequently caused by earthquakes are more spectacular and much more dicult to predict. It is evident that the examples quoted so far involved the interaction of pore water pressure and the soil skeleton. Perhaps the particular feature of this interaction, however, escapes immediate attention. This is due to the weakening of the soiluid composite during the periodic motion such as that which is involved in an earthquake.

5.2.1

For single-phase media such as those encountered in structural mechanics, it is possible to predict the ultimate (failure) load of a structure by relatively simple calculations, at least for static problems. Similarly for soil mechanics problems such simple, limit-load calculations, are frequently used under static conditions, but even here, full justication of

99

Figure 5.4: The Vajont reservoir, failure of Mant Toc in 1963 (Oct. 9th): (a) hypothetical slip plane; (b) downhill end of slid [32]

such procedures is not generally valid. However, for problems of soil dynamics, the use of such simplied procedures is almost never admissible. The reason for this lies in the fact that the behaviour of soil or such a rock-like material as concrete, in which the pores of the solid phase are lled with one uid, cannot be described by behaviour of a single-phase material. Indeed to some it may be an open question whether such porous materials as shown in Figure 5.5 can be treated at all by the methods of continuum mechanics. Here we illustrate two apparently very dierent materials. The rst has a granular structure of

100

loose, generally uncemented, particles in contact with each other. The second is a solid matrix with pores which are interconnected by narrow passages. Using the concept of eective stress, it is possible to reduce the soil mechanics problem to that of the behaviour of a single phase, once all the pore pressures are known. Then we can use again the simple, single-phase analysis approaches.

Figure 5.5: Various idealised structures of uid saturated porous solids: (a) a granular material; (b) a perforated solid with interconnecting voids. [32]

Figure 5.6: Two uids in pores of a granular solid (water and air). (a) air bubble not wetting solid surface (eective pressure p = pw ; (b) both uids in contact with solid surfaces (eective pressure p = Xw pw + Xa pa . [32]

101

5.2.2

The following section gives an overview about common tests, to determine soil properties and to get parameters for the material models. There are tests with dry material samples and under wet conditions. Some test are performed to determine time dependent material behaviour. There are some aspects of material behaviour like relaxation, which are not yet predictable exactly. Another area of time dependent models are the time rate dependent formulations. Some applications, especially the bulk solids handling for process engineering, are dealing with higher movements of the solids. Aspects like uidisation and movement of gas phase through the particles are on interest. The shear test is the basic test for soil and bulk solid investigations. The test can be run with wet or dry samples, mostly samples with in situ conditions. One can determine the friction angle which is the main characteristic value of soil and bulk solids. It is correlated with the angle of response for dry material like sand and granular material (pile of sand). In gure 5.7 the Jenicke shear cell is pictured. The lower part of the cell is a pot (diameter around 10 cm) and the upper part is a ring with the same diameter. After lling the pot and ring with the sample, a vertical force is applied on the top of the lid. A force from side on the top of device eects a movement of the ring and lid. A shear deformation of the sample takes place. One can measure the normal stress, the shear stress and the displacement of the sample. A typical graph from that standard shear test for dry soil samples and bulk solids, is gured in picture 5.8.

102

Figure 5.8: Interpretation of Jenike Shear Test for Soil Samples The triaxial test is a common test from the soil mechanics to determine the characteristic parameter in soil engineering and substructure design. The sample is given into a elastic rubber cover and placed into a vessel which is lled with a uid. There is a given pressure in that uid, so the stress is 2 = 3 and the vertical stress 1 is variable. The uid pressure can represent the in situ conditions of that specic underground problem. In gure 5.9 (left) a undeformed and deformed sample is shown. The top and bottom plates are undeformable. The picture in gure 5.10 shows a laboratory arrangement of a triaxial tester. In gure 5.9 (right) the principle arrangement of sti plates for a triaxial tester are given. This kind of tester is high complicated to build, to ll and to measure.

Figure 5.9: Triaxial Test: (left) with uid pressure; (right) with deformation free walls. [5] With the Biaxial Tester it is possible to determine sophisticated and specic parameters for bulk solids in process engineering. The device allows to deform the sample on a

103

Figure 5.10: Triaxial Tester with uid pressure. stress or a strain dependent path. So, one can investigate the behaviour under dierent stress and deformation situations. The time dependent material behaviour like relaxation can be determined well with that device. The costs for test are high, so the practice shows, that only few models are dealing with results (parameters) out of this tester.

Figure 5.11: Biaxial tester, Institute of Process Engineering, TU-Braunschweig, Prof. Quade. [5] All the tests require a precise and accurate handling. It is important to ll the sample in a specic manner into the device, to make the results repeatable. It is not natural that the measurement is exact the same all the time, so, there are test around the world at dierent laboratories with the same sample and devices, to cross check the methods, how

104

to ll the samples and how to apply the measurement devices. With the oedometric compression test one can determine the porosity of a soil and bulk solid sample. The tester is drained, so the uids (like water or air) can ow out of the pores. See gure 5.12 for a principle set up of that test device. A typical plot of the porosity over the normal pressure is given in gure 5.13. One can calculate dierent parameters from that plot for material models which depend on the porous number of a material. Cap Ring Cell Load Soil Sample

Filter

Figure 5.12: Pressure (Oedometric pressure) tester, Institute of Process Engineering, TUBraunschweig, Prof. Schwedes, 1998. [5] e ep1 1 Cc1 1 ep2 ln(ps1 ) C c2 ln(ps2 ) ln(p)

Figure 5.13: Compression Diagram (Oedometric Tester): Determination of Compression Module Cc of Soil with various pressure ps = 1 tr(T). [5] 3

5.2.3

Stress Path

Results of triaxial tests can be represented by diagrams called stress paths. A stress path is a line connecting a series of points, each point representing a successive stress state experienced by a soil specimen during the progress of a test. There are several ways in which the stress path can be drawn, two of which are discussed below.

105

A Rendulic plot is a plot representing the stress path for triaxial tests originally suggested by Rendulic (1937) and later developed by Henkel (1960). It is a plot of the state of stress during triaxial tests on a plane Oabc , as shown in Figure 5.14. Along Oa , we plot 2r , and along Oc , we plot a ( r is the eective radial stress and a the eective axial stress). Line Od in Figure 5.15 represents the isotropic stress line. The direction cosines of this line are the 1/ 3, 1/ 3, 1/ 3. Line Od in Figure 5.15 will have a slope of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal. Note that the trace of the octahedral plane 1 + 2 + 3 = const will be at right angles to the line Od .

Figure 5.14: Rendulic Plot [10] In triaxial equipment, if a soil specimen is hydrostatically consolidated (i.e., a = r ), it may be represented by point 1 on the line Od . If this specimen is subjected to a drained axial compression test by increasing a and keeping r constant, the stress path can be represented by the line 12. Point 2 represents the state of stress at failure. Similarly, Line 13 will represent a drained axial compression test conducted by keeping a

106

Figure 5.15: Rendulic Diagram [10] constant and reducing r . Line 14 will represent a drained axial compression test where the mean principal stress (or J = 1 + 2 + 3 ) is kept constant. Line 15 will represent a drained axial extension test conducted by keeping r constant and reducing a . Line 16 will represent a drained axial extension test conducted by keeping a constant and increasing r . Line 17 will represent a drained axial extension test with J = 1 + 2 + 3 constant (i.e., J = a + 2r = const). Curve 18 will represent an undrained compression test. Curve 19 will represent an undrained extension test. Curves 18 and 19 are independent of the total stress combination, since the pore water pressure is adjusted to follow the stress path shown.

107

If we are given the eective stress path from a triaxial test in which failure of the specimen was caused by loading in an undrained condition, the pore water pressure at a given state during the loading can be easily determined. This can be explained with the aid of Figure 5.16. Consider a soil specimen consolidated with an encompassing pressure r and with failure caused in the undrained condition by increasing the axial stress a . Let acb be the eective stress path for this test. We are required to nd the excess pore water pressures that were generated at points c and b (i.e., at failure). For this type of triaxial test, we know that the total stress path will follow a vertical line such as ae. To nd the excess pore water pressure at c, we draw a line cf parallel to the isotropic stress line. Line cf intersects line ae at d. The pore water pressure ud at c is the vertical distance between points c and d. The pore water pressure ud(f ailure) at b can similarly be found by drawing bg parallel to the isotropic stress line and measuring the vertical distance between points b and g .

5.2.3.2

Lambe (1964) suggested another type of stress path in which are plotted the successive eective normal and shear stresses on a plane making an angle of 45o to the major principal plane. To understand what a stress path is, consider a normally consolidated clay specimen subjected to a consolidated drained triaxial test (Figure 5.17(a). At any time

108

during the test, the stress condition in the specimen can be represented by Mohrs circle (Figure 5.17(b).

Figure 5.17: Denition of stress path [10] Note here that, in a drained test, total stress is equal to eective stress. So 3 = 3 (minor principal stress) (major principal stress) (5.3)

1 = 3 + = 1

At failure, Mohrs circle will touch a line that is the MohrCoulomb failure envelope; this makes an angle with the normal stress axis ( is the soil friction angle). We now consider the eective normal and shear stresses on a plane making an angle of 45o with the major principal plane. Thus Eective normal stress, p = 1 + 3 2 1 3 Shear stress, q = 2 (5.4) (5.5)

109

The points on Mohrs circle having coordinates p and q are shown in Figure 5.17(b). If the points with p and q coordinates of all Mohrs circles are joined, this will result in the line AB . This line is called a stress path. The straight line joining the origin and point B will be dened here as the Kf line. The Kf line makes an angle with the normal stress axis. Now (1(f) 3(f) )/2 BC = OC (1(f) + 3(f) )/2

tan =

(5.6)

where 1(f) and 3(f) are the eective major and minor principal stresses at failure. Similarly, (1(f) 3(f) )/2 DC = OC (1(f) + 3(f) )/2

sin =

(5.7)

For a consolidated undrained test, consider a clay specimen consolidated under an isotropic stress 3 = 3 in a triaxial test. When a deviator stress is applied on the specimen and drainage is not permitted, there will be an increase in the pore water pressure, u (Figure 7.41a): u = A where A is the pore water pressure paramenter. At this time the eective major and minor principal stresses can be given by (5.9)

Mohrs circles for the total and eective stress at any time of deviator stress application are shown in Figure 5.18(b). (Mohrs circle no. 1 is for total stress and no. 2 for eective stress.) Point B on the eectivestress Mohrs circle has the coordinates p and q . If the deviator stress is increased until failure occurs, the eectivestress Mohrs circle at failure

110

Figure 5.18: Stress path for consolidated undrained triaxial test [10] will be represented by circle no. 3, as shown in Figure 5.18(b), and the eectivestress path will be represented by the curve ABC . The general nature of the eective-stress path will depend on the value of A. Figure 5.19 shows the stress path in a p versus q plot for Lagunilla clay (Lambe, 1964). In any particular problem, if a stress path is given in a p versus q plot, we should be able to determine the values of the major and minor eective principal stresses for any given point on the stress path. This is demonstrated in Figure 5.20, in which ABC is an eective stress path.

Figure 5.19: Stress path for Lagunilla clay (after Lambe, 1964) [10]

111

Figure 5.20: Determination of major and minor principal stresses for a point on a stress path [10] From Figure 5.19, two important aspects of eective stress path can be summarized as follows: 1. The stress paths for a given normally consolidated soil are geometrically similar. 2. The axial strain in a CU test may be dened as 1 = L/L as shown in Figure 5.18(a). For a given soil, if the points representing equal strain in a number of stress paths are joined, they will be approximately straight lines passing through the origin. This is also shown in Figure 5.19.

5.3

As described above, the material properties of soil and bulk solids mainly depend on the hydrostatic pressure. So, the idea of describing the valid (stress) states for a material is evident. The failure surface in 3D stress space gives an illustration of that valid stress states over a wide range of hydrostatic pressures. Inside the shape are valid states of the material, the deviatoric cross section in Figure 5.21 shows the valid shear stresses for three hydrostatic pressures. In the principal stress space, the shape of the failure surface is conical, with the apex of the cone at the origin of the stress axes, as shown in the inset of Fig. 5.21. Also shown in this gure are the deviatoric cross sections of the failure surface. The failure surfaces for dierent materials and dierent material models are given in Figure 5.22 at specic hydrostatic stress levels. There are some dierences in the shape of the yield surface which represents the dierent material properties and can show the dierent qualities of the models.

112

Figure 5.21: General shape and deviatoric cross-sections of the one-parameter failure model, each line represents a dierent level of hydrostatic pressure. [27, 28]

Some materials show the ability to take tension stresses, as well. In that cases the origin of the cone is displaced into the hydrostatic tension space.

5.4

5.4.1

Material Models

Rate Dependent Model for cohesionless Soil and Bulk Solids

There exist many numerical models for the description of stress dependent behaviour of bulk solids and soil. The following description gives an example of a rate dependent hy-

113

Figure 5.22: General characteristics of the traces of the failure surface on the deviatoric planes (Lade and Musante,1977). (a) Monterey No. 0 sand. (b) Grundite clay. [27, 28] poplastic model for dry soil and bulk solids. This model is valid for cohesionless materials. 1 +T )||D|| tr(T D) + fd aF (T F 2 D + a2 T T = fb fe (5.11) tr(T T)

elastic plastic

. Symbol Units Description T T T D D D D fb fd fe [kPa] a ] [ kP s kP a [ s ] [1 ] s 1 [s] [1 ] s 1 [s] [-] [-] [-] Cauchy stress tensor Time dependent stress rate tensor Corotatedstresstensor Strain rate tensor Corotatedstrainratetensor Time derivative of strain rate tensor 1 Deviatoric part of strain rate tensor D = D 3 tr(D)1 Pressure and Porous number dependent factor Pressure and Porous number dependent factor Pressure and Porous number dependent factor

= T/trT T

(5.12)

which describes the stress state with respect to the hydrostatic pressure level and is called the Chauchy stress tensor. The deviatoric aspects of that Chauchy stress tensor is given by =T 1I (5.13) T 3 The stress function F interprets the failure criteria (Figure 5.23). The given function T11

T22

T33

|| Figure 5.23: Yield Surface at specic hydrostatic pressure in deviatoric plane: r = ||T and Lode-angle . [5]

uses the Lodeangle to determine valid shear stresses at the given hydrostatic pressure level. 2 tan2 1 1 def F = tan2 + tan (5.14) 8 2 + 2 tan cos(3) 2 2 def || tan = 3||T T T ) tr(T def cos(3) = 6 . 3/2 T ) tr(T This model is used for simulating the dynamic material behaviour of dry bulk solids during discharge of silos. For implementation into FiniteElementCode (FEM) see [5]. Important for that application is the stress, and time, and porositydependent behaviour of the bulk solid. During FEM calculation of that simulation the most calculation cost is used for determining the valid stress state and valid porosity of the material.

115

5.4.2

There exist many models for dierent applications in soil and bulk solids handling. To have another closer view to a specic problem, we look at an advanced model for fully saturated soil. This kind of soil is very common for substructure design. Aspects of groundwater ow, and exploitation of oil, and contamination out of rubbish dumps, and ltration abilities of soil are on great interest for our today human society. Another wide area of application is noise reduction and insulation of buildings and machines, where air is the contemplated uid. The model is used to design materials and for numerically investigations of the eect of noise reduction under various conditions, where air is the uid phase, then. This section is partly from [11], so for more detailed information and aspects of i.e. numerical implementation, please refer to that publication. The main goal of that paper is the wave propagation through full saturated soil skeleton. The TPM is mostly presented

Figure 5.24: Fluid ow through Skeleton of of Particles (full saturated soil skeleton, also air possible) [11] in a general non-linear fashion [6], here the focus is given on the linearisation process [11]. All given nonlinear equations are formulated with respect to the reference conguration of the solid skeleton, therefore, special indication of the reference coordinate system is skipped. Furthermore, time derivatives are given as material derivatives with respect to the moving skeleton. But according to the subsequent linearisation no distinction will be made between the material time derivative and the partial time derivative.

5.4.2.1

Compressible constituents

In order to describe the two dierent phases of the material the concept of volume fractions is introduced [6, 7]. Therefore, the given volume element V is divided in two fractions V S and V F occupied by the solid skeleton (index S ) and the interstitial uid (index F ),

116

Figure 5.25: Deformation and movement of a uid saturated soil sample: (left) Fast compression wave: in phase deformation, (mid) Slow compression wave: counter phase movement of soil and uid , (right) Shear Wave: Deformation without volume change [11] respectively. If the whole space is lled with matter, the saturation condition requires V = V S + V F . The volume fraction nk of each constituent is dened by nk = Vk V with k = F, S . (5.15)

The partial densities k of both constituents relate the mass element of the constituents to the volume element V of the mixture while the eective densities kR relate the same element of mass to the volume element occupied by the constituent. Therefore, the partial densities are obtained by the product of the volume fraction and the respective eective density

k

kR k

with k = F, S .

(5.16)

Changes of the partial density are therefore possible due to changes of the eective density and of the volume fraction, i.e. the material itself as well as its porous structure allow for a compressibility. Within the general framework of compressible constituents, the eective densities are state variables and the volume fractions are internal variables [6, 7] which may be transformed to state variables under certain conditions. For an elastic and materially compressible solid phase, a nonlinear representation of the solid volume fraction is given as [12] nS = nS 0 . S n0 (1 det FS ) + det FS (5.17)

The current value of the volume fraction nS depends on the solid deformation gradient FS and the initial solid volume fraction nS 0 . The expression (5.17) is derived from an

117

evolution equation for the volume fraction by appropriate assumptions. Due to the assumption of a geometrically linear description the determinant of the deformation gradient is approximated by det FS 1 + ui,i . (5.18) The divergence of the solid displacement ui,i gives the linear expression for the volumetric strain. Inserting the linearised format of the deformation gradient (5.18) into the expression for the volume fraction (5.17) and a subsequent Taylor series expansion yields nS nS 0 2 S = nS 0 (1 (1 n0 )ui,i + O (ui,i )) . S 1 + (1 n0 )ui,i (5.19)

The balance equations of momentum of a two-phase continuum give the basis for the theoretical description within the TPM. They can either be given for both constituents separately or one of the individual balances may be replaced by the balance of momentum of the mixture as discussed in detail in [16]. In the present contribution, the mixture balance of momentum is used in combination with the uid momentum balance. The balance equations of momentum for the two-phase mixture read 1. for the mixture nS

SR

SR S bi

ui +nF

FR

+ nF

FR F bi

Newton

FR F F ui + wi + (ui,j + wi,j )wj = Tij,j + p i +n FR F bi

(5.21)

In Equations (5.20) and (5.21), wi denotes the seepage velocity dened as the relative velocity of the uid with respect to the deforming solid skeleton. The stress tensor is k given by Tij with k = S for the solid skeleton and k = F for the uid, respectively. The S SR S body force density in the uid and in the solid is nF F R bF bi , respectively. i and n The force density pi results from a momentum production representing the interaction between both constituents. Therefore, it is obviously not present in the equation for the mixture (5.20). Keeping in mind a linear version of the theory, the convective terms on the left hand sides of Equations (5.20) and (5.21) are of second order (and small) and will consequently be neglected. Furthermore, inserting the series expansion of the solid volume fraction

118

(5.19) into the balance of momentum (5.20) a consequent linearisation remains only the constant part nS 0 in the nal linear equation. Subsequently, due to the saturation condition 1 = nS + nF , both volume fractions are assumed to be constant within the balances of momenta S (5.22) nF nF nS nS 0 = 1 n0 . 0 This corresponds to the case called frozen volume fractions [7]. Gathering all the linearisations formulated above the linear balances of momentum are 1. for the mixture nS 0 2. for the uid nF 0

FR F F [ui + wi ] = Tij,j + p i + n0 FR F bi SR

ui + nF 0

FR

(5.23)

(5.24)

where no distinction between the partial time derivative and the material time derivative FR SR is + nF have to be made. In Equation (5.23), the bulk body force bi with = nS 0 0 introduced as an abbreviation for the sum of the solid and uid body force. Additionally, the balance of momentum of momentum is fullled if the stress tensors are symmetric. Furthermore, constitutive assumptions must be specied which link the stress tensors and the momentum production term to kinematic quantities. Neglecting the uid extra-stress, the stress tensor of the uid is governed by the pore pressure p

F Tij = nF pij F and accordingly Tij,j = (nF pij ),j = (nF p),i ,

(5.25)

where ij denotes the Kronecker delta (see Equation 1.22). Furthermore, the viscosity of the uid is taken into account by the momentum production or by the interaction force between the solid and the uid which is given by the linear relation

F p i = pn,i

(nF )2 wi T

(5.26)

T T with seepage velocity wi and pore pressure p i , and with the permeability , () =TPM. S This permeability depends on the intrinsic permeability k and on the uid viscosity F according to the relation T = k S /F . In the balance of momentum for the uid (5.21) or (5.24) the stresses and the interaction forces combine to

(nF )2 (nF )2 F w = n p wi . i ,i T T

(5.27)

119

According to the choice (5.25) and (5.26), the viscous properties of the uid are modelled by the momentum exchange term (5.26) while the uid extra stress is neglected. For the solid skeleton Hookes law is taken into account assuming a linear elastic behaviour. Hence, with the extra stress 2 S )ij = G(ui,j + uj,i ) + (K G)ij uk,k (E 3

Shear Hydrostatic

(5.28)

(5.29)

if a linear strain-displacement relation ij = 1/2(ui,j + uj,i ) holds. The shear modulus G and the compression modulus K are introduced in the constitutive equations. These material constants refer to the bulk material and, therefore, the compression modulus includes also the compressibility of the skeleton structure. Furthermore, the state variable z S was introduced to separate eects related to material and structural compressibilities, respectively. In formulating (5.29), it is additionally assumed that the free Helmholtz energy1 is independent of the volume fractions. Subsequently, due to this assumption, the conguration pressure vanishes. In the balance of momentum for the mixture the divergence of the total stress tensor is needed, i.e. the combination of the solid and uid stress tensor. Under the assumptions made above the divergence of the total stress is obtained as 2 S F Tij,j + Tij,j = G(ui,jj + uj,ij ) + (K G)uj,ji z S nS p,i (nF p),i 3 1 F Gui,jj + (K + G)uj,ji (z S nS 0 + n0 )p,i 3 assuming constant volume fractions according to the linearisation (5.22). The balance of mass of the solid is formulated for the partial density S = nS split into two parts by the introduction of the arbitrary function 0 z S 1

1

(5.30)

SR

and is

Helmholtz free energy: Thermodynamic Potential which increases the useful work from a closed system.

120

(

SR

) +

ui,i = 0

SR

((nS ) + z S nS ui,i ) + nS ((

) + (1 z S )

SR

(5.31) ui,i ) = 0 .

For arbitrary values of z S , (5.31) is fullled if each part of the sum is equal to zero (nS ) = z S nS ui,i and (

SR

) = (1 z S )

SR

ui,i .

(5.32)

Based on a micro mechanical investigation, The dependence z S = 1 K S /K SR relating z S to the compression modulus of the structure K S and the compression modulus of the solid grains K SR . He showed that this choice is thermodynamically admissible and that in the case of an incompressible solid skeleton the limit z S = 1 transforms (5.31) into the 1 well known volume balance nS = nS 0 det FS . Finally, an equation of state for the uid must be prescribed because in (5.25) for the uid extra stress tensor no constitutive assumption was given. Within the framework of a linear theory, the simplest case of the ideal gas equation is applied

FR

(p) =

FR 0

p0

p=

p , R

(5.33)

R with absolute temperature , the reference density F and the reference pore pressure 0 (static pressure) p0 . The alternative second expression uses the absolute temperature and the specic gas constant R. More complex laws to describe the volumetric behaviour of the uid could be included here, however, the linearisation neglects additional eects.

With these preliminaries the continuity equation for the uid can be formulated. In general, this equation reads F + ((wi + ui ) t

F

),i = 0

(5.34)

using the seepage velocity wi = vi ui instead of the uid velocity. Introducing the material time derivative F ( F) = + F (5.35) ,i ui t and combining (5.34) with the denition of the partial density (5.16) and with the saturation condition in the form (nF ) = (nS ) = z S nS ui,i yields the following representation nF (

FR

) +

FR

FR

wi ),i = 0 .

(5.36)

Equation (5.36) is the nonlinear form of the continuity equation of the uid with respect to the moving solid reference system. This equation is linearised by a formal Taylor series,

121

where in the rst term on the left hand side the gas equation (5.33) is substituted. In the second and third term, the density is multiplicated with the divergence of the solid R velocity or seepage velocity, respectively. Consequently, only the constant factor F of 0 the series expansion of the density is used. Additionally, according to Equation (5.22), constant volume fractions are introduced leading to the following linearised form of the continuity equation of the uid nF 0 p + R

F FR 0 (n0 F + z S nS 0 )ui,i + n0 FR 0 wi,i

=0.

(5.37)

Gathering all above given linearisations the following set of coupled dierential equations is obtained from the balance equations

0 ui

+ nF 0

FR 0 wi

The primary variables in (5.38) are the solid displacement ui , the seepage velocity wi , and the pore pressure p. Note that in Equations (5.38), due to the linearisation, constant F FR SR FR are used with the exception of the body force and 0 = nS densities SR 0 0 + n0 0 0 , 0 terms (Boussinesq approximation) where a linear approximation of the density is inserted. From a physical point of view it is sucient to describe the problem with only two primary variables namely the solid displacement ui and pore pressure p instead of three variables. In the quasi-static case, i.e. ui 0, wi 0, the balance of momentum of the uid (5.38b) can be rearranged to express the seepage velocity in terms of the pore pressure gradient. In this case, Darcys law2 is obtained. Inserting this expression into Equations (5.38a) and (5.38c) eliminates the seepage velocity as primary variable from the set of the governing equations. Since in the dynamic case, wi is given as time derivative in (5.38b), this procedure is only possible in Laplace domain. Before the Laplace transformation3 can be performed the following assumptions are made: All initial conditions vanish, i.e. ui (xi , t = 0) = 0 wi (xi , t = 0) = 0 .

2 3

(5.39)

Darcys law: Describes the ow of uid through porous media (published 1856). Laplace transformation: Used to transform dierential equations into easily solvable algebraic equations.

122

The pore pressure p is assumed to be the excess pressure relative to the static pressure p0 . Therefore, the initial conditions for the pore pressure also vanish p(xi , t = 0) = 0 . Taking these assumptions into account the transformed Equations (5.38) are

0s 2 !

(5.40)

u i + nF 0

FR i 0 sw

nF 0

where () indicates the Laplace transform and s is the complex Laplace variable. Rearranging the Laplace transformed balance of momentum for the uid (5.41b) the seepage velocity is obtained w i = T snF 0

FR 0

p ,i + s2

FR i 0 u

F RF bi

(5.42)

FR T snF 0 0 T FR nF 0 + s 0

(5.43)

is introduced. Eliminating the seepage velocity w i from the remaining balances (5.41a) and (5.41c) by use of (5.42), nally, the balance of momentum for the mixture s2 ( 0 T

FR ui T 0 )

p ,i

F RF bi

FR F 0 (n0

z S nS 0

T

(5.45)

are achieved. These operations establish a system of coupled partial dierential equations for the unknowns solid displacement u i and pore pressure p 1 S S T Gu i,jj + (K + G) uj,ji (nF p,i s2 ( 0 + z n0 ) 3 p ,ii nF 0 s

2 R s2 F 0 (nF 0 T 0

FR ui 0 )

= T

F RF bi

bi , (5.46)

T R

T + z S nS ui,i = 0 )

F RF bi,i

(5.47)

123

An analytical representation of Equations (5.46) and (5.47) in time domain is only possible for a constant value T . This is only achieved in the limit T , i.e. F 0. Consequently, the interaction force p i between the solid and the uid is proportional to F the pore pressure pi pn,i and the inuence of the seepage velocity on the momentum exchange vanishes. Evidently, this is only valid under equilibrium conditions where no uid motion takes place. 5.4.2.2 Incompressible constituents

Naturally, the balances of momentum (5.20) and (5.21) are not changed due to the assumption of incompressible constituents. So, the linearisation process is performed as shown in the foregoing section. Also, caused by linearisation, the volume fractions nS and nF are assumed to be constant within the balance equations. So, the linearised balances of momentum for the mixture (5.23) and for the uid (5.24) are valid also in case of incompressible constituents. On the other hand, the continuity equation of the solid (5.31) reduces to a balance of volume. As stated above, the incompressible case is included in the general framework by the choice z S = 1. The physical interpretation is obviously a constant density SR resulting in the well-known balance of volume (nS ) + nS ui,i = 0 . (5.48)

Assuming both constituents as materially incompressible and inserting the assumptions FR = const. and z S = 1 into the nonlinear form of the continuity equation of the uid (5.36) yields

FR

FR

wi ),i =

FR

(nF wi + ui ),i = 0 .

(5.49)

The constitutive equations for the incompressible solid and incompressible uid can also easily be achieved. The stress tensor of the uid (5.25) and the interaction force (5.26) are not changed yielding the well known principle of eective stress, but note that the pore pressure becomes a Lagrangian multiplier in this case which ensures the assumption of constant density. There is no longer an equation of state linking the density to the pressure. Finally, the divergence of the total stress is obtained by these assumptions in combination with the saturation condition nS + nF = 1 1 S F Tij,j + Tij,j = Gui,jj + (K + G)uj,ji p,i . 3 (5.50)

124

As in the compressible case, the incompressible model results in three equations for the three variables solid displacement ui , pore pressure p, and the seepage velocity wi 1 = Gui,jj + (K + G)uj,ji p,i + bi , 3 F 2 (n ) FR F FR F nF w i + nF bi , 0 0 [ui + wi ] = n0 p,i 0 T (nF 0 wi + ui ),i = 0 .

0 ui

+ nF 0

FR 0 wi

Because the balance of momentum of the uid Equation (5.51b) is equal to Equation (5.41b) of the compressible case, an extraction of the seepage velocity is only possible in Laplace domain. The transformation of Equation (5.51b) leads to the same expression as given in (5.42). Eliminating the seepage velocity from the balance of momentum (5.51a) and from the balance of volume (5.51c) results in the set of coupled dierential equations for the unknowns solid displacement u i and pore pressure p 1 R RF uj,ji (1 T ) p,i s2 ( 0 T F ui = T F Gu i,jj + (K + G) 0 ) 0 bi bi , 3 R s2 F 0 p ,ii (1 T ) ui,i = F R bF i,i . T (5.52) (5.53)

As in the compressible case, an analytical representation in time domain is only possible for T .

6.1 Introduction

Plasticity theory deals with yielding of materials under complex stress states. It allows one to decide whether or not a material will yield under a stress state and to determine the shape change that will occur if it does yield. It also allows tensile test data to be used to predict the work-hardening during deformation under such complex stress states. These relations are a vital part of computer codes for predicting crashworthiness of automobiles and codes for designing forming dies.

6.2

Uniaxial Plasticity

1. Plastic deformations are associated with a dissipation of energy and hence the process is irreversible and history dependent. 2. Plastic deformations are rate-insensitive and time-independent in the theory of plasticity. 3. Plastic deformation of metals are hydrostatic-pressure-insensitive and plastic volumetric change is incompressible .

6.3

The concern here is to describe mathematically the conditions for yielding under complex stresses. A yield criterion is a mathematical expression of the stress states that will cause yielding or plastic ow. The most general form of a yield criterion is 125

126

f (x , y , z , yz , zx , xy ) = C,

(6.1)

where C is a material constant. For an isotropic material this can be expressed in terms of principal stresses, f (1 , 2 , 3 ) = C. (6.2)

The yielding of most solids is independent of the sign of the stress state. Reversing the signs of all the stresses has no eect on whether a material yields. This is consistent with the observation that for most materials, the yield strengths in tension and compression are equal. Also, with most solid materials, it is reasonable to assume that yielding is independent of the level of mean normal stress, m = (1 + 2 + 3 )/3. (6.3)

It will be shown later that this is equivalent to assuming that plastic deformation causes no volume change. This assumption of constancy of volume is certainly reasonable for crystalline materials that deform by slip and twinning because these mechanisms involve only shear. With slip and twinning only the shear stresses are important. With this simplication, the yield criteria must be of the form f [(2 3 ), (3 1 ), (1 2 )] = C. (6.4)

In terms of the Mohrs stress circle diagrams, only the sizes of the circles (not their positions) are of importance in determining whether yielding will occur. In three-dimensional stress space (1 vs. 2 vs. 3 ) the locus can be represented by a cylinder parallel to the line 1 = 2 = 3 , as shown in Figure 6.1.

6.3.1

The simplest yield criterion is one rst proposed by Tresca. It states that yielding will occur when the largest shear stress reaches a critical value. The largest shear stress is max = (max min )/2, so the Tresca criterion can be expressed as max min = C. If the convention is maintained that 1 2 3 , this can be written as (6.5)

127

Figure 6.1: (left) Tresca Criterion; (right) A yield locus is the surface of a body in threedimensional stress space. Stress states on the locus will cause yielding. Those inside the locus will not cause yielding. Projection to 1 /2 Plane yield to eliptical shape. [19]

1 3 = C.

(6.6)

The constant C can be found by considering uniaxial tension. In a tension test, 2 = 3 = 0 and at yielding 1 = Y , where Y is the yield strength. Substituting into Equation 6.6, C = Y . Therefore the Tresca criterion may be expressed as 1 3 = Y. (6.7)

For pure shear, 1 = 3 = k , where k is the shear yield strength. Substituting in Equation (6.7) , k = Y /2, so 1 3 = 2k = C. (6.8)

6.3.2

The eect of the intermediate principal stress can be included by assuming that yielding depends on the root-mean-square diameter of the three Mohrs circles. This is the von Mises criterion, which can be expressed as (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2 + (1 2 )2 /3

1/2

= C.

(6.9)

128

Note that each term is squared, so the convention 1 2 3 is not necessary. Again the material constant, C, can be evaluated by considering a uniaxial tension test. At yielding, 1 = Y and 2 = 3 = 0. Substituting, [02 + (Y )2 + Y 2 ]/3 = C 2 , or C = (2/3)1/3 Y , so the equation is usually written as (2 3 )2 + (3 1 )2 + (1 2 )2 = 2Y 2 . (6.10)

For a state of pure shear, 1 = 3 = k and 2 = 0. Substituting in Equation 4.10, (k )2 + [(k ) k ]2 + k 2 = 2Y 2 , so k = Y / 3. (6.11)

Equation 6.10 can be simplied if one of the principal stresses is zero (plane-stress con2 2 1 2 = Y 2 , which is an ellipse (see Figure 6.1). + 2 ditions). Substituting 3 = 0, 1 With further substitution of = 2 /1 , 1 = Y /(1 + 2 )1/2 . (6.12)

6.3.3

Hardening Rule

A specication of the dependence of the yield criterion on the internal variables, along with the rate equations for these variables, is called a hardening rule. In this subsection we rst review in more detail the signicance of the two models of hardening isotropic and kinematic. Afterwards we look at some more general hardening rules.

6.3.4

Isotropic Hardening

The yield functions that we have studied so far in this section are all reducible to the form f (, ) = F ( ) k ( ). (6.13)

Since it is only the yield stress that is aected by the internal variables, no generality is lost if it is assumed to depend on only one internal variable, say 1 , and this is invariably identied with the hardening variable , dened as either the plastic work Wp or as the eective plastic strain p . The function h1 corresponding to 1 is given by ij hij or respectively, for each of the two denitions of , so that the work-hardening modulus H is

2 h h , 3 ij ij

129

H=

k (Wp )ijhij k ( )

p 2 h h 3 ij ij

(6.14)

The work-hardening in rate-independent plasticity corresponds to a local expansion of the yield surface. The present behaviour model represents a global expansion, with no change in shape. Thus for a given yield criterion and ow rule, hardening behaviour in any process can be predicted from the knowledge of the function k (), and this function may, in principle, be determined from a single test (such as a tension test). The most attractive feature of the isotropic hardening model is its simplicity. However, its usefulness in approximating real behaviour is limited. In uniaxial stressing it predicts that when a certain yield stress has been attained as a result of work-hardening, the yield stress encountered on stress reversal is just , a result clearly at odds with the Bauschinger eect1 . Furthermore, if F ( ) is an isotropic function, then the yield criterion remains isotropic even after plastic deformation has taken place, so that the model cannot describe induced anisotropy.

6.3.5

Kinematic Hardening

f (, ) = F ( ) k ( ).

(6.15)

then more general hardening behaviour can be described. Isotropic hardening is a special case of equation 6.15 if 0 and if k depends only on , while purely kinematic hardening corresponds to constant k but non-vanishing variable . Kinematic hardening represents a translation of the yield surface in stress space by shifting its reference point from the origin to , and with uniaxial stressing this means that the the length of the stress interval representing the elastic region (i.e., the dierence between the current yield stress and the one found on reversal) remains constant. This is in fairly good agreement with the Bauschinger eect for those materials whose stress-strain curve in the work-hardening range can be approximated by a straight line (linear hardening), and it is for such materials proposed the model in which = c p , with c being a constant. A generalisation of it is

The Bauschinger eect refers to a property of materials where the materials stress/strain characteristics change as a result of the microscopic stress distribution of the material. For example, an increase in tensile yield strength occurs at the expense of compressive yield strength.

1

130

due to Prager [23, 24], who coined the term kinematic hardening on the basis of his use of a mechanical model in explaining the hardening rule (Figure 6.2).

Figure 6.2: Pragers mechanical model of kinematic hardening: At one stress level on Plane one can move the yiled locus around that Pin (i.e. hydrostatic pressure, Aquisektrix).[22] A kinematic hardening model is also capable of representing induced anisotropy, since a function F ( ) that depends only on the invariants of its argument stops being an isotropic function of the stress tensor as soon as diers from zero. It should be pointed out that, since is a tensor in stress space (sometimes called the back stress, the equation ij = c p ij does not imply proportionality between the vectors representing and p in any space other than the nine-dimensional space of second-rank tensors, and particularly not in the six-dimensional space in which symmetric tensors are represented, since the mappings of stress and strain into this space must be dierent in order to preserve the scalar product = ij ij ; consequently, the translation of the yield surface for a material with an associated ow rule is not necessarily in the direction of the normal to the yield surface, as was assumed by Prager in constructing his model. In more sophisticated kinematic hardening models, internal variables other than p and are included; in particular, the back stress may be treated as a tensorial internal variable with its own rate equation. Indeed, the MelanPrager model falls into this category when its equation is rewritten as

ij = c p ij

(6.16)

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here c need not be a constant but may itself depend on other internal variables. In the model described by Backhaus [4], for example, c depends on the eective plastic strain p . Lehmann [21] replaces the isotropic relation 6.16 between and p by a more general one, ij = cijkl (, ) p kl

(6.17)

6.3.6

Generalised Hardening

The hardening represented by Equation 6.15 with both and k variable is called combined hardening by Hodge [18]. The combined hardening model proposed for viscoplasticity by Chaboche [9], has been applied by Chaboche and his collaborators to rate-independent plasticity as well. In these models the yield surface in stress space is constrained to move inside an outer surface, known variously as bounding surface, loading surface, or memory surface, given by, f (, ) = 0. The work-hardening modulus H at a given state is assumed to be an increasing function of a suitably dened distance, in stress space, between the current stress and a stress on the outer surface, called the image stress of . When this distance vanishes, the workhardening modulus attains its minimum value, and further hardening proceeds linearly, with the two surfaces remaining in contact at = . The various two-surface models dier from one another in the denition of the bounding surface, in the way the image stress depends on the current state, and in the variation of work-hardening modulus. In the model of Dafalias and Popov, both surfaces are given similar combined-hardening structures, with a back stress playing the same role for the outer surface that plays for the yield surface, and = c( )+ , where c is a constant. H is assumed to depend on = ( ) : ( ) in such a way that H = at initial yield, producing a smooth hardening curve. Experiments showed that when yield surfaces are dened on the basis of a very small oset strain, they undergo considerable distortion, in addition to the expansion and translation considered thus far. In order to describe such distortion in initially isotropic materials, Equation 6.15 must be modied to f (, ) = F ( , ) k ( ),

(6.18)

132

where F is initially an isotropic function of its rst argument but becomes anisotropic as plastic deformation takes place. An example of such a function is that Mises-type yield surface: F ( , ) = 0.5Aijkl ( )(ij ij )(kl kl ), where 1 Aijkl ( ) = ik ij ij kl + A 3 A being a constant.

p p ij kl ,

(6.19)

(6.20)

6.4

6.4.1

Introduction

Throughout history there has been a never-ending eort to develop materials with higher yield strength. However, a higher yield strength is generally accompanied by a lower ductility and a lower toughness. Toughness is the energy absorbed in fracturing. A high strength material has low toughness because it can be subjected to higher stresses. The stress necessary to cause fracture may be reached before there has been much plastic deformation to absorb energy. Ductility and toughness are lowered by factors that inhibit plastic ow. As schematically indicated in Figure 6.3, these factors include decreased temperatures, increased strain rates, and the presence of notches. Developments that increase yield strength usually result in lower toughness.Fractures can be classied in several ways. A fracture is described as ductile or brittle depending on the amount of deformation that precedes it. Failures may also be described as inter-granular or trans-granular, depending on the fracture path. The terms cleavage, shear, void coalescence, etc., are used to identify failure mechanisms. These descriptions are not mutually exclusive. A brittle fracture may be inter-granular or it may occur by cleavage. The ductility of a material describes the amount of deformation that precedes fracture. Ductility may be expressed as the percent elongation or as the percent reduction of area in a tension test. Failures in tension tests may be classied in several ways (Figure 6.4). At one extreme, a material may fail by necking down to a vanishing cross section. At the other extreme, fracture may occur on a surface that is more or less normal to the maximum tensile stress with little or no deformation. Failures may also occur by shear.

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Figure 6.3: Lowered temperatures, increased loading rates, and the presence of notches all reduce ductility. These three factors raise the stress level required for plastic ow, so the stress required for fracture is reached at lower strains. [19]

Figure 6.4: Several failure modes. (A) Rupture by necking down to a zero cross section. (B) Fracture on a surface that is normal to the tensile axis. (C) Shear fracture. [19]

6.4.2

Ductile Fracture

Tension test Failure in a tensile test of a ductile material occurs well after the maximum load is reached and a neck has formed. In this case, fracture usually starts by nucleation of voids in the center of the neck, where the hydrostatic tension is the greatest. As

134

deformation continues, these internal voids grow and eventually link up by necking of the ligaments between them (Figures 6.5). Such a fracture starts in

Figure 6.5: (upper)Development of a cup and cone fracture: (left) Internal porosity growing and linking up, formation of a shear lip; (right) A typical cup and cone fracture in a tension test of a ductile manganese bronze.(lower) Schematic drawing showing the formation and growth of voids during tension and their linking up by necking of the ligaments between them. [19] the center of the bar where the hydrostatic tension is greatest.With continued elongation, this internal fracture grows outward until the outer rim can no longer support the load and the edges fail by sudden shear.This overall failure is often called a cup and cone fracture fracture. If the entire shear lip is on the same broken piece, it forms a cup. The other piece is the cone (Figure 6.5). More often, however, part of the shear lip is on one half of the specimen and part on the other half. In ductile fractures, voids form at inclusions because either the inclusion-matrix interface or the inclusion itself is weak. Ductility is strongly dependent on the inclusion content of the material. With increasing numbers of inclusions, the distance between the voids decreases, so it is easier for them to link together and lower the ductility. Ductile fracture by void coalescence can occur in shear

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6.4.3

Brittle fracture

Cleavage 2 : In some materials, fracture may occur by cleavage. Cleavage fractures occur on certain crystallographic planes (cleavage planes) that are characteristic of the crystal structure. In most cases these are the most widely spaced planes. It is thought that cleavage occurs when the normal stress, n , across the cleavage plane reaches a critical value, c , as illustrated in Figure 6.6 The normal stress across a plane is n = a cos2 , where a is the applied tensile stress and is the angle between the tensile axis and the normal to the plane. Cleavage will occur when n = c , or a = c /cos2

(6.21)

Figure 6.6: (left) Cleavage plane and an applied stress. Cleavage occurs when the normal stress across the cleavage plane, n = a cos2, reaches a critical value, c ; (right) In polycrystalline material, cleavage planes in neighbouring grains are tilted by dierent amounts relative to plane of the paper. Therefore they cannot be perfectly aligned with each other. Another mechanism is necessary to link up the cleavage fractures in neighbouring grains. [19]

Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along denite crystallographic structural planes. These planes of relative weakness are a result of the regular locations of atoms and ions in the crystal, which create smooth repeating surfaces that are visible both in the microscope and to the naked eye.

2

136

In three dimensions the cleavage planes in one grain of a polycrystal will not link up with the cleavage planes in a neighbouring grain, as indicated in Figure 6.6 Therefore fracture cannot occur totally by cleavage. Some other mechanism must link up the cleavage fractures in dierent grains. Figure 6.7 shows a fracture surface in which there is cleavage of many grains.

Figure 6.7: Cleavage fracture in an Fe3.9% Ni alloy. The arrow indicates the direction of crack propagation. [19] Grain boundary fracture: Some polycrystals have brittle grain boundaries (i.e. pure iron), which form easy fracture paths. Figure 6.8 shows such an intergranular fracture surface. The brittleness of grain boundaries may be inherent in the material or may be caused by segregation of impurities to the grain boundary or even by a lm of a brittle second phase. Commercially pure tungsten and molybdenum fail by grain boundary fracture. These metals are ductile only when all the grain boundaries are aligned with the direction of elongation, as in tension testing of cold-drawn wire. Copper and copper alloys are severely embrittled by a very small amount of bismuth, which segregates to and wets the grain boundaries. Molten FeS in the grain boundaries of steels at hot working temperatures would cause failure along grain boundaries. Such loss of ductility at high temperatures is called hot shortness. Hot shortness is prevented in steels by adding Mn,

137

Figure 6.8: Intergranular fracture in pure iron under impact. [19] which reacts with the sulphur to form MnS. Manganese sulde is not molten at hot working temperatures and does not wet the grain boundaries. Stress corrosion is responsible for some grain boundary fractures. Role of grain size: With brittle fracture, toughness depends on grain size. Decreasing the grain size increases the toughness and ductility. Perhaps this is because cleavage fractures must reinitiate at each grain boundary, and with smaller grain sizes there are more grain boundaries. Decreasing grain size, unlike most material changes, increases both yield strength and toughness.

6.4.4

Impact energy

A material is regarded as being tough if it absorbs a large amount of energy in breaking. In a tension test, the energy per volume to cause failure is the area under the stressstrain curve and is the toughness in a tension test. However, the toughness under other forms of loading may be very dierent because toughness depends also on the degree to which deformation localises. The total energy to cause failure depends on the deforming volume as well as on energy per volume. Charpy test: Impact tests are often used to assess the toughness of materials. The most common of these is the Charpy test. A notched bar is broken by a swinging pendulum. The energy absorbed in the fracture is measured by recording by how high the pendulum swings after the bar breaks. Figure 6.9 gives the details of the test geometry. The standard specimen has a cross section 10 mm by 10 mm. There is a 2-mm-deep V-notch with a

138

radius of 0.25 mm. The pendulum s mass and height are standardised. Sometimes bars with U or keyhole notches are employed instead. Occasionally subsized bars are tested.

Figure 6.9: (left) Charpy testing machine and test bar. A hammer on the pendulum breaks the bar. The height to which the pendulum swings after the bar is broken indicates the energy absorbed. (right) Ductilebrittle transition in a Charpy V-notch specimen of a low carbon low alloy hot rolled steel. [19]

One of the principal advantages of the Charpy test is that the toughness can easily be measured over a range of temperatures. A specimen can be heated or cooled to the specied temperature and then transferred to the Charpy machine and broken quickly enough so that its temperature change is negligible. For many materials there is a narrow temperature range over which there is a large change of energy absorption and fracture appearance. It is common to dene a transition temperature in this range. At temperatures below the transition temperature the fracture is brittle and absorbs little energy in a Charpy test. Above the transition temperature the fracture is ductile and absorbs a large amount of energy. Figure 6.9 shows typical results for steel.

139

6.5

6.5.1

Introduction

The macroscopic behaviour of crystalline materials under mechanical or thermal loadings is determined by processes in the microregion of the material. By a combination of models on the basis of molecular dynamics and cellular automata, it seems possible to simulate numerically the formation of internal structures during the deformation processes. The stochastical character of these mechanisms can be considered by modelling them as stochastic processes, which result in Markov chains. By a mean value formulation, this leads to a macroscopic model consisting of non-linear ordinary dierential equations. The determination of the unknown material parameters is based on a Maximum-Likelihood output-error method comparing experimental data to the numerical simulations. With Finite-Element methods, it is possible to use the material models for the design of components and structures in all elds of technical application and for the numerical simulation of their behaviour under complex loading situations. Metallic materials show, like other crystalline substances, typical macroscopic responses on mechanical loading, which are caused by processes on the microscale. Figure 6.10 shows a typical cyclic stress-strain diagram with constant strain amplitude. Cyclic hardening can be observed as well as the Bauschinger eect, which can be recognised by the fact that plastic ow occurs after load reversal at signicantly lower stresses than those, from which the load reversal was done. For the technical use of metallic materials, the description of this kind of processes in material models is of high importance.

Figure 6.10: Cyclic stressstrain diagram for 304 stainless steel [35]

140

The moving of dislocations is the main microscopic mechanism responsible for the plastic deformations in metallic materials. In the following, a stochastic model is presented, which is able to consider hardening and recovery processes by means of Markov chains. During the deformation process, the dislocations arrange in a hierarchy of structures such as walls, adders or cells. This forming of structures inuences the macroscopic behaviour of the materials considerably. The principle of cellular automata in combination with the method of molecular dynamics is used for the numerical simulation of these processes. For the material parameter identication, the minimisation of the Maximum-Likelihood cost function by hybrid optimisation methods parallelised with PVM is considered. With a multiple shooting method, additional information about the states can be taken into account, and thus the inuence of bad initial parameters will be reduced.

6.5.2

The movement of dislocations and the connected plastic deformations caused by external loading is determined by two important activation mechanisms. The stress activation is caused by the external loads. The thermal activation supports at elevated temperatures the dislocation movements and therefore the plastic deformations.

Figure 6.11: Stress and thermal activation of dislocation motion [35] Figure 6.11 shows schematically the obstacles, which resist the dislocation movements on the microscale in the form of barrier potentials U , the possible position determined by temperature of the dislocations relative to these barrier potentials, and the eect of an external load and a temperature increase on the energetic situation of the dislocations. It is visible that the potential U of the external forces by superposition changes the potentials of the actual obstacles so that the dislocation movement in the direction of the applied stress is more probable than in the opposite direction, and that the thermal activation supports this process. The barriers, which oppose the dislocation movements, are on the one side given by the crystalline structure of the material itself, on the other hand,

141

foreign atoms and grain boundaries can form obstacles. One of the most important reasons for the hindering of the dislocations, however, are the dislocations themselves. During plastic deformation, continuously new dislocations are produced. In the beginning, the ability of the material for deforming plastically is increased. With increasing dislocation density, a mutual inuence of the lattice disturbances occurs, which results in isotropic hardening. Due to the lattice distortions connected with the plastic deformation, elastic energy is stored in the material, which also hinders the movements of the dislocations, which are generating it. This process is called kinematic hardening. The internal stresses, however, support the dislocation movements in the opposite direction and result in e.g. the Bauschinger eect 3 . At elevated temperatures above half of the melting temperature of the material, thermally activated reorganisation processes in the crystals occur, which reduce the mutual hindering of the dislocations and result macroscopically in recovery.

6.5.3

For unidirectional as well as for cyclic plastic deformation, it is observed that dislocation structures are developed in the shape of e.g. adders or dislocation cells, which in a typical manner depend on the loading history and the loading magnitude (Figure 6.12).

Figure 6.12: Characteristic dislocation structures [35] Due to the fact that this forming of dislocation patterns inuences the macroscopic behaviour of the materials considerably, the simulation of these self-organisation processes

The Bauschinger eect refers to a property of materials where the materials stress/strain characteristics change as a result of the microscopic stress distribution of the material. For example, an increase in tensile yield strength occurs at the expense of compressive yield strength.

3

142

can result in valuable information for the choice of formulations for the modelling of processes on the microscale. The interaction of a large number of identical particles is the basic idea for the denition of cellular automata. It is an idealisation of real physical systems, where space as well as time are discrete.

A cellular automaton is completely characterised by the following four properties: geometry of the cell arrangement, denition of a neighbourhood, denition of the possible states of a cell, and evolution rules. Each cell can during the evolution in time only assume values (states) out of a nite set. For all cells, the same evolution rules are valid. The change in state of a cell depends on its own state and those of the neighbouring cells. Opposite to the usual assumptions for cellular automata, where the state of a cell only depends on the states of the next neighbours, for the simulation of dislocation movements, it has to be taken into account that the dislocations possess long-range acting stress elds. With this model, it is possible to compute the dynamics of some thousand edge or screw-dislocations on parallel slip planes in areas of arbitrary magnitude. A basic model, for which only one slip system in horizontal direction was chosen, assumes a grid of rectangular cells, which can be occupied by edge or screwdislocations with positive or negative sign.

The transition rules are: A positive or negative occupied cell becomes an empty cell if the dislocation in the cell will move due to the acting forces to a neighbouring cell or if an annihilation with a dislocation in a neighbouring cell occurs. The step width of a dislocation is always one cell size per time step. Reachable cells are the cells left, right, up and down from the actual cell. This characterises a so called v. Neumann neighbourhood. For the calculation of the forces acting on a dislocation, a larger neighbourhood is necessary due to the long range acting stress of the dislocations. The balance of forces decides, if and in which direction a dislocation will move. It is computed for each time step and each dislocation for both degrees of freedom. A much more realistic simulation for the development of dislocation structures is obtained from models, which consider several glide planes.

Figure 6.13 shows a two dimensional projection for the glide system for a cubic face-centred lattice, and modelling of the glide processes on this system with three glide directions under angles of respectively 60o . The simulation results in wall and labyrinthstructures of the dislocations (Figure 6.14). An extension of the model with consideration of vacancies and a suitable velocity law is under progress [35].

143

6.5.4

The description of the processes responsible for plastic deformations shows that they are strongly stochastic. Figure 6.15 shows for a simplied case for processes at high temperatures, under consideration of kinematic hardening only, the used stochastic model. Over the state axis, which represents the value of the kinematic hardening kin , and therefore the strength of the obstacles resisting the dislocation movements, the distribution of the ow units (dislocations, dislocation packages or grain boundaries) is given. The eect of the external stress is reduced by the hardening stress, therefore only the eective stress ef f = kin is responsible for the dislocation movements. Depending

144

Probability of Hardening

Thermaly Activated

Figure 6.15: Stochastic model for high temperatures. [35] on ef f , a hardening probability V kin sign ef f RT

V = c1 exp

ie

(6.22)

is formulated. This transition probability is based on the condition that thermal activation of the dislocations can be taken as an empirical Arrhenius function. R is the gas constant and c1 ; ; V are constants, which have to be determined by experiment. It can be seen that the transition probability from a certain hardening state to the next higher decreases with increasing hardening. Hardening is opposed by a recovering process according to: F0 RT |kin | 0

m

E = c2 exp

sinh

V kin RT

(6.23)

which is thermally activated and not dependent on the external stress. The constants c2 and m have also to be determined by experiment. The strength of the lattice distortions increases with increasing hardening. It supports the recovery process. Therefore, the transition probabilities for recovery increase with increasing hardening. The model simulates hardening and recovery by transitions of dislocations at a barrier strength kin,i to higher barriers kin,i+1 and lower barriers kin,i1 : The probability that a ow unit remains in the actual position is given by: B =I V E The transition probabilities of the model can be arranged in a stochastic matrix: (6.24)

145

1 V1 E2 . V1 B2 . . 0 . V2 . . Ei .. . S= . Bi . . . V i . . E k 1 .. . Bk1 0 Ek Vk1 1 Ek

(6.25)

The change of the structure, which is described by the state vector z , during one time step t is given by the Markov chain: z (t + t) = Sz (t) (6.26)

For constant stress and temperature (homogeneous process), the state vector after n time steps is given by z (t0 nt) = S n z (t0 ). The stochastic matrix given by Equation 6.25 can be transformed to principal axes and yields then: 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 S = M SM = .. . 0 0 0 0 0 0 n

(6.27)

where M is the modal matrix, i.e. the matrix of the column wise arranged eigenvectors of the matrix S. Due to the fact that the maximal principal value of stochastic matrices is 1 and all other eigenvalues have magnitudes < 1, it is visible that their magnitudes decrease with increasing time, and the eigenvalue connected with the maximal eigenvalue 1 represents a stationary state. The other principal values are responsible for transient processes. An extension of the stochastic model, which allows for the simultaneous consideration of the development of activation volume V and kinematic stress kin is given in Figure 6.16. Thus, isotropic and kinematic hardening spread a state plane, which allows that with the distribution of the ow units, the state determined by both hardening types can be considered. The transition probabilities for the description of the development of the isotropic and kinematic hardening consider mutually the inuences given by the other hardening process.

146

Figure 6.16: Distribution function for kin and V = bA. [35] By a mean value formulation, the stochastic model is transformed in a macroscopic continuum mechanical material model, which takes a form similar to other models given in literature. This approach leads to a non-linear system of ordinary dierential equations for the inelastic strain , the kinematic back stress kin and the activation volume V :

ie =

F0 C exp( RT )(

|ef f | n ) 0

V ef f ), RT | F0 kin | m exp( RT )( ) 0

sinh(

(6.28)

kin sinh( V ), RT

(6.29) (6.30)

The material behaviour is described by a relation for the inelastic strain rate, where the actual values for isotropic and kinematic hardening occur as internal variables. This general form of the constitutive equations is also the basis for the development of a hierarchical model classication. A concrete model must be chosen with respect to the intended application purpose. The values C, n, H, , R , m, K1 , K2 and V0 are material parameters, which have to be determined by comparison with experimental results. The parameter identication, which consists in integrating the non-linear, ordinary dierential equations for varying parameter sets and by appropriate optimisation methods to search for the optimal parameter sets, deserves special recognition in aspect of the used mathematical 1 1 0 methods. An additional scaling of the functions like exp F T is necessary to R T 0 improve the parameter identiability and the macroscopical interpretations.

6.6. EXERCISES

147

6.6

Exercises

Example 4.1 Consider an isotropic material, loaded so that the principal stresses coincide with the x, y, andz axes of the material. Assume that the Tresca yield criterion applies. Make a plot of the combinations of y versus x that will cause yielding with z = 0. Solution Divide the y versusx stress space into six sectors as shown in Figure 6.17. The following conditions are appropriate: 1. x > y > z = 0, so 1 = x , 3 = z = 0, so x = Y 2. x > y > z = 0, so 1 = y , 3 = z = 0, so y = Y 3. y > z = 0 > x , so 1 = y , 3 = x , so y x = Y 4. z = 0 > y > x , so 1 = 0, 3 = x , so x = Y 5. z = 0 > x > y , so 1 = 0, 3 = y , so y = Y 6. x > z = 0 > y , so 1 = x , 3 = y , so x y = Y It seems reasonable to incorporate the eect of the intermediate principal stress into the yield criterion. One might try this by assuming that yielding depends on the average of the diameters of the three Mohrs circles, [(1 2 )+(2 3 )+(1 3 )]/3, but the intermediate stress term, 2 , drops out of the average: [(1 2 )+(2 3 )+(1 3 )]/3 = (2/3)(1 3 ). Therefore an average diameter criterion reduces to the Tresca criterion.

Example 4.2 Consider an isotropic material loaded so that the principal stresses coincide with the x, y, and z axes. Assuming the von Mises yield criterion applies, make a plot of y versus x yield locus with z = 0. Solution Let x = 1 , y = 2 , and z = 0. Now = 2 /1 . Figure 6.18 results from substituting several values of into Equation 6.12, solving for x /Y and / Y = x /Y , and then plotting.

148

Figure 6.17: Plot of the yield locus for the Tresca criterion for z = 0. The Tresca criterion predicts that the intermediate principal stress has no eect on yielding. For example, in sector I, the value of y has no eect on the value of x required for yielding. Only if y is negative or if it is higher than x does it have an inuence. In these cases, it is no longer the intermediate principal stress.[19]

6.6. EXERCISES Example 4.3 Show that the Tresca and von Mises criteria in the: 1. 1 2 space are respectively a hexagon and an ellipse, and in the: 2. 1 1 2 2 space are both ellipses. Solution (a) The general form of the Tresca criterion in the principal stress space is [(1 2 )2 4k 2 ][(2 3 )2 4k 2 ][(3 1 )2 4k 2 ] = 0 Substitution of = 0 leads to

2 2 [(1 2 )2 4k 2 ][2 4k 2 ][1 4k 2 ] = 0

149

Figure 6.19: Tresca and von Mises Criteria on the plane. [19]

7.1 Fluid Flows and their Signicance

The most content of this chapter is based on the contents of the book Fluid Mechanics and introduction to the theory of Fluid Flows by Prof. Franz Durst [14], further references are [8], [15], and [26]. Flows occur in many elds of our natural and technical environment. Without uid ows life, as we know it, would not be possible on Earth, nor could technological processes run in the form known to us and lead to the multitude of products which determine the high standard of living that we nowadays take for granted. Flows are therefore vital. Flows are everywhere and there are ow-dependent transport processes that supply our body with the oxygen that is essential to life. In the blood vessels of the human body, essential nutrients are transported by mass ows and are thus carried to the cells, where they contribute, by complex chemical reactions, to the build-up of our body and to its energy supply. Similarly to the signicance of uid ows for the human body, the multitude of ows in the entire fauna and ora are equally important (see Figure 7.1). As further vital processes in our natural environment, ows in rivers, lakes and seas have to be mentioned, and also atmospheric ow processes, whose inuences on the weather and thus on the climate of entire geographical regions is well known. Other eects on our natural environment are the devastations that hurricanes and cyclones can cause. A large part of the energy generated in a combustion engine of a car is used, especially when the vehicles run at high speed, to overcome the energy loss resulting from the 150

151

Figure 7.1: Flow processes occur in many ways in our natural environment, [34] ow resistance which the vehicle experiences owing to the momentum loss and the ow separations. Excellent work has been done in this area of uid mechanics (see Figure 7.2), e.g. in aerodynamics, where new aeroplane wing proles and wing geometries as well as wing body connections were developed which show minimal losses due to friction and collision while maintaining the high lift forces necessary in aeroplane aerodynamics. In the eld of chemical engineering are many areas such as heat and mass transfer processes and chemical reactions are inuenced or rendered by ow processes. In this eld of engineering, it becomes particularly clear that much of the knowledge gained in the natural sciences can be used technically only because it is possible to let processes run in a steady and controlled way. In many areas of chemical engineering, uid ows are being used to make steady-state processes possible and to guarantee the controllability of plants, i.e. ows are being employed in many places in process engineering. Often it is necessary to use ow media whose properties deviate strongly from those of Newtonian uids 1 , in order to optimize

Newtonian uid is a uid whose stress versus strain rate curve is linear and passes through the origin. The constant of proportionality is known as the viscosity.

1

152

Figure 7.2: Fluid ows are applied in many ways in our technical environment, [14]

processes, i.e. the use of non-Newtonian uids2 or multi-phase uids is necessary. The selection of more complex properties of the owing uids in technical plants generally leads to more complex ow processes, whose ecient employment is not possible without detailed knowledge in the eld of the ow mechanics of simple uids, i.e. uids with Newtonian properties. In a few descriptions in the present introduction to uid mechanics, the properties of non-Newtonian media are mentioned and interesting aspects of the ows of these uids are shown. The main emphasis of this book lies, however, in the eld of the ows of Newtonian media. As these are of great importance in many applications, their special treatment in this book is justied.

Newtonian uid is a uid whose ow properties are not described by a single constant value of viscosity. Many polymer solutions and molten polymers are non-Newtonian uids, such as ketchup, starch suspensions, paint, blood and shampoo. In a non-Newtonian uid, the relation between the shear stress and the strain rate is nonlinear and might be time and or velocitydependent.

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7.2

All substances of our natural and technical environment can be subdivided into solid, liquid and gaseous media, on the basis of their state of aggregation. This subdivision is accepted in many elds of engineering in order to reveal important dierences concerning the properties of the substances. This subdivision could also be applied to uid mechanics, but, it would not be particularly advantageous. It is rather recommended to employ uid mechanics aspects to achieve a subdivision of media, i.e. a subdivision appropriate for the treatment of uid ow processes. To this end, the term uid is introduced for designating all those substances that cannot be classied clearly as solids. Hence, from the point of view of uid mechanics, all media can be subdivided into solids and uids, the dierence between the two groups being that solids possess elasticity as an important property, whereas uids have viscosity as a characteristic property. When external shear forces are imposed on uids, they react with the buildup of velocity gradients, where the build-up of the gradient results via a moleculedependent momentum transport, i.e. momentum transport through uid viscosity. Thus elasticity (solids) and viscosity (liquids) are the properties of matter that are employed in uid mechanics for subdividing media. However, there are a few exceptions to this subdivision, such as in the case of some of the materials in rheology exhibiting mixed properties. They are therefore referred to as visco-elastic media. Some of them behave such that for small deformations they behave like solids and for large deformations they behave like liquids. A uid tries to evade the smallest external shear stresses by starting to ow. Hence it can be inferred from this that a uid at rest is characterized by a state which is free of external shear stresses. Each area in a uid at rest is therefore exposed to normal stresses only (Hydrostatic Case). The viscous (or the molecular) transport of momentum observed in a uid, should not be mistaken to be similar to the elastic forces in solids. The viscous forces cannot even be analogously addressed as elastic force. This is the case for all liquids and gases as the two important subgroups of uids which take part in the uid motions considered here. Hence the present work is dedicated to the treatment of uid ows of liquids and gases. On the basis of these explanations of uid ows, the uids in motion can simply be seen as media free from stresses and are therefore distinguished from solids. The shear stresses that are often introduced when treating uid ows of common liquids and gases represent molecule-dependent momentumtransport terms in reality. Neighbor-

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ing layers of a owing uid, having a velocity gradient between them, do not interact with each another through shear stresses but through an exchange of momentum due to the molecular motion between the layers. This can be explained by simplied derivations aiming for a clear physical understanding of the molecular processes, as stated in the Section 7.3. The derivations presented below are carried out for an ideal gas, since they can be understood particularly well for this case of uid motion. The results from these derivations therefore cannot be transferred in all aspects to uids with more complex properties. For further subdivision of uids, it is recommended to make use of their response to normal stresses (or pressure) acting on uid elements. When a uid element reacts to pressure changes by adjusting its volume and consequently its density, the uid is called compressible. When no volume or density changes occur with pressure or temperature, the uid is regarded as incompressible although, strictly, incompressible uids do not exist. Indeed, this subdivision mainly distinguishes liquids from gases. Liquids and some plastic materials show very small expansion coecients (typical values for isobaric expansion are p = 10 106 K 1 ), whereas gases have much larger expansion coecients (typical values are p = 1.000 106 K 1 ). A comparison of the two subgroups of uids shows that liquids fulll the condition of incompressibility with a precision that is adequate for the treatment of most ow problems. Based on the assumption of incompressibility, the basic equations of uid mechanics can be simplied, as the following derivations (Section 7.3) show; in particular, the number of equations needed for the general description of uid ow processes is reduced from 6 to 4. This simplication of the basic equations for incompressible uid ows allows a considerable reduction in the complexity of the requested theoretical treatments for simple and complex geometries, e.g. in the case of problems without heat transfer the energy equation does not have to be solved. The simplied basic equations of uid mechanics, derived for incompressible media, can occasionally also be applied to ows of compressible uids, such for cases where the density variations, occurring in the entire ow eld, are small compared with the uid density. For further characterization of a uid, reference is made to the wellknown fact that solids conserve their form, whereas a uid volume has no form of its own, but takes the form of the container in which it is kept. Liquids dier from gases in terms of the available volume taken by the uids, lling only part of the container, whereas the remaining part is either not lled or contains a gas and there exists a free surface between liquid and the

155

gas. Such a surface does not exist when the container is lled only with a gas. As already said, a gas takes up the entire container volume. Finally, it can be concluded that there are a number of media that can only be categorized, in a limited way, according to the above classication. They include media that consist of two-phase mixtures. These have properties that cannot be classied easily, and will not be described here.

7.3

7.3.1

Mass Conservation (Continuity Equation)

For uid mechanics considerations, a closed uid system can always be found or is assumed, i.e. a system whose total mass M = constant. This is easily seen for a uid mass, which is stored in a container. For all other uid ow

Figure 7.3: Dierent uid ow cases within control volumes for which M = constant can be set, [14] considerations, as shown in Figure 7.3, control volumes can always be dened within which the systems total mass can be stated as constant. If necessary these control volumes can comprise the whole earth to reach M = constant. When one subdivides the uid mass M within the considered system into uid elements with sub-masses m , then for the temporal change of the total mass one obtains: d dM = dt (m ) = dt (m ) dt

0=

(7.1)

156

This equation expresses that the total mass conservation in the control volume of the uid system is preserved when each individual uid element conserves its mass m . With this the balance equation for the mass conservation can be stated as follows, in Lagrange notation: (m ) dt

(7.2)

and so with some mathematical formulation the continuity equation holds in one of the following two forms:

Ui + =0 t xi Ui =0 xi

(7.3) (7.4)

7.3.2

The derivations of the momentum equations of uid mechanics are usually given for the three coordinate directions j = 1, 2, 3. They express Newtons second law and are easiest formulated in their Lagrange forms. For a uid element, it is stated that the time derivative of the momentum in the j direction is equal to the sum of the external forces acting in this direction on the uid element, plus the molecular-dependent input of momentum per unit time. For the viscous and ideal uids the momentum equations can be stated: ( Uj Uj P ij + Ui )= + gj t xi xj xi P Uj Uj ( + Ui )= + gj t xi xj (Viscous Fluids) (Ideal Fluids) (7.5) (7.6)

7.3.3

These equations are useful because they describe the physics of many things of academic and economic interest. They may be used to model the weather, ocean currents, water ow in a pipe, air ow around a wing, and motion of stars inside a galaxy. The Navier Stokes equations in their full and simplied forms help with the design of aircraft and cars, the study of blood ow, the design of power stations, the analysis of pollution, and

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many other things. Coupled with Maxwells equations they can be used to model and study magnetohydrodynamics. The NavierStokes equations are also of great interest in a purely mathematical sense. Somewhat surprisingly, given their wide range of practical uses, mathematicians have not yet proven that in three dimensions solutions always exist (existence), or that if they do exist, then they do not contain any singularity (or innity or discontinuity) (smoothness). These are called the NavierStokes existence and smoothness problems. The Clay Mathematics Institute has called this one of the seven most important open problems in mathematics and has oered a US 1.000.000 dollar prize for a solution or a counterexample.

Figure 7.4: Visual aspekt of navier stockes equation, [34] The NavierStokes equations dictate not position but rather velocity. A solution of the NavierStokes equations is called a velocity eld or ow eld, which is a description of the velocity of the uid at a given point in space and time. Once the velocity eld is solved for, other quantities of interest (such as ow rate or drag force) may be found. This is dierent from what one normally sees in classical mechanics, where solutions are typically trajectories of position of a particle or deection of a continuum. Studying velocity instead of position makes more sense for a uid, however for visualization purposes one can compute various trajectories. For = constant and = constant the Navier Stokes equations can be described as: ( Uj Uj P 2 Uj + Ui )= 2 + gj t xi xj xi (j = 1, 2, 3) (7.7)

This system of equations comprises four equations for the four unknowns P, U1 , U2 , U3 . In principle, it can be solved for all ow problems to be investigated if suitable initial and

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boundary conditions are given. For thermodynamically ideal liquids, i.e. = constant, a complete system of partial dierential equations exists through the continuity equation and the momentum equations, which can be used for solutions of ow problems. Properties Nonlinearity The NavierStokes equations are nonlinear partial dierential equations in almost every real situation. In some cases, such as onedimensional ow and Stokes ow (or creeping ow), the equations can be simplied to linear equations. The nonlinearity makes most problems dicult or impossible to solve and is the main contributor to the turbulence that the equations model. The nonlinearity is due to convective acceleration, which is an acceleration associated with the change in velocity over position. Hence, any convective ow, whether turbulent or not, will involve nonlinearity, an example of convective but laminar (nonturbulent) ow would be the passage of a viscous uid (for example, oil) through a small converging nozzle. Such ows, whether exactly solvable or not, can often be thoroughly studied and understood. Turbulence Turbulence is the time dependent chaotic behavior seen in many uid ows. It is generally believed that it is due to the inertia of the uid as a whole: the culmination of time dependent and convective acceleration; hence ows where inertial eects are small tend to be laminar (the Reynolds number quanties how much the ow is aected by inertia). It is believed, though not known with certainty, that the NavierStokes equations describe turbulence properly. The numerical solution of the NavierStokes equations for turbulent ow is extremely dicult, and due to the signicantly dierent mixing-length scales that are involved in turbulent ow, the stable solution of this requires such a ne mesh resolution that the computational time becomes signicantly infeasible for calculation. Attempts to solve turbulent ow using a laminar solver typically result in a time-unsteady solution, which fails to converge appropriately. To counter this, time-averaged equations such as the Reynolds-AveragedNavier-Stokes equations (RANS), supplemented with turbulence models (such as the k-e model), are used in practical computational uid dynamics (CFD) applications when modeling turbulent ows. Another technique for solving numerically the NavierStokes equation is the Large-eddy simulation (LES). This approach is computationally more expensive than the RANS method (in time and computer memory), but produces better results since the larger turbulent scales are explicitly resolved. Applicability Together with supplemental equations (for example, conservation of mass) and well formulated boundary conditions, the NavierStokes equations seem to model

159

uid motion accurately; even turbulent ows seem (on average) to agree with real world observations. The NavierStokes equations assume that the uid being studied is a Continuum not moving at relativistic velocities. At very small scales or under extreme conditions, real uids made out of discrete molecules will produce results dierent from the continuous uids modeled by the NavierStokes equations. Depending on the Knudsen number of the problem, statistical mechanics or possibly even molecular dynamics may be a more appropriate approach. Another limitation is very simply the complicated nature of the equations. Time tested formulations exist for common uid families, but the application of the NavierStokes equations to less common families tends to result in very complicated formulations which are an area of current research. For this reason, the NavierStokes equations are usually written for Newtonian uids. Example The NavierStokes equations, even when written explicitly for specic uids, are rather generic in nature and their proper application to specic problems can be very diverse. This is partly because there is an enormous variety of problems that may be modeled, ranging from as simple as the distribution of static pressure to as complicated as multiphase ow driven by surface tension. Generally, application to specic problems begins with some ow assumptions and initial/boundary condition formulation, this may be followed by scale analysis to further simplify the problem. For example, after assuming steady, parallel, one dimensional, nonconvective pressure driven ow between parallel plates, the resulting scaled (dimensionless) boundary value problem is: d2 u = 1; dy 2

u(0) = u(1) = 0

(7.8)

The boundary condition is the no slip condition. This problem is easily solved for the ow eld: y y2 2

u(y ) =

(7.9)

From this point onward more quantities of interest can be easily obtained, such as viscous drag force or net ow rate.

160

Diculties may arise when the problem becomes slightly more complicated. A seemingly modest twist on the parallel ow above would be the radial ow between parallel plates; this involves convection and thus nonlinearity. The velocity eld may be represented by a function f (z ) that must satisfy:

df + Rf 2 = 1; f (1) = f (1) = 0 dz 2

(7.10)

This ordinary dierential equation is what is obtained when the NavierStokes equations are written and the ow assumptions applied (additionally, the pressure gradient is solved for). The nonlinear term makes this a very dicult problem to solve analytically (a lengthy implicit solution may be found which involves elliptic integrals and roots of cubic polynomials). Issues with the actual existence of solutions arise for R > 1.41 (approximately. This is not the square root of two), the parameter R being the Reynolds number3 with appropriately chosen scales. This is an example of ow assumptions losing their applicability, and an example of the diculty in high Reynolds number ows.

Reynolds number can be dened for a number of dierent situations where a uid is in relative motion to a surface (the denition of the Reynolds number is not to be confused with the Reynolds Equation or lubrication equation). These denitions generally include the uid properties of density and viscosity, plus a velocity and a characteristic length or characteristic dimension. This dimension is a matter of convention - for example a radius or diameter are equally valid for spheres or circles, but one is chosen by convention. For aircraft or ships, the length or width can be used. For ow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a uid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes (such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical objects) have an equivalent diameter dened. For uids of variable density (e.g. compressible gases) or variable viscosity (non-Newtonian uids) special rules apply. The velocity may also be a matter of convention in some circumstances, notably stirred vessels. Re = V L VL QL = = A (7.11)

3

where: V is the mean uid velocity (SI units: m s ) L is a characteristic linear dimension, (traveled length of uid, or hydraulic radius when dealing with river systems) (m) is the dynamic viscosity of the uid (Pas or N s/m2 or kg/ms) is the kinematic viscosity ( = /)(m2 /s) is the density of the uid (kg/m3 ) Q is the volumetric ow rate (m3 /s) A is the pipe cross-sectional area (m2 ).

161

7.3.4

A special form of the mechanical energy equation is the Bernoulli equation, which can be derived from the general form of the mechanical energy equation: d( 1 U 2 + G) P ij 2 j = Uj dt xj xi U j For ij = 0 and

P t

(7.12)

This form of the mechanical energy equation can be employed in many engineering applications to solve ow problems in an engineering manner.

7.3.5

When one sets up the energy equation with the total energy balance, the considerations stated below result, which start from the entire internal, the kinetic and the potential energies of a uid element and consider its evolution as a function of time: de Uj q . Uj = i P ij dt xi xj xi

I II III IV

(7.14)

CHAPTER 7. FLUID ASPECT IN CONSTITUTIVE MATERIAL MODELING I II III IV Temporal change of the internal energy of a uid per unit volume. Heat supply per unit time and unit area. Expansion work done per unit volume and unit time. Irreversible transfer of mechanical energy into heat, per unit volume and unit time.

7.4

Energy

Energy is the capacity to do work and transfer heat. Work is performed when an object or substance is moved over some distance. Energy is needed to carry out processes, such as boiling water or burning candles. Energy is also the heat that ows from a hot object or substance to a cold one, when they come in contact. A clear example of this is the fact that water heats up when you put in a water boiler device. Energy has many forms, such as light, heat, electricity, chemical energy (stored in chemical bonds) and mechanical energy (moving matter, such as owing water). All energy forms are divided up between two main kinds of energy. The rst main kind of energy is kinetic energy, the energy of motion and action. Heat is a total of kinetic energy of atoms, ions or molecules. When these chemical compounds are in motion due to kinetic energy they will warm up. You cannot always detect heat that originates from kinetic energy, because sometimes the heat of a substance can rise without an additional rise in temperature. The second main kind of energy is potential energy, energy that is stored and potentially available for use. Before potential energy can be used it is transferred into kinetic energy. An example of an object containing merely potential energy is a dice that you hold in your hand. When you throw the dice the potential energy is transferred into kinetic energy and this will cause the movement. Hydroelectric Power Hydroelectric power is electricity that is supplied by generating energy from falling or streaming water (Figure 7.10). Hydroelectric power is a socalled renewable energy source. This means that the source, which provides the energy, can be renewed. This is because, unlike non-renewable energy sources such as crude oil, we will not run out of water fully. It can be renewed after we have used it for energy generation. Hydroelectric Power Plant A hydroelectric power plant consists of a high dam that is built across a large river to create a reservoir, and a station where the process of energy conversion to electricity takes place (Figure 7.6). The run-o ows to dams downstream. The water falls through a dam, into the hydropower plant and turns a large wheel called a turbine. The turbine converts the energy

7.4. ENERGY

163

Figure 7.6: Hydroelectric power plant with dam, [34] of falling water into mechanical energy to drive the generator. It turns a shaft, which rotates a number of magnets in the generator. When the magnets pass copper coils a magnetic eld is created, which aids the production of electricity.

7.4.1

Turbine

A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a uid or air ow and converts it into useful work. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum, with blades attached (Figure 7.7). Moving uid acts on the blades, or the blades react to the ow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.

7.4.2

Theory of Operation

A working uid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head). The uid may be compressible or incompressible. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy: Impulse turbines (Figure 7.9) These turbines change the direction of ow of a high velocity uid or gas jet. The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the uid ow

164

Figure 7.7: Water Turbine, Geometry Example, [34] with diminished kinetic energy (Figure 7.8). There is no pressure change of the uid or gas in the turbine rotor blades (the moving blades), as in the case of a steam or gas turbine, all the pressure drop takes place in the stationary blades (the nozzles).

Figure 7.8: Navier-Stokes CFD of separated ows in a launcher nozzle, [13] Before reaching the turbine, the uids pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the uid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the rotor since the uid jet is created by the nozzle prior to reaching the blading on the rotor. Newtons second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Reaction turbines (Figure 7.9) These turbines develop torque by reacting to the gas

7.4. ENERGY

165

or uids pressure or mass. The pressure of the gas or uid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working uid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully immersed in the uid ow (such as with wind turbines). The casing contains and directs the working uid and, for water turbines, maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept. For compressible working uids, multiple turbine stages are usually used to harness the expanding gas eciently. Newtons third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. In the case of steam turbines, such as would be used for marine applications or for land-based electricity generation, a Parsons type reaction turbine would require approximately double the number of blade rows as a de Laval type impulse turbine, for the same degree of thermal energy conversion. Whilst this makes the Parsons turbine much longer and heavier, the overall eciency of a reaction turbine is slightly higher than the equivalent impulse turbine for the same thermal energy conversion.

Figure 7.9: Reaction and Impluse Turbine, [8] Steam turbines and later, gas turbines developed continually during the 20th Century, continue to do so and in practice, modern turbine designs will use both reaction and impulse concepts to varying degrees whenever possible. Wind turbines use an airfoil to

166

generate lift from the moving uid and impart it to the rotor (this is a form of reaction). Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the wind, by deecting it at an angle. Crossow turbines are designed as an impulse machine, with a nozzle, but in low head applications maintain some eciency through reaction, like a traditional water wheel. Turbines with multiple stages may utilize either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure. Steam Turbines were traditionally more impulse but continue to move towards reaction designs similar to those used in Gas Turbines. At low pressure the operating uid medium expands in volume for small reductions in pressure. Under these conditions (termed Low Pressure Turbines) blading becomes strictly a reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. The reason is due to the eect of the rotation speed for each blade. As the volume increases, the blade height increases, and the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip. This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base, to a high reaction style tip.

Figure 7.10: Water Turbine, [34] Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. Vector analysis related the uid ow with turbine shape and rotation. Graphical calculation methods were used at rst. Formulae for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well documented and a highly ecient machine can be reliably designed for any uid ow condition. Some of the calculations are empirical or rule of thumb formulae, and others are based on classical mechanics. As with most engineering calculations, simplifying assumptions were made. Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage. Gas

7.4. ENERGY

167

exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity Va1 . The rotor rotates at velocity U . Relative to the rotor, the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the rotor entrance is Vr1 . The gas is turned by the rotor and exits, relative to the rotor, at velocity Vr2 . However, in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is Va2 . The velocity triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. Velocity triangles can be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub , tip, midsection and so on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Mean performance for the stage can be calculated from the velocity triangles, at this radius, using the Euler equation: h = u.w whence: u w h = ( ).( ) T T T (7.15)

(7.16)

where: h T u w specic enthalpy drop across stage turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature turbine rotor peripheral velocity change in whirl velocity

h and T

Commonly we know dierent kind of water turbines: Pelton turbine, a type of impulse water turbine, Figure 7.11 (a). Francis turbine, a type of widely used water turbine, Figure 7.11 (b). Kaplan turbine, a variation of the Francis Turbine, Figure 7.11 (c). Negative Pressure To increase the degree of eciency of the turbines the idea of using the eect of low pressure or negative pressure for powering the blades are introduced by Victor Schauberger[30] in the early 20th century. There are less existing machines yet, some people are working with the ideas of increasing the eciency of the water ow trough the turbines. The main eect could be the ordering of water molecules which lead to higher ow and increased mass ow, see Figure 7.12 and Figure 7.13. This leads to NanoScale consideration of the ow problem, which is not yet implemented in Simulation code. To nd a more accurate description of uid ow material model will be one of the most challenging research topics for the near future.

168

169

(a) Crosssection and Top View at dif- (b) Flow Channel and Collision of ferent layers Molecules

Figure 7.12: Fluid Turbine Design with using negative pressure eects: Accelerated Nozzle (High Speed Flow); Inlet at bottom, Outlet at top; Orange cone is rotating [17]

(a) Negative Pressure Ring Tur- (b) Geometry for Negative Presbine (Ring Wirbel Motor) sure Pump (Sog Pumpe)

Figure 7.13: Examples of dierent Turbine Geometries, for including negative pressure eects, [17]

7.5

FluidStructure Interaction

FluidStructure interaction (FSI) is the interaction of some movable or deformable structure with an internal or surrounding uid ow[1]. FluidStructure interactions can be

170

stable or oscillatory. In oscillatory interactions, the strain induced in the solid structure causes it to move such that the source of strain is reduced, and the structure returns to its former state only for the process to repeat.

7.5.1

Basic Idea

Consider the two-way interaction of two scalar elds, X and Y , sketched in Figure 7.14. Each eld has only one state variable identied as x(t) and y(t), respectively, which are assumed to be governed by the rst-order dierential equations 3x. + 4x y = f (t) y . + 6y 2x = g (t) in which f (t) and g (t) are the applied forces. Treat this by Backward Euler integration4 in each component: xn+1 = xn + hx.n+1

. yn+1 = yn + hyn +1

where xn = x(tn ) and yn = y (tn ), etc. at each time step n = 0, 1, 2, . . . we get 3 + 4h h 2h 1 + 6h xn+1 hfn+1 + 3xn = yn+1 hgn+1 + yn

(7.17)

in which x0 , y0 are provided by the initial conditions. In the monolithic or simultaneous solution approach, Equation (7.17) is solved at each timestep.

backward Euler method is an implicit method, meaning that we have to solve an equation to nd yn+1 . One often uses xed point iteration or (some modication of) the NewtonRaphson method to achieve this.

4

171

FluidStructure interactions are a crucial consideration in the design of many engineering systems, e.g. aircrafts and bridges. Failing to consider the eects of oscillatory interactions can be catastrophic, especially in structures comprising materials susceptible to fatigue. Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940), the rst Tacoma Narrows Bridge, is probably one of the most infamous examples of large-scale failure. Aircraft wings and turbine blades can break due to FSI oscillations. Fluid-structure interaction has to be taken into account for the analysis of aneurysms in large arteries and articial heart valves. A reed actually produces sound because the system of equations governing its dynamics has oscillatory solutions. The dynamic of reed valves used in two strokes engines and compressors is governed by FSI. The act of blowing a raspberry is another such example.

Figure 7.15: Examples for Flow: FluidStructure Interaction, [1] Analysis of a Hydraulic Turbine Much eort is being made to develop ecient and cost-eective renewable energy solutions. In conventional hydropower, as well as in the more recent quest to harness the energy from waves and tides, well designed turbomachinery is essential. We feature the

172

analysis of a new hydraulic turbine design to power a generator providing between 1.0 and 1.2 kW for remote dwellings not connected to an electrical supply grid. The analysis was performed by SIMTEC S.A. using ADINA [1]. In the analysis, the turbine was modeled to determine its characteristic curves of torque and power vs. rotational speed. The gures 7.16 are provided to give an idea of the general trend of the results. Figure 7.16(a) shows the geometry of the turbine. The nite element mesh used is shown in Figure 7.16(b), the results of ow simulation are schown in Figure 7.16(c) and (d) as radial and tangential velocity in colored plots.

(c) Relative radial velocity band plot along edge of (d) Relative tangential velocity band plot along blade edge of blade

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