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Aim...................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................3 Completion checklist and time lines ................................................................................................3 Assessment guidelines .....................................................................................................................4 Submission Information ...................................................................................................................4 About Problem Based Learning .......................................................................................................4 What is reflection? ...........................................................................................................................7 Why reflect - what are the benefits to the student? ..........................................................................8 How do I reflect? ...........................................................................................................................9 Introducing Reflection .....................................................................................................................9 Reflective writing examples ...........................................................................................................11 The theory of reflection ..................................................................................................................12 Getting Started ...............................................................................................................................13 Assessment and feedback of Personal Reflection Portfolio ...........................................................15 Resources for student use ...............................................................................................................20 Bibliography...................................................................................................................................20

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Aim
In school, we think about math, and we think about spelling, and we think about grammar. But who ever heard of thinking about thinking? If we think about electricity, we can understand it better, but when we think about thinking, we seem to understand ourselves better. Harry Stottlemeier (Lipman, 1982, p. 17). The purpose of reflective journal writing and the course Engineering Problem Solving 1 (ENG1101) is to help you, the student, become aware of the way you learn and to develop necessary skills for life long learning. Research has shown that reflective writing helps students clarify their thoughts; work out strategies for solving engineering problems; understand important aspects of their course; and identify areas where they need more help (Selfe and Arbabi,1983). The aim of this guide is to help you with your reflective learning during the Problem Based Learning (PBL) courses. It provides basic information about the reflective process and guides you to other sources of information. It also sets out some strategies for you do develop your reflective writing.

Introduction
Over the course of the semester you will be asked to reflect on many things including personal and team aspects of the course. The reflective learning and writing process are ongoing and you should seek to improve over the course of the semester. It is important to be honest and objective in your reflective writing. You may be critical, but your responses must be professional and mature. The responses you write are confidential and will only be read by your facilitator. The portfolio that you produce is assessable and you should aim to complete all sections by the due date. In most sections there is a mechanism for facilitators to provide feedback, so you can improve as you move through the course. Some sections are separately assessable and others will contribute to the overall portfolio. A list of tasks and approximate completion times is shown at the start of each portfolio document. In the guide you will find that some sections are very brief, but if you would like more information on different aspects, at the end there is a section Resources for Students which will direct you to further reading.

Completion checklist and time lines


The time frame gives approximate completion times for each section of the portfolio. These are flexible except where the portfolio must be submitted for assessment. The assessment submission times are absolute and if an extension is required you must contact the examiner of the course, via the course mail box, prior to the due date requesting the extension and providing details of the reasons. Acceptable reasons include prolonged illness (Doctors certificate will be required); work reasons (letter from employer will be required); and extenuating personal reasons. Progressive entries in the portfolio are required and a time frame for these entries is outlined. These dates are flexible within a day or two but you must not complete all reflections immediately prior to submission. Reflections are required prior, during and after the project and must be completed in this time frame for maximum benefit.

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Assessment guidelines
Assessment for most of the tasks is undertaken using rubrics. A rubric is a systematic way of assessing students work based on the sum of a range of criteria. It is available to you before you undertake the assessment tasks, so it gives you explicit guidelines as to what is expected. You should be able to judge your own level of achievement. They provide feedback and allow for consistent and objective assessment. Rubrics list the criteria assessed and levels of achievement in a grid format. They generally have five levels or stages. Levels 1 and 2 are below acceptable standard. Level 3 is a passable standard. Levels 4 and 5 indicate high levels of achievement. You should refer to the guidelines when completing your reflections. Aspects which will be considered include: Length, (but quality not quantity) Presentation and legibility, Number of entries or regularity of entries; Clarity and good observation in presentation of events or issues; Evidence of speculation; Evidence of a willingness to revise ideas; Honesty and self-assessment; Thoroughness of reflection and self-awareness; Depth and detail of reflective accounts; Evidence of creative thinking; Evidence of critical thinking; Evidence of a deep approach to the subject matter of the journal Representation of different cognitive skills (synthesis, analysis, evaluation etc); Relationship of the entries in the journal to any relevant coursework, theories, etc. Match of the content and outcomes of the journal work to course objectives, learning outcomes for the journal or purposes that the journal is intended to fulfil. Questions that arise from the reflective processes and on which to reflect further
(http://www.ucd.ie/teaching/good/lea7b.htm accessed 20/10/30)

The list is not conclusive and does not infer priority.

Submission Information
Submission of all assessments in Eng1101 will be by electronic submission, via WebCt and your study desk. Details on file names and sizes and steps to successfully submit will be given separately.

About Problem Based Learning


Problem Based Learning is centred on the solution of a real problem. In Problem Based Learning, you will spend much of your time learning by identifying what you need to know, finding out, teaching each other and then applying your new knowledge. Thus, the primary aim of the exercise is the learning. Problem Based Learning encourages independent learning and a deeper understanding of the material rather than superficial coverage. It will give you practice in tackling

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engineering problems and defining your own gaps in understanding in the context of those problems. The small group setting used in PBL encourages an inquisitive and detailed look at all issues, concepts and principles contained within the problem. The time spent outside of the group setting facilitates the development of skills such as literature retrieval, critical appraisal of available information and the seeking of opinions of peers and specialists. PBL encourages you to become more involved in, and responsible for, your own learning. PBL will provide you with the opportunity to develop the following skills: Problem solving skills Thinking skills Teamwork skills, including appreciating diversity of group members Time management skills Information retrieval and evaluation skills Communication skills Computing skills (Prpic & Hagraft, 1994) You may find the first course in PBL frustrating, challenging, rewarding and of course, different. Most of your other learning and courses at university will tell you what to learn and in some cases how to learn it. Here your learning is self and team directed. You will rely on your team mates and they will rely on you. In learning you must first define the problem to solve. This problem definition stage is one of the most difficult and you will need to find some problem solving strategies to help. Remember that learning is the goal and the problem is the tool for learning. You and your team will need to carefully think about the problem management. The solution is important, but not at the expense of learning. You should also consider the roles played within your team. Along the way it is important, even vital, that you reflect, on the process. Reflect, think about and learn from, the team process as well as your individual reactions. Without this step, you will not gain the full benefits of the problems, the solutions and your team. There are four basic stages to PBL 1. Understand the problem a. What IS the problem? b. What do we know about it? c. What solutions are possible? d. How will we evaluate our solution? 2. Learning a. What information/data do we need? b. Where will we find this information? c. Who will collect what? d. How do I know the information /data I have collected is reliable? e. How can I share this information? f. What do my team mates need to learn to meet their personal learning goals? g. How can I help?

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h. What do I need to learn to meet my personal learning goals? i. How did I manage the learning process? 3. Solving the problem a. How do we turn data into information relevant to the problem (refer to 1a)? b. What format is the solution required in? c. Who will review and critique the result? d. How will we evaluate it? 4. Reflection a. How and what did I learn? b. How did the team perform? c. What worked and what didnt? d. How did I feel during the process? e. What can we do better next time? f. Did I reach my goals, why or why not? g. Did the team reach the goal? h. Was there conflict, how do we fix it? i. Were we a TEAM?

In Problem Based Learning: Your team will naturally focus on solving the problem or project but of these four stages the learning and reflection are also important and cannot be overlooked. They go together and you will get the most out of your learning if you do reflect. This guide will help you begin the reflection process. It will give you examples of reflective writing, outline the theory of reflection and guide you with exercises and trigger questions. The portfolio of reflections is a significant part of the assessment process.

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What is reflection?
A simple definition of reflection can be consciously thinking about and analysing what you are doing and what you have done; thinking about what and how you have learnt. There is a lot of theory behind reflection that can be very complex. Most of the theory relates to seeing reflection as part of the cycle of learning (Figure 1). Initially students focus on knowledge, comprehension and application of subject matter. These three levels of learning are the easiest especially if the application is in a limited context e.g. worded problems from a text book. For higher levels of learning (application of knowledge in real world problems) you must be able to analyse, synthesise and evaluate as shown in Table 1. Reflection is a key part of moving into these higher levels of learning.
Concrete Experience Readings Examples and problems Field and laboratory work Observations Text reading

Active Experimentation Projects Field and laboratory work Case study Simulations

Reflective Observation Logs/journals Discussion Brainstorming Questions and rhetorical questions

Abstract Conceptualisation

Lecture Papers Analogies

Figure 1. Leaning cycle and examples of each phase

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Table 1 Six levels of learning Process Knowledge


Increasing Difficulty

Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis

Evaluation

Explanation Recognition and recall of information and facts describing events Interprets, translates or summarises given information demonstrating understanding of events Uses information in a situation different from original learning context Separates wholes into parts until relationships are clear breaks down experiences Combines elements to form new entity from the original one - draws on experience and other evidence to suggest new insights Involves acts of decision making, or judging based on criteria or rationale - makes judgements about

Why reflect - what are the benefits to the student?


Learning is both an active and a reflective process. If you look at the learning cycle in Figure 1 you can see that reflection or thinking about what you have done and how and why you did it, form an integral part of learning. Because learning is often subconscious, we dont realise that we have gained new knowledge or understanding until we stop to contemplate a particular activity. Reflection then, is a way for critical analysis, problem solving, synthesis of opposing ideas, evaluation, identifying patterns and creating meaning. Reflection will help you reach the higher levels of learning. Most students are focused on the lower levels of learning. What do I have to know and demonstrate to pass the exam? This is a very short-sighted approach to your time at university. You will not be able to remember all the facts and knowledge you have learnt in courses unless you can fully understand, analyse and evaluate them. As you progress through your program you will continually need information and knowledge from other courses and this knowledge will build on previous knowledge. You must be able to attain the higher levels of learning in order to be successful in your program and later in your professional life. Your learning and the need to learn will not stop with the end of your university degree. Most aspects of learning are common to all disciplines but sometimes there are different emphasises on certain learning skills. For example, generally speaking at university more emphasis is placed on the understanding of the methodology and the processes of problem solving. In this context, reflection will help you to detach yourself from the facts and put them into a larger context. Higher level courses at university, and in particular as a professional engineer or surveyor, there is a closer interaction between academic work and practical experience. Here the emphasis is on professional competence as much as technical expertise. Reflective practice here is critical in providing opportunities to identify areas for improvement and evaluation of the overall outcome including your decision making processes. Reflection can help bridge the gap between theory and practice and will enable you to understand your own thinking and learning. Another benefit is that it encourages you to look beyond your

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academic accomplishment and recognise the depth and range of other transferable skills. University is more than learning about facts and figures, it is a life experience. You will not learn everything that you need in your professional life at university. Your learning will be life long, so take some time to think about what skills you bring with you to university and what you learn along the way.

How do I reflect?
Reflection does not mean that you sit in the lotus position, humming meditative chants. Reflection can be active and need not take away from your study time. It is an important tool that can be used in all your university and professional work. Opportunities for reflection should occur before, during and after activities. That way you can take note of your learning starting point, assess your progress through the project and critically evaluate your learning at the end of the activity. Look critically at what you have done, what youre team did and what the outcomes were. You need to ask yourself the why, how and what type of questions. Throughout this guide you may be prompted to consider certain questions on areas of your learning. You should not feel that you must answer just these questions and no others. Just the opposite, these will be trigger questions. Throughout this course and guide we are interested in providing the framework to support YOUR LEARNING and how you achieve it. There are three main areas for reflection: the team aspects, your personal feelings and attitudes and the academic or technical aspects. Throughout the projects you may find it easier to keep a diary and jot down important events, comments and scenarios and how you felt at the time. This is not submitted but will help you fill in the reflective entries and set the scene.

Introducing Reflection
Reflection is an important part of your learning whether you do it consciously or not. But what exactly is it? An excellent description of reflection can be found in the Harry Potter novel The Goblet of Fire. In the paragraph below Dumbledore, the chief wizard and head teacher, is talking to Harry about having excess thoughts! Harry stared at the stone basin. The contents had returned to their original, silvery white state, swirling and rippling beneath his gaze. What is it? Harry asked shakily. This? It is called a Pensieve, said Dumbledore. I sometimes find, and I am sure you know the feeling, that I simply have too many thoughts and memories crammed into my mind. Err, said Harry who couldnt truthfully say that he had ever felt anything of the sort. At these times said Dumbledore, indicating the stone basin, I use the Penseive. One simply siphons the excess thoughts from ones mind, pours them into a basin, and examines them at ones leisure. It becomes easier to spot patterns and links, you understand, when they are in this form. (Rowling 2000)

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During the course and in this reflective portfolio we will be asking you to think about the process you and your team have been through, how these events affected your behaviour, to think about what you have learnt, and to evaluate your performance and that of the team. By writing these things down it will give you the opportunity to clarify your thoughts and to spot the patterns and links.

Guidance on Reflective Writing


A reflection is not just a report of factual information. It will have three basic elements 1. Retell- state the basic facts of the incident or activity but also examine how you felt about it at the time and how you feel about it now. 2. Relate relate the feelings or events to other examples or behaviour 3. Reflect how will the knowledge gained from the event or experience be used either in your professional or personal life, give examples. Also think about possible alternatives, other perspectives or meanings. A reflection/reaction paper should have at least three parts:

an introductory paragraph the body of the paper a closure paragraph

Introduction: The introduction is a retelling of what happened. The introductory paragraph "sets the scene" by giving factual information. State the who, what, when, and how of the experience Body: State what you expected or anticipated about the experience represented by the evidence. What did you actually experience, feel, observe, etc.? Be specific. Use "I" statements. Include all features or elements that would allow an outsider to "see as you see" whatever you experienced. Analysis deals with reasons, motives, and interpretation during the event or experience. How is the evidence meaningful or how does it contribute to your understanding of your learning; how do you react in certain situations and how do you behave? Closure: State how the experience has impacted on you. How can you use this experience to improve either your effort or the teams? How will you take what you have learned from this experience and apply it to your own learning? Be specific. In the beginning of the course you will just be asked to list points which would be included in each of these headings. Later on in the course you will be asked to turn these points into a document which has more of the features listed above e.g. an essay.

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Reflective writing examples


As an example, look at the following two critiques one is a better example than the other! (King, 2002) I woke up late because my alarm didnt ring. My own fault, but there you are. By the time I had finished my breakfast (my usual bowl of cornflakes, and a cup of black coffee with three sugars), I had missed my bus (thats the number 9a, picked up at the bus stop outside Halfords), which had left on time (just for a change). So I got to University, and by the time I had found the right room, I was over 30 minutes late for the OOPR2 Exam. Unfortunately, the invigilator wouldnt let me take the exam because it was against University regulations. Didnt he realise how important it was for me to pass that exam? My overall grade depends on it, and now I stand to have a resit in September when I wanted to have my holiday in Ibiza. I was over 30 minutes late for my exam, which meant I was not allowed to sit it. This will have repercussions on my degree mark, and on my holiday plans. This is the first time I have actually missed an exam, but not the first time Ive actually been late to exams and important interviews. I have learned that: I need to improve my time-keeping for critical events The University has strict rules governing late arrivals at exams I need to be better prepared The reasons that I arrived late were: My alarm clock didnt ring because I forgot to reset its time after daylight saving on Saturday night (although I had reset all the other clocks in the house). I totally rely on the alarm clock ringing - I have no back-up system I rely on my bus a break down or it leaving early would also cause me to be late I did not know in which room the exam was; if I had, I would still have been a few minutes late, but at least I could have sat the exam. In order to improve the situation for next year, I plan to: Have a process to check all the clocks in the house when the clocks are due to change Make sure I have a back-up alarm system (using my digital watch) for all days when its important to get up early On exam day, aim to catch the earlier bus its only 20 minutes earlier. Possibly consider missing breakfast, and buying a sandwich on the way from the bus to the exam room. I do believe that a good breakfast is important though! Make sure I know the correct room well in advance of the exam, by checking each room number when I first get the timetable. I suspect I need to reflect more on my priorities this degree is really very important to me.

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The theory of reflection


Reflection, particularly in problem-based learning has a prominent place. You dont have an exam with which to test either new or old knowledge, nor if you can analyse, evaluate or apply this knowledge. What you learn is determined by YOU, and to a certain extent, your TEAM. Mostly you will learn skills and knowledge without realising that you are learning. Reflection before, during and after the activity will help you realise what you have learnt and what you did not achieve and perhaps what you could have done better. The theory on learning and reflection comes from a number of different sources. It begins with Kolbs (1984) work on the learning cycles and Schons (1987) ideas about reflection. John Cowan combined these to devise what is know as the Cowan diagram or Kolb coils (Helbo et al, 2001). This work defined the three reflection stages to enhance the learning process: before (for) decide what the learning process will be to meet needs (personal and team); during (in) the project to consider how the process and learning goals are being achieved and what action needs to be taken; after (on) the process to decide if goals have been met, what could have been done better etc.

Figure 1 Cowan diagram - Kolb coils (Cowan 1998)

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Getting Started
Gibbs (1988) outlined stages in reflection and reflective writing which will help you with the process. Remember reflection and reflective writing is like any other skill, it will take time and practice to master it and you will only benefit from it if you approach it seriously. Table 2 Guidelines for reflection
Description:

Feelings: Evaluation: Analysis: Conclusions (general): Conclusions (specific): Personal Action plans:

What is the stimulus for reflection? (incident, event, theoretical idea) What are you going to reflect on? Describe what happened and set the scene What were your reactions and feelings? What did you think and feel? What was good and bad about the experience? Make value judgements. What sense can you make of the situation? Bring in ideas from outside the experience to help you. What was really going on? What can be concluded, in a general sense, from these experiences and the analyses you have undertaken? What can be concluded about your own specific, unique, personal situation or ways of working? What are you going to do differently in this type of situation next time? What steps are you going to take on the basis of what you have learnt?

There are three main areas to base your reflections on. The first is the academic and technical content of the project, second is the team process and lastly, your personal reflections what did YOU learn. Table 3 Areas for reflection Technical /academic components What worked and why? What problem-solving techniques did your team use? What didnt work and why? What theories were applied /tested/ evaluated? What was your evaluation of the overall product or report? Social /group components How did the team perform and why (group dynamics)? How did the team handle negotiating tasks, conflict resolution? Could it be done better? How? Did peer assisted learning take place? Why/why not? Individual/self components What did I learn? How did I learn it? What could I do more effectively to support my individual learning, my team, my colleagues learning? How did I feel during the project and why? How did it affect my behaviour?

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Influences on Reflection There are many things which will impact on your reflections. Students will have different backgrounds- educational, family, work; different career and study goals, different levels of interest and motivation. You gain a more reliable picture if you are able to draw on information from different sources. You need to get a different perspective on situations and your learning. Figure 2 may help you to see where you can draw on information and experiences from to help with you reflections.

Other things I know

Personal aspirations

Experiential learning theory Organisational review

SELF

Me as a learner
Work-based learning and Higher Education

PLACEMENT

PERSONAL REFLECTION

UNIVERSITY

Work-based issues

Application of other modules / learning to these ideas Application to other modules / learning

Figure 2 Sources for reflection (Watton et al, 2001)

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Assessment and feedback of Personal Reflection Portfolio


Professional Goals and Attributes, Professional future Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 No or little effort. Insufficient or inappropriate resources or content Used given resources but copied directly Used given resources and own words to describe Sourced extra information, personal order of priority, evidence of thought to profession and individual role As per level 4, quoted reference sources

Existing knowledge and skills Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 No or little effort. Listed basic technical skills, but limited in context. Does not appreciate transferable skills. Has not considered skilled gained outside work/formal study Has listed skills gained from a variety of sources. Sees areas for improvement in professional context. Has listed skills gained from variety of sources, sees need for improvement, has some understanding of transferable generic skills and their use. Excellent understanding of transferable skills and own position (Does not necessarily mean already possesses high level of skills but has excellent self understanding and can articulately express this)

Personal learning goals Level 1 Level 2 No/little effort; insufficient interest in own work; resubmission required Your goals are limited or are not within the course objectives and topics. Achievement stages are not set, are inappropriate or no not match with existing skills; poor consideration of personal strengths and weaknesses. Not acceptable - resubmit Goals are limiting and constrained to tangible goals. Stages to achieving need more thought and detail. More thought to assessment is required. Superficial consideration to strengths and weaknesses Range of goals showing thought and consideration to course objectives, topics, profession and self. Accurate and thoughtful consideration of strengths and weaknesses Good range of goals both tangible and intangible in line with course objectives, topics and existing skills. Given considerable thought to stages in achieving goals and assessing if and when they are reached.

Level 3

Level 4

Level 5

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Course Reflection Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 No/little demonstration of awareness of skills and strategies targeted by the course; little or no reference to strengths/ weaknesses &/or goals Limited awareness of one or two skills/concept of the course. Inconsistent reference to strengths/ weaknesses &/or goals Basic awareness of the skills and strategies of the course with the ability to identify at least 2 strengths/ weaknesses &/or goals Thoughtful awareness of the skills and strategies of the course and ability to identify some strengths/ weaknesses &/or goals Conscious and thorough understanding of skills and strategies required by the course. Articulation of several strengths/ weaknesses &/or goals

Personal Reflection on Projects Level 1 Level 2 Little/no effort; insufficient Presentation of basic facts, but some may not be relevant to reflection. Feelings/thoughts are simple obvious statements and no attempt to elaborate on ideas. Basic Plan but does not address relevant issues or in sufficient detail. May need to take more care with spelling and grammar these errors detract from comprehension. Presents relevant facts, but does not go deeply into reflection, uses concrete detail and poor generalizations; simple generic language; personal action plans are not thoroughly planned not relate to evaluation and analysis of the events listed. Presents relevant facts and records personal observations; relates experiences and observations; present strong connection between the events of the project and experience(s); analyses the experience by looking at more than one angle; uses specific details to make reflections clear, uses precise language, can analyse own behaviours; minimal spelling and grammatical errors Presents relevant events in context, show great depth of thought, deep insight and effective conclusions and action plan; depth of analysis of own and others behaviour, appropriate language, minimal or no spelling and grammatical errors

Level 3

Level 4

Level 5

Page 17 of 20 Portfolio to Date Objectives (weighting)/ level of submission (score) Level 1 (0) Mechanics spelling, grammar and structure (1) Writing has significant number of errors in syntax, spelling and grammar which make the text unreadable; significant support required* Significant number of errors, communication limited by errors, submission readable but with difficultly, support strongly suggested* More care must be taken with spelling, grammar and syntax. Vocabulary (2) Effort (3) Completion (3) Total marks (max = 45)

Very limited vocabulary

No effort was made to attempt portfolio tasks

No completion

Level 2 (1)

Word choice is general and descriptions vague.

Very little effort was made to attempt portfolio tasks

Missing several portfolio tasks; tasks are unacceptably short with little depth of analysis

Level 3 (3)

Vocabulary is satisfactory, but not yet at professional level

Level 4 (4)

Level 5 (5)

Few errors in spelling, grammar and syntax, overall good command of English language Excellent command of English and writes with some flare and originality

Demonstrates efforts to choose appropriate and precise vocabulary Demonstrates excellent command of language and expresses ideas clearly, concisely and with originality

Work demonstrates some effort was made, but more thought and effort is required in future Work demonstrates much effort was made to attempt all tasks Work demonstrates much effort was made to attempt all tasks, with some originality and extra initiative

Missing more than one tasks and others tend to fall short of criteria for depth of analysis/ thought Missing 0/1 task; overall submission meets criteria for depth of analysis and thought All tasks completed and meet or exceed criteria for length and depth of thought and analysis

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Problem solving process Interaction of team members No discussion of team work issues, no reflection on roles and responsibilities Team needs more open discussion on teamwork issues Analysis and evaluation of team performance No criteria set for team evaluation or distribution of tasks Conclusions Plan of action for future work No Plan or not acceptable Spelling, grammar, vocabulary Very poor proof reading. Team needs to give considerable time to this area and make helpful suggestions Major spelling or grammatical errors. Team needs to allocate a task proof reading

Level 1

Level 2

No discussion of problem solving strategy, no overall plan, no timeframe to meet project deadline Problem solving strategy not evident, clearly demonstrated or discussed

No specific conclusion on the teams overall performance

Level 3

Level 4

Simple problem solving strategy applied, basic outline given Evidence of an approp problem solving strategy applied

Team interacts on superficial level

Team shows good understanding of dynamics and adjusts for all individual team members.

The team needs to consider approp evaluation criteria for the project. Either the criteria were not approp or correct evaluation was not rigorously applied. Evidence of attempt at critiqued of team work, proof reading carried out One or two team members provided constructive feedback on report which improved structure and content

The team has given only a vague or inaccurate conclusion of the teams performance to date

Brief conclusion of the teams performance

Good accurate understanding of team formation; consulted extra information / resources

Excellent All team members * All members* have excellent Few/minor errors in understanding of provided constructive understanding of the theory spelling and grammar, team dynamics. feedback on all aspects of teams and team dynamics. well articulated with Effort made to of the report Have consulted and applied originality and good include all relevant tactics to encourage use of the English members and assist team formation language with learning * All members refers to all participating members of the team. Teams will not be penalized if all steps have been taken to a include members, but without success. Team leaders should inform facilitators of all such actions.

Level 5

Appropriate problem solving strategy researched, documented applied and tested

Team must spend time formulating a plan which will assist members to meet team and personal goals. Plan is not specific or does not address team issues honestly Plan for future work supplied, but with brief or vague stages outlined Concise plan considering teams current standing and performance. Caters for individuals to improve teamwork and meet individual learning goals Thorough well thought out plan giving due consideration to team members and current standing.

Errors in spelling and grammar which could be eliminated with careful proof reading Few/minor errors in spelling and grammar, well articulated.

Resources for student use


Area Learning Styles Resource http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html Learning styles questionnaire online http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSdir/styles.htm for more information on learning styles http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Columns/Surviving-School.html tips for first year students Reference text Karl Smith http://www.imsa.edu/team/cpbl/whatis/whatis/slide1.html http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Learning_Styles.html http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/Papers/LS-1988.pdf

Teamwork PBL Learning levels

Reflection and reflective writing

http://www.tech.port.ac.uk/staffweb/kingt/LJexamples.doc

Bibliography
1. Felder R.M. and Soloman B.A., Index of Learning Styles, http://www.ncsu.edu/felderpublic/ILSpage.html, accessed 9/10/2003 2. Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing. A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further education unit, Oxford Poytechnic, Oxford. 3. Helbo J. , Knudsen M. , Jensen L.P. , Borch O. , and Rokkjr O. (2001). Group Organized Project Work in Distance Education. ITHET 2001 Conference, Kumamoto, July 2001. 4. King (2002) Development of Student Skills In Reflective Writing, p 16, http://www.csd.uwa.edu.au/iced2002/publication/Terry_King.pdf 5. Lipman M (1982) Harry Stottlemeier's Discovery Inst for the Advancement Prpic J. K & Hadgraft R G. (1994) Problem Based Learning http://cleo.eng.monash.edu.au/teaching/learning/strategy/whatispbl.html accessed 5/10/2003 6. Selfe, C. L. & Arbabi, F. (1983). Writing to learn: Engineering student journals. Engineering Education, 74(2), p. 86-90 7. Vandervelde J (2002) PowerPoint Rubric http://www/uni.edu/profev/rubris/pptrubic.htm accessed 7/10/2003 8. Watton P, Collings J, Moon J. (2001) Reflective Writing Guide, http://www.ex.ac.uk/iwe2000/reflective.rtf accessed 27-10-2003 http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/educweb/finalwritrpt.pdf access 27/10/2003 http://www.asij.ac.jp/middle/ac/lass/6no/discrimination/written.htm access 7/10/2003 http://gozips.uakron.edu/~cheung/handout_journaling.doc accessed 11/10/2003