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September 03, 2013

THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MACROMOLECULES macromolecule: a "large" molecule that consists of small organic molecules classes: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids examples: glucose, phospholipid, enzyme, DNA
most are built from polymers: chains of monomers (repeated units)

dehydration reaction: when monomers are linked together, a water molecule is removed (H from one monomer and OH from another) hydrolysis reaction: when polymers are disassembled a water is added (reverses the condensation reaction)

building a polymer with a limited list of monomers is like building words with a limited list of letters The differences in the arrangment of monomers into polymers is what makes organisms different. Its determined by the arrangement of nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule (recipe for life)

Carbohydrates monosaccharide simple sugar multiple units of CH2O range in number of carbons hexose, triose, pentose provides nutrients for cells, store energy for cells' use carbon skeletons can serve as raw material for other molecules examples: ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, dextrose, fructose, galactose disaccharide two simple sugars (monosaccharides) joined by glycosidic bonds assembled by dehydration reaction examples: maltose (glucose+glucose), sucrose (glucose+fructose), lactose (glucose+galactose) polysaccharide "complex carbohydrates" composed of many simple sugars (predominantly glucose) store energy or provide building material for other molecules examples: starch and glycogen (storage), cellulose and chitin (building material)

September 03, 2013

Lipids (hydrophobic hydrocarbons) fats not polymers, large molecule assembled by dehydration reaction glycerol and 3 fatty acids joined by an ester bond known as a triglyceride stored energy, insulation vary in length, number and location of double bonds saturated fats: no double bonds, lots more hydrogen atoms (animal fats; lard, butter) diet high in saturated fats creates plaques in arteries (atherosclerosis) unsaturated fats: one or more double bonds, less hydrogen atoms (plants and fish)
phospholipids glycerol, phosphate and 2 fatty acids aggregate into bilayers cell membranes

steroids carbon rings (4) hormones are created from cholesterol found in animal cell membranes (permeability and fluidity) saturated fats and trans fats change cholesterol levels in the blood

Proteins derived from a specific arrangement of polypeptides polymers created by 20 different amino acids folded and coiled into specific conformations primary unique sequence of amino acids secondary coils and folds resulting from hydrogen bonds between the backbone coil (alpha helix) folds (beta pleated sheet) tertiary overall shape resulting from interaction between the R groups (side chains) quaternary overall shape resulting from the aggregation of polypeptide subunits various types of proteins enzymatic proteins, structural proteins, storage proteins, transport proteins,hormonal proteins, receptor proteins, contractile and motor proteins, defensive proteins examples: digestive enzymes, collagen, casein, hemoglobin, insulin, membrane receptors, actin, antibodies amino acids carbon attached to a hydrogen, amino group, carboxyl group, and R group(side chain) linked together in a polypeptide by peptide bonds


September 03, 2013

Nucleic Acids transmit information to determine the arrangement of proteins types include DNA and RNA DNA --> RNA --> protein composed of monomers called nucleotides each nucleotide contains a sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base DNA: deoxyribose, phosphate, adenine, thymine, cytosine or guanine RNA: ribose, phosphate, adenine, uracil cytosine or guanine purines (double ring): adenine and guanine pair with pyrimidines (single ring): thymine and cytosine,uracil linked by hydrogen bonds phosphates and sugars make up the "backbone" and are joined by phosphodiester bonds DNA has a 5' end and a 3' end and is a double helix with two chains running antiparallel differences in DNA account for differences among similar organisms example: DNA sequence that determines the protein hemoglobin between humans, gibbons and the rhesus monkey

AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM: The Driving Force of Physiology!!!

metabolism: the sum of all chemical reactions of an organism metabolic pathways begin with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, catalyzed by enzymes, resulting in a certain product
enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3

reaction 1

reaction 2

reaction 3

starting molecule


Catabolic pathways: the breakdown of complex molecules to smaller compounds releases energy example: cellular respiration hydrolysis also known as: breakdown pathways downhill Anabolic pathways: the building of complex molecules from smaller compounds consumes energy example: protein synthesis dehydration also known as: biosynthetic pathways uphill Energy released by the "downhill" reactions of catabolism can be stored and used to drive the "uphill" reactions of anabolism
Energy is defined as the capacity to cause change (rearrange a collection of matter)

September 03, 2013


biological catalysts: speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy (EA) activation energy (EA): energy required to start a reaction often supplied in the form of heat
when enzymes lower the EA, they enable the reactants to absorb enough energy to reach the transition state.

substrate: the reactant an enzyme acts on

enzyme + substrate -----> enzyme/substrate complex -----> enzyme + product

sucrase + sucrose + H2O -----> sucrase/sucrose/H2O complex -----> sucrase + glucose + fructose
the specificity of an enzyme is attributed to a compatible fit between the shape of its active site and the shape of the substrate

"lock and key model"

active sites substrate/enzyme complex

"induced fit"

Optimal Conditions: 1. temperature: 35-40 degrees C (bacteria have enzymes that operate in greater temps (>70)) 2. pH: 6-8 (pepsin, stomach enzyme works best in pH of 2)

Enzymatic Inhibition inhibitors: molecules that bond to enzymes and reduce their function 1. competitive inhibition: inhibitor binds to active site 2. non-competitive inhibition: inhibitor binds to allosteric site changes conformation of enzyme

Cofactors and Coenzymes non-protein components that help enzymes function. help the active site bind to the substrate help the active site maintain its shape enzymatic function

Cofactors: inorganic molecules, such as ions or elements (copper, iron, zinc) Coenzymes: organic molecules, such as vitamins, which must come from diet