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No such study has been undertaken for Terence. and even of these the first two may be true diminutives..). 173. the Roman Menander. TERENCE. 1916] 61 This content downloaded from 181. Nannarium and Phanium. as she is regularly called in the play. Terence uses no names in -ium for hetaerae. but the material has been augmented in recent years by the papyrus finds. Terence's favorite names for hetaerae end in -is: Bacchis (Ht. and Menander.) are modeled on Menandrian plays. All the plays in which these names occur (except Hec. a study which would help make clear the relation of the Roman writers to their Greek models. and all three names are found in the fragments of Menander. January. though this ending was often so used by Plautus and Greek writers.and by a very sketchy comparison of all the names in Plautus. 353. L. was not especially fond of this form of name for hetaerae. Terence. Dorcium is a 1 Philotium in the Hecyra (based on a play of Apollodorus) is a true diminutive of Philotis.). Schmidt (Hermes xxxvii.34 on Tue. and the study of this. coupled with a comparison of Plautus and Terence. ULLMAN The names that Plautus applies to his characters have been carefully studied by K.). nor has the still more important task of comparing and contrasting Plautus and Terence been accomplished. [CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY XI. Thais (Eun. Finally there remains the comparison of Plautus. but it would seem that the Greek Menander. should yield some definite results. Terence occasionally uses the diminutive for other classes: Phanium is a virgo in the Phormio (after Apollodorus.' The only sure instances in Menander are Nannium. 608).47. I wish to call attention to the possible value of such a study by dealing with certain names of women. especially hetaerae. In the present paper.27. It is unsafe to generalize on such scanty evidence.PROPER NAMES IN PLAUTUS. like Terence. Hec. AND MENANDER BY B. 22 Oct 2013 18:01:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Chrysis (And. Menander names a play Phanium). and the fragments of the other Roman comic poets with the fragments of the Greek New Comedy. The fragments of the New Comedy were so few that no certain results could be hoped for. Terence.
a play based on one by Apollodorus. one tibicina. Ath. Glycera is the heroine of the Periceiromene. in his six plays. i. Another name that Terence uses for a hetaera is Pamphila. He uses many names in -ium. In Plautus' Stichus. supplemented by those in Meineke's index and those used as titles of plays. This may or may not have some significance. For the general comparison of names in Plautus. 20. He uses Bacchis but once-in the Bacchides. But the two puellae and the virgo are really meretrices ingenuae. If the text is correct. Pamphila is a virgo. four ancillae. The results would no doubt be somewhat changed by taking all the names in the fragments of the New Comedy.47. that Menander preferred not to use the name as that of a hetaera. and still more if we had the complete plays of Menander. some of which are not found in Greek. 22 Oct 2013 18:01:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . sister of Panegyris.62 B.34 on Tue. L. a play derived from Menander. 594d). Adopting the classification in Leo's index. Terence. but we can get an approximate idea of the situation. a Menandrian play. 68). ii. both Menandrian plays. in the Phormio. A Chrysis is mentioned in the Pseudolus. All this suggests. but we do not know the girl's station. and Menander. the best MS. In the Eunuchus and the Adelphi. a non-Menandrian name. We find a different situation in Plautus. gives Pamphila as the name of an uxor. a Pamphila is mentioned in one of the fabulae incertae in a context showing that she is not a hetaera. and one virgo with names in -ium. the scene heading of A has Philumena. Glycerium is a virgo in the Andria (after Menander). 4. It is clear that Terence. I took the character names in the index of Koerte's second edition of Menander.27. has more Menandrian names than Plautus 1 For Panegyris. 29. while Thais does not occur at all. ULLMAN slave in the Phormio (after Apollodorus). We know that he referred to his Glycera by name in various plays (Alciph. two puellae. This content downloaded from 181. but by no means proves. there are in the twenty-one plays ten courtesans (one more in a fragment of the Cornicularia). Menander used the name Glycerium in the Misogyne.' In Menander's Epitrepontes Pamphila is the name of a wife. a name used by Menander. and compared them with those in Plautus and Terence. Menander may have taken the name from his hetaera (she is referred to by the diminutive form of the name in Philostratus Ep. A.
We have the complete cast of characters of Menander's Hero. Sophrona. In that event the connection between Plautus and Menander would be even slighter than it appears to be.2 whose plays are three and one-half times as numerous as those of Terence. Davos.47. Taking another viewpoint. three in the three plays of Plautus that are almost certainly derived from Menander. out of seventytwo' different names in the fragments of Menander. Moschio. AND MENANDER 63 in his twenty-one plays. and Chaerepho five times each. that two of those used by Terence are Laches and Myrrhina in the Hecyra.27. 22 Oct 2013 18:01:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we note that of the twenty-four names which Menander uses in two or more plays and of which he may be assumed to be somewhat fond. but only the 1 There are undoubtedly mistakes in my statistics due to the feeling that absolute accuracy was not essential in this provisional sketch.34 on Tue. Apollodorus. Laches. Such a comparison makes still clearer the similarity between Terence and Menander and the dissimilarity between Plautus and Terence on the one hand and Plautus and Menander on the other. Terence's "Menandrianism"-to Plautus' will be somewhere between 9 per cent and 20 per cent. It would perhaps be fairer to compare the lists of characters. if we rate coin a word-as 100 per cent. Geta. In other words. TERENCE. The probable explanation is that these five were very common in the New Comedy. twelve are not used by either Plautus or Terence. and seven in the sixteen plays of Plautus that are surely or conceivably Menandrian (it is certain that five plays. It is to be said. twenty-three appear in the six plays of Terence and only fourteen in the twenty-one plays of Plautus. however. Plautus' "Menandrianism" is at the best but 12 per cent of Terence's. whether they were those of speaking characters or those merely mentioned. Myrrhina. The last two of these are not found in Plautus or Terence. Twenty appear in the four Menandrian plays of Terence (there are more than three in the other two plays because some names are found more than once). Barring doubtful cases. a non-Menandrian play (though Terence's model. apparently followed Menander closely). 2 All five are among Terence's twelve. Menander uses Davos. while twelve are used by Terence and only five by Plautus. are non-Menandrian). and highly probable that more than five.PROPER NAMES IN PLAUTJUS. This content downloaded from 181. a It is hardly fair to include Chaerepho who was a real person merely alluded to by Menander.3 In the foregoing we have been comparing all the names. and Laches are found in Terence.
Pamphila. and all but sure of the Bacchides and Cistellaria. and Sophrona are in Terence's lists. Syriscus. Davos and Pamphila (doubtful.) have one each. This content downloaded from 181..-hist... in those of Plautus. How shall we explain the Plautine situation? Shall we maintain that he followed his originals and that his divergence from the Menandrian norm shows that his originals were written by poets other than Menander ? This is impossible because surely four plays (the number of plays in which Terence used Menandrian plays as models) and probably several more. No. 2. Onesimus. and Gorgias are found in neither. 107. see above). The foregoing material. Trin. seems to show pretty clearly that Terence is more Menandrian in his choice of names than Plautus. p.3 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH l Leo. known to me only from Fossataro's summary in Riv. XLII . Plaut. Ps. All but one (Ht. All the plays of Terence contain Menandrian names in their lists of characters. or else going outside the field of New Comedy altogether. Only one play (Truc. leaving fifteen without any. On the other hand Schoell shows (Sitzungsber. Bacch. We have so much of the Epitrepontes that we are fairly certain about the list of characters. Chaerestratus. 22 Oct 2013 18:01:24 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . We must conclude that Plautus handled his sources rather freely in the matter of names.. if the word may be thus employed.2 and so Plautus' plays ought to reveal at least as many Menandrian names as those of Terence. ed. 1912. 7. 449 ff.. 1) says briefly that the difference between Plautus and Menander in the matter of names has now become clearer (through the discovery of the Menander fragments). a Leo (Plaut. The situation in Plautus is strikingly different. Fil. Sangarius. L..64 B.. Forsch. 110. using a species of contaminatio. 2. ed. and five (Amph. Forsch. Heidelberg. For several others there is evidence more or less convincing.47. scanty as it is. Kl. Cl. ULLMAN first three in the much more numerous plays of Plautus.' but it is at least clear that he kept rather close to the Menandrian standard.) contain at least three.) has as many as two Menandrian names in the list of characters. Charisius. Akad..27. are not in the lists of either. are based on Menander. p. Another comparison is interesting. 2 We are sure of the Stichus. Cas. while Phidias.) that the name and character of Byrria in the Andria was taken from Menander's Perinthia. Habrotonon. phil. and argues that the same was true of Charinus. Smicrines. Davos. It is by no means certain that he retained the names that he found in the plays of Menander.34 on Tue. n.