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Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 1
Brake systems on human
powered vehicle
Subtitle: this is the subtitle of the
presentation
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 1
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Your speaker
Mark Pecqueur
Onsiphore Pecqueur (1792 1852)
Professor at KdG University college
Independent expert on Engines and vehicles
More than 18 years active in the world of alternative
fuels and drive systems
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 2
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Overview
Introduction
Brake process
Brake power
Brake power distribution
The drum brake
The Disc brake
Calculation
Brake energy recuperation systems
Conclusion
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 3
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake process
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 4
t
r
v
v
travel
t
b
t
z
t
c
v
2
v
1
Distance
point 1
Point2
Speed
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake process
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 5
Brake distance
) (
1 1 b r
t t v s + - =
6
2
max 1
0
2
t
z
z
t
a t v dt v s
z
- - = - =
}
t
z
t
a t a - =
max
) (
t
t
t
z z
a v dt
t
a v t v
-
- = - - =
}
2
) (
2
max 1 max 1
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake process
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 6
Brake distance
t a v dt a v t v - = =
}
max 2 max 2
) (
2
max
1
max
2
t
a a
z
c
v v
t = =
max
2
2
2
max 2
0
3
2 2 a
v t
a t v dt v s
c
c
t
c
-
= - - = - =
}
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake process
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 7
Brake distance
24 2
)
2
(
2
max
max
2
1
1 3 2 1
t a
a
t
z z
b r t
v
t t v s s s s
-

-
+ + + - = + + =
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 8
Kw
t
E
P
k
gem
36 , 79
7
56 , 555
10
3
=
-
= = Kw
t
E
P
k
gem
36 , 79
7
56 , 555
10
3
=
-
= =
t
E
P
k
gem
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ - + - +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ - - - - =
t t
t
a
t
a v v E
t t
m
z
z z
k
2
2
2
max max 1
2
1
4 2
2
2
, , t
m
P
dt
d
t a a v
E
z
k
- + - + - - - = = 2 2
2
2
max max 1
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 9
W
r
W
f
W
b
c
H
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 10
|
|
.
|

\
|
- + - =
L
h
g L
c
W
a
W
x
f
|
|
.
|

\
|
- - =
L
h
g L
b
W
a
W
x
r
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 11
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 12
|
|
.
|

\
|
- + - - =
L
h
g L
c
W
a
F
x
p
xmf

0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
ax/ g
Fxmf Fxmr
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 13
M
F F
a
xr xmf
x
+
=
M
F F
a
xf xmr
x
+
=
L
c
W
W fs
- =
L
b
W
Wrs
- =
|
.
|

\
|
-
- - + -
=
L
h
L
h
p
p
xr fs
p
xmf
F W
F


1
|
.
|

\
|
- +
- - -
=
L
h
L
h
p
p
xf rs
p
xmr
F W
F


1
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 14
B X A Y + - =
A
B
A
X
Y =
6
2
+ =
X
Y
12 2 + - = X Y
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
AX+B
X/ A-B/ A
|
.
|

\
|
- +
-
=
L
h
B
p
rs
p
W

1
|
.
|

\
|
- +
-
=
L
h
L
h
A
p
p

1
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 15
h
L
L
h
L
h
W
F F
rs
p
p
xf xmr
-
+
-
|
.
|

\
|
- +
- =

1
|
.
|

\
|
-
- - + -
=
L
h
L
h
p
p
xr fs
p
xmf
F W
F


1
h W L
h W L
RC
p
rs
p
fs
W
W
- - -
- - + -
=

Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme


Brake power distribution
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 16
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake parameters
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 17
w
i
s
F
C
F
=
35 , 0 =
=

r
r
C
wheel
brake
u
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Drum brake
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 18
a
a
b
F
S
F
N
F
W
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/brakes/brake-types/drum-brake1.htm
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Drum Brake
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 19
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Disk brake
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 20
http://auto.howstuffworks.com/auto-parts/brakes/brake-types/disc-brake2.htm
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Conclusions
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 21
F
a
F
w
F
w

F
x
) tan( 1
) (
) tan(

-
=
+ - =
- =
C
F F F
F F
i
x a w
w X
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Hill decent -3%
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 22
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Brake energy recuperation systems
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 23
Flywheel?
Battery?
Ultra capacitors?
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
conclusion
We do need Brake energy recuperation systems
Disks on the front drum at the rear as main brake
systems
Brake force distribution is not that difficult
Hill decent will be a great challenge
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 24
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Thanks
Questions?
Mark Pecqueur
+32 476 40 87 44
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 25
Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme
Calculation
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles KdG 2013 26
Calculate the different dimensions of a brake systems for a human
powered vehicle with a total weight of 150 kg with disk brakes on the front
wheels and a drum brake at the rear wheel together with a hydraulic brake
systems.
The maximum force on the brake is 120N with a diameter of the wheels of
42 cm. The center of gravity is at a height of 44 cm in the middle vehicle
with a wheelbase of 1,8 m.
Calculate the diameter of the brake disks, diameter of the brake cylinder,
diameter of the drum brake diameter of the brake cylinder