UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

CENTRE FOR SCIENCE STUDIES
SEMESTER II 2008/2009
BSM 3913 TEST 2 (20%) DURATION : 1
1
4
HOUR
ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS AND ALL CALCULATIONS MUST BE IN 3
DECIMAL PLACES. USE 0.005 r · .
Q1 (a) Given the cubic function
2
( ) ( 2)( 1) f x x x · + .
(i) By taking 1 . 0 · h , find the slope of the function at 2 · x , by
using 3-point central difference formula and 5-point difference
formula.
(ii) Then, determine whether
( 1, 4)
is a relative maximum or
minimum point by using 5-point difference formula.
[Hint: If
0
( ) 0 f x ´´ >
then
f
has a relative minimum at
0
x
.
If
0
( ) 0 f x ´´ <
then
f
has a relative maximum at
0
x
.]
(9 marks)
(b) The velocity,
v
, of a particle in (m/s) at each 4 seconds time
t
, is given
below.
Time, t 0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Velocity, v 13.2
7
25.4
4
30.1
9
31.8
0
32.2
5
32.9
2
32.89
Time, t 28 32 36 40 44 48
Velocity, v 32.2
4
31.1
6
29.7
4
30.3
8
28.0
6
29.94
Find the distance, d , traveled by the particle at the second half of the
journey by using Trapezoidal’s rule.
(7 marks)
Q2 Given
1 0 2
0 4 1
0 2 0
A
| `
÷
·
÷
÷

. ,
.
Use the power method to determine the dominant eigenvalue and its
corresponding eigenvector for the matrix A above. Start with initial vector
(0)
(1 1 0)
T
v · .
(7 marks)
Q3 (a) Given the ordinary differential equation with initial condition as follow
3
4
x
y y e ´ + · ,
(0) 1 y ·
.
Find numerical solutions to the initial value problem using the second
order Taylor series method over interval [ ] 0, 1
with step size 0.25 x A ·
and find the percentage error of the numerical solutions, if the exact
solution is of the form
3
( )
x
y x e · .
(7 marks)
(b) Find numerical solutions to the following differential equation with initial
condition,
(1 ) y x y ´ ·
,
(0) 0 y ·
using the Classic Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta method at
0(0.2)0.6 x ·
.
(10 marks)
TOTAL MARKS: 40
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
Formulae
3-point central difference:
( ) ( )
( )
2
f x h f x h
f x
h
+
´ =
5-point difference:
( 2 ) 8 ( ) 8 ( ) ( 2 )
( )
12
f x h f x h f x h f x h
f x
h
+ + + +
´ =
Trapezoidal rule:
1
0
1
( ) 2
2
n
b
n i
a
i
h
f x dx f f f

·
]
= + +
]
]
¿
l
Power Method:
,..... 2 , 1 , 0 ,
1
) (
1
) 1 (
· ·
+
+
k A
m
k
k
k
v v
Second order Taylor series method:
2
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2!
i i i i
h
y x y x hy x y x
+
´ ´´ · + + ,
0,1, 2, i · K
Classic Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta method:
1 1 2 3 4
1
( 2 2 )
6
i i
y y k k k k
+
· + + + + ,
0,1, 2, i · K
where
1
( , )
i i
k hf x y ·
1
2
( , )
2 2
i i
k h
k hf x y · + +
2
3
( , )
2 2
i i
k h
k hf x y · + +

4 3
( , )
i i
k hf x h y k · + +
Answer Scheme:
Question Scheme Marks
Q1
x

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.9

1.8
f (x)

2.04
8

0.96
1
0
0.84
1
1.56
8
(a) (i) 3 – point central difference formula,
( )
( ) ( )
010 . 9
2 . 0
1 . 2 9 . 1
2 ≈
− − −
≈ − ′
f f
f
5 – point difference formula,

( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1.8 8 1.9 8 2.1 2.2
2 9.000
1.2
f f f f
f
− − + − − − + −
′ − ≈ ≈
M1
M1A1
M1A1
M1
M1A1
A1
A1
M2A2
(table)
M1A1
x

1.2

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8
f(x)
3
.87
2
3
.96
9
4
.00
0
3
.97
1
3
.88
8

(ii) 5 – point difference formula,
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
0.8 16 0.9 30 1.0 16 1.1 1.2
1 6
12 0.1
f f f f f
f
− − + − − − + − − −
′′ − ≈ ≈ −
Since ( ) 0 1 < − ′ ′ f , so ( ) 4 , 1 − is a relative maximum point.
(b) Second half of the journey, from 24 = t to 48 = t .
A1
i
T

v

M
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
2
4
2
8
3
2
3
6
4
0
4
4
4
8
3
2
.
8
9

3
2
.
2
4

3
1
.
1
6

2
9
.
Total 62.83 151.58 A2
( ) [ ]
m
dt v d
98 . 731
58 . 151 2 83 . 62
2
4
48
24

+ ≈
=

TOTAL 16
Q2
k
( )
T
k
v  
 
( )
T
k
A v  
 
1 k
m
+
0
1
1
0
-1
4
-2
4
1
-
0.2
5
1
-0.5
-0
.7
5
3.
5
-2
3.
5
2
-
0.2
14
1
-0.57
1
-0
.9
28
3.
42
9
-2
3.
42
9
3

M1(all)
A3
M1
A2
TOTAL 7
Q3
(a)
0 0
(0) 1 0, 1 y x y · = · ·
,

3 ' 3 '
4 ( , ) 4
i
x x
i i i i
y y e y f x y e y + · = · ·
and
3 '' '
12
i
x
i i
y e y ·

2
3 3 3
1
2
3 3
(0.25)
0.25(4 ) (12 4 )
2
(0.25)
0.25(4 ) (8 )
2
i i i
i i
x x x
i i i i
x x
i i i
y y e y e e y
y e y e y
+
· + + +
· + + +

M1
M1
M1(all)
A4
M1
M1(all)
M2
A6
i
i
x
N
u
m
eri
ca
l
So
lut
io
ns
,
i
y
Ex
ac
t
So
lut
io
ns
Pe
rc
en
ta
ge
Er
ro
r
0
0.
0
1.
0
1
0.
0
%
1
0.
25
2.
03
1
2.
11
7

TOTAL 17