Outerwear

GERMANY

2

GERMANY
2.1 GENERAL ECONOMIC SITUATION Germany’s affluent and technologically powerful economy - the fifth largest in the world - has become one of the slowest growing economies in the euro zone and Switzerland. A quick turnaround is not foreseeable in the immediate future. Growth in 200103 was under 1%, rising to 1.7% in 2004. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $70 billion. Germany’s aging population, combined with high unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions from workers. Structural rigidities in the labour market including strict regulations on laying off workers and the setting of wages on a national basis - have made unemployment a chronic problem. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could allow Germany to meet the longterm challenges of European economic integration and globalization, particularly if labour market rigidities are further addressed. In the short run, however, the fall in government revenues and the rise in expenditures have raised the deficit above the EU 3% debt limit. The GDP of Germany, which is the largest economy in the EU, grew more slowly than the EU average and of course Switzerland. The weak economic situation can be illustrated by the number of unemployed persons, which increased by 7.8% in 2004. A second aspect was the increase in the cost of living for private households compared with previous years. This comparatively high rate was mainly due to the increase of energy costs, food, ecological taxes and administrative fees which practically absorbed the planned tax reductions.

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2.2 THE MARKET FOR OUTERWEAR 2.2.1 Market size Although the general economic situation at the beginning of 2005 was disappointing, Germany still represents by far the largest single market within the EU, with an estimated total sales volume in clothing of 55.6 billion € in 2004 (Statistics BTE Cologne 2005, amounts at retail prices including VAT). In 2004, annual clothing sales (including outerwear) shrank in comparison with other consumer expenditures (they decreased by 2.3% in comparison to 2003). The year was dominated by a significant decrease of all sales which amounted to approximately 2 billion €. There is no real change visible at the moment as there will be no growth in 2005. The negative retail trends must also be seen in the light that private household expenditures have increased by 3.5% in the years 2001-2004. Nevertheless, clothing consumption fell constantly during recent years so that only 5.40 € out of 100 € disposable are being spent on clothing.

2.2.2 Market characteristics The present situation of the outerwear market in Germany can be characterised by the following brief statements: Clothing items from the outerwear segment can be characterised by a permanent price decrease. The main reason for this is the production of garments from low-wage countries. Product imitation has become easier through global production, easy communication by Internet / e-mail and liberalised trade. Renowned market research institutes have stated that the ‘middle market segment’, (which is characterised by quality consciousness and ‘brand orientation’) has become much smaller in recent years. The outerwear and clothing market are moving in two directions: (a) value/price and (b) trend/fashion, whilst the middle segment is decreasing.

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2.2.3 Demographic characteristics Figure 2-1 shows that the major population segment by age group is between 40 and 44 years of age (approximately 7.5 million – male and female), followed by those in the 35-39 brakket (approximately 7 million people). In other words, Germans in their early forties represent the largest target group (in numbers only).

The younger generation under 25 is comparatively small, e.g. the age group between 20 and 24 represents only approx. 4.5 million Germans (5.5% of the whole population). The smallest potential ‘target group’, apart from those over 70, is the segment under 10 years of age. The consequences of this for clothing manufacturers from foreign countries are evident.

Figure 2-1: Age structure of the German population by sex, 2005
Germany: 2005
100+ 95-99 90-94 85-89 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4

male

female

4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 Population (in millions)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, 2005

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2.2.4 Retail sales by product category Table 2-1 shows that, in terms of turnover development, the womenswear market increased by 5% between 2002 and 2005, while the menswear market highly increased by 10%; the negative turnover in 2002 had been transformed into a positive value of 2% in the first half of 2005. The childrenswear market increased by 9%.
Table 2-1: Outerwear turnover development in % by sex and product categories, 2002 - 2005 2002 Ladieswear coats suits jackets/blazers dresses skirts trousers jeanswear blouses Menswear coats suits blazers jackets trousers jeanswear Childrenswear Textiles total Source: BTE Cologne, 2005 -6 -10 -12 2 -18 -16 -4 -4 -9 -8 -14 -8 -12 -6 -9 -2 -9 -8

There are several ways of segmenting the clothing market. Table 2-1 provides an overview of the turnover development in the major product segments, in percentages, covering the main items of ladies’, men’s and children’s outerwear analysed by this survey. All three major segments (ladies, men, children) see a turnover 'boom' during the years 2003 to 2004, where all turnover values increased highly and nearly turned into positive figures.
2003 -5 -8 1 -8 -7 4 3 -2 -11 -4 -5 2 -9 -6 -3 -3 -10 -5 2004 -2 -5 4 0 -5 -8 2 3 -10 0 1 8 -3 -3 2 3 -1 -2 1st half 2005 -1 15 -1 3 -9 -10 -3 8 -8 2 10 5 -2 4 -1 2 0 -10

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2.2.5 Consumer behaviour The latest observations on consumer behaviour based on market research for this marketing handbook show that consumers of 2004/2005: - react very noticeably to economic changes and moods - tend to buy less since all wardrobes are full and basic needs can be fulfilled less expensively - are highly sensitive to price the former belief that ‘cheap things’ are bad and expensive is good, no lon ger applies - were concerned about the introduction of the Euro (€) in the beginning of 2002 and assumed hidden price increases - show a clear trend towards shopping at textile discounters

2.2.5.1 Consumer preferences There have been tremendous shifts in consumer preferences with regard to the most popular shops in recent years. Market leaders confirm that this development corresponds directly to more unpredictable consumer buying patterns towards much cheaper goods, closer to the actual demand (not in advance) and in shops with more ‘event character’. A survey of the clothing market segment shows that many Germans buy from clothing multiples (20%). Department stores are in third position at 12% and are still quite strong, although they have dropped by 1%. New concepts reinforced the position of department stores. Smaller specialised clothing retailers are less important and it is expected that this distribution channel will lose further market share in coming years. The most preferred shops among all female consumers between the ages of 14 and 64 years are C&A (56%) in the number one position, followed by H&M (47%) and Galeria Kaufhof and Karstadt (both 38%). They also mentioned Esprit, Adler, Benetton, Wöhrl, Jean Pascale and S. Oliver. All other retailers are below 5% of all responses (Source: Kommunikationsanalyse 2004, Brigitte Magazine, Gruner + Jahr, Hamburg, 2004). 54

Table 2-2: Clothing retail channels by market share, 2000 - 2004 in % of total value Specialists independent retailers Clothing multiples Non-specialists Department/variety stores Super- and hypermarkets Sports shops Home shopping companies Other Total Source: BTE Cologne, 2005 2000 56 28 28 44 13 5 3 14 9 100 2002 55 27 28 45 13 6 3 14 9 100 2004 54 25 29 46 12 7 3 15 9 100

Table 2-2 shows that many retail channels have lost market share in the last four years (such as Independent Retailers (-3%) and Clothing Multiples (-8%). In contrast, Home Shopping is very popular in Germany, even in contrast to other Western European countries and Switzerland (share: 15%).

Looking at consumer patterns, market research by Intermedia in 2005 on behalf of Burda Verlag, Hamburg shows interesting results, summarised in Table 2-3. The key fact is that women have a much greater interest in the latest fashion trends (82%) than men (18%). Even when it comes to special offers, ladies (58.5%) are more interested than men (41.5%). Approximately 60% would like to buy at fixed prices. Only one third likes to bargain on prices. Brand awareness is low among consumers; only one German in six is concerned about the brand.

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Table 2-3: Consumer patterns with regard to interest in fashion, purchase timing, brand awareness and bargains by sex, 2005 Ladies Interest in Fashion I am interested in the latest fashion trends I often talk about fashion Purchase Timing I often buy fashion at the beginning of the season, when the new range comes into the shops I often buy fashion at the end of the season, when prices have already been reduced in many places Brand Awareness and Bargains I am very concerned about buying the right brand I often buy special offers 82.0% 87.9% 18.0% 12.1% Men

68.2% 59.0%

31.8% 41.0%

58.4% 58.5%

41.6% 41.5%

Source: Typologie der Wünsche, Intermedia-Burda Verlag, 2005/2006

2.2.5.2 Consumer expenditure The overall disposable income of all private German households increased by 2.3% to € 1,441 billion in 2005 compared with 2004. The private household consumption increased by 1.2% to € 1,266 billion in 2005 and was in line with the developments of recent years. The latest detailed analysis of expenditure structures of German households by the German Federal Statistical Office in 2005 shows that out of € 100 (= 100%), € 5.40 was spent on clothing (= 5.4%). Single males have a relatively higher disposable income but save most on textiles and clothing. Couples with kids spend the most on textiles. The self-employed and employees tend to spend the most on clothing. Figure 2-2 gives an overview of the share of the clothing seg-

ments in German household expenditure. A general tendency is for consumers to spend less on clothing, especially since the beginning of 2002 and the introduction of the Euro. Also a large part of their income is spent on services, travel, education, fitness / health and rent for housing.

Figure 2-2: Monthly household spending on clothing and shoes, 2005

0

50

100

150

200

Clothing/shoes total Menswear/shoes

Ladieswear/shoes Kidswear/shoes

Source: Federal Statistical Office Germany, 2005

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A different analysis of consumer expenditure by the CBI in 2004 showed that the per capita consumption for clothing amounted to € 587.00 per year. Table 2-4 shows the annual consumption in

different product groups. A clear fact is that the per capita consumption has decreased in value in recent years, as the turnover in the clothing market has reduced, whilst the population has increased.

Table 2-4: Expenditures on outerwear per capita by product categories, 2004 Total (average) of which: Women's outerwear Men's outerwear Children's outerwear 760 € / head 418 € / head 546 € / head 587 € / per head

Source: CBI Market Survey, 2005

The share of clothing expenditure in all household expenses has fallen permanently: by approximately 0.8% points from 1997 to 2003. According to Table 2-5, published

by the BTE (German Association of Textile Retailers), German consumers only spend an average of 5.05% of their purchases on fashion.

Table 2-5: Household spending on clothing (in % of total spending), 1997 - 2003 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

5.84%

5.69%

5.63%

5.55%

5.39%

5.24%

5.05%

Source: German Federal Association of Textile Retailers (BTE), Cologne, 2005

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Table 2-6 shows average retail prices of consumer expenditures per clothing article.

2003 in € Suit Coat Sports jacket Trousers (classic) Trousers (leisure) Jeans Sweatshirt Jacket Leather jacket Shirt Polo shirt Tie Source: BTE Cologne, 2005 305 254 191 84 71 76 76 148 284 46 28 32

2004 in € 312 216 98 89 73 76 71 145 323 44 28 30

Table 2-6: Average retail prices by product categories, 2003/2004

2.2.6 Price developments of clothing Between 2003 and the first half of 2005, the prices for all product segments in the clothing sector have decreased only slightly

(except a remarkably high loss in the first half of 2005), whilst the total cost of living has increased to a larger extent. For more details, see Table 2-7.

Table 2-7: Clothing price index relative to national consumer price index, 2003 - 2005 (Index: 2000 = 100) 2003 2004 1st half 2005 97.9 108.1

Price index clothing Price index total cost of living

100.7 104.5

100.0 106.2

Source: BTE Cologne, 2005 / base: all private households in Germany

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2.3 IMPORTS 2.3.1 Total imports Table 2-8 gives an overview of import volume in terms of value and volume of the respective product groups into Germany. The tendency is that imports have slightly increased overall, both in terms of value and volume. Looking at the total import increases per product segment from 2003 to 2004, active sportswear has increased by 8.5%, men’s and boys’ outerwear by 10.4%. Only girls’ or ladies’ outerwear (representing the largest outerwear product segment) has decreased by 1.9% (all figures in value terms). The importance of imports from non-EU countries depends on the sector regarding 2003 to 2004. Whilst in 2003 the share of the non-EU countries in total imports of men’s or boys’ outerwear was 59.9%, the share decreased to 57.4% (value) in 2004. The same analysis of the product segment ladies’ and girls’ outerwear from 2003 to 2004 shows that the share of non-EU countries in all imports has increased, from 68.3% to 68.5% (value terms).

By far the largest product category are jerseys, pullovers, cardigans and waistcoats (HS code 61.10), followed by T-shirts and singlets (HS code 61.09). As a result, price competition is fiercest in these product segments, especially for T-shirts. In general, imports from non–EU countries have increased in most product segments, thus indicating more sales opportunities for manufacturers abroad. (including, to a large extent, developing countries).

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Table 2-8: Imports of knitted outerwear by sex and product categories, 2002 - 2004 2002 Tons For men or boys Coats, raincoats, anoraks etc. (61.01) Suits, jackets, outfits, trousers, shorts etc. (61.03) Shirts (61.05) Total Total extra EU For women or girls Coats, raincoats, anoraks etc. (61.02) Suits, outfits, jackets, dresses, skirts, trousers (61.04) 4 227 98 497 7 243 130 088 7 454 121 718 1 297 35 121 1 412 36 130 1 403 32 671 1 000 € 2003 Tons 1 000 € 2004 Tons 1 000 €

4 112

86 763

5 067

82 689

7 362

96 440

9 928 15 337 11 152

198 832 320 717 182 344

10 015 16 494 12 745

178 286 297 104 178 017

7 783 20 238 14 693

198 762 327 874 188 529

33 380

607 051

40 439

633 234

40 497

605 092

Blouses and shirt blouses (6106) Total Total extra EU For both sexes T-shirts,singlets etc.(61.09) Jerseys, pullovers, cardigans, waistcoats etc. (61.10) Babies garments (61.11) Impregnated clothing(61.13) Total Total extra EU Active Sportswear Track suits, ski suits and swimwear (61.12) Other sportswear (61.14) Total Total extra EU

11 018

281 790

11 714

271 419

12 623

288 580

48 625 37 876

987 338 640 097

59 396 47 727

1 034 740 706 289

60 573 48 027

1 015 389 695 522

111 146 135 128

1 960 769 2 933 571

132 170 151 718

2 127 672 2 866 040

146 863 146 076

2 308 693 2 718 103

9 540 2 361 258 174 201 734

190 681 47 858 5 132 878 3 300 627

11 357 978 296 222 238 761

196 367 19 172 5 209 250 3 548 496

13 935 810 307 675 251 423

193 907 15 277 5 235 979 3 692 544

7 736

221 841

9 948

238 659

12 617

247 627

3 196 10 932 8 112

109 395 331 237 206 288

3 266 13 241 10 284

99 921 338 580 219 616

4 358 16 974 13 002

119 792 367 419 236 840

Source: Office of National Statistics (ONS): Consumer Trends, 2005 – deflators.

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Table 2-9 shows that the share of non-EU countries in total imports for woven outerwear items is even higher than for knitted items. 78.8% of men’s and boys’ outerwear in 2004, for example, originated from non-EU countries. For women’s or girls’ outerwear the

share of non-EU countries was also at a very high level of 70.5% (year 2004 - value terms). As for knitted outerwear, there was a general upswing in imports of woven outerwear between 2003 and 2004.

Table 2-9: Imports of woven outerwear by sex and product categories, 2002 - 2004 2002 Tons For men or boys Coats, anoraks, windcheaters etc. (62.01) SuitSuits, jackets, outfits, trousers, shorts etc. (62.03) Shirts (62.05) Total Total extra EU For women or girls Coats, capes, anoraks, wind jackets etc. (62.02) SuSuits, outfits, jackets, dresses, skirts, trousers (6204) 38 207 860 435 44 605 834 477 53 056 853 193 25 038 577 659 28 390 523 800 31 545 486 597 1 000 € 2003 Tons 1 000 € 2004 Tons 1 000 €

119 318

2 650 541

126 953

2 592 882

141 808

2 669 557

36 916 181 272 151 938

777 378 4 005 578 3 041 561

40 592 195 934 165 056

755 845 2 990 221 3 872 528

39 776 213 128 181 305

725 981 3 882 136 3 059 571

137 961

3 571 079

140 328

3 321 803

155 043

3 410 037

Blouses and shirt blouses (6206) Total Total extra EU For both sexes Babies garments (62.09) Other incl. Impregnated (62.10)

28 905

913 740

27 619

806 313

25 292

691 315

205 072 172 674

4 005 578 3 041 651

195 934 165 056

3 872 528 2 990 221

307 675 251 423

5 235 979 3 692 544

4 314 15 396

78 969 350 263

5 255 16 683

79 841 298 629

6 203 17 227

82 875 266 162

Total Total extra EU Source: Eurostat, 2005

19 711 14 030

429 233 315 286

21 938 15 026

378 469 266 538

23 430 15 409

349 036 246 329

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2.3.2 Outward Processing Trade (OPT) A brief analysis of the OPT imports of outerwear into Germany shows that most of the countries lost market share in 2004, except India with +1,333%, Latvia with +65% and China with +6%. This positive development can be mainly explained by the fact that these countries cur-

rently have a high growth potential for textile exports. The ‘losers’ are Lithuania (-96%), Bosnia-Herzegovina (-95%), Slovakia (-94%), Ukraine (-89%) and Albania (-87%). Romania has retained the first position, although it also lost 65% import volume. For more details, see Table 2-10.

Table 2-10: Largest supplying countries of OPT outerwear, 2002 – 2004 Positon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Source: Eurostat, 2005 17 18 19 20 Country 2002 in 1000 € 51.749 43.539 73.502 946 16.778 12.130 8.463 12.140 2.229 3.801 7.019 2.608 0 921 2.437 50 358 16.407 1.022 0
12.511.379 -64%

Change from 2002 -51% -36% -63% 89% -45% -44% -63% -48% 39% -29% -88% -50%

2003 in 1000 € 25.264 28.019 27.429 1.791 9.197 6.806 3.133 6.355 3.097 2.686 854 1.293 0

Change from 2003 -65% -70% -79% 65% -69% -73% -73% -94% -87% -86% -74% -84%

2004 in 1000 € 8.851 8.545 5.629 2.953 2.860 1.831 847 397 394 363 225 205 71

Romania Tunisia Poland Latvia Bulgaria Hungary Czech Rep. Slovakia Albania Slovenia For.JRep.Mac Croatia Israel India Bosnia-Herz. Egypt China Ukraine Lithuania Maldives
Extra-EU15

-99% -59% 109% -94% -99% -56%

5 993 105 21 175 449 0
4.548.198

1333% -95% -73% 6% -89% -96%

71 46 29 23 19 19 14

-4%

4.352.872

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2.3.3 Largest suppliers of outerwear Table 2-11 shows the imports of finished products from major supplying countries into Germany between 2002 and 2004. By far the leading import country is Turkey, followed by China and Italy. The three leading supplying countries represent 32.5% of all clothing imports in 2004. Not less than 74.4% of all imports originate from non-EU countries. The ‘winners’ in terms of sales increases are Austria (+24%), India (+23%), China (+16%), Ukraine (+11%), Belgium (+10%), UK (+10%) and Bulgaria (+6%). Turkey, as the number one supplying country, slightly lost import volume by -4%. The ‘losers’ are all from Europe (except Tunisia): Poland, Tunisia, Greece, The Netherlands and Italy with an average decrease of more than 10% in 2004 compared to 2003.

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Table 2-11: Largest supplying countries of outerwear, 2002 - 2004 Positon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Country 2002 in 1000 € 2.489.849 1.595.364 1.441.476 657.650 948.283 1.027.475 791.333 456.993 541.723 388.059 402.774 480.585 353.744 292.505 387.669 284.890 379.198 314.124 166.302 220.425 5.037.721 12.511.379 17.549.100 Change from 2002 1% 9% -14% 30% -6% -10% -13% 0% -11% 27% 2% -18% 1% 15% -18% 4% -14% -8% 16% -8% -10% 0% -3% 2003 in 1000 € 2.515.195 1.736.886 1.234.142 852.906 893.658 929.433 688.828 456.716 484.653 491.583 410.431 392.764 357.655 335.689 317.386 294.890 325.185 287.434 192.358 203.448 4.548.198 12.485.409 17.033.607 Change from 2003 -4% 16% -11% 23% 3% -11% -18% 10% 0% -3% -7% -5% 2% 6% 10% 4% -11% -11% 24% 11% -4% 1% 0% 2004 in 1000 € 2.422.190 2.006.300 1.099.218 1.052.723 918.882 829.627 561.492 500.114 483.590 475.157 381.937 371.233 366.418 357.180 347.976 305.728 288.384 256.609 238.105 226.280 4.352.872 12.649.499 17.002.372

Turkey China Italy Bangladesh Romania Netherlands Poland Belgium Hong Kong Czech Rep. India France Indonesia Bulgaria Utd. Kingdom Denmark Tunisia Greece Austria Ukraine Intra-EU15 Extra-EU15 Total

Source: Eurostat, 2005

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2.4 TRADE STRUCTURE 2.4.1 Developments in the retail trade The major developments in German clothing retail structure are as follows: The clothing retailers were more or less forced to continue their ‘trading down policy’, or in other words have not managed to increase prices. Known brands are sold at reduced prices and ‘cheap’ trade brands have been created. The higher segment shows price increases but this is of absolutely minor importance. Expansion of price aggressive retail outlets – in the clothing sector mainly represented by ‘vertical chains’ such H&M, MANGO, ZARA, Vero Moda, Tally Weijl etc. Other retailers mainly suffer from decreasing turnover, less profit, lower frequency in the shops and increased costs. Changes in the size structure of outlets – the tendency for larger units has decreased. Even larger clothing retailers have lost their market share or had to leave the market (such as BOECKER, C&A). The tendency for more outlets continues – the so called ‘vertical retailers’, who manage the whole scale from collection development, production (outsourcing) and sales via their own shops, dominate the best shopping areas beyond Germany’s largest cities.

New outlets whose main business is not clothing, such as Tchibo (coffee sales with over 1000 own shops) and Aldi (supermarkets) have gained importance and become the ‘winners’ over the last 2-3 years. Large cash-andcarry markets have extended their sales area including the textile range, and also have gained importance. Retailers tend to work with fewer but more efficient clothing suppliers with faster deliveries and EDP support. Four out of five companies would like to work with fewer suppliers. 69% of all retailers want to buy on a more short-term basis. The internationalisation of the German market with increasing market share by chains such as H&M Sweden, GAP USA, Auchan France (ORSAY, PIMKE), Inditex (ZARA) and MANGO Spain etc. continued in 2004/2005, and it can be expected that the vertical chains with their fast delivery rhythms will continue their expansion strategy in the future. In the future, textiles and clothing shopping will be more combined with lifestyle and entertainment in the German cities, e.g. in the form of ‘Urban Entertainment Centres’ such as Stilwerk or SEVENS in Düsseldorf or the COLONADEN in Hamburg.

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2.4.2 Leading retailers Table 2-12 gives an excellent overview of the structure and the development of the largest

German textile retailers. This analysis was carried out by the renowned trade magazine Textilwirtschaft/Frankfurt on an annual basis.

Table 2-12: Major specialised clothing, sports chains and discounters in Germany, 2004/2005 Retail chain Parent company Sector Outlets Turnover 2003 inm. 2,690 a) 1,800 1,360 373 342 308 185 161 540 c) 537 260 b) 166 c) c) n.a. 62 b) a) 440 119 106

C&A Hennes & Mauritz Peek & Cloppenburg Vögele Peek & Cloppenburg Wöhrl K+L Ruppert Zara Orsay Sinn Leffers Bonita Mode Ulla Popken Xanaka Pimky M&S Mode Pohland Nicolas Scholz Kids Stores New Yorker Mister + Lady Jeans Jeans Fritz

C&A (Netherlands) Hennes & Mauritz (Sweden) Peek & Cloppenburg West Vögele (Switzerland) Peek & Cloppenburg Nord Wöhrl K+L Ruppert Inditex (Spain) Mulliez Group (France) Karstadt/Quelle Bonita Group Popken Group Mulliez Group (France) Mulliez Group (France) Vendex/KBB (Netherlands) Pohland Bonita Group C&A (Netherlands) New Yorker Western Store Beran Jeans Fritz

General clothing General clothing General clothing General clothing General clothing General clothing General clothing General clothing Womenswear Womenswear Womenswear Womenswear Womenswear Womenswear Womenswear Menswear Menswear Childrenswear Leisure wear Leisure wear Leisure wear

227 282 78 352 26 41 50 33 239 51 397 257 77 152 77 12 40 77 254 193 200

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Retail chain

Parent company

Sector

Outlets

Turnover 2003 inm. 24 412 740 652 609

Runners Point Ernsting’s Family Takko KiK Adler NKD Zeeman

Karstadt/Quelle Ernsting Takko Tengelmann-Gruppe Metro Group NKD Zeeman Group (Netherlands)

Sportswear Discounter 2) Discounter Discounter Discounter Discounter Discounter

121 1049 781 1055

766 241

366 86

Source: Textilwirtschaft, 2004 / CBI Market Survey, 2004 1) turnover in textiles and clothing 2) mentioned discounters are textile and/or clothing discounters a), b) and c) only consolidated figures are given

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Table 2-13 and Table 2-14 give a good overview of the ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ among clothing retailers in Germany. It may be a good idea for clothing exporters from abroad to include the best-performing retailers in their list of target

customers. For the members of the losers list, it can be assumed that they are not really looking for new suppliers as they are trying to manage the decrease in sales and perhaps even cut down the list of suppliers.

Table 2-13: The winners in clothing retail, 2003/2004 Name of Retailer 2003 (in bn. €) 320 652 86 85 77 2004 (in bn. €) 400 782 102 100 90 Increase in turnover + 25.0 % + 19.9 % + 18.6 % + 17.6 % + 16.9 %

Esprit, Ratingen Tengelmann, Muelheim/R. Zeeman, Alphen/NL Goergens-Group, Koeln Hugo Boss, Metzingen Source: Textilwirtschaft, Frankfurt/Main, 2004

Table 2-14: The losers in clothing retail, 2003/2004 Name of Retailer 2003 (in bn. €) 1,400 93 373 428 118 2004 (in bn. €) 1,100 80 346 397 110 Increase in turnover - 21.0 % - 14.0 % - 7.2 % - 7.2 % - 6.8 %

Aldi, Essen Ludwig Beck, Munich. Vögele, Sigmaringen Woolworth, Frankfurt Sahinler Gruppe, Würselen Source: Textilwirtschaft, Frankfurt/Main, 2004

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2.4.3 Distribution channels This structure of the textile/clothing retail market can also be split into two major groups: ‘specialised retailers’ and ‘larger forms of textile retail’. For more details, see Table 2-6.

Table 2-15: Clothing retail channels by market share, 2000 - 2004 in % of total value 2000 2002 2004

Specialists Independent retailers Clothing multiples Non-specialists Department/variety stores Super- and hypermarkets Sports shops Home shopping companies Other Total Source: BTE Cologne, 2005

56 28 28 44 13 5 3 14 9 100

55 27 28 45 13 6 3 14 9 100

54 25 29 46 12 7 3 15 9 100

2.4.3.1 Retailers 2.4.3.1.1 Independent specialised retailers Independent retailers do not usually buy directly from developing countries. With approximately 45,000 textile and clothing shops all over Germany, they still play an

important role in the market. A high percentage of the retailers are members of a buying association that takes over certain functions from the members such as purchasing, marketing, logistics etc. Market share: 25% in 2004 Trend: Decreasing (2000 = 28%)

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2.4.3.1.2 Clothing multiples The most important clothing multiples are C&A (227)*, H&M (282)*, P&C West and Anson’s Menswear (78)* and P&C North (26)*, Sinn Leffers (51)*, K+L Ruppert (50)*, C. Vögele (352)* and Wöhrl (41)*. New Yorker with 254 outlets is the largest jeans and sportswear chain, followed by Western Store Beran (approx. 200)* and Werdin with 40 shops. The major womenswear multiples are BiBa (113)* and Appelrath_Cüpper (14)*, both part of the Douglas Group, Orsay from France (239)*, Bonita (397)* and Ulla Popken for large sizes (257)*. Menswear multiples are Nicolas Scholz (40)* and Pohland (12)*.
* number of outlets

2.4.3.1.4 Mail-order houses The German mail-order business is, after the US, the largest market in the world. The biggest mailorder house in the world is the Hamburg based Otto Versand with many investments/subsidiary companies abroad. They also own the German mail order companies Schwab, Baur, Witt, Heine, Alba Moda and Sport Scheck. Quelle and Neckermann, the number two and three in the market, are part of the Karstadt Group. Quelle, as the second largest mail order house, also holds major shares in other mail order houses, such as Schöpflin, Peter Hahn and Madeleine, covering different market segments. Other larger mail order houses are Bader and Klingel. Smaller, more niche market orientated mail order companies retailing clothing are Atelier Goldener Schnitt, Elégance, Bon Prix and Drei Pagen Versand. Buying clothes via mail order is quite popular in Germany, as people trust online payment and the very well organised internet infrastructure. Market share: 15% in 2004 Trend: Slightly Increasing (2000 = 14%)

Market share: 20% in 2004 Trend: Strongly Decreasing (2000 =28%) 2.4.3.1.3 Department stores The major department stores are Karstadt with 122 outlets (as a part of the Karstadt/Quelle group) and Galleria Kaufhof with 127 stores, belonging to the Metro group. Kaufhof has been very successful with their trading up concept to ‘Galleria Kaufhof’. Another examples is Woolworth with 330 outlets. Market share: 12% in 2004 Trend: Slightly decreasing (2000 = 13%)

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2.4.3.1.5 Textile discounters Leading discounters are NKD (approx. 850 outlets), Tengelmann (750 clothing outlets), Lidl & Schwartz (over 1,900 Lidl stores), Ernsting’s family (over 1,000 outlets) and Takko (721 outlets). Their buying policy is very much price oriented. The buying managers often buy from European based importers/wholesalers who have access to the cheapest sourcing countries worldwide. Market share: 12% in 2004 Trend: Strongly increasing (2000 = 3%) 2.4.3.1.6 Grocery super- and hypermarkets Some examples are: Metro, Aldi, Edeka/AVA, Tengelmann, Rewe and Plus markets. The clothing they sell is mainly restricted to clothing accessories such as socks, caps, scarves and so on, but increasingly includes T-shirts, shirts, jeans etc. Aldi and Lidl in particular offer more and more fashion products alongside their food- and non-food assortment. Market share: 7% in 2004 Trend: Slightly increasing (2000 = 5%)

2.4.3.1.7 Others Apart from ‘street markets’ and ‘ex-factory sales’ directly from the fashion manufacturer, the clothing distribution via ‘non textile related retailers’ has gained importance. The most prominent example is the Tchibo Group. This Hamburg based company was originally a ‘coffee roaster’ selling coffee in more than 3,000 outlets all over Germany. Since the beginning of the nineties, every week a new Tchibo also sells other items, among which clothing plays a very important role. The company mainly buys from importers/wholesalers according to their own specifications. Many Germans have bought garments from Tchibo, and the market forecast for this form of ‘textile distribution’ is excellent. Market share: 9% in 2004 Trend: Constant (2000 = 9%) 2.4.3.2 Sales intermediaries 2.4.3.2.1 Clothing manufacturers Manufacturing companies play a pivotal role in the clothing distribution system in Germany. Most of the German clothing brands work in a dual way: On the one hand they buy directly from developing countries in the Far and Middle East on a full import basis (finished products). On the other hand, Germany is by far the largest European buyer of clothing on outsourcing basis (OPT business). 71

Due to its proximity to Eastern European countries, Germany was the ‘pioneer’ country in outsourcing production in the neighbouring countries to the East. The clothing industry has been shrinking since the beginning of the nineties, to the point where now only the ‘fittest’ have survived. There are over 500 reputable clothing companies in Germany. They can be contacted through the German Clothing Manufacturers Association (BBI) in Cologne. Larger companies such as TOM TAILOR, CARLO COLUCCI, S. OLIVER, STREET ONE and so on (also) sell through their own outlets. These brands are normally positioned in the mid- to upper market segment. The tendency towards self-retailing by clothing brands/manufacturers has increased and taken on different forms such as concessions, shop-within-the-shop, sales corners in department stores and own mono-brand shops. 2.4.3.2.2 Central buying associations 55% of all independent clothing retailers in Germany are members of a buying association. These figures underline the significant role of buying associations for the majority of specialised independent retailers. The buying policy is similar to that of multiple stores (buying directly or through buying agents abroad). They operate in the mid- to upper market segment.

Some buying associations had to close down or had serious problems (such as Sütex, Kaufring). The leading associations are Katag/abz in Bielefeld, KMT in Cologne and Unitex in Neu-Ulm. Some, such as Ardek in Hofheim/Wallau specialise in childrenswear, or Intersport in Munich specialising in active sports- and hardware. The German buying associations also have members from the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria and Switzerland. 2.4.3.2.3 Sales agents Sales agents for clothing in Germany play a major role in the market, especially for the renowned clothing brands. The more reputable agents are members of the Central Association of German Sales Agents (CDH) in Cologne. They often have their own showrooms in fashion centres of major German cities such as Neuss/Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich and so on. Only strong manufacturers from nonEuropean countries with a market oriented range and an excellent service might find the right partner in the CDH News published monthly.

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2.4.3.2.4 Importers/wholesalers It is estimated that there are over 1,000 importers/wholesalers for clothing in Germany. They range from very small units run by the owner, up to larger companies with more than 100 employees worldwide such as Miles, Jebsen & Jessen, Nickel etc. They often operate through their buying offices in the Far East, which take over the order and control function on the ‘sourcing spot’. The importers/wholesalers have an important role, they have excellent know-how about worldwide sourcing and supply directly to all kinds of retailers in Germany and the neighbouring countries. The most reputable importers are members of the Association of non-food importers (VFI) in Hamburg. 2.5 GERMAN FASHION TRADE FAIRS For womenswear, the main event not only for Europe but also worldwide is the CPD Fashion Fair in Düsseldorf, which is organised twice per year (February and July) by the IGEDO company. Approximately 44,000 visitors and around 1,500 international exhibitors attend per event. The fair organisers have grouped the fair in different ‘theme worlds’ (CPD Show, Gallery Show, CPD White Show, New Discovery Fashion). For manufacturers from emerging or developing countries the so

called ‘Global Fashion’ (a fair within the fair) of the CPD in Düsseldorf is generally a good choice, since many buyers from Germany, Belgium, Luxemburg, Netherlands as well as to a certain extent from Austria and Switzerland tend to visit this fair when they look for new suppliers. Leading fashion fairs have suffered from the market developments. Nevertheless, for ‘mainstream’ fashion manufacturers from developing countries, the German clothing fairs are still a very good choice (from a commercial point of view). For the active sportswear market (including footwear and sports equipment), which is partially covered by the products specified for this study, the ISPO Fair in Munich plays a leading role for Germany and Europe. Approximately 1,600 exhibitors from more than 40 countries show their products in February and July each year. The ISPO management has split up the fair into 14 ‘special fairs’ such as Teamsport ISPO, Fitness ISPO, Wellness ISPO, etc. There have been tremendous changes and challenges for the German textile and clothing fairs since 2000 and this trend can be expected to continue in the next few years. The shift in the ‘classical’ menswear segment from Cologne to Düsseldorf was the initial factor. 73

Some two years back many reputed jeans and sportswear brands moved to the ‘Bread and Butter’ in Berlin. The fair organisers are permanently working on developing the fair structure and services: the idea being that the visitor should have the most efficient and convenient way to become informed about fashion trends and to buy the clothing they require.

In most clothing segments, from a commercial point of view, the German fairs still have the leading position within Europe although some other fairs (particularly in Italy) have taken over the ‘fashion leadership’. Among German retailers, the fairs mentioned above are regarded as ‘information platform No. 1’ to a very large extent.

Table 2-16: German fashion trade fairs, 2006 Trade fair Munich Fashion Fair Men SPIRIT OF FASHION Home of Underground Fashion CO Cologne Order BREAD & BUTTER BERLIN tradeshow for selected brands PREMIUM SHOWROOM Designer-Kollektionen und Accessoires ispovision Internationale Fachmesse für Sportstyle - Fashion inspired by Sports CPD DÜSSELDORF includine Global Fashion MMC KIDS Collections Kinder Mode Messe hop (Hamburger Orderpremiere) Die Modefachmesse für den Norden Munich Fashion Fair WoMen BREAD & BUTTER BERLIN tradeshow for selected brands Modatex Modatex Fashion Fair ispovision Internationale Fachmesse für Sportstyle Fashion inspired by Sports SPIRIT OF FASHION Home of Underground Fashion CPD DÜSSELDORF Date 22.–24.1.2006 27.–29.1.2006 27.–29.1.2006 27.–29.1.2006 28.–31.1.2006 Location Munich Berlin Cologne Berlin Berlin

29.1.–1.2.2006

Munich

5.–7.2.2006 11.–13.2.2006 12.–14.2.2006

Duesseldorf Schkeuditz Hamburg

18.–21.2.2006 July 2006 9.–11.7.2006 16.–18.7.2006

Munich Berlin Essen Munich

21.–23.7.2006 23.–25.7.2006

Berlin Duesseldorf

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Trade fair global fashion Private Label, Production & Sourcing MMC Fashion Leipzig Mitteldeutsche Mode Messe hop (Hamburger Orderpremiere) Die Modefachmesse für den Norden Munich Fashion Fair WoMen Kind + Jugend Internationale Kinder- und Jugend-Messe Köln Import Shop Berlin Source: m+a Expo Database, 2005 / 2006

Date 23.–25.7.2006 5.–7.8.2006 6.–8.8.2006

Location Duesseldorf Schkeuditz Hamburg

12.–15.8.2006 15.–17.9.2006

Munich Cologne

15.–19.11.2006

Berlin

Further details to fairs (e.g. number of exhibitors, product range and visitors) can be reviewed on the website www.auma.de.

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2.6 LIST OF MAJOR BUYERS OF LADIES’, MEN’S AND CHILDREN’S WEAR IN GERMANY Clothing Chain Stores Bonita Gefühl für Mode GmbH & Co. KG Kesseldorfer Rott 39 D - 46499 Hamminkeln Tel.: +49 – 2852 – 9500 Fax: +49 – 2852 – 950100 info@bonita.de www.bonita.de E.Breuninger GmbH & Co. Marktstr. 1 – 3 D - 70173 Stuttgart Tel.: +49 – 711 – 211-0 Fax: +49 – 711 – 2 36-15 54 kundenservice@breuninger.de www.breuninger.de Product range: Womenswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 526

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Upper level Number of outlets: 14

C&A Mode KG Bleichstr. 20 D - 40211 Düsseldorf Tel.: +49 – 211 – 166 – 0 Fax: +49 – 211 – 1662563 service@CundA.de www.cunda.de Douglas Holding AG Kabeler Str. 4 D - 58099 Hagen Tel.: +49 – 2331 – 690 – 0 Fax: +49 – 2331 – 690 – 271 info@douglas-holding.com www.douglas.de www.douglas-holding.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 247 + 96 Kids’ Stores

Product range: Ladies’ (AppelrathCüpper) and men’s (Pohland) wear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 1102 (Germany), 497 (abroad)

Reiner Appelrath Cüpper Nachf. GmbH Zeppelinstr. 2 D - 50667 Köln Tel.: +49 – 221 – 205990 Fax: +49 – 221 – 2573838 info@appelrath-cuepper.de www. appelrath-cuepper.de

Product range: Womenswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 14 Note: belongs to Douglas Holding AG

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Pohland-Herrenkleidung GmbH & Co. KG Brückenstraße 17 D - 50677 Köln Tel.: +49 – 221 – 270497 – 0 Fax: +49 – 221 – 270497 – 39 info@pohland.de www.pohland.de Esprit Europe GmbH D - 40842 Ratingen Tel.: +49 – 2102 – 123 – 0 Fax: +49 – 2102 – 123 – 45 – 100 www.esprit.com www.esprit-online-shop.com

Product range: Menswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 10 Note: belongs to Douglas Holding AG

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Upper level Number of outlets: 580 directly managed retail stores and over 6,000 wholesale outlets

Hettlage + Fischer GmbH Industriestraße 1 D - 48644 Coesfeld-Lette Tel.: +49 – 2546 9345 – 0 Fax: +49 – 2546 9345 – 79 info@hettlage-fischer.com www.hettlage-fischer.de

Product range: Ladies, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 3

H&M Hennes & Mauritz GmbH Spitalerstrasse 12 D - 20095 Hamburg Tel: +49 – 40 – 350 95 50 www.hm.com

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Lower level Number of outlets: 282

Orsay GmbH Tannenstr. 20 D - 77731 Willstätt-Eckartsweier Tel.: +49 – 7854 – 963 – 0 Fax +49 – 7852 – 910 – 909 www.orsay.com

Product range: Womenswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 420 shops in 8 countries (231 in Germany)

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Peek & Cloppenburg KG Berliner Allee 2 D - 40212 Düsseldorf Tel.: +49 – 211 – 3662 – 0 Fax: +49 – 211 – 3662 – 605 dialog@peekundcloppenburg.de www.peekundcloppenburg.de

Product range: Ladies men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Upper level Number of outlets: 70

SinnLeffers AG Batheyer Str. 115 – 117 D - 58099 Hagen Tel.: +49 – 2331 – 620 – 0 Fax: +49 – 2331 – 620 – 100 info@sinnleffers.de www.sinnleffers.de

Product range: Ladies men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 51

s.Oliver Bernd Freier GmbH & Co. KG Ostring D - 97228 Rottendorf Tel.: +49 – 93 02 / 3 09 – 0 Fax: +49 – 93 02 / 3 09 – 9426 info@s.Oliver.de www.soliver.de Takko Holding GmbH Alfred Krupp Str. 21 D - 48291 Telgte Tel.: +49 – 2504 – 923 – 0 Fax: +49 – 2504 – 923 – 277 info@takko.de www.takko.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 120

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Lower level Number of outlets: 920

Tchibo GmbH Überseering 18 D - 22297 Hamburg Tel.: +49 – 40 – 6387 – 2876 Fax: +49 – 40 – 6387 – 2530 www.tchibo.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Lower level Number of outlets: over 1000

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Charles Vögele Deutschland GmbH Zeppelinstrasse 2-8 72488 Sigmaringen Tel.: +49 – 7571 723 111 Fax +49 – 7571 723 171 www.voegele-mode.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 352

Wehmeyer GmbH & Co. KG Rotter Bruch 17 D - 52068 Aachen Tel.: +49 – 2 41 / 51 97 – 0 www.wehmeyer.com

Product range: Ladies’ and menswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 44

Rudolf Wöhrl AG Lina-Amman-Str. 10 D - 90471 Nürnberg Tel.: +49 – 911 – 8121 – 0 Fax: +49 – 911 – 8121 – 100 info@woehrl.de www.woehrl.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Upper level (brands mainly) Number of outlets: 39

Department Stores (selection): Zara Moenckebergstrasse, 10 D - 20095 Hamburg Tel.: +49 – 40 30 96 22 22 Fax: +49 – 40 30 96 22 40 www.zara.de Product range: Ladies’ and menswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 30

Deutsche Woolworth GmbH & Co.OHG Lyoner Str. 52 D - 60528 Frankfurt Tel.: +49 – 69 – 6601 – 1 Fax +49 – 69 – 6601 – 2399 info@woolworth.de www.woolworth.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Lower level Number of outlets: 330

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Karstadt/Quelle AG Theodor-Althoff-Str. 2 D - 45133 Essen Tel.: +49 – 201 – 727 – 1 Fax: +49 – 201 – 727 – 5216 www.karstadtquelle.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s, childrenswear and sportswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 122

Metro AG Schlüterstraße 1 D - 40235 Düsseldorf Tel.: +49 211 6886 – 0 kontakt@metro.de www.metro-ag.de www.metrogroup.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s, childrenswear and sportswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: Real/Extra 560, Kaufhof 127

Kaufhof Warenhaus AG Leonhard-Tietz-Str. 1 D - 50676 Köln Tel.: +49 – 2 21 / 2 23 – 0 Fax: +49 – 2 21 / 2 23 – 28 00 service@galeria-kaufhof.de www.galeria-kaufhof.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 127 Note: belongs to Metro AG

Strauss Innovation GmbH & Raiffeisenstr. 15-18 D - 40764 Langenfeld Tel.: +49 – 2173 – 99 – 0001 Fax +49 – 2173 99 23 90 www.strauss1902.de

Product range: Ladies’ and menswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 93

Wal-Mart Germany GmbH & Co. KG Friedrich-Engels-Allee 28 D-42103 Wuppertal Tel: +49 – 202 – 2829 – 0 Fax: +49 – 202 – 2829 – 1724 kontakt@wal-mart.com www.walmart.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s, childrenswear and sportswear Price segment: Lower level (for clothing) Number of outlets: 88

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Clothing Manufacturers (importing) and Wholesalers/Importers: HEINRICH NICKEL GMBH & CO.KG Wilhelm-Bergner-Str. 10 D - 21509 Glinde Tel.: +49 – 40 – 7270241 Fax: +49 – 40 – 7270224 www.nickel-sportswear.com Importer of men’s, ladies and children’s sportswear

APRIORI Textilvertriebs GmbH Harkortstr. 24 D - 48163 Münster Tel.: +49 – (211) 438 09 05 Fax: +49 – (211) 435 04 83

Wholesaler of ladies wear

ARA Moden GmbH & Co.KG Arastr. 2 D - 85579 Neubiberg Tel.: +49 – 89 – 600180 Fax: +49 – 89 – 60018128 www.ara-moden.de

Manufacturer of classic womenswear (CMT business mainly)

Bambino Dress Young Fashion GmbH Hauptstr. 43 D - 09496 Marienberg Tel.: +49 – 3735 – 91430

Manufacturer/importer of childrenswear

Bay City Textilhandels & Co.KG An’N Slagboom 7 D - 22848 Norderstedt Tel.: +49 – 40 – 53413300 Fax: +49 – 40 – 53413301

Importer for jeans, casual and active sportswear

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F.W. Brinkmann GmbH Waltgeristr. 1-5 D - 32049 Herford Tel.: +49 – 5221 – 884 – 0 Fax: +49 – 5221 – 884 – 281 www.bugatti.de

Manufacturer of classic men’s and sportswear (mainly CMT business – brand orientated)

Bültel Bekleidungswerke GmbH Rheiner Str. 28 D - 48499 Salzbergen Tel.: +49 – 5976 – 270 Fax: +49 – 5976 – 27410 www.bueltel.de

Manufacturer of men’s sportswear

elho Sportswear GmbH Richard-Reitzner-Allee 8 Haus D D - 85540 Haar Tel.: +49 – 89 – 42091 – 0 Fax: +49 – 89 – 42091 – 213 www.elho.de

Manufacturer of active and casual sportswear (full import and CMT)

Frontline Leather Fashion GmbH Werkstraße 11 D - 21218 Seevetal Tel.: +49 – 4105 – 6105 – 0 Fax: +49 – 4105 – 6105 – 64 www.frontline.de

Importer of garments of all kinds

GARDEUR AG Alsstraße 155 D - 41063 Mönchengladbach Tel.: +49 – 2161 – 816 – 0 Fax: +49 – 2161 – 183833 www.gardeur.de

Manufacturer of classic ladies’ and menswear specialised in trousers (CMT business – brand oriented)

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HUCKE AG Ravensberger Str. 41 D - 32312 Lübbecke Tel.: +49 – 5741 – 364 – 0 Fax: +49 – 5741 – 364 – 414 www.hucke.de

Multi Brand manufacturer of ladies’, men’s and childrenswear (full import and CMT)

Mail Order Companies ALBA MODA GMBH Daimlerstr. 13 D - 32108 Bad Salzuflen Tel.: +49 – 5222 – 920 – 0 Fax: +49 – 5222 – 920 – 899 www.albaModa.de Product range: Ladies’ and menswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Note: Fashion orientated (not young fashion)

Baur Versand (GmbH & Co KG) Bahnhofstraße 10, 96224 Burgkunstadt Tel.: +49 – 180 – 530 50 50 www.baur.de

Product range: All kinds of goods, ladies’, men’s, childrenswear Price segment: Mid market level Note: one of the larger mail-order companies

BRUNO BADER GmbH + Co KG Maximilianstraße 48 D - 75172 Pforzheim Tel.: +49 – 180 – 5 222 111 Fax: +49 – 180 – 5 222 777 www.bader.de

Product range: All kinds of goods, ladies’, men’s, childrenswear Price segment: Mid market level Note: one of the larger mail-order companies

CYRILLUS DEUTSCHLAND Sonneaue 69 D - 47804 Krefeld Tel.: +49 – 180 5 095 095 Fax: +49 – 180 5 000 955 www.cyrillus.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s, childrenswear Price segment: Mid level Note: Niche market mail-order house

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HEINRICH HEINE GMBH Windeckstr. 15 D - 76135 Karlsruhe Tel.: +49 – 721 – 9910 Fax: +49 – 721 – 9911886 www.heine.de

Products: Home textiles, furniture, accessories, ladies’, menswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Note: more classic styles

Versandhaus Robert Klingel Sachsenstr. 23 D - 75177 Pforzheim Tel.: +49 – 180/53 200 Fax:+49 – 180/5 30 56 70 www.klingel.de

Product range: All kinds of goods, ladies’, men’s and childrenswear Price segment: Mid level

Neckermann Versand AG Hanauer Landstraße 360 D - 60386 Frankfurt am Main Tel.: +49 – 180 55414 www.neckermann.de

Product range: All kinds of goods, ladies’, men’s, childrenswear Price segment: Mid market level Note: one of the larger mail-order companies

Otto (GmbH & Co KG) Wandsbeker Straße 3-7 D - 22172 Hamburg Tel.: +49 – 40 – 6461 – 0 Fax: +49 – 40 – 6461 – 8571 www.otto.de

Product range: Ladies’, men’s and childrenswear and other goods Price segment: Lower to mid level Note: Largest mail order house in the world selling worldwide

SportScheck GmbH Sendlinger Str. 6 D - 80331 München Tel.: +49 – 180 55050* Fax: +49 – 180 55051* www.sportscheck.com

Product range: All kinds of goods, ladies’, men’s and childrenswear, sportswear Price segment: Mid to upper level

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Jeans-, Sportswear and Young Fashion Western Store Beran Sprottauer Str. 4 – 8 D - 90475 Nürnberg Tel.: +49 – 911 – 98476 – 0 Fax: +49 – 911 – 98473604 www.wsberan.de Product range: Jeans and sportswear Price segment: Lower to mid level Number of outlets: 200

DIESEL DEUTSCHLAND GMBH Rather Str. 49B D - 40476 Düsseldorf Tel.: +49 211 418 56 0 Fax: + 49 211 412 298 www.diesel.com

Product range: Jeans, young fashion Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 11

Jeans Palast Görgens GmbH Schildergasse D - 50667Köln, Altstadt-Nord Tel.: +49 – 221 – 2578649 Fax: +49 – 221 – 2582510

Product range: Jeans, young fashion Price segment: Mid to upper level Number of outlets: 48

Jeans Fritz Handelsgesellschaft für Mode mbH Tengerner Straße 143 D - 32609 Hüllhorst Tel.: +49 (0) 5744 512 – 0 Fax: +49 (0) 5744 512 – 111 www.jeans-fritz.de

Product range: Jeans, leisurewear Price segment: Mid level Number of outlets: 201

New Yorker S.H.K Jeans GmbH Hansestraße 48 D - 38112 Braunschweig Tel.: +49 – 531 – 2135 – 0 Fax: +49 – 531 – 2135 – 187 www.newyorker.de

Product range: Jeans, leisurewear Price segment: Mid level Number of outlets: 275

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VF GERMANY TEXTILHANDELS GMBH H.I.S. Division Daimler Str. 15 D - 85748 Garching/ München Tel.: +49 – 89 – 329070 Fax: +49 – 89 – 32907108 www.his-jeans.de MUSTANG, Bekleidungswerke GmbH & Co.KG Austraße 10 D - 74653 Künzelsau Tel.: +49 – 7940 – 125 – 0 Fax: +49 – 7940 – 125 – 102 www.mustang.de

Product range: Jeans Price segment : Mid to upper level Note: Manufacturer + clothing chain

Product range: Jeans and sportswear Price segment : Mid to upper level Note: Manufacturer + clothing chain

Buying Associations ARDEK EG Robert Bosch Str. 9 D - 65719 Hofheim-Wallau Tel.: +49 – 6122 – 72 – 0 Fax: +49 – 6122 – 72338 www.ardek.de

Product range: Products for children, childrenswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Member companies: 408

INTERSPORT DEUTSCHLAND EG Wannenäckerstr. 50 D - 74078 Heilbronn Tel.: +49 – 7131 – 288 – 0 Fax: +49 – 7131 – 21257 www.intersport.de

Product range: (Active) sportswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Member companies: 1,450 Note: Market leader for active sportswear

KATAG AG Stralsunder Str. 5 D - 33605 Bielefeld Tel.: +49 – 521 – 292 – 800 Fax: +49 – 521 – 292 – 810 www.katag.de

Product range: Men’s, ladies’ and childrenswear Price segment: Mid to upper level Member companies: 700

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KURTENBACH GMBH & CO. KG G TEXTILGROßHANDEL Offheimer Weg 45 D - 65549 Limburg Tel.: +49 – 6431 – 503 – 0 Fax: +49 – 6431 – 503 – 201

Product range: All kinds of garments Price segment: Lower level Member companies: 2000

Westdeutsche Handelsgesellschaft Potthoffstr. 15 – 17 D - 58095 Hagen Tel.: +49 – 2331 – 3960 Fax: +49 – 2331 – 396100

Product range: Men’s, ladies’ and childrenswear Price segment: Mid level Member companies: approx. 380

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