Ministry of Urban Development, Govt.

of India

Wastewater recycle and reuse: The need of the hour Workshop

India Specific Recycle and Reuse Guidance Document – Is There a Need?
Uday G. Kelkar, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE NJS Consultants Co. Ltd., Japan
Date: 18 April 2012,

or private O&M operators?  Consistently meeting water quality Standards?  Health Issues? or  Plain and simple – “Mind .What are major concerns on Reuse Water  Usage Type of recycled water?  Availability of Treatment Technologies?  Operability and Reliability?  No Confidence in Gov.Psychology” .

Important Issues to be Address  The Problem  Source Water Quality  Regulatory and performance compliance  Contingency planning  Distance of bringing raw water  Pumping head required and cost of producing the treated water  Subsidy issue – Industrial v/s domestic costs  Conflict  Policies  Perception. Risk and Branding .

With Reference to: Sustainable Water Management: Policies Investments Projects Challenges 2 3 4 1 .

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Recycle and Reuse – Action Items Successful Recipe for Recycle and Reuse Program .

Inter Ministry Cooperation Recycle and Reuse Guidance Document .

International Reuse Guidelines  WHO  1989 Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture Guidelines for safe recreational water environments Guidelines for drinkingdrinking-water quality    US EPA   Reuse Guidelines – 1992 & 2004 Safe Drinking Water Act .

000 1 – – ≤3 ≤5 5 <3 – ≤ 10 ≤ 0. #/100 ml Intestinal nematodes. mg/L Drinking water standards 6–9 – – 6–9 – – 6–9 – Yes 6–9 – As required 6–9 ≥1 – .6 – – – – – ≤ 12 – ≤3 – ≤2 ≤ 500 – – – pH Chlorine residual. mg/L – – – 1.000 1 – – 30 50 – 10. NTU Fecal coliform.Recommended Water Quality Criteria Water Quality Parameter Crop irrigation Water exchange Reservoir recharge GroundGround water recharge Domestic nonnon -potable BOD5 mg/L TSS. #/L Total nitrogen. mg/L Total phosphorus. mg/L Turbidity.

Public Participation Program for Water Reuse System Planning Specific Users Survey General Survey Alternatives Identification & Evaluation Plan of Study Plan Selection Project Implementation Preliminary Investigation CustomerSpecific Workshops Public Notification/ Involvement Customer-Specific Information Program(s) .

Build Institutional Capacity .

Provides Assured uptake of recycled water BOT Contractor Buyer- . Take-orPay contract. Marketing of recycled water Contractor Private/PPP Producer of Recycled water and Sells water.Stakeholders for Recycle & Reuse Prospective Buyer SPV SPV – Distributor for Recycled Water and Collector of revenue.

• Water Quality and Quantity Bench-marks. • Policy Development for R&R • Guidance Document with legal & Institutional drivers • Commercial/Fiscal incentives • Water Quality Regulation and monitoring • Arbitrations • Risk Management Framework • Implementation of R&R • Demand Assessment and Marketing • Financial and Institutional framework • Public Awareness Campaign • Water Purchase and Sale agreements • Water Quality Monitoring • Customer Service SPV or any Water Board Prospective Buyers • Commitment to use Recycled Water • Infrastructure for use of Recycle water within their premises. • Point of use treatment if required.Promoters of Recycled Water Central Govt. • Promotion of Recycled water . or any State Govt.

Suggested Financial Model for Project Implementation Stakeholders Equity Financial Institutions Contractor SPV Water Board./ Donor Grant . Stakeholders and others Recycled Water Revenue Govt.

redundancy. Development of reuse effluent guidelines based on end-use applications. specifications. Development of appropriate Public awareness campaign procedures to gain public confidence Guidelines for reuse projects under PPP and other funding scenarios   . and safety & Health issues.   Development of regulatory criteria and framework for Reuse: performance.Needs of Water Industry  Development of Reliable and acceptable Reuse plans and suggestive methods.

 Poor Water Availability – Poor Public Health  Increasing Cost for Water Supply – long distance transportation with elevations.  Poor Economic Performance of ULBs  Interstate Disputes on Resource Allocation  Unsustainable Growth .If we Do not Recycle & Reuse…….

 Address legal and Institutional issues.Way Forward  Provide incentives to Industries and Agencies using reclaimed water.  Develop Funding Alternatives for Reuse Projects .  Develop Specific .  Promote Recycle and Reuse Educational & Public Awareness Programs – for nonnon-potable and indirect potable applications.reuse Guidance Document that can be adopted by states.

Thank You! .

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