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## Term End Examination November 2012

Course : PHY101 - Modern Physics

Slot: A2+TA2
Class NBR : 3092 / 3095

Time : Three Hours

Max.Marks:100

PART - A (8 X 5 = 40 Marks)
1. a) X-rays of wavelength = 0.200 nm are aimed at a block of carbon. The scattered
x-rays are observed at an angle of 45.0 to the incident beam. Calculate the increased
wavelength of the scattered x-rays at this angle.
b) State Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
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2. a) What are the characteristics of a black body radiation?
b) What is Plancks quantum hypothesis?
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3. What is the principle behind scanning tunneling microscope? Explain how STM
captures images.
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4. What are sensors? Explain the three essential components of a sensor device.
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5. a) Explain spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation.
b) The output of a laser has a pulse width of 30 ms and average output power of
0.6 W per pulse. If the wavelength of the laser light is 640 nm, (i) how much energy
is deposited per pulse and (ii) how many photons does each pulse contain?
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6. What do you mean by population inversion? Why three levels are needed for laser
action to take place? What are the advantages of 4 level laser over 3 level laser?
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7. What are the characteristics of laser radiation? Explain, in detail, about temporal
coherence and spatial coherence.
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8. A standard air-filled rectangular waveguide with dimensions a = 8.636 cm,
b = 4.318 cm is fed by a 4 GHz carrier from a coaxial cable. Determine if a TE
10
mode
will be propagated. If so, calculate the phase velocity and the group velocity.
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9. Differentiate the types of optical fibers based on index and mode. Distinguish between
intermodal and intramodel dispersion.
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10.
a) Write any four major advantages of optical fiber communication over other
conventional communication systems.
b) Calculate the numerical aperature and acceptance angle of fibre with a core index of
1.54 and a cladding index of 1.50.
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PART B (6 X 10 = 60 Marks)

11. a) Prove using Davisson-Germer experiment, electrons are wave like under certain
circumstances.
b) An electron is moving in a one dimensional box of infinite height and width 1 A.
Find the minimum energy of electron (h=6.6x10
-34
Js, m
e
= 9.1x10
-31
kg).
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12. Obtain Schrodingers time independent and dependent wave equations.
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13. What are carbon nanotubes? Discuss its unique properties and applications in various
field.
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14. What are the modes of vibrations of CO
2
molecule? Explain the construction and
working of a CO
2
laser with its energy level diagram.
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15. a) Differentiate a laser amplifier with a laser oscillator.
b) Explain the working of a dye laser with the energy level diagram.
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16. A rectangular waveguide with dimensions a = 2.5 cm, b = 1 cm is to operate below
15.1 GHz. How many TE and TM modes can the waveguide transmit if the guide is
filled with a medium characterized by = 0, = 4
0
,
r
= 1? Calculate the cutoff
frequencies of the modes.
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17. Derive the relation to determine acceptance angle and numerical aperture for a ray of
light entering into an optical fiber (diagram required). Also deduce the relation between
numerical aperture and fractional index change.
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18. Explain the principle and operation of LED and pn photodiode with energy level
diagram.
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