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IMCYC
Seminar on Design and Construction
of Concrete Pavements
Mexico City, Mexico
October 22, 2004
Seminar Outline
Welcome, Introductions, Workshop Objectives
Part 1 Analysis & Design of PCCP
Part 2 Concrete Pavement Construction
Part 3 Evaluation of PCCP
Part 4 PCCP Maint., Repair & Rehabilitation
Part 5 New Concrete Pavement Technologies
Analysis and Design of Concrete
Pavements and Overlays

Concrete Pavement
Fundamentals
Pavement Terminology
cracking
Pavement thickness
Transverse joint
Dowel bars
Concrete Slab
Subgrade
Base & subbase
Longitudinal joint
Tie bars
And, shoulders PCC or AC
Joint Faulting
PCCP Types
JPCP
14 to 18 ft joint spacing
t = 6 in (streets) to 8 to 10 in (secondary
roads) to 11 to 14 in (primary and interstate
systems)
Dowels & stabilized base for
medium/heavy volume of truck traffic
CRCP
Steel: 0.65 to 0.80%
Cracking at 3 to 6 ft, very tight cracks
Terminal joints at structures

JPCP
(14 to 18 ft)
Transverse Joints
(with or without dowels)
Longitudinal Joint
(with tiebars)
PLAN
VIEW
(14 to 18 ft)
CRCP
Longitudinal Joint
(with tiebars)
PLAN
VIEW
Typical Crack Spacing
(3 to 8 ft)
Continuous Longitudinal
Reinforcement
(Deformed Bars)
(0.65 to 0.8%)
Concrete Properties
Strength
Flexural: 550+ psi (each 50 psi ~ 1 in)
Compressive: 4,000+ psi
Stiffness/Modulus - E: 4,000,000+ psi
Durability
Free of MRD (eg., ASR, etc)
_
Sources of Slab Stresses
Traffic Loads
Thermal Curling (day & night)
Moisture Warping
Shrinkage (early age & later)
Contraction and Expansion from
Temperature Changes (affected by
frictional restraint/bond to base)
Traffic Loading
Major source of stresses in pavements
Traffic load results in bending stress
(tensile stress at top/bottom of the slab)
Repeated applications can result in
fatigue cracking & joint faulting
Critical location for traffic loading is
generally along outside slab edge
Traffic Load Stresses
At slab edge:
Traffic load creates a tensile stress at
bottom of slab
At slab corner
Traffic load creates a tensile stress at top
of slab
Repeated applications can result in fatigue
cracking

Slab Stress Computation


Stress and deflection for three loading
conditions
Interior
Edge
Corner
PCC Slab
Subbase
Subgrade
PCC Slab
Subbase
PCC Slab
Base/Subbase
PCC Slab PCC Slab PCC Slab
K value
Typical Load Stress Values
(Axle Load = 20,000 lb, p = 100 psi)
170 240 125 500/stiff 10
200 290 145 100/soft 10
125 180 90 500/stiff 12
240 340 180 500/stiff 8
Corner
Stress,
psi
Edge
Stress,
psi
Interior
Stress,
psi
k, pci Slab t, in.
1
13 12
11 10 9
8 7 6
5
4
3 2
Truck Loading (1993
Guide):
Truck factors
ESALs
:
Temperature Effects
Differential
temperatures at the
top and bottom of the
PCC slab result in
slab curling
Temperature
differentials are
usually expressed as
linear temperature
gradients
D
e
p
t
h
,

i
n
52 56 60 64 68 72
Temperature,
o
F
Top of PCC Slab
0
6
3
9
6 AM
11 AM
7 PM
3 PM
Linear idealization
of 3 PM gradient
Effect of Temp. Gradients in
PCC Slabs (Curling)
Warmer at top
Cooler at top
TENSION
Slab displacement for positive gradient
COMPRESSION
Temperature
De
pth
Temperature
De
pth
Slab displacement for negative gradient
Curling Stresses
Positive gradients produce
tensile stresses at the bottom of
the pavement slab
Critical when wheel load at
slab edge
Negative gradients produce
tensile stresses at the top of the
pavement slab
Critical when wheel load at
slab corner
Magnitude depends on slab
properties, support conditions,
and thermal gradient
l
Typical Curling Stress
Values
For long slabs, t = 10 in., a = 0.000005 in./in./F,
E = 4,000,000 psi, temp. diff = 30 F,
then, Edge Curling Stress = 300 psi
For slabs, 12 ft wide & 20 ft long,
then, Edge Curling Stress = 270 psi (long.)
and Edge Curling Stress = 100 psi (trans.)
12 ft
20 ft
Warping Stresses
Moisture difference between top and bottom
of slab
Greater moisture at top of slab results in
downward warping and vice versa
Moisture contents through slab in:
Wet climates fairly constant
Dry climates top is drier that bottom
Warping Stresses
Slab top wetter than bottom
Slab bottom wetter than top

Drying Shrinkage Stresses


Loss of moisture in hardened concrete leads
to shrinkage of slab
Shrinkage resisted by friction of the base
Slab contraction
due to moisture loss
Base frictional forces
Temperature Shrinkage
Stresses
Daily/seasonal temperature changes cause
PCC slab to expand/contract
Frictional force between slab and base
creates stresses in slab
Slab contraction
due to low temps
Base frictional forces
Shrinkage Stresses (Axial)
(Important for early age)
Frictional force between slab and base
creates stresses in slab
Introduction of joints in slab reduces
magnitude of shrinkage stresses
Joints need to be provided as early as
possible

Axial Tensile Stresses


(base/subgrade drag)
= (f L )/2
Where: = slab frictional stress, psi
f = slab/base frictional factor
L = slab length, ft
PCC Fatigue Damage
Determination of N
log N = f (applied stress level, PCC strength)
Log N
Stress
Level
N
1
N
2

2
Materials characteristic curve
PCCP Deflection/Load Transfer
Load-transfer => ability
to transfer load across
joint/crack
Poor load transfer
leads to:
Corner Cracking
Pumping of Fines
Faulting
Initial LT ~ 90+%
Need LT > 75 % in
service
Load Transfer = 100% (Good)
L= x
U= 0
Load Transfer = 0% (Poor)
L= x U= x
LT,% = Unloaded/Loaded *100
.
Early Age Behavior
Concerns with early age cracking
PCCP Performance Issues
Structural Performance - Ability to
withstand traffic and environmental
loadings over time (30+ years)
Distress types, extent, & severity
Deflection response
Functional Performance - Providing
users safe and comfortable ride
Ride (IRI), Friction, Noise
Operational Issues
Minimal maintenance/repairs for
high volume highways
Functional Pavement
Performance
..
Functional Pavement
Performance
Ability of pavement to provide smooth, safe
ride to users
Roughness/Serviceability
Texture/Friction
Texture/Noise
Roughness/Smoothness Definitions
Deviations in pavement surface that affect ride
quality
Caused by:
Built-in surface irregularities
Distress (traffic, environment, material
problems)
Smoothness - Lack of roughness
Road Users - I know it when I feel it !!
PCCP Profile Measurement
.
Pavements that are Built Smoother
Pavements that are built smoother remain
smoother over time and last longer
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Pavement Age (Years)
I
R
I

(
m
/
k
m
)
Achieving Ride
Initial ride (controlled by specification)
In-service changes in ride (controlled by design &
specification)
Requirements
Initial ride (Profile Index/IRI)
Profile Index < 12 in./mile
IRI < 75 in./mile
Low rate of degradation in ride quality over
time
IRI increase/year < 3 in./mile (av. over 20
years)
Surface Texture
Influences surface friction and noise
Consists of:
Microtexture
Fine scale roughness contributed by
fine aggregate in mortar
Macrotexture
Small surface channels, grooves, or
indentations formed or cut
.
Texturing Methods PCC
Transverse tine
Longitudinal tine
Turf drag
Burlap drag
Diamond grinding
Longitudinal grooving
Exposed aggregate
Surface Friction
Force developed at
pavement-tire interface that
resists sliding
Influenced by:
Surface texture
Surface drainage (cross-
slope)
Locked-wheel trailer tester
(f = ??)
International Friction Index
Achieving Safety
By specification
Materials (e.g., concrete)
Finishing operations
Requirements
Initial friction characteristics (eg. FN > 50?)
Long-term friction characteristics (eg., FN > 35?)
Minimize hydro-planning potential
._
Texture and Noise
Motor and exhaust control noise levels for
vehicles under 35 mph
Tire-pavement interaction primary source at
greater speeds
Mainly a concern in urban areas
Factors affecting noise
Tine or groove depth
Width
Spacing
Orientation
PCC typically 3 dB(A) > AC
Proposed Texture Guidelines
Tining
3mm width
3mm depth
Random transverse spacing
10/14/16/11/10/13/15/16/11/10/21/13/10
24/27/23/31/21/34
19mm longitudinal
Concrete Pavement
Design Considerations
.
Concrete Pavement
Performance Requirements
Structural performance
Long life - no major distresses
Functional performance
Safety very few wet weather accidents
Smoothness good ride
( A well constructed pavement with the best
materials WILL fail early if it is not designed
correctly)
Pavement Performance
Time or Traffic
S
e
r
v
i
c
e
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Enhanced
Design
Standard
Design
Performance
Benefit vs.
Incremental Cost
Deficient
Design &
Constructio
n
Threshold
Level
Pavement Design
Considerations
Minimize failure conditions & costs
Understand typical failure mechanisms
How does a concrete pavement crack?
How does a concrete pavement fault?
How does a concrete pavement get rough?
Are there other local failure conditions that
need to be addressed?
Understand impact of design features
Minimize costs by optimizing design features
.:
How do Concrete Pavements Fail?
Transverse
Cracking
Smoothness
(IRI)
Faulting
And, localized
distresses (spalling)
and materials
related distresses
(ASR, etc.)
Allowable Distress
At end of service life
40 years for primary system (US)
20+ years for secondary system (US)
2.5 to 3.0 Smoothness (IRI),
m/km
6 7 Faulting, mm
10 - 15 Cracked Slabs, %
Value Distress
Concrete Pavement Design Elements
Pavement system
Slab geometry & boundary conditions
Jointing and load transfer
Pavement layers (slab, base/subbase, subgrade)
Material characteristics (strength, stiffness)
Loading
Truck loading (a wide range of truck traffic & axle
loadings)
Environmental (slab temp. & moisture effects)
Climatic (seasonal variations & drainage needs)
Ability to consider applicable failure modes
.l
Developing Failure (Design) Models
- Early Testing of PCCP 1920s
Developing Failure (Design) Models
- AASHO Road Test (late 1950s)
The AASHO Road
Test equations &
design procedure
used for > 30 years,
but are no longer
considered suitable
for current levels of
heavy truck traffic
conditions
Accelerated Testing &
Instrumented Test Highways
Instrumented Test Sections to
calibrate/validate analysis
models >>
<<Accelerated
testing to validate
design features
.
CC Pavement Analysis
1920s to 1950s
Prof. Westergaard established techniques for
computing slab stresses & deflections
Equations developed for curling stresses due
to temperature gradients in the slab
(Bradburys chart)
Current -- 2D Finite Element Analysis
Deflections

0.0535
0.0512
0.0477
0.0442
0.0407
0.0371
0.0336
0.0301
0.0266
0.0231
0.0196
0.0161
0.0126
0.0091
0.0079
Flat Slab Condition, Tridem Axle Loading
Stresses in Y-direction

360.2
340.7
311.5
282.2
253.0
223.8
194.5
165.3
136.0
106.8
77.6
48.3
19.1
-10.1
-19.9
Load Transfer Considerations in
Design
Load-transfer is a slabs
ability to transfer part of its
load to the adjacent slab
Poor load transfer leads to:
Corner Cracking
Pumping & Faulting
Also, need to consider dowel
bearing stresses
(dowel looseness
concerns?) >>>
Load Transfer = 100% (Good)
L= x
U= 0
Load Transfer = 0% (Poor)
L= x U= x
P (<1,200 kgf)
.
Mechanistic-Empirical
Design Procedures (US)
PCA (1984)/IRC:58-2002
200X Design Guide (Future US
AASHTO)
(New M-E procedures allow consideration of a
broad range of design features)
PCA Thickness Design
Procedure (1984)
Mechanistic stress
analysis
Calibrated to field tests,
test roads
Control criteria are:
Fatigue (cracking)
Erosion (pumping)
Windows-based computer
program (Streetpave)
Fatigue (IRC also)
Midslab loading away
from transverse joint
produces critical edge
stresses
Erosion
Corner loading
produces critical
pavement deflections
Transverse joint
Transverse joint
Critical Loading Positions

Basics of Thickness Design


(PCA Edge Stress & Fatigue)
Compressive strength: ~ 280
kg/cm
2
(4000 psi)
Flexural strength: ~ 45 kg/cm
2
(650 psi)
T
C
Basics of Thickness Design (PCA)
Corner Deflection / Erosion (pumping)/Faulting
Higher k-value (stiffer support) will lower
deflections
Load transfer (dowel bars) will lower
deflections
Non-erodible base much better
The 200X M-E Design Process
Climate
Traffic
Materials
Structure
Distress
Response
Time
Damage
Damage
Accumulation
Iterations
.
200X Design Inputs
(3 Main Categories & 3 Levels)
Traffic
Volume
Axle load distribution
Axle configuration
Climate (site specific)
Latitude, longitude, elevation, etc.
Structure
Layers, thicknesses, and material
properties
Features joint spacing, shoulder
type, layer interface, etc.
Distress Types Considered
Faulting
Transverse Cracking
Edge Punchout in CRCP
IRI for Rigid Pavements [=f(distresses)]
IRI prediction accuracy depends upon
predictive accuracy of all other Distress
Smoothness/IRI Smoothness/IRI
Joint Faulting Joint Faulting
Transverse Transverse
Cracking Cracking

Design Parameters Over Pavement Life


Incremental Damage Concept
Time, years
Traffic
PQC Modulus
Granular Base
Modulus
DLC Modulus
Each load
application
2 8 6 4 0
Subgrade
Modulus
Typical 200X Design Guide Results
Allowable 200X Guide Distress
At end of service life
40 years for primary system (US)
20+ years for secondary system (US)
2.5 Smoothness (IRI)
6 7 mm Faulting
10 - 15 % Cracked Slabs
Value Distress

Joint Spacing
0.33 0.34
0.70
0.83
0.93
0.95
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
Joint 15' Joint 17'
Design Variables
D
i
s
t
r
e
s
s

R
a
t
i
o

(
t
o

R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
)
Cracking
Faulting
IRI
Reference Design
Joint Spacing = 20 ft
Cracking = 18.1%, Faulting = 0.23 in.,IRI = 192.1 in/mile
PCC Properties
0.41
3.86
1.0 1.0
1.05
1.45
0.97
1.18
1.08
1.60
5.52
2.00
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
MOR 700psi MOR 500psi Poisson's Ratio
0.2
Siliceous Gravel
(CTE=7e-6/F)
Design Variables
D
i
s
t
r
e
s
s

R
a
t
i
o

(
t
o

R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
)
Cracking
Faulting
IRI
Reference Design
28day MOR= 600 psi
Poisson's Ratio= 0.15
Aggregate: Limestone (CTE=5.5e-6/F)
Slab Thickness
0.35
1.23
0.80
1.37
0.87
5.00
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Slab Thickness 10" Slab Thickness 14"
Design Variables
D
i
s
t
r
e
s
s

R
a
t
i
o

(
t
o

R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
)

Cracking
Faulting
IRI
Reference Design
Slab Thickness = 12"
Cracking = 18.1%
Faulting = 0.23 in.
IRI = 192.1 in/mile
_
Some Recommendations
Establish national goals for NHS PCC pavements
Service life 40 years (low maintenance)
Smoothness (IRI, m/km) New: <1.5; Service <
3.0
Safety (texture) as applicable
Establish national pavement database
Design, construction, performance, M&RR data
Use data to calibrate & refine design practices
Some Recommendations
Establish national/regional pavement test sections
Perform periodic testing deflection, ride, joint
opening, temperature gradients, etc.
Monitor performance distress development, IRI
Measure traffic & collect climatic data
Document & disseminate information on good as
well as poor practices in a timely manner
Exercise greater control over allowable truck loading
No pavements can provide expected service life if
actual truck traffic is heavier that considered in
design
Summary
Concrete pavement design procedures
have evolved over time
The new M-E procedures will allow more
optimum designs
Will address high levels of truck traffic
Design life of 50+ years
Can consider many design features
But, in addition to design charts &
software, engineers must pay attention to
design details & specifications

Review & Questions Review & Questions