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Jawaharlal Nehru [1889-1964] was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru rose to leadership of the Indian National Congress at a young age in part due to his charisma and advocacy of complete Indian independence from the British Empire. He was the first and longest serving Prime Minister of an Independent India from 1947 to 1964. His appreciation for parliamentary democracy and concern for the poor allowed him to formulate policies derided by some for their socialist leanings. Nehru enjoyed the honorific title of "Scholar" and despite his family's Hindi religious background, was an atheist. Forging am independent, modern India where educational and social opportunities could been afforded to all citizens regardless of religion or caste, this rejection of any particular belief system in a region hosting such wide diversity no doubt helped him toward his considerable accomplishments.
12. Linus Pauling
Linus Carl Pauling [1901-1994] was one of the most influential chemists in history as well as one of the most important scientists of the 20th century - or, according to Gautam Desiraju who wrote the Millennium Essay in the journal Nature, one of the greatest thinkers and visionaries of the last thousand years. One of only 4 individuals ever to have won solo Nobel Prizes in separate and unrelated fields - for chemistry in 1954, and the Nobel Peace Prize for his tireless campaign against atmospheric nuclear bomb testing in 1962. His activities in favor of pacifism and against nuclear weapons earned him an appearance before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, which explicitly accused him of being in league with the Communists.
"God does not exist and Paul Dirac is his prophet. He married Margrit. He adopted her two children and the couple had two more. the sister of fellow Nobel laureate Eugene Wigner. and held the Cambridge Lucasian Chair in mathematics established by Sir Isaac Newton and currently held by Stephen Hawking. was a pacifist and peace activist who got him involved in the crusade against nuclear weapons and atmospheric bomb testing. but publicly declared his personal atheism two years before his death of prostate cancer at the age of 93. in 1937.S. Paul Dirac Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac [1902-1984] was a British theoretical physicist who contributed to the early development of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics [QED]. Ayn Rand Ayn Rand [1905-1982] was a Russian-born writer who emigrated to the U. Dirac was noted for his personal humility." his personal views on religion were far less expansive. Wolfgang Pauli once described Dirac's first commandment concerning religion as. Night of January 16th. and for his somewhat Edwardian sense of social propriety. formulated what became known as the Dirac equation. He shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in physics with Erwin Schrodinger. Her first play. in 1925." 14.Pauling's wife Ava Hellen. He had been raised Lutheran and later joined the Unitarian Universalist Church. refusing to call his contributions to physics by his own name. was produced in Hollywood and then . While he once said that "God used beautiful mathematics in creatiing the world. 13. whom he married in 1917.
was published in 1936. Despite several romances. the fiction mystery allowed her to fully develop her philosophy of objectivism. She received 12 Academy Award nominations for Best Actress in a film. She married socialite businessman Ludlow Ogden Smith in 1928. television and stage for 73 years of her long life. and still holds the record with four wins. Her autobiographical and anti-Soviet novel We the Living. Best known for her sweeping intellectual masterpiece Atlas Shrugged. she received her degree in history and philosophy from Bryn Mawr despite a record of breaking curfew. 15." All of the books Rand published during her lifetime are still in print. "I am an atheist and that's it. Objectivism is particularly prized by dedicated capitalists and economists and underpins much of the wider freethought movement." 16. Jacques Monod . she had no personal religious beliefs nor any belief in an afterlife. In a 1973 interview on The Dick Cavett Show Hepburn said that while she agreed with Christian principles and thought highly of Jesus Christ. which she termed "a philosophy for living on earth. For the rest of her life Rand lectured and wrote about objectivism. smoking and skinny dipping in the fountain. but divorced six years later. Katherine Hepburn Katherine Houghton Hepburn [1907-2003] was an acclaimed actress in film. with whom she made nine movies. the love of her live was Spencer Tracy. I believe there's nothing we can know except that we should be kind to each other and do what we can for other people. and her philosophy is still taught at many major universities as one of the most important philosophical movements in the modern world. A child of New England privilege with a genealogical heritage tracing back to Louis IX of France.on Broadway. In 1999 the American Film Institute ranked Hepburn as cinema history's greatest female star.
Jacques Lucien Monod [1910-1976] was a French biologist who contributed greatly to the understanding of the Lac operon as a regulator of gene transcription in cells. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his important contributions to knowledge about the evolution of stars. Oliver and Phillippe. 1999. the other a physicist.has a space-based X-ray observatory named after him. one of whom became a geologist. Subrahmanyan Chandresekhar Padma Vibhushan Subrahmanyan Chandresekhar [1910-1995] better known by his nickname "Chandra" . He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965. His views also contributed to the development of the idea of "Memes" that Richard Dawkins made famous in his writings. Monod wrote the book Chance and Necessity in 1970. 17. . which became a popular primer on the relationship between the roles of random chance and adaptation in biological evolution and provided much ammunition to the atheist community by proposing that the natural sciences revealed an entirely purposeless world that undermines the traditional claims of the world's religions. He married archeologist and orientalist Odette Bruhl in 1938. suggested the existence of mRNA molecules in the process of protein synthesis. they had twin sons. and further contributed to the field of enzymology. launched by the space shuttle Columbia on July 23. he is probably better known for his 1995 opus >Newton's Principia for the Common Reader which explains the detailed arguments of Newton's original Principia using the language and methods of ordinary calculus.
replacing Godel's arithmetic-based formal language with what are now known as Turing machines . even genius. Raman. Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing [1912-1954] was a mathematician. 19. 18. He became an atheist with a firm conviction that all phenomena must be materialistic in nature. His father was a government worker and accomplished violinist who wrote several books on musicology. who also won a Nobel Prize. Francis Crick . logician. Perhaps his most momentous achievement was his 1936 paper reformulating Kurt Godel's results on the limits of proof and computation. It was the death of Turing's first love in their last year at Sherborne from complications of bovine tuberculosis (contracted from drinking infected milk as a boy) that shattered Turing's religious faith.formal and simple devices. solving advanced problems without having studied elementary calculus. His mother was an intellectual noted for translating Ibsen's A Doll's House into the Tamil language. His paternal uncle was physicist C. At the age of 16 he encountered Einstein's work and extrapolated it to question Newton's laws of motion from a text in which this challenge was not made explicit. Chandra's family long displayed signs of brilliance. He displayed distinct signs of genius early in his life. computer scientist and cryptanalyst from England.A naturalized American citizen born in Lahore.V. India.
His primary interests encompassed two fundamental problems in biology.DNA to RNA to protein. and once in grad school at MIT working with the 'differential analyzer'. and how the human brain creates a conscious mind. an early analog computer. Those views continued to play a role in his work when he transitioned from molecular biology into theoretical neuroscience. He became a National Research Fellow at the . He first coined the term "central dogma" to describe the flow of genetic information in cells as a one-way street . His PhD thesis at MIT applied this work to establish mathematical relationships in Mendelian genetics. Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon [1916-2001] was an electronic engineer and mathematician known as "the father of information theory. 20. Crick once said. but should not be taught to young children. "Christianity may be okay between consenting adults in private." In his book Of Molecules and Men he expressed his strong views on the relationship between science and religion." While at the University of Michigan he was introduced to the works of George Boole. he saw that Boole's concepts could be used used to simplify the complicated circuitry of the analyzer and wrote his master's thesis on what became known as Boolean logic. How non-living molecules become living organisms. On the matter of religion.Francis Harry Compton Crick [1916-2004] is best known as the codiscoverer of the structure of DNA.
Shannon and his wife Betty put their collective mathematical and analytical abilities together in a game theory for many successful visits to the gaming tables in Las Vegas and made a fortune. and worked freely across disciplines with other notable scientists to shape the ideas that became information theory. An even bigger fortune was made later by Shannon and colleague Ed Thorp when they applied the same theory (later known as the Kelly criterion) to the stock market. .Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.