Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in advertising Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivators in advertising.
• Biological and Physiological needs - wife/child-abuse help-lines, social security benefits, Samaritans, roadside recovery. Safety needs - home security products (alarms, etc), house an contents insurance, life assurance, schools.
• Belongingness and Love needs - dating and match-making services, chat-lines, clubs and membership societies, Macdonalds, 'family' themes like the old style Oxo stock cube ads. • Esteem needs - cosmetics, fast cars, home improvements, furniture, fashion clothes, drinks, lifestyle products and services. • Self-Actualization needs - Open University, and that's about it; little else in mainstream media because only 2% of population are self-actualizers, so they don't constitute a very big part of the mainstream market.
clinical studies and plain hypothesising. For example playing a video game. This 'hypodermic' model. The model looks at the motives of the people who
. The 'Uses and Gratifications' model represented a change in thinking. and how the media fits in to our social network. as researchers began to describe the effects of the media from the point of view of audiences. Through many programmes of research. beginning in the mid 20th century. for example if one trusted a news reporter too much they may take everything they say at face value and not question it. This can go a long way in shaping people and people's ideas of values. became rejected after closer examination.Uses and gratifications is not a single approach but a body of approaches to media analysis that developed out of many varied empirical studies. The media overcomes distances. the media is able to reach millions of people like no other force. Without the media. but use media to fulfil their various needs. The basic theme of uses and gratifications is the idea that people use the media to get specific gratifications. The basic tenet of Uses and Gratifications is that people are not helpless victims of all powerful media. This can become dangerous if people start to trust them as well. Blumler and Elihu Katz devised their uses and gratifications model in 1974 to highlight four areas of gratification in media texts for audiences. local events would remain local. injecting messages into their minds. they start to feel they know them. this trust could then be abused. Through the various different platforms. for example print and broadcast news. • Surveillance — the audience gain an understanding of the world around them by consuming a media text. These include: • Diversion — a media text which provides escapism. Jay G. including focus groups. • Personal identity — When a person creates part of their own identity from things they find attractive in people from media texts. as it was later termed. When a media text temporarily partially covers one's senses. a number of models describing the media's relationship with audiences have been drawn up. • Personal relationships — People create personal relationships with the characters in a media text. researchers approached the subject from the angle of how the media is able to manipulate audiences. and builds a direct relationship with the audience. These needs serve as motivations (gratifications sought) for using media.
The mass media is a huge phenomenon. ideologies and fashions. Gratifications obtained should correspond with gratifications sought for the media to be able to meet the needs of the users. questionnaires. and performances by great actors would be seen only by the people in the immediate audience. for example someone may have a haircut because they liked the look of a similar one in a magazine. norms. surveys. Many sociologists have attempted to explore what effects this has on society. powerful speeches by politicians would affect no one. print or broadcast. Initially.
We use the mass media to be more aware of the world. This can most be seen in soaps. someone to aspire to. The underlying idea behind the model is that people are motivated by a desire to fulfil. It's not just news that fulfils the surveillance model however. For example you might feel
. The model is broken down into four different needs. One of the genres this is often applied to is news. and even try to get the viewer involved in the programme. By watching the programme we are finding out about which particular insurance companies are a con. asking why we watch the television programmes that we do. gratifying a desire for knowledge and security. Surveillance The surveillance need is based around the idea that people feel better having the feeling that they know what is going on in the world around them. Rogue Traders and CrimeWatch. this knowledge leaves us feeling more secure about the safety of our own lives. The surveillance model then is all about awareness. that the more we know about tragedies the safer we feel. why we bother to read newspapers. or gratify certain needs. so that everyone can find someone to represent themselves. When looking at the news it's easy to spot news items that give us this reaction. For example if it wasn't for watching the news we might be unknowingly left with five pound notes that are worthless. the model asks how we use the media.use the media. which try to act as a microcosm of society as a whole. or become vulnerable to the latest computer virus. So rather that asking how the media uses us. the issues ostensibly have the potential to affect the viewer directly. how mobile phone muggings are taking place and the tricks plumbers use to charge us through the roof. and so the more knowledge we have the safer we feel. By watching or reading about news we learn about what is happening in the world. The characters in soaps are usually designed to have wildly different characteristics. and someone to despise. or end up in a hospital with an awful track record. This idea might seem a bit strange. without such vagaries as world news. This knowledge of life's potential pitfalls gives us the feeling that we are more able to avoid them (though in reality it's hard to see how this actually happens). Personal Identity The personal identity need explains how being a subject of the media allows us to reaffirm the identity and positioning of ourselves within society. the theory can also be seen in many consumer and crime-appeal programmes such as Watchdog. but sociologists argue that ignorance is seen as a source of danger. Because these programmes deal purely with national and local concerns. why we find ourselves so compelled to keep up to date with our favourite soap. The programmes talk far more directly to the viewer. These appeal directly through the idea that they are imparting information that people need to know. and as the news is usually bad news.
it helps you to define your own personal identity by marking out what you're not like. or with other people but sitting in silence. This relationship could act as a way to channel your own life. but think about how many times you've watched the TV on your own.. Using the Media Within Relationships Another aspect to the personal relationships model is how we can sometimes use the media as a springboard to form and build upon relationships with real
.!!! The more we watch the same personalities. those who have watched that person a lot often grieve for the character. Finally there may be a character you really can't stand. which caused many national newspapers to campaign for her release. and also use the media to form a relationship with others. by treating news anchors as personalities. We can form a relationship with the media. inspiring young children everywhere (which is why there's such an outcry when one of them does something wrong). helping you to set goals to work to. Reality TV shows such as Big Brother give us such a feeling of intimacy with the participants that they can become part of our lives. By picking out their bad characteristics and decisions ('oh.. Sports personalities and pop stars can often become big role models. hairdo or mannerisms. rather than simply figureheads relaying information: Watching the news with my grandma is a nightmare. This may seem sad. Even the 'seriousness' of news can lend itself to gratifying personal identity. Even though the relationship is completely one-sided. When presenters or characters in a soap die. She's always commenting on the newsreader's clothing. The television is often quite an intimate experience. she shouldn't have done that'). Some events can even cause media outcries. as if they have lost a friend. Don't go down the stairs in your nightie! No don't open the door! No. and many people tell characters what to (or not to do) next. Not many football fans can sit through a televised match without shouting at the players or the referee. Personal Relationships This section comes in two parts. the more we feel we get to know them. The use of the media for forming personal identity can also be seen outside soaps.. such as the imprisonment of Deirdre from the TV soap Coronation Street. as if we even know them. Relationships with the Media Many people use the television as a form of companionship.close to a character who is always falling victim to other people. You may also really like a character who seems 'cool' and leads a lifestyle you'd like to lead. it's easy to see how we can fall in love with TV personalities. and this connection might help you to understand and express your own feelings. and by watching the same people on a regular basis we can often feel very close to them. We also talk to the TV a lot..
people. which help to put our own problems into perspective ('At least my life's not that bad!'). such as a good spy film. and can even make talking to strangers that much easier. Having a favourite TV programme in common can often be the start of a conversation. which help to cheer us up and forget our own problems. The media can give us emotional release and also sexual arousal. despite being a clever marketing tactic. Altogether. This kind of use (as well as some of the others). Diversion The diversion need describes what's commonly termed as escapism watching the television so we can forget about our own lives and problems for a while and think about something else. talking to each other about the programme or related anecdotes while it is on. such as the bleak EastEnders or a tragic film. such as holiday shows or the constant happy endings in the Australian soap Neighbours. and for relaxation (slumping in front of the telly. and the kind of functions that the media can play within our lives. The EastEnders strapline 'Everyone's talking about it'. There's also some studies that suggest that some families use sitting around watching the television as a stimulus for conversation. the Uses and Gratifications model outlines the many reasons we have for using the mass media.
. This can work with positive programmes. does hold up when looking at social uses of the media. is heavily satirised in the BBC sit-com The Royle Family. and with negative programmes. The diversion model also accounts for using the media for entertainment purposes. which includes a sexy scene in a film as well as pornography. don't care what's on).